Poll-Tax payers of 1377

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Victoria County History

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Elizabeth Crittall (editor)

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1959

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304-313

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'Poll-Tax payers of 1377', A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 4 (1959), pp. 304-313. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=102819 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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POLL-TAX PAYERS OF 1377

The poll taxes of 1377, 1379, and 1381 were designed as a supplement to the fifteenths and tenths levied in 1377, 1380, and 1384. In this respect they fall into the same class as the other attempts to supplement revenue by novel devices: (fn. 1) the 'ninth sheaf and fleece' of 1341; the parish levies of 1371 and 1427; the 'income taxes' of 1404, 1411, 1435, and 1449. There is a record of the parliamentary discussion in 1377 when, after rejecting an income tax, a purchase tax, and other novelties, it was decided to levy the flat rate of 4d. a head ('poll') from everyone over the age of 14 who was not a professional beggar. This was a regressive tax, taking in proportion more of a poor man's income than a rich man's, and when Richard II's Parliament granted a second poll tax in 1379 there was an attempt to make the tax more acceptable by grading the payments according to rank. (fn. 2)

Thus, while the poll-tax receipts of 1377 are simply a statement that the collectors have received so many groats from the village representatives, the returns of 1379 have lists of names and occupations usually lacking in 1377. (fn. 3) But wherever there are surviving documents for 1377 and 1379 it is plain that the second collection saw extensive evasion. Although the documents (fn. 4) of 1379 have some use as indicating the minimum range of occupations in a particular place and the minimum number of taxpayers they are useless in preparing population estimates. In 1381 the poll tax was collected for the last time, (fn. 5) with even more marked evasion.

More poll-tax receipts survive for Wiltshire than for any other county. The West Riding of Yorkshire, twice the area of Wiltshire, has 66 fewer, Leicestershire (fn. 6) has only half of Wiltshire's number, and Dorset, Gloucestershire, and Hampshire have none at all. The 529 surviving Wiltshire receipts, probably almost all that were made, are preserved in six files and there are also six loose ones. (fn. 7) They give the names of over 550 places, about the same number of places indeed, though not always the same places, as are to be found in the 1334 assessment.

The receipts in Files 37 and 38, nearly 350 in all, carry their original seals, and there are many endorsements which show that the present arrangement of files has come about by the amalgamation of many smaller files each originally that of one hundred. The endorsement of some receipts and their dirty colour show that they have been the outer membrane or cover of their file, and there are still long runs of successive membranes all from the same hundred. (fn. 8) The amalgamation of files has, however, caused other receipts to be filed unmethodically. The fact that many membranes from one hundred are often grouped together in a file helped solve problems of bad legibility and ambiguous nomenclature.

The geographical unit for which the receipt was given usually appears as 'vill' although there are some 'boroughs' and one 'tithing'. The city of Salisbury has no surviving receipt but its assessment is known from the Great Enrolment of the city and county totals in another class of document. (fn. 9)

Collections were made at Highworth on 5 April, at Ramsbury, Marlborough, and Calne on 6 April, and at Calne again on 8 April and 16 June. The last of these was for two vills only. There were also collections at unspecified places on 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 April. Each receipt bears the names of the collectors, (fn. 10) the village constables, and probi homines and the date of collection as well as the standard formula of so many shillings and pence from so many heads.

Table 1 printed below is arranged by the hundreds as they are believed to have existed in 1377 together with a category called 'Boroughs and Liberties'. The constitution of nine of the hundreds is known from the hundred-names inscribed or endorsed upon the receipts. These are Blackgrove, Calne, Cricklade, North Damerham, Kingsbridge, Malmesbury, Ramsbury, Staple, and Thornhill. The constitution of the hundreds of Chippenham, Highworth, Kinwardstone, and Selkley is ascertainable with almost equal certainty, for nearly all the receipts are likewise endorsed. There are comparatively few other inscriptions or endorsements, so the hundreds have had to be notionally reconstituted by studying the proximity, within apparently unbroken files, of uninscribed to inscribed receipts, and the constitution of the hundreds as shown in the list of 1334. Where the probability of error in attributing a particular place to a particular hundred (or the category 'Boroughs and Liberties') is small, the place-name has been marked with a single asterisk (*), where greater with a double one (**). A few of the attributions to particular hundreds must be regarded as quite speculative. This is especially true where there are places of the same name in adjacent or almost adjacent hundreds and no distinguishing prefix or suffix has been added to the vill name. Imber (Heytesbury and King's Rowborough), Orcheston (Dole and Heytesbury), Tilshead (Dole and Whorwellsdown), and Winterslow (Alderbury and Amesbury) furnish instances. While it is fairly certain that there was a place bearing one of these four names in each of the four groups of hundreds it is hard to know whether the right vill has been fitted into the right hundred.

