References and list of abbreviations

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English Heritage

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Author

Philip Temple (editor)

Year published

2008

Supporting documents

Pages

407-434

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'References and list of abbreviations', Survey of London: volume 46: South and East Clerkenwell (2008), pp. 407-434. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=119429 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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References

ABBREVIATIONS

AJ Architects' Journal
B The Builder, from 1966 Building
BAL British Architectural Library, Royal Institute of British Architects
BL British Library
BLPES British Library of Political and Economic Science
BN Building News
Boucher R. K. Boucher, A Celebration of One Hundred Years of Worship at the Church of Our Most Holy Redeemer with St. Philip, Clerkenwell , 1888–1988, 1988
CERC Church of England Record Centre
CM Charterhouse Muniments
CLRO Corporation of London Record Office
Colvin Howard Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600–1840, 3rd edn, 1995
Cromwell Thomas Cromwell, History and Description of the Parish of Clerkenwell , 1828
DSR District Surveyors' Returns in London Metropolitan Archives
EH English Heritage
FBC Finsbury Borough Council
GEC The Complete Peerage, ed. G.E.C., 1910–59
GL Guildhall Library, Corporation of London
IBC Islington Borough Council Building Control and Planning Department files
ILHC Islington Local History Centre, Finsbury Library (London Borough of Islington Library and Cultural Services)
ILN Illustrated London News
LCC London County Council
LMA London Metropolitan Archives, Corporation of London
LPL Lambeth Palace Library
MBW Metropolitan Board of Works
MDR Middlesex Deeds Registry in London Metropolitan Archives
MLOSJ Museum and Library of the Order of St John, St John's Gate
MoLAS Museum of London Archaeology Service
NMR National Monuments Record
ODNB Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (this includes earlier volumes of the Dictionary of National Biography)
OS Ordnance Survey maps of London, 1:1056 scale
Pinks William J. Pinks, The History of Clerkenwell, 2nd edn, 1880
POD Post Office Directories
PP Parliamentary Papers
RB Ratebooks in Islington Local History Centre and Guildhall Library MSS Department
RIBA Royal Institute of British Architects
RO Record Office
SBL School Board for London
SE Seckford Estate deeds, and uncatalogued correspondence and orders in Suffolk Record Office (Ipswich)
TNA The National Archives
VCH Victoria County History
WAC City of Westminster Archives Centre

Introduction pp. 3–27

1.   John Stow, A Survey of London, ed. C. L. Kingsford, 1908, vol. 1, p. 16; for Kingsford's notes see vol. 2, p. 272

2.    Norman London: An Essay by Professor F. M. Stenton, with a translation of William Fitz Stephen's Description by Professor H. E. Butler , 1934, p. 27

3.    Stow, vol. 1, p. 15

4. Peter Ackroyd, London, The Biography, 2000, p. 461

5. W. O. Hassall, 'Plays at Clerkenwell', in Modern Language Review , vol. 33, Jan—Oct 1938, pp. 564–7

6. Pamela Taylor, 'Clerkenwell and the Religious Foundations of Jordan de Bricett: a Re-examination', in Historical Research , vol. 63, No. 150, Feb 1990, pp. 17–27

7. Norman London, p. 27

8. N. J. Barton, The Lost Rivers of London, 1962, p. 89

9. James Peller Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol. iii, 1803, p. 246

10. Commons Journal, 10/3, 1710–11: New Remarks of London by the Company of Parish Clerks , 1732: Cromwell, pp. 20–1

11. George Dodd, 'Clerkenwell', in Charles Knight (ed.), London, 1842, vol. iii, p. 141

12. M. Dorothy George, London Life in the Eighteenth Century, 1925, p. 174: Chris Ellmers, 'The Impact of the 1797 Tax on Clocks and Watches on the London Trade', in Collectanea Londinensia (London & Middlesex Archaeological Society), 1978, pp. 323–5

