America and West Indies
March 1739

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Institute of Historical Research

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K. G. Davies (editor)

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1994

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50-72

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'America and West Indies: March 1739', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 45: 1739 (1994), pp. 50-72. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=115264 Date accessed: 28 November 2014.


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March 1739

75
March 3
Antigua
Governor William Mathew to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. There remaining in this island but six members of the Council by the death of Samuel Byam, I have sworn in Rev Francis Byam, son of the lieut-governor, to make up the number seven. Signed. 1 small p. Endorsed, Recd. 28 April, Read 2 May 1739. [CO 152/23, ff 206–207d]
76
March 3
Boston
William Shirley to Duke of Newcastle. This morning I received your commands relating to Sir Thomas Prendergast's demand against Mr Auchmuty which I hope I have already finished to Sir Thomas's satisfaction. Your former letter to Governor Belcher concerning this affair came enclosed to me under my cover from Sir Thomas when he first committed the care of his lawsuit to me. Having by that means got the knowledge of your recommending Sir Thomas's interest, I looked upon it as my duty to accept the procuration against Mr Auchmuty and have for that reason acted in it as I acquainted Sir Thomas from the beginning and I think with more success than I could reasonably expect. I must now entreat your favour in permitting me to express the great concern I am under at receiving this morning an account of your having been lately troubled with an impertinent letter, signed J Bowden, containing complaints against Governor Belcher and desiring that I may be put into his post, and to assure you that it's all counterfeit. The person whose name is borrowed to sign the letter with is a merchant of the largest estate in this province, a Frenchman by birth who does not trouble his head about anything that relates to the government, is on good terms with Governor Belcher and has very little acquaintance with me. And to bring it to the test whether the letter is of his signing or not, as he is one of the signers of our merchants' public bills, I have sent Mrs Shirley one of those bills to make use of for a comparison of his handwriting with that letter. I am also persuaded that the letter did not come from any friend of mine but some person who designed to discredit me with you. For if the writer of this letter had really designed to serve me and prejudice the governor he would I doubt not have communicated it to me and consulted me about the propriety of framing it and sending it. And I hope I am not fallen so low in your opinion as that you can think me guilty of offering so very weak and silly an abuse to your goodness as to encourage such a pitiful contrivance. Besides, when the letter was written I was myself an utter stranger to any application of my friends for the government and the thing itself was not then in my aim or thoughts, and there is no person in this province who had any reason to think that I had any such view. There is indeed one gentleman in the province whose jealousy I can't forbear mistrusting in this affair and who I know would now be glad by any contrivance to hurt me in your opinion. It may seem hard and groundless to impute so mean and improbable an artifice to a gentleman in the highest station among us but I am so thoroughly acquainted with his politics, and knowing of [MS: to] some other instances of a like kind of treachery from him towards another gentleman now in England, that I dare almost risk my credit upon the truth of my suspicion. Having thus broken in upon you, I must further beg leave just to mention my uneasiness at Mr Waldo's indiscretions in his application to you in my favour. The account which he has sent me of his intruding upon you in Sussex and manner of soliciting for me since has given me no small pain. It is what I am surprised at and should never have consented to if I had been consulted in it. I am well satisfied of Mr Waldo's friendship for me and am obliged to him for his good intentions, but I can appeal to my own letters to Mrs Shirley upon this occasion and Mr Waldo's to me for full proof that he had no commission from me to act in this manner. It is impossible for me to express fully the deep sense I have of your late goodness to me in the whole course of my application to HM for annexing a salary to my post of advocate-general and afterwards in nominating me for chief justice of the province of New York, and there is nothing I more ardently wish for than to have an opportunity of giving you a proof of my duty and gratitude to you. Signed. 2½ pp. Endorsed, Duplicate, R, 9 May (by Mr Waldo). [CO 5/899, ff 360–361d]
77
March 3
Georgia Office
Harman Verelst to James Oglethorpe, by Mary Ann, Capt Thomas Shubrick. Herewith you receive copy of the Trustees' letter of 5 February [MS: 15th instant] sent by way of New York. Your letter to me of 22 November last I received 15th of last month and laid it before the Trustees. They are thereby, as well as by your former letters, furnished with reasons for their increasing of their first demand and they are proceeding with all possible diligence to obtain the wanted supply. The Trustees having received 40l for John MacLeod, the Scots minister at Darien, they have sent over sola bills for that purpose. They have also sent 70l more in sola bills whereof 30l is to be paid to Mr Gronau to make up the charges of building his dwelling-house from 10l to 40l, and 40l to Mr Bolzius towards the maintenance of Salzburgh widows and orphans, which 70l is out of money appropriated for the use of the Salzburghers. The Trustees desire also that, out of the sola bills now sent you and payable with the money appropriated for the religious uses of the colony, you should direct a house to be built at Frederica for Mr Norris, the minister who is (on the arrival of Mr Whitefield at Savannah) to be stationed there, and also to have a 5-acre lot to be fenced and cultivated for him; and a 5-acre lot to be fenced and cultivated for the minister at Savannah as near as may be to the minister's house there.
Herewith you receive invoice of the 15 tons of beer amounting (with freight and insurance) to the sum of 160l 10s 6d, the produce whereof is to be applied for the clothing and maintaining the Trustees' servants to be employed in cultivating lands for religious uses, which William Stephens, Henry Parker and Thomas Jones or any two of them are to account for to the Trustees in the same manner as they are to account for the sola bills they are directed to issue. The sola bills sent you, which the Trustees now desire you to endorse, amount to 710l and herewith you receive an indemnity for the endorsement of them under the seal of the corporation. They are to be issued by William Stephens, Henry Parker and Thomas Jones or any two of them in the following manner, viz 600l part thereof to be applied in clothing and maintenance of the Trustees' servants whose services are to answer the expense thereof as far as 400l towards building a church at Savannah and 200l in cultivating lands for religious uses in the northern and southern parts of Georgia; and the other 110l to Mr MacLeod, Mr Gronau and Mr Bolzius as beforementioned. And they are directed that the two of them who shall issue the said bills do send an account signed to the Trustees showing on every issue to whom and for what services agreeable to the above instructions each respective issue was made, together with a list of the several bills so issued. The Trustees take the opportunity of acquainting you that the Lords of the Admiralty, instead of a small sloop to attend on the settlement of Georgia, have ordered the Phoenix and Seaford men-of-war, both 20-gun ships, alternately from South Carolina to Georgia to attend upon and secure Georgia from any attempts. PS. The sola bills are in a small box directed to you and marked G x C, and consist of 31 of 10l each nos 201 to 231 and 400 of 1l each nos 2501 to 2900. Entry. 1½ pp. [CO 5/667, ff 213–214]
78
March 3
Georgia Office
Harman Verelst to Thomas Jones. I received your letters dated 19 and 20 October and 12 November last and several accounts drawn out which Mr William Stephens sent me. The Trustees will apply to Parliament for money to discharge the debt incurred and for further settling and improving the colony, which when voted they intend to send over a commission to state and determine the public debts in Georgia and the commissioners will be enabled to sign to each account the several sums which shall appear to be due to the respective persons entitled; and such debts is intended to be made payable in England and sola bills will be sent as soon as the sum is voted; which are to be issued for the service of the colony according to the regulations to be sent with them whereby all future expenses will be defrayed with ready money and all occasions of contracting new debts avoided pursuant to the public notices affixed on the storehouses in Georgia and published in the London and South Carolina Gazettes. [Orders concerning disposal of sola bills and beer in no 77 repeated.] Entry. 1½ pp. [CO 5/667, pp 214–215]
79
March 3
Georgia Office
Same to William Stephens. The observations and directions arising from the Trustees' perusal of your journal to 21 November last, which they received 29 January following, will be sent to you by the next opportunity, they not having time at present to fully determine thereupon. The Trustees have desired Gen Oglethorpe to order the issuing 500l in their sola bills consisting of 100 of 5l each which by endorsements thereon are to be issued by yourself, Thomas Causton and Henry Parker or any two of you for defraying the most necessary services of the colony in the supporting and assisting the industrious and helpless. Therefore you and Mr Parker are desired to be the two persons who sign to the issue of them, and as you issue them you are to make out an account showing to whom and for what services agreeable to the above directions each respective issue is made, which you are to send over to the Trustees signed by both of you, together with a list of the bills so issued, in order to be discharged therefrom and to enable the Trustees to account to the public in what services the monies granted and given have been applied. [Orders concerning disposal of sola bills and beer in no 77 repeated.] Entry. 1½ pp. [CO 5/667, pp 216–217]
80
March 3
Georgia Office