A comparison between the lists of 1334 and 1377 shows two differences in the organization of the Wiltshire hundreds in the two periods. First, North Damerham hundred which seems to have begun to separate itself from Chippenham hundred in the later 13th century (fn. 11) is a distinct hundred by 1377, though it was not so treated in 1334. Secondly, Malmesbury hundred, which did not exist eo nomine in 1334, has replaced Chedglow and Startley hundreds by 1377. (fn. 12) Thirdly, the arrangement of receipts on the files suggests that several of the detached parts of Elstub hundred were reckoned to fall within their surrounding geographical hundreds in 1377 rather than in Elstub. They have therefore been distributed, it must be owned, somewhat speculatively. The Liberty of Longbridge Deverill, as it was called in 1334, has similarly been placed in Heytesbury hundred. Endorsements on two receipts (fn. 13) show that there was originally a grouping for boroughs and liberties, and those places, the receipts for which are so endorsed or which cannot readily be assigned to a hundred, have been entered here under that heading. West Bedwyn is inscribed with the name of Kinwardstone hundred but endorsed 'burg' et libert'. It has been left in its hundred, as have Calne, Chippenham, Cricklade, and Downton in theirs.

In constructing this table The Place-Names of Wiltshire has been used in the same way as it was used in constructing Table 1 in the section on Fifteenths and Tenths (see p. 295) and the words in brackets after the names of vills bear the same signification here as there.

There is much difference between the number of taxpayers in the different fiscal areas. A ladder could be constructed leading down from the peak of Salisbury's 3,226 taxpayers to the point very near the ground level where the tax collector recorded the 3 taxpayers whom they found at the vill of Shaw in Selkley hundred or the 5 at Walton in Downton hundred. The head and foot of this ladder are shown in Tables 2 and 3, while Table 4 sets out the percentage of fiscal areas that fall into various categories of size, beginning with those having 10 taxpayers or fewer and ending with those having more than 160. For comparison, similar figures for Devon, the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Oxfordshire are also given. (fn. 14) The distribution in Wiltshire, Devon, and Oxfordshire is surprisingly similar. Poll-tax documents for Dorset and Gloucestershire, the counties used for comparative purposes above when considering the tax quotas of 1334, have not survived.

Table 1: Poll-Tax Payers of 1377

For the explanation of the asterisks (* or **) see above p. 305.