13. Dodd, p. 132

14. R. Campbell, The London Tradesman, 1747 (1969 reprint), pp. 250–1

15. Charles Booth, Life and Labour of the People in London, 2nd series, Industry, vol.2, 1903, pp. 27–8

16. Quoted in Dodd, p. 143

17. BN, 16 Oct 1857, p. 1096

18. B, 9 Oct 1852 p. 648; 5 Aug 1854, p. 418; 18 Oct 1873, p. 829; 14 Nov 1874, pp. 953–4

19. BLPES, Booth papers, B238, Districts 1–4, Local Government, p. 27

20. Jerry White, London in the Nineteenth Century, 2007, p. 47

21. Ibid.

22. Clerkenwell News, 24 April 1861

23. Ibid.

24. B, 12 March 1853, pp. 161–2

25. R. W. Vanderkiste, Notes and Narratives of a Six Years' Mission principally among the Dens of London , 1854, pp. 33–4, 141

26. LMA, LCC/MIN/7372

27. George Gissing, The Nether World, 1889, vol. 1, pp. 25–7

28. LPL, Howley papers, 16/54–5, July 1820

29. Ibid., 33/210–3, Feb 1824

30. James Burn, Commercial Enterprise and Social Purpose, 1858, p. 15, quoted in Chris Ellmers, 'A Nineteenth Century London Clock Factory', in Tools and Trades, vol.5, Dec 1988, p. 65

31. 14 & 15 Vic., c.cxx, clause XII

32. City Press, 16 Oct 1895

33. Guardian, 5 Oct 2007: The New Survey of London Life and Labour , vol. 6, 1934, p. 381

34. Ibid., vol. 8, London Industries III, 1934, p. 158

35. J. E. Martin, Greater London, An Industrial Geography, 1966, pp. 14, 35–6

36. John F. Wilson, Ferranti: A History, n. d., pp. 97–8, 107–10, 115–19

37. Viscount Midleton and R. H. Miles, Working Time, 1994, pp. 5–6: Martin, p. 42

38. ILHC, FBC Mins, 1928–9, p. 556

39. London Statistics XXI, 1910–11, p. 590: J. H. Forshaw and Patrick Abercrombie, County of London Plan 1943, pp. 24–5

40. County of London Plan 1943, p. 89

41. W. Dawson, A Mid-London Parish: Short History of the Parish of S. John, Clerkenwell , 1885, pp. 43–4

42. Home Mission Field, 1903 (copy in ILHC, cuttings L1.7)

43. County of London Plan 1943, pp. 36, 47,96

44. Administrative County of London Development Plan 1951, pp. 54–5, 95–6

45. IBC, sub 5–9 Glasshouse Yard

46. IBC, sub 64–65 Cowcross Street

47. Mike Franks, 'An Experiment in Inner-City Conservation', in Architectural Association Quarterly, Oct–Dec 1975, p. 45

48. Evening Standard, 18 March 1987, p. 24

49. Baker Associates, 'The Crafts Base in Clerkenwell', report for Clerkenwell Community Trust, April 1993

50. Evening Standard, 18 March 1987, p. 24

51. AJ, 9 May 2002, p. 12

52. Islington Gazette, 15 Oct 1992, p. 3

53. Drew Whitelegg, 'From Market Stalls to Restaurant Row: the Recent Transformation of Exmouth Market', in London Journal , vol. 27, no. 2, 2002, pp. 77–93