Same to Rev William Norris. Though the Trustees have received no letter from you, yet they hear of your safe arrival by their secretary William Stephens and by his account hope you will be an acceptable pastor to the people of Savannah. Mr Whitefield, who arrived here in December last, has been ordained priest and intends to return soon for Savannah. The Trustees on that occasion have agreed to your being minister at Frederica after his arrival at Savannah and have ordered a house to be built there for your reception and a 5-acre lot near it to be fenced and cultivated for you at their expense, which will be a very commodious situation. They desire to hear from you by every opportunity. Entry. ½ p. [CO 5/667, p 217]
81
March 3
Georgia Office
Same to Rev John Martin Bolzius acknowledging letter of 6 November last and notifying grant of 40l by the Trustees towards maintenance of Salzburgher widows and orphans. Trustees are favourably inclined to the passage of two Palatine families by the Two Brothers. Nothing shall be wanting to encourage industry and good harmony. Entry. ½ p. [CO 5/667, p 218]
82
March 3
Georgia Office
Same to Rev Israel Christian Gronau acknowledging letter of 6 November last and notifying grant of 30l towards cost of house in consideration of its remaining a dwelling-house for a minister for the time being. Entry. ¼ p. [CO 5/667, p 218]
83
March 3
Georgia Office
Same to Messrs Crokatt & Seaman acknowledging letter of 12 January and care of goods and packets by Minerva, Capt Nickleson. Charges will be paid. Entry. ¼ p. [CO 5/667, p 219]
84
March 3
(NS)
The Hague
Robert Trevor to Benjamin Martyn acknowledging letter of 11th past (OS). I hope all precautions required by this government with respect to transit of emigrants will have been complied with. There are standing orders not to let pass the frontiers those without certificate of some sufficient subject of this state having given bail for orderly passage through and immediate transportation out of this country. Your board should have an agent at Rotterdam. Because of contagious distemper in Hungary attestations of health are also required. Signed. 2¾ pp. [CO 5/640, ff 219–292]
85
[March 3]
[Hugh Anderson to Earl of Egmont.] When a person presumes to take up your time, so valuable in public and private life, by a long epistle it should carry along with it an apology either from its value or necessity. The first I have no title to, the second I plead as my excuse. I am no politician and never entertained thoughts of meddling with other policies than those of nature and vegetables. But when signal misfortunes threaten a society each member is obliged to contribute his mite for the public benefit. Such is the melancholy disposition of our affairs which oblige me to waive the following what inclination and genius would dictate for those measures which prudence and necessity for the present enforce and to lay before you the present situation of your poor afflicted province of Georgia which has been so much the object of your care and the exercise of your humanity. I no wise doubt but information from properer hands and more able capacities are laid before you, but as truth and sincerity shall guide my pen I rest assured it may be some confirmation to have the same conveyed in different channels.
The representation of this division of the province of Georgia which contains the principal causes of the grievances and presents [the] deplorable condition of the inhabitants has, I doubt not, before this been presented to the Trustees. As the general heads of it regard culture and trade I shall beg leave to lay before you my sentiments on both those grounds. The concurring circumstances of HM's and the nation's bounty and the generous undertaking of the Trustees, which could only flow from a disinterested view to the happiness of mankind, were incitements sufficient to engage numbers of persons of spirit and resolution to risk their all upon the success of an experiment so apparently well concerted and probable, and in the execution whereof the adventurers might warrantably expect all the assistance of wisdom, power and humanity. But the best concerted schemes are but theories and cannot arrive at certainty until put in execution. According to the best of my knowledge and capacity I shall endeavour to show how far the concerted plan has succeeded, what now retards its further success and threatens to conclude the hopes of the nation, the joy of friends and terror of our adversaries, in confusion and tragedy, which no doubt you and the nation will takes the justest measures to prevent. I repeat it, my lord, that it was the joy of friends, the envy of neighbours and the terror of enemies to see the barrier and safeguard of British America rise like an exhalation under your forming hands: beautiful towns built in the most healthful and advantageous situations, villages cut out and cultivated, forts in the proper passes erected and guarded for the safety of the inhabitants, our navigable rivers covered with vessels and made a new asylum for British ships and commerce in peace or war, and the outmost isles and lines of our boundaries fortified within sight of our adversaries. Such was lately the situation of affairs, sufficient to oblige the French (after having in vain tried all the arts of peace and terrors of war to draw off from our interest or destroy our friendly Indians that border upon their settlements) to send over numbers of regular forces to reinforce their garrisons and the Spaniard to augment their forces at St Augustine and erect new fortifications upon Apallatche Fields. But, oh, how fallen, how changed the beautiful town of Savannah, decaying and desolate, the greater number of its inhabitants dispersed in other parts of the world to shun misery and famine, the remainder dispirited and in want of common necessaries of life, supported only with the assurance of the justice of the nation and honour and humanity of the Trustees, the cultivated plantations deserted and overgrowing with brush, the villages unpeopled, manufactures given over, credit lost and public works mouldering to destruction before they are finished. I may well apply here the conclusion which the Trojan hero draws from the review of the tragedy of his native country, quis talia fando temperet a lachrimis. (fn. 1)
The colony is composed of two sets of people, those who were sent over by the Trustees and supported by them, or others who from the probable view of success ventured their private fortunes in the adventure without being burthensome to the public. Both I shall now view in the same light as either party have spent their public support or private stock in prosecuting the intended plan in the first necessary and essential article of cultivation without success. I do not say that every person of the society has exerted himself this way. But it suffices for my argument that so many of each kind have with all diligence, care and application prosecuted the experiment. But now it appears from the repeated trials of six, five, four, three, two and one years that the labour of the industrious has sooner exhausted their substance than idleness could have done, and that it is impossible for us in the present situation we are in, by the produce of our improvements, to balance the expenses of them: for which I shall assign the following reasons:
1st The nature of the soil. It appears from a simple view of the surface of the soil of this province and all the maritime coasts of America that we are now possessed of the soils of the ocean which certainly at some time covered all this part of the continent. The particles of matter, while in a state of fluidity by their mixture with the water, subsided according to their specific gravity and upon the retiring of the sea exhibit a level surface of sand, of which consists the greater part of our firm land. The rivers proceeding from the distant mountains in their natural tendency to the ocean, where they met with resistance bedded and dilated, their waters forming swamps and morasses until their swelling and proper gravity overpowering all resistance digged out those channels in which now they flow. And therefore the second and lowest level of this country is equal to the surface of the rivers and consists of savannahs, swamps, morasses and cane or cypress galls, many of which afford the most valuable soil, the violent course of the rivers having carried off the movable sand and discovered the clay and loamy strata that lay underneath, and of such generally are the ricegrounds. The face of the earth, naturally sown with the seeds by the hand of the Almighty, when impregnated with the fertilizing dews and warmth of the sun, would soon be covered with vegetable productions most suitable to the nature of the soil, climate, etc, and thus I present you with a natural landskip of this part of the continent. It might be expected that the continual falling of the leaves from the trees might in so many centuries have covered the natural soil with a fertile crust of rotted manure, but such is the absorbing nature of the trees and plants who generally spread their roots and fibres upon the surface, or the exhaling heat of the sun, or both, that hardly is the sand tinged with a different colour; and where it is, on the best high grounds which produce oak and hickory, the mixture of black earth descends but a few inches, and where the land is pine-barren the soil is much less improvable. I need say no more to convince you that no extraordinary returns can be expected, that the ground stands in need of continual supplies of dung and proper manures (which for the present we cannot furnish) and that so thin a soil, by the powerful influence of the sun, must be soon exhausted. I talk of improving by sowing of corn and other the first necessaries of life. As for other manufactures of silk and wine I shall afterwards express my sentiments. Though the returns are small the necessary culture includes a continued course of toilsome labour and intolerable to the constitution of British servants, such as felling, cross-cutting, logging, heaping, burning, splitting, railing, hoeing, planting, clearing, reaping, etc, and especially when we reflect upon the second reason viz.
2nd The heat and climate. It will easily be believed that a removal from Britain to so southern a latitude must very sensibly affect the constitution and that the excess of heat in the summer disables the servants from working in the middle hours of the day; but to explain how the heat may occasion those many diseases that they are subject to is the province of a physician. Only this I know, that it visibly affects the barometer in a surprising manner, occasions a violent perspiration and languor of the animal spirits and relaxes all the solids of the body. Nothing more conduces to relieve either persons or vegetables than a free current of air which as yet we enjoy in very few places, for there being no concert or methods taken for cultivating contiguous plantations, the many small improvements made are cut out of a surrounding forest, which admitting no avenues of air, the health of the inhabitants is impaired and the hopes of the labourer disappointed.