Boroughs and Liberties

PlaceNumber of tax-payersSource
Bromham269E 179/196/38/300
**Devizes302/38/301
**Ludgershall borough117/34/24
**Marlborough barton81/38/198
**Marlborough borough462/38/199
**Rowde liberty140/38/197
**Salisbury city3,226E 159/8b
**Wilton borough639E 179/196/35/46
Alderbury Hundred
Alderbury95E 179/196/34/22
*Dean, West45/34/36
*Farley22/34/34
*Gomeldon (in Idmiston)21/34/30
*Grimstead, East63/34/37
*Grimstead, West50/34/40
*Hurdcott (in Winterbourne Earls)18/34/19
*Idmiston74/34/32
*Laverstock63/34/20
*Milford (in Laverstock) (fn. 15) 20/34/21
Pitton50/34/35
*Plaitford (in Hants)49/34/39
*Porton (in Idmiston)76/34/31
*Whaddon (in Alderbury)16/34/38
*Winterbourne Dauntsey84/34/17
*Winterbourne Earls60/34/18
*Winterbourne Gunner40/34/16
**Winterslow, [West]72/34/33
Amesbury Hundred
Ablington. See Knighton.
Allington35E 179/196/33/8
**Alton (in Figheldean),21/240/259/
Choulston (in Figheldean),unnumbered
and Compton (in Enford)membrane
**Amesbury Countess152/196/36/1
**Amesbury, Great179/34/15
**Amesbury, West, and Normanton (in Wilsford)43/34/8
**Borghfeld' and Biddesden (in Chute)?30/33/7
**Boscombe46/34/7
**Brigmerston and Milston55/34/14
**Bulford and 'Hindurrington' (in Durrington)125/34/12
**Cholderton46/240/257/10
Choulston. See Alton.
Compton. SeeAlton.
**Diddenham (in Shinfield, Berks.)13/196/36/5
**Durnford, Great, with Salterton, Netton, and Newtown (all in Durnford)123/33/2
**Durnford, Little39/33/4
**Durrington139/34/4
**Farley Hill (in Swallowfield, Berks.)28/33/3
Figheldean, See Knighton.
'Hindurrington'. See Bulford.
**Hinton Hatch (in Hurst, Berks.) (fn. 16) 27/34/5
PlaceNumber of tax- payersSource
**Knighton (in Figheldean), with Syrencot and Ablington (both in Figheldean), and Figheldean14533/1
Milston. See Brigmerston.
Netton. See Durnford, Great.
Newtown. see Durnford, Great.
Normanton. See Amesbury, West.
**Ratfyn (in Amesbury)17/34/6
Salterton. See Durnford, Great.
**Sheepbridge, Great (in Swallowfield, Berks.)91/34/11
Syrencot (in Figheldean). See Knighton.
**Wellow, West (in Hants)79/240/259/ unnumbered membrane
**Winterslow, (East)43/240/257/11
**Winterslow 'of the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem'12/257/9
Blackgrove Hundred
Bincknoll (in Broad Hinton)38E 179/196/38/79
Eastcott, Westcott, and Walcot (all in Swindon)45/38/77
Elcombe (in Wroughton)86/38/72
Mannington (in Lydiard Tregoze) (fn. 17) 21/38/78
Midgehall (in Lydiard Tregoze)46/38/72
Overtown (in Wroughton)63/38/75
Salthrop (in Wroughton)27/38/81
Swindon, High248/38/76
Uffcott (in Broad Hinton)46/38/158
Vastern (in Wootton Bassett)207/38/83
Walcott. See Eastcott.
Westcott. See Eastcott.
Bradford Hundred
**Atworth57E 179/196/37/2
**Bradford237/37/38
**Broughton Gifford136/37/3
**Chalfield57/37/9
**Farleigh, Monkton111/37/67
**Holt and Leigh (in Bradford)104/37/37
**Rowley (in Wingfield)69/37/39
**Trowle (in Bradford)40/37/4
**Westwood45/37/47
**Winsley101/33/6
**Wraxall, South53/37/49
Branch Hundred
**Avon (in Stratford-subCastle)21E 179/196/38/63
**Bathampton (in Steeple Langford)60/37/33
**Bemerton43/38/62
**Burcombe, [North]7/38/64
**Chilhampton (in South Newton)14/35/35
**Deptford (in Wylye)26/37/42
**Ditchampton44/38/66
PlaceNumber of tax-payersSource
Fisherton Anger (in Salisbury)147/38/61
**Fugglestone (in Bemerton)11/38/125
**Langford, Hanging (in Steeple Langford)87/35/43
**Langford, Little32/35/42
**Langford, Steeple83/35/41
**Newton, South69/35/36
**Quidhampton (in Bemerton)75/38/124
**Sherrington37/35/45
**Stapleford89/35/39
**Stockton140/37/44
**Stoford (in South Newton)38/35/37
**Ugford, [North]37/38/65
**Wishford, Great138/35/38
**Wishford, Little18/35/40
**Wylye86/35/44
Cadworth Hundred