54. www.googlism.com, March 2007

55. Alec Forshaw and Theo Bergström, Smithfield Past and Present , 1990 edn, p. 160

56. Deyan Sudjic et al, English Extremists: The Architecture of Campbell Zogolovitch Wilkinson Gough , 1988, p. 7

57. Cromwell, pp. iv–v

CHAPTER I (pp. 28–71) Clerkenwell Close Area

1. The account of the nunnery is based largely on Barney Sloane, Excavations at the Nunnery of St Mary Clerkenwell (MoLAS monograph, forthcoming), but see also VCH, Middlesex, vol. 1, 1969, pp. 170–4: W. O. Hassall, 'The Conventual Buildings of St. Mary, Clerkenwell', in LAMAS Transactions, new series, vol. 8, 1938–40, pp. 234–82: W. O. Hassall, The Cartulary of St. Mary Clerkenwell , Camden Society Publications, 3rd series, no. 71, 1949: Pamela Taylor, 'Clerkenwell and the Religious Foundations of Jordan de Bricett: a Re-examination', in Historical Research, vol. 63, No. 150, Feb 1990, pp. 17–27

2. Rosemary Horrox, Richard III: A Study of Service, 1989, pp. 200–1: Anne F. Sutton and P. W. Hammond (eds), The Coronation of Richard III, 1983, p. 371: TNA, PROB11/13

3. Sloane: ODNB

4. ODNB: Suffolk RO (Bury St Edmunds), 449/2/373; 449/4/13: TNA, PROB11/154

5. Sheffield City Archives, WWM/Str P/12/116: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 1590–1683, f. 70v

6. ODNB

7. Nottinghamshire Archives, DD/P/6/1/27/16–17: TNA, PROB11/154

8. Lucy Worsley, 'The architectural patronage of William Cavendish, 1st duke of Newcastle, 1593–1676', 2 vols, DPhil thesis, University of Sussex, 2001: TNA, C/5/600/122: ODNB: RB

9. GEC

10. Balliol College Archives, MS B. 21.24

11. Lucy Worsley and Tom Addyman, 'Riding Houses and Horses: William Cavendish's Architecture for the Art of Horsemanship', in Architectural History, vol. 45, 2002, pp. 194–229, esp. p. 221

12. TNA, PROB11/61

13. TNA, PROB11/57; PROB11/81; C2/James/C17/83; C3/262/39

14. Cromwell, p. 212

15. LMA, Q/HAL/28: ODNB

16. RB: ODNB

17. Ibid.

18. GL, MS 8674/3

19. LMA, MA/S/303: MDR 1747/2/267: RB

20. GEC

21. RB: Public Advertiser, 5 June 1776: Geoffrey Beard and Christopher Gilbert (eds), Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660–1840 , 1986, pp. 349–50: Lindsay Boynton, 'William and Richard Gomm', in Burlington Magazine, vol. cxxii, June 1980, pp. 395–400

22. RB: Public Advertiser, 5 June 1776: Beard and Gilbert, p. 571

23. The Times, 8 June 1790, p. 1a: GL, MS 11936/369, p. 48: Beard and Gilbert, p. 339

24. MDR 1746/2/438; 1747/2/98; 1748/1/407

25. LMA, MR/PLT/1635–1654: MDR 1788/1/382; 1788/4/96

26. Nottingham University Library, Pl E10/8/5/2: MDR 1793/ 6/135: ILHC, St James's Trustees' Mins, 20 March 1792

27. MDR 1794/5/414: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 22388

28. Nottingham University Library, Pl E10/8/5/2: MDR 1793/6/135; 1881/16/573

29. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 22388: MDR 1830/5/380–1; 1881 passim, sub Carr-Fisher

30. RB: MR/PLT/1673–1787 passim: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808

31. RB: MDR: GL, MS 11936 passim: POD: 1851 census

32. For accounts of Moore's factory see George Dodd, Days at the Factories , 1843, pp. 305–21: Chris Ellmers, 'A Nineteenth Century London Clock Factory—John Moore and Sons, Clerkenwell Close', in Tools and Trades, vol. 5, Dec 1988, pp. 64–85: Chris McKay, John Moore & Sons of Clerkenwell. Turret Clock Makers , 2002

33. MDR 1719/4/207–8

34. John Hollingshead, Ragged London in 1861, 1861, p. 24

35. 1871 census: B, 21 April 1877, p. 406: Hollingshead, pp. 20–5: LCC, The Housing Question in London, 1855–1900, p. 133