3rd The expense of maintenance is so great that an extraordinary return must be expected to defray it. The lowest proportion that will satisfy white servants is 1 lb flesh, 1 lb breadkind per day, and 1 bottle molasses per week. Many exceed this quantity, and if it were possible to retrench it the masters would gain nothing by it for servants when discontented are of little service. It adds not a little to our necessities that as we cannot raise those necessary provisions of our own we must buy the greater part from strangers at double the price they give in the neighbouring province. And in proportion as our poverty increases, our credit decreases, provisions grow scarcer and the price augments. To this, join clothes, linens, shoes and other necessaries with the chargeable article of sickness and expenses, and I must conclude (though I do not pretend to understand political arithmetic) the total cannot be less than 10 or 12l sterling each. And I must say that the expenses of physicians and apothecaries is amongst the greatest grievances we labour under. Our servants are so sensible that it is impossible for them to execute the most laborious parts of cultivation with safety that great numbers have deserted and daily do so, well knowing that in all the other provinces there are Negroes to undergo those labours that would be fatal to a British constitution, and of those who remain almost certain sickness and frequently death is their fate, and the loss of time the smallest part of the damage that the master suffers.
4th As the plan of the several lots were cut out regularly and without regard to the quality of the soil, in many places they occur in pine-barrens which are unimprovable or in swamps where the necessary dykes and drains surpass the abilities of the planter.
5th I shall only add upon this head another reason that hinders the success of the laborious planter, and this is poverty. Cattle, hogs, etc would be most useful in supporting the family but are absolutely necessary to enable him to improve his land, carry his commodities to and from market, and other uses.
I presume to say that since my arrival in this colony I have with the greatest application I was capable of prosecuted the improvement of my small farm, cleared, enclosed and planted 15 acres with corn, potatoes, peas, rice, cotton, tobacco, nurseries, etc, in doing which and maintenance of my family I expended 150l sterling. The returns of all which amounted to about 6l sterling. Nor was this the greatest of my losses: two of my servants deserted to Carolina, four died; out of my family twelve continued sick a long time; myself after six months of illness given over by the physicians; and a charge of sickbed expenses, not included in the former, of above 50l sterling. God forbid that I should lay down my case as a mean to judge others by; I hope few have shared so many misfortunes. But I may be bold to say that every person has sustained losses and that none can pretend by his improvements to defray the fifth part of his necessary expendings.
That we are as incapable to relieve our necessities by trade as culture will appear from reflecting on what is said in relation to our servants. No branch of trade and manufactures can be useful or profitable unless the profits arising therefrom do overbalance the necessary charges; and our private convenience has obliged us to try several kinds of them, boards, bricks, tannage, etc, which has made some circulation from hand to hand amongst ourselves. But how could we ever expect to export those commodities to foreign places when our neighbouring colonies can afford them at a much cheaper rate and in a great measure have even broke off our endeavours to proceed further by pouring in upon us those very species much below the extent of our necessary expenses? I acknowledge that some lumber and staves have been exported from this colony but I do aver it as truth that no advantage ever did arise to the exporter further than it was perhaps a less loss to employ their servants in such labour than culture. The second reason which disables us to prosecute either trade or culture is our want of credit. Your lordship knows very well that both the mechanic and mercantile part of mankind live more by credit than stock, and the man who has a probable scheme of improving credit is naturally entitled thereto. We have exhausted our public support and private stocks in prosecuting the scheme laid down to us by the Trustees and now stand in need of credit to enable us further to go on. This credit now so necessary for our subsisting and welfare, we are cut off from by wanting a full right and title to our lands and being laid under a chain of restrictions to which all HM's other subjects in America are strangers to. The wisdom of the honourable board in not dispensing to us at our first settlement the full right and privilege contained in the King's most gracious charter, with the conveyance of which in the properest manner those honourable persons were entrusted, was never by us called in question, having assurances that those restrictions were temporary, for preventing the abuses that might arise at the settlement of an infant colony and until a proper body of laws under your consideration should be perfected. For who could scruple to entrust his interest in the hands of such honourable guardians? Not until the last scene, and I may say catastrophe, of our tragedy have we presumed in so unanimous manner to request and insist for those just reliefs which the exigencies of our affairs, the justice of the nation and the humanity of the Trustees make us depend upon. My lord, I will be bold to say that in no part of America are there a handful of more resolute spirits either to withstand an enemy, defend their property (if they had any) or dare difficulties. And as we have not fled our country for crimes but generously ventured our lives in effecting a settlement upon the most exposed point of HM's dominions where the barrenness of the earth, the aspect of the heavens, and situation of our bordering enemies all conspire to shorten our lives and exercise our courage and patience, we might and do expect that our privileges and liberties shall equal those of our fellow-subjects. For who would venture his life to defend no property or fight to secure to himself slavery and poverty? It would be presumptuous in me to launch into arguments for support of our cause with you whose sympathy and humanity will supply stronger and more moving defences than I can express. The voice of our case is sufficiently moving without embellishments to affect the generous. It is sufficient to the skilful physician that the circumstances of the patient be clearly and justly represented; to prescribe the method of cure would be superfluous. As for the manufactures of silk and wine I entertain the most promising hopes that they (especially the former) may turn to the great support and enriching of the colony and in time, if your honours will be pleased to give the proper orders and supply the means of bringing those experiments to perfection, commence a staple commodity [provided] our neighbouring colonies do no wise interfere with us or we with them. But this is more the subject of our faith and hopes than of our present advantage.
And now, my lord, to sum up the whole, it appears morally certain that this colony cannot subsist upon the present footing, and if it is to be altered in the favours of others, why not of us who have risked our all in the adventure and who are chargeable with no blame but that we could not effect impossibilities? Were I to advance that the dissolving of this colony would disappoint the noble designs of the nation and leave this now important pass a prey to the French or Spaniards, render the advantages of a regiment and garrison useless as well as impracticable, irritate the Indians, endanger the loss of the Indian trade, and expose all the northern colonies to the insults of adversaries, these might be informations to others but can be none to you whose comprehensive knowledge engrosses the political interests of states and countries. It is probable that the particular difficulties of my own condition may necessitate me to seek bread for my family and children in some other corner of the world before measures for retrieving the state of this colony can be taken by the board but this shall never abate my solicitude for the prosperity of this society of which I am a member nor my gratitude to the Trustees, and particularly your lordship, for favours received which I shall always acknowledge. And I presume to hope that your goodness will regard my sincere intentions as an apology for many weaknesses which render this letter unworthy of being presented to you. Copy. 7¼ pp. Endorsed, (1) Copy letter to Earl of Egmont, 1739. (2) 3 March 1738/9. Copy of letter from Hugh Anderson to Earl of Egmont. [CO 5/640, ff 287–290d]
86
March 5
Jamaica