*Barford St. Martin156E 179/196/35/63
*Baverstock.40/35/61
*Burcombe, [South]66/35/58
*Fovant150/35/64
Hurdcott (in Barford St. Martin)13/35/62
*Netherhampton75/35/60
*Sutton Mandeville37/35/65
*Ugford, [South] (in Burcombe)18/35/59
Calne Hundred
Berwick Bassett55E 179/196/38/163
Beversbrook. See Whitley.
Blackland (in Calne)41/38/167
Calne156/38/159
Calstone Wellington (in Calne)79/38/166
Cherhill98/38/165
Compton Bassett126/38/162
Eastmanstreet (lost in Calne)29/38/149
Heddington121/38/169
Quemerford (in Calne)45/38/150
Stock Street (in Calne) and 'Wodelond'27/38/151
Stockley (in Calne)31/38/168
Studley (in Calne)115/38/160
Whetham (in Calne)26/38/152
Whitley (in Calne) and Beversbrook (in Hilmarton)32/38/161
'Wodelond'. See Stock Street.
Yatesbury55/38/164
Cannings Hundred
**Bedborough (in Bishop's Cannings)50E 179/196/38/4
**Bourton and Easton (both in Bishop's Cannings)98/38/9
**'Boreton' (fn. 18) 30/38/2
**Cannings, Bishop's74/38/14
**Chittoe36/38/7
Easton. See Bourton.
**Highway (in Hilmarton)24/38/5
Hilcott (fn. 19) 47/38/1
**Horton (in Bishop's Cannings)103/38/10
**Nursteed (in Roundway)23/33/9
**Roundway40/38/8
**Wick (in Roundway)72/38/6
Cawdon Hundred
**Britford205E 179/196/35/30
**Coombe Bissett159/35/33
**Homington116/35/66
**Longford (in Britford)17/35/31
**Odstock62/35/32
Stratford Tony81/35/34
**Whitsbury (in Hants)29/35/67
Chalke Hundred
**Alvediston111E 179/196/35/49
**Berwick St. John and Bridmore (in Berwick St. John)87/35/1
**Chalke, Bower153/35/51
**Chalke, Broad (fn. 20) 222/35/53
**Ebbesborne Wake99/35/50
**Fifield Bavant (in Ebbesborne Wake)67/35/52
**Knighton (in Broad Chalke)83/35/54
**Stoke Farthing (in Broad Chalke)74/35/55
**Tollard Royal69/35/4
Chippenham Hundred
Alderton59E 179/196/38/134
Allington (in Chippenham)48/38/212
Avon (in Bremhill)21/38/210
Biddestone55/38/145
Box175/38/147
Bremhill176/38/213
Chippenham257/38/143
? Cocklebury (in Langley Burrell) (fn. 21) 10/38/207
Colerne168/38/147
Combe, Castle138/38/130
Corsham341/38/146
Easton Grey30/38/137
'Ende' (fn. 22) 112/38/136
Foxham (in Bremhill)126/38/209
Hardenhuish16/38/129
Hartham (in Corsham)30/38/140
Kellaways (fn. 23) 43/38/138
Kington, West84/38/127
Lacock355/38/139
Langley Burrell79/38/144
*Leigh Delamere41/38/215
Littleton Drew51/38/128
Luckington68/38/133
Sherston, Great221/38/131
Sherston, Little [Pinkney]20/38/132
Slaughterford43/38/142
Sopworth20/38/135
Stanley (in Bremhill)66/38/211
Surrendell (in Hullavington)37/38/214
Tytherton Lucas (in Chippenham)45/38/141
Wraxall, [North]89/38/126
— [blank] (fn. 24) 58/38/208
Cricklade Hundred
Ashton Keynes207E 179/196/38/291
Cricklade200/38/294
Eisey (in Latton)32/38/288
Latton114/38/249
Leigh87/38/289
Poulton (in Glos.)67/38/293
Shorncote (in Somerford Keynes, Glos.)22/38/292
Somerford Keynes (in Glos.)81/38/290
Damerham Hundred
*Bramshaw (in Hants)20E 179/196/35/28
*Compton Chamberlayne141/35/26
Damerham276/35/25
*Martin (in Hants)179/35/27
North Damerham Hundred
Grittleton105E 179/196/38/303
Kington St. Michael93/38/304
Langley, Kington111/38/305
Nettleton138/38/302
Dole Hundred
**Addeston (in Maddington)9E 179/196/38/55
*Asserton (in Berwick St. James)27/38/49
Berwick St. James80/38/48
**Bourton (in Maddington)20/38/52
Elston (in Orcheston St. George)11/38/56
**Gore, St. Joan à (in West Lavington)12/38/58
Homanton (in Maddington)25/38/26