36. RB: POD: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol. 13, 1878–9, pp. 650–1; vol. 14, 1879–81, p. 43; vol. 1 (new series), 1881–3, p. 114

37. RB: POD

38. LMA, LCC/CL/IMP/1/84: RB

39. TNA, E318/17/861 (reference supplied by MoLAS)

40. Colvin

41. EH, Historians' file ISL 197: ILHC, City Road Turnpike Trustees' Mins, 1786–1805 passim

42. Nottingham University Library, Pl E10/8/5/2: MDR 1793/6/135; 1794/5/414

43. The account of the nunnery church that follows here is based almost entirely on drafts of the forthcoming MoLAS monograph on St Mary's nunnery

44. MoLAS reconstructions

45. Cromwell, p. 183

46. Pinks, pp. 18–19, 32: John Stow, A Survey of London, ed. C. L. Kingsford, 1908, vol. 2, p. 86

47. Pinks, pp. 32–4

48. Robert Seymour, A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster , vol. II, 1735, p. 741

49. Cromwell, p. 181

50. Pinks, p. 37

51. John Weever, Ancient Funeral Monuments, 1631, pp. 428–30

52. George R. Price, Thomas Dekker, 1969, pp. 14–15: Pinks, pp. 107–8, 278

53. Pinks, p. 47

54. Gentleman's Magazine, Nov 1735, p. 651; Oct 1736, p. 597: Daily Gazetteer, 20 Nov 1735: Cromwell, p. 183

55. Basil F. L. Clarke, The Building of the Eighteenth-Century Church , 1963, p. 19

56. M. H. Port (ed.), The Commissions for Building Fifty New Churches , London, 1986, passim

57. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 1786–7

58. 28 Geo. III c. 10; 30 Geo. III c. 69: Pinks, p. 50

59. Gentleman's Magazine, June 1788, p. 521; Oct 1788, p. 853: Lyall D. Dixon, Seven Score Years and Ten, n.d. (c. 1938), p. 8