Governor Edward Trelawny to Duke of Newcastle. A party of the militia under command of Col Guthrie, together with a detachment of Capt Robinson's independent company under the command of Lieut Sadler, having with great resolution and bravery forced their way through two dangerous ambushes which were disputed and many narrow passes inexpressibly difficult, and drove the most considerable party of the rebels in this island out of their town, the rebels sued for terms which, considering the difficulty and almost impossibility of getting the better of them by force, by advice of the Council I empowered Col Guthrie and Mr Sadler to grant them. I send you herewith a copy of the articles of agreement with them, and it will be the greatest satisfaction to me if HM approves of what has been done. Indeed I am persuaded myself by what I have seen of the country, and it is the universal opinion of those that have been the oftenest out on parties and the most acquainted with it, that it is impossible to reduce the rebels by force. All throughout the length of the island from one end to the other the middle for some miles is full of thick woods, craggy mountains and stony precipices. In these the rebels have their settlements which are almost inaccessible and so posted that a few can keep out fifty times their number. They have fastnesses behind fastnesses, ambushes and narrow difficult passes one behind the other, and when with great danger and loss of men you beat them out of one they retire to another and so on. By knowing the country and being nimbler they are often able to surround our parties and attack them on every side, hemmed in within those straits. By these means parties have been generally so unsuccessful that it is supposed that much the greatest part of the arms which the rebels now have have been taken from those that have gone against them. I therefore dreaded, I must own, sending out this party; nor should I have done it if I had not been well-informed and entirely satisfied of the courage, conduct and ability of Col Guthrie, who as well as Mr Sadler, has entirely answered my utmost expectations. If you will give yourself the trouble to peruse the extracts of letters which are herewith enclosed, you will conceive the nature of the service in this country and the almost impossibility of reducing the rebels by force. It has long been the desire of the generality of the country to treat with the rebels; I was convinced of the necessity of it but I thought it dangerous to offer them terms. I wished for such an event as this, that the offer might come from them; thanks to the bravery of the party that event is brought about and I think there is little doubt but if we pursue the blow we shall in a little time rid the island of all its rebels. Unhappily at this time we are but thinly inhabited, a great many having been forced by the rebels to throw up their settlements and others deterred from coming among us; but now those fears being removed, if at this critical conjuncture HM would be pleased to countenance us, if he would give his consent to our having from Parliament a sum of money a third or fourth part of what has been granted to Georgia, to be laid out in furnishing newcomers with provisions and other necessaries as well as tools to fall lands and build conveniences till such time as they are able to provide for themselves, they obliging themselves within a certain time to return the money to be employed in the same manner to other newcomers (so that it would be a perpetual fund for the settling the island), I say I am persuaded if HM would extend his royal favour to us so far, this would be a most flourishing colony and an important possession to the Crown of Great Britain. I entreat you to represent this matter to HM and to implore at this critical time his most gracious assistance and protection. I am desired by the Council of this island to use my good offices for Lieut Sadler who has distinguished himself on this occasion, that he may receive farther preferment in the army, and likewise for Mr James Cunningham now acting as lieutenant by warrant from the governor and who went out a volunteer on this service, that he may have HM's commission. I cannot comply with the desire of the Council better than by entreating you to move HM that he would prefer these two gentlemen as desired. Lieut Brodie of Capt Robinson's company and Mr Charles Ramsay, who acts as lieutenant to the said company by warrant, both did their duty extremely well; I therefore recommend the latter for a commission. Signed. 4 pp. Endorsed, R, 4 June. Enclosed:
86 i Trelawny Town, 17 February 1739. Extract of letter from Col John Guthrie to Governor Trelawny. It is with some pleasure that I am to acquaint you that we are now masters of Cudjoe's Town. We marched Tuesday last from Mr Hall's at Montego Bay and yesterday morning about ten of the clock we came up to the open ground where several Negroes were at work. But being discovered before we could get nigh them, there was only a child killed and a woman and a child taken. This occasioned a general alarm, on which they returned in considerable numbers to an ambush through which we were unavoidably to pass in our way to this town. On our arrival at it the independents commanded by Capt Sadler sustained a very great fire and in spite of our best endeavours we were about fifteen minutes before we could gain it, and where one soldier was killed and two wounded. After having passed the first ambush we came into a spacious opening where we halted, and the town being about a mile from us we resolved to proceed no farther that day; but this morning early we marched to it. It is impossible for me to describe to you the difficult access to it, but being resolved to make ourselves masters of it we made our way through a strong ambush where three more of the soldiers were wounded and I am afraid one of them mortally. We stayed about two hours in the town and then burnt it. We are now returned to the provision ground where there is great store of it. I have had but little assistance from the free mulattoes and several of the Negroes, and at the same time I must do justice to Mr Sadler who has behaved himself with great resolution and bravery. I am sensible you will be surprised when I mention the resolution of the gentlemen who composed this party, when we have done so little as to the affair of taking or killing the Negroes, but if ever you visit this town (which now bears your name) you will not attribute it to any remissness in us. Copy. 2¼ p.
86 ii Trelawny Town, 18 February 1739. Same to same. Since mine of last night we sustained a few shot from Cudjoe which brought on a second conference with him. Let me assure you that I dread telling you that it ended in peace. I have had him by the hand, although by so doing Mr Sadler and myself ran some small risk, as did one or two other gentlemen. On our first conference he offered to assist against any foreign enemy and to take up for the future all runaway Negroes, and I on my part promised in your name that they shall live unmolested in this place with all that they now enjoy. It is likewise stipulated that I shall stay here in a peaceable manner with them for ten days, by which time I hope to receive your commands. But as this affair requires a better head than mine I pray you will make choice of a person to transact the whole with them. As to any other circumstance in the whole I refer you to the bearer of this, Lieut Cunningham, who has behaved himself in the best manner. I shall only add that they live in such places as are almost inaccessible, and to reduce them entirely will certainly cost much blood and treasure. I shall with impatience wait your pleasure and shall be careful that no advantage is taken by this treaty. Copy. 1½ pp.
86 iii Trelawny Town, 17 February 1739. Lieut Francis Sadler to Governor Trelawny. The enclosed is a report or rather a journal of my duty in obedience to your commands since my last of the 13th, when we marched from Mr Hall's. I fear it will not be quite so agreeable to you as I could wish as it contains an account of our losing one man and having five more severely wounded. I hope the nature of our duty will plead an apology for our misfortunes in this case for I must confess that I should have judged it more to my own credit could I have executed your commands with less loss. You gave me instructions that if it should be my opinion the town or any place near it would be proper to maintain a garrison I should leave a party of soldiers in it. In the first place a part of what are here at present, nay the whole, would not be sufficient to defend a barrack in any place I have hitherto seen, unless it were a barrack built with stone and properly flanked. In the next place, the road to the town from Montego Bay is so full of cockpits (as is every part near the town) and fit for ambushes that the baggage will always require an extraordinary guard, and that subject to be intercepted or cut off with the greatest ease. But as Col Guthrie is of opinion that the country will support an extraordinary number of militia for his service, he seems willing to maintain it till it can be determined. Therefore I shall accompany him while properly supplied with provisions and I shall receive your further pleasure on this head. Copy. 1½ pp.
86 iv Trelawny Town, 18 February 1739. Same to same. My letter of yesterday to you was just going away when we received a salute from the rebels, which therefore prevented its departure. But an incident since falling out occasions our resolutions on that head not long to be retarded, for after we had received a few shots we had a second conference with the rebels which has produced such an alteration in regard to our differences with them as has never before been known in this island. As we found them inclinable to peace Col Guthrie and myself endeavoured to forward the affair as far as we possibly could consonant to your sentiments formerly declared to me on the occasion. In fine, one or two of the rebels ventured to show themselves on the open ground, and having then ordered our men not to fire Col Guthrie and myself met Capt Cudjoe, Capt Cuffee and the captain of the Port Antonio gang (who had not long before joined them with 100 shot), half-way, unarmed, where after mutual civilities passed between us [they] seemed very well disposed to acknowledge you with all the deference due to your character, to hold a perfect harmony with the country, and to render themselves as useful to it as possible by taking up our runaways and returning them, and of their own accord offered to be assisting on the first command against the Spaniards or any other foreign enemy on condition that they might have free possession of this place and be free from slavery, might not be disturbed by parties, and might have a commerce with us, which we undertook to answer for as far as possibly we could, presuming it would be agreeable to your pleasure and the good of the country. I hope these proceedings will meet with your approbation. I beg leave to add an account from Dr Harris, our surgeon, of the wounded: Thomas Bradley, dangerous; Patrick Dillon; George Welch; George Sinclair; Hugh M'Kay; William Hatchet, dead. Copy. 2½ pp.