**Maddington61/38/53
Net Down (in Shrewton)40/38/50
**Orcheston [St. Mary]26/38/57
**Shrewton49/38/54
**Tilshead (fn. 25) 99/38/58
Winterbourne Stoke93/38/25
Downton Hundred
*Barford (in Downton)23E 179/196/35/14
Bishopstone47/35/19
*Bodenham44/35/9
*Charlton114/35/8
*Croucheston (in Bishopstone)73/35/22
Downton214/35/6
*Downton foreign106/35/12
*Faulston (in Bishopstone)60/35/24
*Flamston (in Bishopstone)75/35/20
*Hamptworth (in Redlynch)36/35/11
*Netton (in Bishopstone)44/35/21
*Nunton43/35/10
*Pensworth (in Redlynch)53/35/13
*Standlynch18/35/18
*Throope (in Bishopstone)26/35/23
*Walton (in Downton)5/35/16
*Wick (in Downton)43/35/15
*Witherington (in Standlynch)34/35/17
Dunworth Hundred
Ansty58E 179/196/35/29
**Chicklade69/35/69
**Chilmark136/35/70
**Donhead359/39/1
**Fonthill Gifford70/35/2
**Hatch, East and West (in Tisbury)152/35/71
**Swallowcliffe93/35/57
**Teffont Evias34/35/56
**Tisbury281/35/72
Elstub Hundred
Chisenbury96E 179/196/34/29
Coombe. See Fittleton.
*Enford32/34/25
Fifield. See Littlecott.
*Fittleton, and Coombe (in Enford)60/34/28
*Fifield (fn. 26) 40/34/27
*Littlecott and Fifield (both in Enford)49/34/26
**Netheravon111/34/13
Liberty of Everleigh
**Collingbourne Ducis127E 179/196/34/2
**Everleigh99/34/3
**Haxton (in Fittleton)68/34/1
Frustfield Hundred
**Abbotstone (in Whiteparish)28E 179/196/37/61
**Alderstone (in Whiteparish)56/37/59
**Cowesfield (in Whiteparish)55/37/20
**Landford48/37/79
**Whelpley (in Whiteparish)63/37/58
**Whiteparish10/37/62
Heytesbury Hundred
**Addeston (in Maddington) (fn. 27) 82E 179/196/37/43
**Ansty (in Knook)9/37/32
**Ashton Giffard (in Codford St. Peter)28/37/35
**Baycliff (in Horningsham)9/37/22
**Boyton and [East] Corton (in Boyton)79/33/5
**Chitterne186/37/21
**Codford171/37/31
Corton, East. See Boyton.
**Corton, West (in Boyton)75/37/17
**Deverill, Brixton89/37/77
**Deverill, Hill63/37/12
**Deverill, Longbridge322/37/92
**Heytesbury164/37/24
**Horningsham65/37/34
**Imber (fn. 28) 64/37/16
**Knook67/37/6
**Orcheston [St. George]56/37/42
**Tytherington (in Heytesbury)48/37/87
Highworth Hundred
Blunsdon, Broad80E 179/196/38/232
Blunsdon Gay11/38/234
*Blunsdon St. Andrew24/38/236
?Burton Hill (in Malmesbury) (fn. 29) 74/38/243
Burytown (in Blunsdon)28/38/217
Eastrop (in Highworth)62/38/237
Eaton, Castle (fn. 30) 68/38/220
Fresden (in Highworth)8/38/248
Groundwell (in Blunsdon)11/38/228
Hampton (in Highworth)29/38/233
Hannington140/38/221
Haydon (in Rodbourne Cheney)33/38/287
Haydon Wick (in Rodbourne Cheney)45/38/223
Highworth134/38/287
Inglesham32/38/229
Lus Hill (in Castle Eaton)41/38/222
Lydiard Millicent72/38/218
Marston Meysey51/38/285
Marston, South93/38/226
Moredon (in Rodbourne Cheney)16/38/286
Rodbourne Cheney44/38/230
Sevenhampton (in Highworth)105/38/284
Shaw (in Lydiard Millicent)40/38/216
Stanton Fitzwarren50/38/247
Stratton St. Margaret (fn. 31) 160/38/225
Stratton, Upper (in Stratton St. Margaret)60/38/227
Swindon, Even27/38/231
Westrop (in Highworth)56/38/224
Widhill (in Cricklade)36/38/283
Widhill, West (in Cricklade)9/38/219
Kingsbridge Hundred
Broad Town44E 179/196/38/84
Clevancy and Littlecott (both in Hilmarton)30/38/306
Clyffe Pypard54/38/105
Corton (in Hilmarton)18/38/105
Draycot Foliat (in Chisledon)47/38/74
Hilmarton92/38/99
Hinton, Broad106/38/192
Littlecott. See Clevancy.
Lydiard Tregoze65/38/80
Lyneham227/38/101
Thornhill (in Broad Town)42/38/106
Tockenham, East64/38/85
Tockenham, West24/38/102
Witcomb (in Hilmarton)20/38/100
Woodhill (in Clyffe Pypard)21/38/104