60. ILHC, St James's Clerkenwell Trustees' Mins (hereafter 'Trustees' Mins'), 13 Aug 1788: LMA, P76/JSI/147, Jan 1792

61. Cromwell, p. 201

62. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 30 Jan 1787

63. James Peller Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol. III, 1803, pp. 212–13: The World, 2 April 1791

64. Trustees' Mins, 20 Jan 1796

65. MDR 1794/5/414

66. Trustees' Mins, 21 May, 27 Aug 1788; the medal is illustrated in Pinks, p. 50

67. Trustees' Mins, 28 Oct 1789; 10 Nov 1790; 5 Jan, 30 Nov 1791: Pinks, p. 59

68. Pinks, p. 54

69. Trustees' Mins, 20 April 1791: Cromwell, p. 203: Pinks, pp. 54–5

70. Trustees' Mins, 3 Oct 1792

71. Trustees' Mins, 18 Jan, 11 April 1792

72. Cromwell, pp. 205–6: BAL, Drawings Collection, W10/5

73. Malcolm, vol. III, 1803, p. 213

74. Trustees' Mins, 29 Feb, 6 June, 12 Sept 1792: Cromwell, p. 205: ODNB

75. Cromwell, p. 204

76. Trustees' Mins, 2 & 23 March 1791; 29 Feb, 11 & 23 April 1792

77. Trustees' Mins, 6 Feb 1812

78. Trustees' Mins, 19 May 1824; 17 June 1829; 20 Jan 1830

79. NMR, photograph by H. Felton, April 1941 (the provenance of the drawing is unknown)

80. Cromwell, p. 205

81. Trustees' Mins, March—July 1822: Cromwell, pp. 204–5: Pinks, pp. 52–3

82. Trustees' Mins, 19 May 1824

83. Trustees' Mins, 10 May 1843

84. B, 27 Oct 1849, p. 512

85. B, 21 Oct 1882, p. 541

86. GL, MS 18, 319/4: B, 21 Oct 1882, p. 541; 21 Oct 1899, p. 372: BN, 20 Oct 1882, p. 489

87. B, 21 Oct 1899, p. 372: ILHC, cuttings L2531

88. CERC, Church Commissioners' files 18319/106, 72319 2/2

89. BAL, Drawings Collection, W 10/5

90. Trustees' Mins, 23 April 1792

91. GL, MS 18, 319/4

92. Papers held in the vestry of St James's Church

93. ILHC, cuttings L2531: Pinks, p. 53

94. Cromwell, p. 204: Illustrated News of the World, 13 Nov 1858, pp. 308–9: Pinks, p. 53

95. Trustees' Mins, 21 July, 4 & 10 Aug 1790; 6 April 1791; 14 Nov 1792

96. GL, MS 18,319/77: Programme of a recital by Nicholas Danby on the restored organ, 1978: information from John Pike Mander and ManderUK website

97. Illustrated News of the World, 13 Nov 1858: NMR photographs, 1941

98. Cromwell, p. 204: Pinks, p. 53

99. Information on a number of the windows described in this account has been kindly supplied by Dr Michael Kerney

100. BN, 15 May 1863, p. 380: Alexander Gibbs & Co., catalogue, London, 1878

101. B, 7 Oct 1882, p. 480: BN, 20 Oct 1882, p. 489

102. B, 29 Sept 1866, p. 730

103. Cox & Son's illustrated catalogue of designs for stained glass windows, 1870

104. St James's archives, green box/iron chest (petition for faculty, 15 June 1938): The British Society of Master Glass-Painters, Directory, 1939, p. 52: GL, MS 18,319/102

105. Trustees' Mins, 1788–96: ILHC, cuttings L2521

106. Pinks, p. 66

107. GL, MSS 18,319/4, 18,319/59

108. Trustees' Mins, 20 March 1792: Pinks, p. 62

109. Trustees' Mins, 23 April 1792: Cromwell, p. 195: Pinks, p. 63

110. Pinks, pp. 61–2

111. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 8 July 1722: David Bindman and Malcolm Baker, Roubiliac and the EighteenthCentury Monument, 1995, pp. 358–9

112. Pinks, pp. 60, 687

113. Henry B. Wheatley, London Past and Present, 1891, p. 277: Rupert Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660–1851, 1964 edn, p. 190: Trustees' Mins, 17 Nov 1819: Cromwell, p. 193

114. Gunnis, p. 251

115. English Churchman, 7 March 1969

116. Trustees' Mins, 21 & 28 Oct 1789

117. Trustees' Mins, 29 Feb 1792

118. Pinks, p. 65

119. GL, MS 18,319/24; B, 17 March 1911, p. 343

120. Trustees' Mins, 20 March 1792

121. Daily Chronicle, 1 Sept 1888: BN, 7 March 1890, p. 366

122. 7 Geo. IV, c. 24 (private): TNA, PROB11/72, sig. 4

123. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/31, 35–8

124. Ogilby & Morgan's map, 1676

125. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/048: E. G. Dowdell, A Hundred Years of Quarter Sessions. The Government of Middlesex from 1660 to 1760 , 1932, pp. 46–51

126. An Account of the Fire At New-prison by Clerkenwell, 1679

127. An Account of the General Nursery, or Colledg of Infants set up by the Justices of Peace in the County of Middlesex , 1686: Dowdell, pp. 51–2, 59–61: Pinks, pp. 125–7: LMA, MJ/SP/XX/ 048: An Account of Several Work-houses for Employing and Maintaining the Poor , 2nd edn, 1732, p. 52

128. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/ 048: Pinks, p. 183

129. LMA, MA/G/GEN/ 1; MJ/OC/ 8–10 passim

130. Pinks, pp. 127–30

131. Pinks, p. 130

132. LMA, MJ/OC/ 14, p. 348

133. LMA, MJ/OC/ 16–18: MA/G/GEN/478

134. ILN, 9 May 1846, pp. 309–10

135. The account of the prison which follows is based largely on B, 13 June 1846, pp. 277, 282–3: Henry Mayhew and John Binny, The Criminal Prisons of London, 1862, pp. 611–21: Hepworth Dixon, The London Prisons, 1850, pp. 224–35

136. Dixon, p. 229

137. LMA, MA/DCP/G/31

138. Dixon, pp. 229, 230, 234

139. LMA, MA/DCP/G/ 28, 30; MA/D/G/ 46, 48; MJ/OC/ 60, pp. 383–4, 480; MJ/OC/ 61, p. 9

140. LMA, MJ/OC/ 61, pp. 163–5: ILN, 21 Dec 1867, pp. 661–2,665; 28 Dec 1867 (Supplement), p. 717

141. LMA, MA/D/G/50/1; MJ/OC/64, p. 182; MJ/OC/65, p. 381: Prison Service HQ Library, 'Notes of a few Borough & County Prisons England & Wales', by A. B. McHardy, Oct–Nov 1877

142. TNA, HO45/A37852

143. SBL Mins, 14 Dec 1893, pp. 161–3

144. SBL Mins, 15 July 1876, p. 386: TNA, HO45/9672/A46443B

145. SBL Mins, 15 Dec 1887, p. 196

146. TNA, HO45/9672/A46443B

147. Ibid; ED21/11423

148. SBL Mins, 4 Oct 1888, pp. 546, 767

149. SBL Mins, 27 Feb 1890, p. 829

150. TNA, ED21/11423: SBL Mins, 27 Feb 1890, p. 829; 24 April 1890, p. 1197; 7 Aug 1890, p. 709

151. SBL Mins, 10 March 1892, p. 700

152. TNA, ED21/11423

153. TNA, ED21/11422: SBL Mins, 18 July 1895, p. 378

154. Final Report of the School Board for London, 1870–1904, 1904, p. 178: SBL Mins, 4 Feb 1892, p. 419

155. TNA, ED32/91; ED32/527: SBL Mins, 26 July 1894, p. 831

156. LMA, LCC/MIN/2935, p. 150

157. SBL Mins, 17 March 1892, p. 792: OS of 1891–4

158. TNA, ED21/11423

159. Final Report of the School Board, p. 40: B, 24 Dec 1892, p. 491; 16 Dec 1893, p. 451

160. IBC

161. LMA, LCC/MIN/2938, p. 394

162. Ron Ringshall (ed.), The Urban School, Buildings for Education in London 1870–1980 , 1983, p. 48

163. 40 & 41 Vic., c. 235

164. LMA, Acc/3445/PT/01/15/03: MBW Mins, 4 July 1879, pp. 21–8

165. B, 21 April 1877, p. 406: John Hollingshead, Ragged London in 1861 , 1861, pp. 22–5: LCC, The Housing Question in London , 1855–1900, p. 133

166. LMA, MBW/1195, pp. 50–3; MBW/ 1296, 21 Jan 1878, item 66: Percy J. Edwards, History of London Street Improvements 1855–1897 , 1898, p. 81

167. DSR: LMA, Acc/3445/PT/01/15/03: J. N. Tarn, 'The Peabody Donation Fund: the role of a Housing Society in the nineteenth century', in Victorian Studies, September 1966, p. 34

168. Censuses of 1871 & 1891: LMA, Acc/3445/PT/07/030

169. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/R93

170. Tarn, pp. 21–4

171. LMA, MBW 1231, pp. 379, 591: B, 5 July 1884, p. 41

172. LMA, Acc/3445/PT/07/030

173. IBC

174. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol. 16, 1883–5, p. 508

175. RB: Highbury & Islington Express, 31 March 2000, p. 24

176. RB: MDR 1774/5/89–90: LMA, MR/LV/9/100, 115

177. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol. 9, 1871–2, pp. 295–7: LMA, MBW/17089: DSR: B, 23 Sept 1938, p. 609