86 v Trelawny Town, 1 March 1739. Articles of agreement between Col John Guthrie and Lieut Francis Sadler, and Capt Cudjoe. Copy of articles in no 116i. 6½ pp. [CO 137/56, ff 189–204d; signed duplicate, undated, with copies of enclosures, at ff 181–188d]
87
[March 5]
Petition of John Jenkins of Barbados, merchant, to the King setting forth his losses by the seizure by the Spaniards of his sloop Speedwell on 27 August 1720 at St Lucia; also the losses of Abel Tudor of Barbados by seizure by Spaniards of the Marygold on 12 February 1726 at St Croix. The said Tudor, being indebted to the petitioner, has assigned the claim to him. Signed. 1½ pp. Endorsed, R, 5 March 1739. [CO 28/40, ff 165–166d]
88
March 6
Petition of Chaloner Jackson to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations praying that action should be expedited upon his complaint against Governor Fitzwilliam. Copy. 1 p. Endorsed, Recd. 10 March, Read 15 March 1739. [CO 23/4, ff 55, 55d, 58, 58d]
89
March 8
Savannah
James Oglethorpe to Trustees for Georgia recommending grant of 500 acres at Augusta to Mr Obryan who has kept a storehouse there for furnishing Indian traders with goods. Settlement of Augusta is of great service, it being 300 miles from the sea and the key to the Indian country. There are others I shall recommend for lots who have deserved well of the Trustees. Signed. 1½ small pp. [CO 5/640, ff 293–294d]
90
March 8
Palace Court
Account showing how money granted to the Trustees of Georgia in the last session of Parliament has been applied. Entry. 1 p. [CO 5/670, p 379]
91
March 9
Boston
Governor Jonathan Belcher to Duke of Newcastle. I beg leave of you to admit my agents, Mr Partridge and Mr Belcher, to put this into your hands, wherein I would first of all give you my humble and sincerest thanks for the constant course of your justice and favour to me in the affairs of my governments. And in the next place I am to beseech your attention for a few minutes while I say the last ship from London informs me that a complaint had been entered against me by one Mr Thomlinson in behalf of the House of Representatives of New Hampshire under the name of an appeal of the said Representatives from the judgment of HM's commissioners for settling the boundaries between this province and that, though it seems (by a copy I have seen) to be rather an invective or a libel upon the King's governor. I am also advised that Col Dunbar and one Mr Waldo were endeavouring to cook up complaints against me. These gentlemen are my sworn enemies, full of wrath and malice. I would therefore, while I mention these things, humbly beg you to consider that it is impossible for a gentleman to be at the head of two of the King's provinces and not have enemies, although I have good reason to believe the people of both are at this day (19 in 20) in greater tranquillity than they have been for many years past. And what I am now most humbly to beg of you is whenever anything shall be laid against me as complaint I may have the liberty of an Englishman to be served with copies and time given to answer. This I can't but hope you will think my undoubted right, more especially since HM is pleased to honour me with commissions for the government of two of his provinces and in his royal instructions to call me the representative of his royal person. And if I may have so much justice or favour I shall not be in much pain because I have been always determined since I have had the honour to serve the King in the station he has placed me to maintain HM's just rights and honour, and at same time to be tender of the liberties of his people, and which I think very compatible in an English governor with an English government. I humbly pray the continuance of your countenance and protection. Signed. 6 small pp. Endorsed, R, 23 May. [CO 5/899, ff 362–365d]
92
March 9
Savannah
James Oglethorpe to Trustees for Georgia. I acquainted you upon my first arrival with the terrible bad situation of affairs but I find you received those advices extremely late by reason of neglect at Charleston. The store has received a second advice from you that you have sent back an account certified by Mr Causton of 772l 4s 7d due to Mr Symond for goods delivered to the stores here and that you have ordered it to be paid here. The situation of the stores you will find by Mr Jones's letters as well as mine and that there was a great deal more due amongst the people than the stores amounted to. The store offered Mr Purry, who is Mr Symond's correspondent, to deliver him provisions, etc that were in the stores in payment of the debts at the prices which other creditors offered to take them in payment of theirs but he said he was unwilling to take the provisions, which was all the poor people here had to keep them from starving, out of their mouths; and also that his demand was for goods sold for money and not for provisions and goods which he did not know how to raise money upon if he had them. Mr Purry here, as well as Mr Symond at London, have been of great service to the colony. All that they have delivered into the stores has been of the best sorts, in a good condition and at the lowest prices; and if other people had dealt as well by the Trustees there had been several thousands of pounds saved. I should therefore recommend it to you as a point of expediency as well as justice to pay out of the first monies that come to hand this demand of Mr Symond's. There was 426l 0s 2d more delivered by Mr Purry to the store before my arrival and expended, otherwise he would have taken the same goods back again. Signed. PS. There is also another account not yet settled which is supposed may amount to about 400 and odd pounds for provisions and goods delivered before my arrival and money to the missionary. 4 pp. Endorsed, Recd. 18 June 1739. [CO 5/640, ff 295–296d]
93
March 12
Savannah
James Oglethorpe to Trustees for Georgia. It is with great difficulty I carried on affairs here. Mr Jones hath acted with steadiness and courage: he desired me not to confirm a certificate signed by Mr Causton in favour of Mr Williams for the reasons in his letter. Mr Williams is very angry and hath got the poor people of Savannah, many of whom are deeply in debt to him, to sign the petition for Negroes which affirms that white men cannot work in this province. This assertion I can disprove by hundreds of witnesses, all the Salzburghers, the people at Darien, many at Frederica and Savannah, and all the industrious in the province. The idle ones are indeed for Negroes. If the petition is countenanced the province is ruined. Mr Williams and Dr Talfeur will buy most of the lands at Savannah with debts due to them and the inhabitants must go off and be succeeded by Negroes; yet the very debtors have been weak enough to sign their desire of leave to sell. A worse affair hath happened upon the civil letter wrote by the Trustees to Mr Causton to furnish Col Cochran with what he wants for the regiment and paying for the same. A credit hath been given to this order to the amount of 935l 13s 3d and Mr Causton hath taken from Col Cochran 198l in wines. The debt cannot be demanded of the regiment for regiments have nothing but the pay of each individual officer and man. When six officers were subsisted out of the Trustees' store no more should have been issued than what their pay would have discharged but they have received and spent their pay and the debt for their subsistence is still due to the Trustees nor can I tell from whence the money can come for to discharge it. I have advanced for the services of the colony about 2000l and have drawn bills upon Mr Verelst upon my own account and have ordered all my cash, pay and salary, and appointments in his hands to answer those bills with that sum. I have paid the five months expenses since my arrival and if Parliament have granted any money I hope you will reserve that sum that when you are satisfied that it hath been applied in such manner as you shall approve of you will pay that money into the hands of Mr Verelst for replacing my money that paid the bills. There are ten ounces of silkworms' eggs hatched and Lyon hath planted ¾ of an acre of vineyard which thrives well and hath 20 acres cleared already which he intends to plant in the fall. The Trustees have ½ an acre and the plants have begun to shoot and promise well. Signed. 2½ pp. Endorsed, Recd., by Capt Yeoman, 14 May 1739. [CO 5/640, ff 297–298d]
94
March 12
Savannah
William Stephens to Trustees for Georgia. My last of 6 February was intended by me to be followed with another a week since in order to go by Capt Thomson then loading at Charleston; but the general's presence amongst us requiring frequent application from such as have the honour of serving you to diversity of matters as occasion offered during his short abode here, I was obliged to postpone it till a few days more were passed, so that I fear Thomson will be sailed. And now my duty calls upon me to present you with copy of my journal continued and duplicate of my former letter as customary, both which are herewith enclosed, and from thence I conceive you may in some measure form an opinion what posture we are in here. The late representation, so much in vogue with some and in contempt with others, I have no further occasion to touch upon since (if I am rightly informed) it is gone to England and either is or will be exposed to your view with all the celebrated arguments as well as notorious absurdities, more especially relating to Negroes; and there let it take its fate. The general has shown evident tokens of his deep resentment here, wherein it is to be hoped men of different sentiments will not be all alike equally involved. It would be great injury in me not to say with confidence that a remnant is yet left of such as peaceably and quietly follow their own business without meddling with matters above their reach.
We are now come to the high season for planting, and upon the general's giving orders for providing a sufficient stock of good seed of divers kinds for that purpose he also required the officers to bring him in lists of the several tithings of such as intended to plant and what store of seed they stood in need of for that use; the returns of which lists he appeared well pleased at, exceeding far what he expected. But whilst I would be an advocate for those who are truly deserving I must not swell that number beyond due bounds, wherefore I took the freedom to offer a caution in delivering out such seed, being not without reason apprehensive that there might be some among those promisers who sought corn or potatoes rather with a view of putting it into their bellies than into the earth; for which reason I conceive when planting is over is the only time to judge of those who have busied themselves truly in that work and that (if it please God) I shall be exactly careful to give an account of, and not palliate even my own defects which with grief I foresee will appear in a disagreeable light not through want of an hearty goodwill and sincere endeavour to do better but through the inability of some and the incurable slothfulness of others of that wretched crew of servants that have been a plague to me for so many months past (which I have often before taken notice of and is too well known distinguishable from all about me). I have the mortification to find myself sadly defeated in those essential points whereon I raised my greatest hopes and must submit (I fear) to be ranked in a class far inferior to what I aimed at as a planter.