Wroughton, Nether160/38/193
Kinwardstone Hundred
Bedwyn, Great (fn. 32) 87E 178/196/38/200
Bedwyn, Little33/38/89
Burbage107/38/118
Buttermere6/38/87
*Charlton (in Hungerford, Berks.)75/38/91
Chilton Foliat87/38/90
Chisbury (in Little Bedwyn)87/38/112
Chute and Conholt (in Chute)110/38/107
Collingbourne Kingston58/38/95
Collingbourne Vallance74/38/96
Conholt. See Chute.
Crofton (in Great Bedwyn)25/38/114
Easton66/38/116
'Ford'32/38/113
Fosbury (in Tidcombe)37/38/86
Froxfield13/38/93
Fyfield (in Milton Lilbourne)40/38/123
Grafton, East45/38/121
Grafton, West19/38/120
Ham119/38/98
Henset (in Little Bedwyn)35/38/111
Marten (in Grafton)37/38/108
Milton Lilbourne67/38/115
Pewsey267/38/94
Shalbourne90/38/88
Standen, North (in Hungerford, Berks.)19/38/92
Sunton (in Collingbourne Kingston)32/38/97
Tidcombe50/38/109
Wexcombe (in Grafton)68/38/110
Wilton (in Grafton)71/38/122
Wolfhall (in Grafton)14/38/119
Wootton Rivers51/38/117
Bishop's Knoyle Hundred
**Fonthill, Bishop77E 179/196/35/5
**Hindon77/35/47
Knoyle, East146/35/7
**Upton (in East Knoyle)37/35/48
Malmesbury Hundred
Ashley (in Glos.)33E 179/196/38/253
'Aston' (fn. 33) 15/38/272
Bradfield (in Hullavington)21/38/268
Bremilham (in Foxley)31/38/265
Brinkworth123/38/241
Brokenborough120/38/258
Charlton152/38/270
Chedglow (in Crudwell)20/38/269
Chelworth (in Crudwell)14/38/278
Cleverton (in Lea)55/38/255
Cloatley (in Hankerton)33/38/281
Corston (in Malmesbury)46/38/242
Crudwell60/38/277
Dauntsey90/38/24
Draycot [Cerne], Lower39/38/261
Draycot [Cerne], Upper24/38/262
Eastcourt (in Crudwell)57/38/280
Ewen (in Kemble, Glos.)32/38/195
Filands (in Malmesbury)17/38/245
Foxley12/38/260
Garsdon55/38/254
Grittenham (in Brinkworth)69/38/239
Hankerton61/38/279
Hullavington119/38/276
Kemble (in Glos.)57/38/194
Lea40/38/256
Malmesbury402/38/246
Milbourne (in Malmesbury)39/38/257
Moredon (in Rodbourne Cheney)20/38/282
Newton, Long57/38/259
Norton23/38/251
Oaksey86/38/271
Poole Keynes (in Glos.)53/38/196
Rodbourne (in Malmesbury)69/38/267
Seagry, Lower65/38/264
Seagry, Upper45/38/252
Smithcot (in Dauntsey)21/38/238
Somerford, Great92/38/273
Somerford, Little77/38/250
Stanton St. Quintin, Lower18/38/275
Stanton St. Quintin, Upper31/38/274
Startley (in Great Somerford)10/38/266
Sutton Benger125/38/263
Thornhill (in Malmesbury)12/38/244
Melksham Hundred
**Bulkington160E 179/196/37/7
**Erlestoke136/37/60
**Hilperton80/37/86
**Melksham511/37/18
**Poulshot120/37/13
**Seend149/37/1
**Studley, [Little] Trowle (both in Trowbridge), Staverton, and Wyke (in Trowbridge)112/37/70
Mere Hundred
**Bradley, Maiden245E 179/196/37/11
Chaddenwick (in Mere)32/37/76
**Kingston Deverill37/37/28
Knoyle, West60/37/80
**Mere489/37/29
**Stourton73/37/75
**Zeals147/37/57
Ramsbury Hundred
Axford, Park Town, and Eastridge (fn. 34) (all in Ramsbury)133E 179/196/38/205
Baydon59/38/202
Bishopstone169/38/203
Eastridge, See Axford.
'Forde'. See Whittonditch.
Knighton. See Whittonditch.
Park Town. See Axford.
Preshute18/38/201
Ramsbury161/38/206
Whittonditch (in Ramsbury), 'Forde' and knighton (in Ramsbury)60/38/204
Bishop's Rowborough Hundred
*Fiddington (in Market Lavington) (fn. 35) 24E 179/196/38/24
*Lavington, West56/38/24
Marston88/38/23
*Potterne220/38/30
Worton82/38/21
King's Rowborough Hundred
*Cheverell, Great73E 179/196/38/33
*Cheverell, Little56/38/31
**Imber (fn. 36) 68/38/32
*Lavington, Market252/38/27
Littleton Pannell (in West Lavington)56/38/29
Selkley Hundred
Aldbourne253E 179/196/38/170
Avebury134/38/183
Barbury (in Wroughton)13/38/177