When I look upon myself in another capacity, having the honour to be employed in your service, I beg leave to say without giving offence that living in a distressed state cannot but abate those faculties which should enable a man to act with vigour and a spirit requisite to break through many difficulties which he must expect here to encounter in discharging his duty as he ought. Your kind approbation of my service which I received some time since, with an assurance of supporting me against all opposition, gave a fresh spring to my endavours and I think I may without vanity take upon me to say that as it is at my heart to render you more acceptable service, so I am confident I could make it effectual were not my wings clipped in the attempt. But whilst I am tied down to the narrow limits I live in through scantiness of means to bestir myself at any time as occasion may require, it is not possible but many things must escape my knowledge which undoubtedly you ought not to want information in, and I cannot easily persuade myself to submit to the low work of writing by hearsay, believing it incumbent on me to maintain the truth of what I lay before you. Nothing can be more in my aversion than to be thought craving. It is well know I seek no expensive way of living but, notwithstanding all the retrenchments I am content to make, I cannot avoid the hateful running in debt for the necessary incidents of life which affects me heavily. The general was so sensible of this that he was pleased to order me 20l immediately towards supplying my wants additional to the small sum he gave me in November last, and advised me to write to you about it that your pleasure might be known, which indeed I had partly done before in my letter to Mr Verelst of 3 January, and which I begged the favour of him to make known as he saw proper. To set forth the incessant application to the business my son and I came about, which we have done our utmost in, would be making an eulogy of ourselves, a task against my nature, and to be seeking favour with a quantum meruit I think would be absurd and ridiculous; wherefore I lay that wholly aside and humbly submit it to your consideration how far you will judge us capable of being useful in your service henceforward, for in proportion to that and no otherways we ought to rely upon being favourably upheld from sinking which I will not entertain the least doubt of, that upon such a firm and certain footing I may go on with courage and act in everything required of me so as to ensure the continuance of your good opinion. Mr Jones (I am persuaded) has wrote largely what he thought needful concerning all such affairs as he got the knowledge of but by what conveyance he sent it I cannot tell. After looking over the contents of my present journal I am at a loss what to add more. Signed. 2½ small pp. Endorsed, Recd., by Capt Mackay, 9 May 1739. [CO 5/640, ff 299–300d]
95
March 13
St James's
Warrant to Governor Jonathan Belcher to continue Benning Wentworth as member of Council of New Hampshire while absent for twelve months. Entry. 1 p. [CO 324/37, pp 123–124]
96
March 14
Ebenezer
Rev John Martin Bolzius to Harman Verelst referring to letter of 6 November last. Gen Oglethorpe ordered the surveyor to lay out farms at Abercorn Creek. Harvest was good enough for the Salzburghers to maintain themselves and sell some provisions. Help is needed for the orphan-house. Another transport of Salzburghers is requested with the same encouragements; they will be as well satisfied here as we are. The hot season is not as hot as represented by those idle and delicate people who want to employ Negroes. No Negroes are wanted here: white people if industrious are capable, of planting. Liberty to sell land would have very unhappy effects on this congregation. It is hoped that the Trustees will go on aiming at the true common welfare. Copy. 3½ pp. [CO 5/640, ff 301–302]
97
March 14
Palace Court
Minutes of Trustees of Georgia. Read resignations from office of Common Councilman of Earl of Shaftesbury and Viscount Limerick. Resolved that notice of resignation should be given at least one month before the charter-meeting in March. Entry. 1 p. [CO 5/687, p 112]
98
[March 14]
Petition of merchants and planters, trading to and interested in the sugar colonies, to the House of Commons, representing fall in re- exports of sugar from Great Britain. British sugar trade is under many disadvantages compared to French. British indigo trade has greatly declined. Pray for relief. Copy. 2 pp. Endorsed, Recd. 14 March, Read 15 March 1739. Recd. from Mr Sharpe, attending with several of those merchants. [CO 152/23, ff 203, 203d, 210, 210d]
99
March 15
St Bride's
Vestry
Minutes of Trustees for Georgia. General abstract of account of Trustees from 9 June 1738 to 14 March 1739 was read and approved. Resolved that the requirement upon Trustees to give one month's notice of resignation before the charter-meeting should be a by-law. Lord Sidney Beauclerk was elected a Trustee; he and Lord Carpenter were elected Common Councilmen. Committee appointed to prepare a law to enable legal possessors of land in Georgia, in default of male issue, to leave land to daughters or other female relatives and their male issue. Entry. 2 pp. [CO 5/687, pp 113–114; entry of abstract of accounts in CO 5/670, pp 382–387]
100
March 18
Whitehall
Duke of Newcastle to Gen James Oglethorpe. I send you herewith by HM's command a copy of the convention between HM and the King of Spain concluded at the Pardo on 3/14 January last. As you will see that by the 2nd article 'the regulation of the limits of Florida and Carolina is referred to the plenipotentiaries' appointed by HM and the King of Spain, and that it is stipulated 'That during the time that the discussion of that affair shall last things shall remain in the aforesaid territories of Florida and Carolina in the same situation they are in at present without increasing the fortifications there or taking any new posts,' I am to acquaint you with HM's pleasure that you should conform yourself to what is so agreed by the said 2nd article. Draft. 1 p. [CO 5/654, ff 203–204d]
101
March 18
Charleston
Gen James Oglethorpe to Duke of Newcastle. In my last I acquainted you with my having sent down an officer with the deputies of the Assembly of Carolina to demand the runaway Negroes from the governor of Augustine. They are returned with the governor's answer, a translation of which I send you enclosed. With respect to the complaint that he makes with regard to the Ouchee and Cherokee Indians who murdered two Spanish soldiers at Pupa, those Indians were under the protection of the people of Carolina and that action was done long before my arrival. If that was authorized by any it must have been those wicked Indian traders of whom I have often complained and for the prevention of whom the Trustees had a trial before the Council; and I at that time acquainted the Lords of the Council that many of these things would be the consequence if they did not oblige the traders to take passports and give security. As to the other complaint of eight Spanish transports who deserted, they were stopped by Capt Mackay in the garrison at St Andrews in order to be returned; but Lieut-Colonel Cochran commanded Capt Mackay to send them to him at St Simons and he dismissed them before my arrival, and for which he must answer. I hope you will be so good as to hasten to me HM's orders what to do upon this occasion. If the Spaniards continue protecting all slaves that fly to them Carolina will undoubtedly suffer greatly though Georgia lying between them will, as it already hath, prevent most from escaping, though some may surmount the difficulty and get safely thither as those from Port Royal lately did. Signed. 1¾ pp. Endorsed, R, 17 May. Enclosed:
101 i Translation of letter, dated at St Augustine on 13 March 1739 (NS), from Governor Don Manoel Montiano to Gen Oglethorpe acknowledging his letter and complaining of murders by Indians and harbouring of deserters who had been condemned to perpetual service. Royal orders require the giving of liberty to fugitive Negroes. Copy. 3½ pp. [CO 5/654, ff 198–202d]
102
March 19
Admiralty
Josiah Burchett to Thomas Hill requesting copy of commission granted to commanders-in-chief of men-of-war sent to Newfoundland to be governors and of the instructions annexed thereto. Signed. ½ p. Addressed. Endorsed, Recd., Read 21 March 1739. [CO 194/10, ff 105, 105d, 110, 110d]
103
March 20
Savannah
Thomas Causton to Harman Verelst sending extract of accounts under general heads for 1736. Those heads I hope to send completed and whatever else shall appear necessary on my part. I doubt not of your advice in matters unavoidably perplexed as the fruits of your humanity, especially when affairs of the colony require it. Signed. 1 small p. Endorsed, Recd., by John galley, Capt Paterson, 26 June. [CO 5/640, ff 303–304d]
104
March 21
Whitehall
Duke of Newcastle to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations enclosing the following. You are to lay before the House of Commons copies of the papers desired. Signed, Holles Newcastle. ½ p. Endorsed, Recd. 22 March, Read 25 March 1739. Enclosed:
104 i Resolutions of House of Commons, dated 20 March 1739, to address HM for copy of representation of Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to House of Lords, dated 14 January 1735, relating to the strength, trade and fortifications of the British islands in America; copies of letters received by the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations since Christmas 1738 from the governors of the sugar colonies giving an account of any inhabitants deserting to the Danes at Santa Cruz or elsewhere, and of the illicit trade carried on between the said colonies and St Eustatius and other foreign colonies; and copy of report of Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to HM dated 24 July 1724 with the several accounts annexed thereto. 1½ pp. [CO 152/23, ff 197–198d, 202d]
105
March 21
Palace Court
Minutes of Trustees for Georgia. Oath as Common Councilman was administered to Lord Sidney Beauclerk. Letters lately received referred to committee of correspondence. Entry. ¾ p. [CO 5/687, p 115]
106
March 22
St James's
Order of King in Council appointing Edward Jessup to be of the Council in St Christopher's in room of William McDowall. Copy, certified by James Vernon. 1½ pp. Endorsed, Recd. 8 May, Read 8 June. [CO 152/23, ff 217–218d; sealed original in CO 5/21, ff 43–44d; entry of warrant in CO 324/37, p 125]
107
March 22
St James's
Same appointing Samuel Dicker, Rose Fuller, Sir Simon Clark Bart, Samuel Whitehorne and Edward Garthwaite to be of the Council in Jamaica in the room of Thomas Hals and Thomas Garbrand, deceased, and of Edward Charlton, Henry Dawkins and William Gordon who have refused to re-accept place in the Council. Copy, certified by J Vernon. 1½ pp. Endorsed, Recd. 8 May, Read 8 June 1739. [CO 137/23, ff 15, 15d, 18, 18d; sealed original in CO 5/21, ff 45–46d; warrants dated 27 March for Dicker, 28 March for Fuller, 29 March for Clark, 30 March for Whitehorne and 31 March for Garthwaite, entered in CO 324/37, pp 126–128]
108
March 22
St James's
Same directing that Act passed in South Carolina in 1736 for emitting 210000l in paper bills of credit is to lie by for the present. Commissioners for Trade and Plantations are to prepare draft of additional instruction to governor of South Carolina agreeable to report of Committee for Plantation Affairs of 15th inst. Seal. Signed, James Vernon. 2½ pp. Endorsed, Recd., Read 24 May 1739. [CO 5/367, ff 1–2d]
109
March 22
St James's
Lords of Council to Governor Edward Trelawny. Whereas HM by additional instruction of 12 January 1738 directed you to inquire into a petition of several traders of Jamaica and others in behalf of the Jews of that island complaining of additional taxes on Jews, and to transmit a state thereof to HM in Council, and you were thereby required not to assent to any Act for additional taxes on Jews until you had received HM's pleasure thereon; and whereas you have transmitted to HM a state of this matter together with some reasons for continuing such taxes: although HM does not approve of the method taken in laying a tax on Jews over and above what is laid on the rest of the inhabitants, he grants you a discretionary power to act therein for the present year in such manner as you shall find the circumstances of the island may require. It is HM's determined resolution that after the present year you do not on any pretence give your assent to any Act whereby such additional tax shall be imposed on the Jews. We recommend you to consider some expedient to answer the deficiency either by a duty on dry goods and liquor retailed in the island or in other manner. Copy, certified by W Sharpe. Signatories, J Cantuar, Hardwicke, Wilmington, Dorset, Montagu, Holles Newcastle, Pembroke, Abercorn, Torrington, W Lee, Charles Wager. 2½ pp. Endorsed, Recd. 8 May, Read 8 June 1739. [CO 137/23, ff 16–17d]
110
March 26
Certificate by Governor Gabriel Johnston that Nathaniel Rice is Secretary and Clerk of the Council of North Carolina. Signed. ½ p. Endorsed, R, 10 April 1740, in a cover directed to Duke of Newcastle without any letter. Enclosed:
110 i Minutes of Council of North Carolina, 28 June 1738 to 29 June 1738. Signed. Nathaniel Rice. 7 pp.
110 ii 30 May 1739. Certificate by Governor Johnston to same effect as covering document. Signed. ½ p.
110 iii Minutes of Council of North Carolina, 16 November 1738 to 6 March 1739. Signed, as no 110i. 25 pp. Endorsed, as covering certificate. [CO 5/306, ff 81–102d]
111
March 28
Palace Court
Minutes of Common Council of Georgia. Agreed to report of committee to send 80 sacks of flour, 30 firkins of butter and about 20 cwt of cheese to Georgia consigned to storekeepers at Savannah and Frederica who are to account for issue thereof under the supervision of William Stephens and the bailiffs of each place, for distribution to the Trust's servants, widows and orphans, and the sick. Accounts to be made up of all provisions remaining in the stores in Georgia. Signed draft on the bank for 250l for these provisions and freight. Resolved that William Stephens have 50l in consideration of sickness of his family and losses of servants. Rev Mr Norris to be paid salary due, and for the future to be paid quarterly. Ordered that copies of all certified accounts demanded here be sent over to William Stephens, Henry Parker and Thomas Jones to examine and state their opinion whether they are true and still due. Referred to a committee to consider proper persons to be commissioners in Georgia for examining and stating the public debts of the colony and to prepare instructions for said commissioners to examine the accounts of Mr Bradley and Mr Causton. The same committee to prepare an estimate of the future expense of Georgia from midsummer 1739 to midsummer 1740 and to consider in what manner forfeited lots may be regranted. Ordered that the surveyors send the Trustees maps of lands which they survey. Agreed to report of committee of correspondence upon the judgment made on Joseph Hetherington, Henry Bishop and Francis Elgar, found guilty of felony: that it was surprising the magistrates had sent no report; and that the proper punishment for cattle-stealing would be a pecuniary mulct of three times the value. Agreed to report of same committee on Col Oglethorpe's letter of 7 October 1738 that the old freeholders at Frederica should have 2 lbs of meat each a week till Michaelmas 1739; that five persons newly arrived at Frederica should have the same; that the payment of a month's wages to servants at St Andrews should be allowed though their services are unknown and there is no establishment at St Andrews; and that Mr Auspurgur be desired to explain the employment of a surveyor, deputy surveyor and labourers. Entry. 7 pp. [CO 5/690, pp 201–207]
112
March 28
Palace Court
Minutes of Trustees for Georgia. Received, by Dr Hales, 12 Bibles and 48 books of Whole Duty of Man, an anonymous benefaction. Entry. ½ p. [CO 5/687, p 116]
113
March 29
Great Trinity Lane
John Thomlinson to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. Gout makes it impossible for me to wait on you tomorrow on the affair of the paper currency of Massachusetts. I hope you will not encourage any scheme for emitting more paper money until the merchants trading thither have time to write to their factors in New England and have their sentiments on the affair, or at least more time to consider better of the affair, and thereby be better enabled to lay before you the effect such a scheme may have on their property in that and the neighbouring provinces. Signed. 1 p. Endorsed, Recd. 30 March, Read 3 April 1739. [CO 5/881, ff 84–84A dorse]
114
March 29
Savannah
William Stephens to Harman Verelst. Having sent away my last no longer since than 22nd inst for want of an opportunity of doing it sooner though it was ready long before, I have scarce anything particular immediately to offer as from myself but intend soon to write again fully of what I apprehend may be proper to notify. The occasion of this is from Mr Causton who has just now brought me the two enclosed packets desiring me to take charge of them (as he had formerly received orders from the Trust to send what he wrote under cover from me), and as a friend of his was going instantly for Charleston he said he should be well pleased if I would commit the care of it to him who he could confide in to deliver it safe into the hands of some master upon sailing that should take a proper receipt for it, etc, and as the affair was properly a concern of his own I thought what he asked was not unreasonable. I find Mr Jones and he, after long prelude, are near coming to closer work and defiance seems to be given on both sides; but as these are matters out of my cognizance I meddle on neither. Signed. ½ p. Endorsed, Recd., by John galley, Capt Patterson, 26 June 1739. [CO 5/640, ff 305, 305d]
115
March 30
Jamaica
Governor Edward Trelawny to Duke of Newcastle sending duplicate of letter of 5 March and enclosing the following. The Spanish man-ofwar, reported lost at Anegada, was not in her way from Old Spain but, as I find since, one of those ships that sailed from Havana for Cartagena on 13 November last: her name Victoria, the same that was reported to be lost in the Gulf. There is so little dependence on informations from captains of ships that I shall be more careful how I trouble you with them for the future. Signed. 1½ pp. Endorsed, R, 4 June. Enclosed:
115 i Speech of Governor Trelawny to Council and Assembly of Jamaica reporting progress of operations against rebels and recommending that this opportunity of securing peace be not let slip. Copy. 4¼ pp.
115 ii Speech of thanks by same to Council of Jamaica for their address. Copy. ½ p.
115 iii 16 March 1738. Address of Assembly of Jamaica to Governor Trelawny. Copy. Signatory, William Nedham, Speaker. 2 pp.
115 iv 14 March 1739. Address of Council of Jamaica to Governor Trelawny. Copy. Signatory, Samuel Williams, Clerk. 2½ pp.