Beckhampton (in Avebury)31/38/155
Clatford (in Preshute)30/38/182
Fyfield22/38/157
Hinton, [Little]71/38/188
Kennett, East30/38/153
*Kennett, West (in Avebury)24/38/154
Lockeridge (in West Overton)41/38/190
Manton (in Preshute)28/38/180
Mildenhall72/38/178
Ogbourne Maizey (in Ogbourne St. Andrew)50/38/189
Ogbourne St. Andrew69/38/174
Ogbourne St. George157/38/173
Overton, East (in West Overton)63/38/156
Overton, West37/38/191
Poulton (in Mildenhall)8/38/181
Rabson (in Winterbourne Bassett)21/38/186
Richardson (in Winterbourne Bassett)31/38/175
Rockley (in Ogbourne St. Andrew)40/38/176
Shaw (in West Overton)3/38/185
Snap (in Aldbourne)19/38/172
Stitchcombe (in Mildenhall)42/38/179
Upham (in Aldbourne)40/38/171
Winterbourne Bassett35/38/187
Winterbourne Monkton69/38/184
Staple Hundred
Calcutt (in Cricklade)23E 179/196/38/295
Chelworth, Great (in Cricklade)38/38/297
Chelworth, Little (in Cricklade)15/38/296
Eaton, Water64/38/298
Purton318/38/299
Studfold Hundred
**Allington68E 179/196/38/13
**Cannings, All192/38/11
**Chirton73/38/17
**Conock (in Chirton)59/38/16
**Eastcott (in Urchfont)36/38/15
**Etchilhampton62/38/60
**Patney90/38/3
**Stert65/38/18
**Urchfont209/38/19
**Wedhampton (in Urchfont)65/38/20
Swanborough Hundred
*Alton Barnes20E 179/196/38/40
*Beechingstoke62/38/42
*Charlton86/38/47
*Huish22/38/37
*Manningford Bohun43/38/34
Manningford Bruce37/38/51
*Marden69/38/43
*Newnton, North51/38/35
*Oare20/38/38
*Rushall91/38/44
*Stanton St. Bernard76/38/39
**Stowell (in Wilcot)114/38/28
*Upavon127/38/46
*Wilcot86/38/36
*Wilsford77/38/45
Woodborough47/38/41
POLL-TAX PAYERS OF 1377
Thornhill Hundred
PlaceNumber of tax-payersSource
Badbury (in Chisledon)78E 179/196/38/71
Broom (in Swindon)16/38/73
Bushton (in Clyffe Pypard) (fn. 37) 40/38/67
Chisledon145/38/69
Liddington174/38/70
Wanborough201/38/68
Underditch Hundred
Heale. See Woodford.
Lake. See Wilsford.
**Milford (in Laverstock) (fn. 38) 119E 179/196/36/3
**Salisbury, Old10/34/23
**Stratford-sub-Castle109/36/2
**Wilsford and Lake (in Wilsford)53/240/259/ bdle. 1
**Woodford, [Lower]69196/36/4
**Woodford, [Upper], and Heale76/37/14
Warminster Hundred
**Bapton (in Fisherton de la Mere)74E 179/196/37/30
**Bishopstrow87/37/5
**Boreham (fn. 39) 91/37/56
**Bugley (in Warminster)16/37/54
**Corsley128/37/91
**Crockerton (in Longbridge Deverill)14/37/55
**Dinton156/37/90
**Fisherton de la Mere68/37/51
**Middleton (in Norton Bavant)18/37/15
**Newnham (in Sutton Veny)33/37/65
**Norridge (in Upton Scudamore)16/37/64
**Norton Bavant76/37/8
**Smallbrook (in Warminster)13/37/89
**Sutton, Little36/37/50
**Sutton Veny82/37/52
**Teffont Magna75/37/84
**Thoulstone (in Upton Scudamore)22/37/27
**Upton Scudamore85/37/53
**Warminster340/37/40
**Whitbourne (in Corsley)49/37/88
Westbury Hundred
**Bratton, and Melbourne (in Bratton)149E 179/196/37/73
**Brook (in Westbury)39/37/71
**Chapmanslade (in Dilton)30/37/46
**Dilton20/37/74
**Dilton Marsh and Bremeridge (both in Dilton)36/37/84
**Hawkridge (in Heywood)27/37/45
**Penleigh (in Dilton)22/37/72
**Westbury184/37/78
**Westbury Leigh (fn. 40) 101/37/82
Whorwellsdown Hundred
**Ashton, Steeple260E 179/196/37/25
**Ashton, West81/37/66
**Bradley, North82/37/26
**Coulston, and Baynton (in Edington)114/37/19
**Edington109/37/36
**Heywood43/37/48
**Hinton, Great62/37/10
**Keevil200/37/68
Littleton (in Semington)43/37/63
**Semington54/37/83
**Southwick96/37/69
**Tilshead (fn. 41) 26/37/81
**Tinhead (in Edington)119/37/23
Uncertain
— (fn. 42) 111E 179/196/35/3
— (fn. 43) 165/35/68