115 v Speech of thanks by Governor Trelawny to Assembly of Jamaica for their address. Copy. ½ p. [CO 137/56, ff 205–218d]
116
March 30
Jamaica
Same to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. I have concluded an accommodation with the principal and most numerous body of the rebellious Negroes upon the conditions of which I herewith send you a copy. The chief reasons of this island's being so thinly inhabited is because there is hardly any good land which has hitherto been safe from the incursions of these rebels, unoccupied, at least unpatented. There is enough, and upon all accounts as good as that already patented, which has remained desert for fear of those incursions, and many who have begun plantations exposed to that danger have been forced to abandon them upon that account. As these fears are now diminished and in a fair way to be soon entirely removed I think it a critical conjuncture to settle this island better than it ever yet has been and consequently to render it more beneficial to our mother country. I have for that purpose wrote to the Duke of Newcastle desiring him to represent this matter to HM that HM may countenance the improvement of this island by giving his consent to this island's having from Parliament a sum of money, though it were only a third or fourth part of what has been granted to Georgia, to be laid out in furnishing newcomers with provisions and other necessaries as well as tools to fall land and build conveniences till such time as they shall be able to provide for themselves, they obliging themselves to return the money within a certain time, which shall be employed in the same manner for the use of newcomers so as become a perpetual fund for the settling of the island. I hope you will think this a reasonable, useful and practicable scheme, and if you do that you will represent it as such to HM, and if it be proposed in Parliament that you will contribute your endeavours to effectuate it for the public advantage. Signed. 2½ pp. Endorsed, Recd., Read 5 June 1739. Enclosed:
116 i Jamaica, at the camp near Trelawny Town, March the 1st 1738/9. In the name of God, amen. Whereas Capt Cudjoe, Capt Accompong, Capt Johnny, Capt Cuffee, Capt Quacow and several other Negroes, their dependents and adherents, have been in a state of war and hostility for several years past against our Sovereign Lord the King and the inhabitants of this island, and whereas peace and friendship among mankind and the preventing the effusion of blood is agreeable to God, consonant to reason, and desired by every good man, and whereas HM George the 2nd, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, and of Jamaica Lord, etc, has by his letters patent dated February the 24th 1738, in the 12th year of his reign granted full power and authority to John Guthrie and Francis Sadler to negotiate and finally conclude a treaty of peace and friendship with the aforesaid Capt Cudjoe, the rest of his captains, adherents and others his men, they mutually, sincerely, and amicably have agreed to the following articles.
1st. That hostilities shall cease on both sides for ever. 2nd. That the said Capt Cudjoe, the rest of his captains, adherents and men shall be for ever hereafter in a perfect state of freedom and liberty, excepting those who have been taken by them or fled to them within two years last past if such are willing to return to their said masters and owners with full pardon and indemnity from their said masters or owners for what is past, provided always that if they are not willing to return they shall remain in subjection to Capt Cudjoe and in friendship with us according to the form and tenor of this treaty. 3rd. That they shall enjoy and possess for themselves and posterity for ever all the lands situate and laying between Trelawny Town and the Cockpits to the amount of 1500 acres bearing N West from the said Trelawny Town. 4th. That they shall have liberty to plant the said lands with coffee, cocoa, ginger, tobacco and cotton, and to breed cattle, hogs, goats or any other stock, and dispose of the produce or increase of the said commodities to the inhabitants of this island, provided always that when they bring the said commodities to market they shall apply first to the custos or any other magistrate of the respective parishes where they expose their goods for sale for a licence to vend the same. 5th. That Capt Cudjoe and all the captains adherent and people now in subjection to him shall all live together within the bounds of Trelawny Town and that they have liberty to hunt when they shall think fit except within three miles of any settlement, crawl or pen, provided always that, in case the hunters of Capt Cudjoe and those of other settlements meet, then the hogs to be equally divided between both parties. 6th. That the said Capt Cudjoe and his successors do use their best endeavours to take, kill, suppress or destroy either by themselves or jointly with any other number of men commanded on that service by HE the governor or commander-in-chief for the time being all rebels wheresoever they be throughout this island unless they submit to the same terms of accommodation granted to Capt Cudjoe and his successors. 7th. That in case this island be invaded by any foreign enemy, the said Capt Cudjoe and his successors hereinafter named to be appointed shall then upon notice given immediately repair to any place the governor for the time being shall appoint in order to repel the said invaders with his or their utmost force and to submit to the order of the commander-in-chief on that occasion. 8th. That if any white man shall do any manner of injury to Capt Cudjoe, his successors, or any of his or their people, they shall apply to any commanding officer or magistrate of the neighbourhood for justice, and in case Capt Cudjoe or any of his people shall do any injury to any white person he shall submit himself or deliver up such offenders to justice. 9th. That if any Negroes shall hereafter run away from their masters or owners and fall into Capt Cudjoe's hands, they shall immediately be sent back to the chief magistrate of the next parish where they are taken and those that bring them are to be satisfied for their trouble as the legislature shall appoint. 10th. That all Negroes taken since the raising of this party by Capt Cudjoe's people shall immediately be returned. 11th. That Capt Cudjoe and his successors shall wait on HE the governor or the commander-in-chief for the time being once every year if thereunto required. 12th. That Capt Cudjoe during his life and the captains succeeding him shall have full power to inflict any punishment they think proper for crimes committed by their men among themselves, death only excepted, in which case if the captain thinks they deserve death he shall be obliged to bring them before any Justice of Peace who shall order proceedings on their trial equal to those of other free Negroes. 13th. That Capt Cudjoe with his people shall cut, clear and keep open large and convenient roads from Trelawny Town to Westmorland and St James's, and if possible to St Elizabeth. 14th. That two white men to be nominated by HE or the commander-in-chief for the time being shall constantly live and reside with Capt Cudjoe and his successors in order to maintain a friendly correspondence with the inhabitants of this island. 15th. That Capt Cudjoe shall during his life be chief commander in Trelawny Town; after his decease the command to devolve on his brother Capt Accompong; and in case of his decease, on his next brother Capt Johnny; and failing him, Capt Cuffee shall succeed, who is to be succeeded by Capt Quacow, and after all their demises the governor or commander-in-chief for the time being shall appoint from time to time whom he thinks fit for that command. In testimony of the above presents we have hereunto set our hands and seals the day and date above written. Copy. Signatories, the mark of Cajoe; John Guthrie; Francis Sadler. 6 pp. Endorsed, Recd. with Mr Trelawny's letter of 30 March 1739. Recd., Read 5 June 1739. [CO 137/23, ff 5–10d]
117
March 30
Georgia Office
Benjamin Martyn to Rev William Norris by Charles, Capt Henry Hammond. The Trustees have received your two letters of 19 October and 12 December last. They are very much pleased with the zeal which appears in the prosecution of your duty which the Trustees have heard by other hands is very great. They are very sensible that you must have met with great difficulties but they hope by your prudence and the restoration of affairs there (which will soon take effect) that everything for the future will prove easy to you, especially as you are placed at Frederica in a more healthy climate than Savannah is and among a people who by accounts which have been received lead sober and orderly lives. You will receive by this ship a box of books containing 36 Bibles, 51 Common Prayerbooks, 88 Lewis's Catechism and 20 of the Duties of Man. The box is directed to you and the books are for the use of the people at Frederica to be distributed as you think proper. Entry. ½ p. [CO 5/667, p 219]
118
March 30
Georgia Office
Same to Consul John Cross at Teneriffe acknowledging letter of 13 November. The Trustees have no occasion at present for sending wine to Georgia. Entry. ¼ p. [CO 5/667, p 220]
119
[March 30]
Traders to Massachusetts to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations opposing bill of Massachusetts for emission of 60000l in bills of credit. No new bills should be issued until old ones have been cancelled and then only in proportion. Bills should be taken at stated rates and at no more under penalty. This Act will prejudice special contracts already existing for payments in gold and silver. Provision should be made for government being answerable for any loss by issue of these bills of credit in case borrowers or their security should not be responsible. Money paid in by borrowers ought not to lie useless to the public for so long a period as five years but said bills should be gradually sunk. 1½ pp. Endorsed, Recd., Read 30 March 1739. Left by Mr Wood, agent for the merchants. [CO 5/881, ff 80, 80d, 83, 83d]
120
[March 30]
Objections by merchants trading to New England sent to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, against bill for emitting 60000l in bills of credit in Massachusetts. New England's trade with West Indies brings in gold and silver. No new emission should take place until old bills have been called in. Large sudden emissions have been found detrimental to Great Britain. Maximum value of bills should be set. Locking up so much bullion for so long time must be detrimental to any country; payment of these bills should be in three, six, and ten years. We see no provision for deficiencies that may arise from misfortunes attending the borrowers. We hope you will not think it reasonable that this paper currency should go in discharge for specialties made or to be made. Ratio between gold and silver is wrong. 2½ pp. Endorsed, Recd., Read 30 March 1739. Left by Mr Townsend and others. [CO 5/881, ff 81–82d]

Footnotes

1 'Who, in telling of such things, would hold back from tears?' Virgil, Aeneid, II, 6–8