Table 2: The Smallest Fiscal Units, 1377

Number of taxpayersPlaceHundred
3ShawSelkley
5WaltonDownton
6ButtermereKinwardstone
7Burcombe, NorthBranch
8FresdenHighworth
8PoultonSelkley
9AddestonDole
9AnstyHeytesbury
9Baycliff"
9Widhill, WestHighworth
10? CockleburyChippenham
10WhiteparishFrustfield
10StartleyMalmesbury
10Salisbury, OldUnderditch
11FugglestoneBranch
11ElstonDole
11Blunsdon GayHighworth
11Groundwell"
12Winterslow 'of the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem'Amesbury
12St. Joan à GoreDole
12FoxleyMalmesbury
12Thornhill"

Table 3: The Largest Fiscal Units, 1377

Number of taxpayersPlace
3,226Salisbury
639Wilton
511Melksham
489Mere
462Marlborough
402Malmesbury
359Donhead
355Lacock
341Corsham
340Warminster
322Longbridge Deverill
318Purton
302Devizes
281Tisbury
276Damerham
269Bromham
267Pewsey
257Chippenham

Table 4: Fiscal Units of 1377 Classified According to the Number of Taxpayers

Number of taxpayersPercentage of fiscal units in each size group
WiltshireDevonYorkshire W.R.Oxfordshire
1–102401
11–2081138
21–30101188
31–401113912
41–501091513
51–60851110
61–701010116
71–8075108
81–906666
91–1004376
101–1102233
111–204224
121–302332
131–402211
141–502123
151–602210
Over 160101169
100100100100
Total number of fiscal units528368462280
Average number of taxpayers in fiscal units80817385
Median number of taxpayers in fiscal units61526158

Footnotes

1 For these taxes there is a convenient list in Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, 1st Report, App. 2, 6 sqq. (1838) and 3rd Report, App. 2, 134 sqq. (1840).
2 G. S. Oman, The Great Revolt of 1381; J. C. Russell, British Medieval Population. The latter has a number of errors of transcription, identification, and calculation.
3 Oman, op. cit. 183–5; C 66/309/mm. 8d, 16d, 33d; E 179/158/29, 32, 34; E 179/161/38.
4 The 1379 returns for Wiltshire are: E 179/196/42A, 44–5, 52 and probably E 179/240/308 and E 179/239/193.
5 The returns for 1381 are E 179/196/42, 369.
6 V.C.H. Leics. iii. 132–40, 163–5. The maps and tables omit Leics. receipts for 1377 in E 179/240/256–9.
7 The sources used in Table 1 are: E 179/196/33–9: E 179/240/257, mm. 9–11; /240/259, bdle. 1 unnumbered. E 179/196/34, mm. 9, 10 do not relate to Wiltshire.
8 e.g. E 179/196/35, mm. 8–24, all Downton hundred; E 179/196/38, mm. 34–47, all Swanborough hundred.
9 E 359/8b, mm. 1–5.
10 The following collectors' names appear on receipts: William Don, Henry Gilberd, Henry Haversham, William Heycroft or Hopcroft, Thomas Waryn, and Thomas Thames. Don gave all but two of the receipts in E 179/ 196/37.
11 V.C.H. Wilts. v. 3.
12 Ibid. for the evolution of Malmesbury hundred.
13 E 179/196/38/200 (Bedwyn), /300 (Bromham).
14 These figures are based upon the tabulated data in M. W. Beresford, Lost Villages of England, 251–3, 407–9.
15 See also Underditch hundred.
16 'Hatch'.
17 'Messhendon'.
18 Thomas Freyn, constable. John Briccher and John Ledehale, probi homines. 'Boreton' was not separately taxed in 1334. Bupton was taxed as part of Cannings hundred in 1428 (V.C.H. Wilts. vii. 177) and as part of Potterne and Cannings hundred in the 16th cent. (Taxation Lists (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 16, 90). P.N. Wilts. (E.P.N.S.), however, plausibly derives the name from the surname Bubbe. Bowden (in Lacock, Chippenham hundred), which borders upon Chittoe, is hardly a more likely possibility than Bupton.
19 There is a duplicate of this receipt E 179/196/38/12. There is a Hilcott in N. Newnton (Swanborough hundred), but it is doubtful whether this 'Hulcote' is the same. The constable was John Lovelecher and the probi homines Robert Holdfast and William Cotes.
20 Since the receipts were first examined in order to prepare these tables this file has been repaired. The name Broad Chalke is no longer visible. The names of John Alwyn, constable, and of Walter Monek ..., a probus homo, appear.
21 '. . . bergh'. MS torn.
22 Nicholas Drew, constable. Robert Caynes, John Holder, and Walter Hakekyns, probi homines. (Probably a part of Chippenham.)
23 'Tyderyngton Cayleweye'.
24 The place-name is torn away. Nicholas Drew was constable and Henry Swahyn and John Rateler probi homines. Possibly the place is Yatton Keynell, which was a fiscal unit in 1334.
25 See also Whorwellsdown hundred.
26 'Little Fyfield'.
27 See also Dole hundred.
28 See also King's Rowborough hundred.
29 'Berghton'.
30 Eaton Meysey.
31 Lower Stratton.
32 'West' Bedwyn. Endorsed 'burg' et libert'.
33 Probably Easton Piercey in Kington St. Michael.
34 'Aschrugges'.
35 'Fifhyde Verdon'.
36 See also Heytesbury hundred.
37 'West Bysshupeston'.
38 See also Alderbury hundred.
39 'Boryton'.
40 Lye.
41 See also Dole hundred.
42 Blind. Filed between receipts assigned to Dunworth and Chalke hundreds. John Alwyn, constable; Walter Sampson and Thomas . . ., probi homines. Possibly Semley, in Chalke hundred in 1334.
43 Torn. Filed between receipts assigned to Cawdon and Dunworth hundreds. William Gereberd, John Cansepe and John . . ., probi homines. Possibly Harnham, in Cawdon hundred in 1334.