178. DSR: RB: IBC: POD

179. IBC: B, 4 July 1885, p. 44: BN, 14 Oct 1887, p.xv

180. TNA, IR58/42650/1561

181. POD

182. LMA, MR/PLT/1757–1814 passim: IBC

183. MDR 1891/13/797: TNA, IR58/42660/2524

184. MDR 1778/2/17; 1815/4/526

185. Final Report of the School Board, p. 357: SBL Mins, 5 July 1874, p. 988; 14 Oct 1874; 15 Dec 1875, p. 97

186. Final Report of the School Board, pp. 48–9

187. SBL Mins, 13 March 1893, p. 924: TNA, ED21/11424; ED21/11245

188. DSR: SBL Mins, 8 Nov 1894, pp. 150–1; 3 Dec 1896, p. 72: Final Report of the School Board, p. 357

189. SBL Mins, 22 Nov 1900, p. 1493; June–Dec 1901, passim; 2 Oct 1902, p. 673: Final Report of the School Board, p. 357

190. POD: IBC

191. BN, 21 May 1920, p. 621

192. ILHC, cuttings L 1.7: IBC

193. IBC: information supplied by Workspace Group

194. ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808

195. B, 24 Aug 1867, p. 634: LMA, MJ/SP/1867/01/002

196. RB: DSR

197. DSR: TNA, HO45/9672/A46443B

198. RB: POD

199. RB: DSR: TNA, IR58/42660/2569

200. RB: POD

201. MDR 1871/12/567: DSR: RB

202. POD: RB: LMA, AR/BA/5/302

203. MDR 1879/1/271

204. TNA, IR58/42660/2577: LCC Mins, 11 Oct 1910, p.538: DSR: IBC

205. POD: IBC

206. IBC: Highbury & Islington Express, 4 Aug 2000, Homes Supplement, p. 5

207. Journal of the RIBA, March 2004, pp.32–6

208. IBC: Peter Allison (ed.), David Adjaye Houses, 2005, pp.42–50: Independent on Sunday, 3 July 2005, p.26

209. IBC

210. Private Eye, 8 Jan 1988, p.9

211. Ibid.: IBC: Islington Gazette, 5 Feb 1988, p.11

212. IBC

213. Ibid.

214. TNA, IR58/42660/2558–63: POD

215. IBC: LMA, LMA/4441/01/0334: Building Trades Journal , 15 March 1984, p.28

216. RB: POD

217. LMA, LMA/4441/01/0334: IBC

218. London Archaeologist, vol.7, no.13, 1995

219. Ogilby & Morgan's map, 1676: Pinks, p.89

220. W. H. Quarrell and Margaret Mare (eds), London in 1710 from the Travels of Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach , 1934, pp.88–90: ILHC, cuttings L4.12: Pinks, pp. 157–61: Taste of the Town , 1731

221. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/158

222. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/4A–B; E/NOR/L/3/29: MDR 1788/5/294

223. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/29–30

224. SBL Mins: LMA, SBL/CON/R/1

225. J. J. Stevenson, House Architecture, 1880, vol.I, p.348: E. R. Robson, School Architecture, 1874, p.xi: see also Malcolm Seaborne's introduction to the 1972 facsimile edition of School Architecture, esp. pp. 17–22: and Mark Girouard, Sweetness and Light, 1977, pp.38–9, 64–9

226. Girouard, p.68

227. Stevenson, loc.cit.

228. Robson, pp.165–6

229. B, 16 Jan 1875, p.59

230. TNA, ED21/34656–7

231. Survey of London, vol.XXXVIII, 1975, pp.46–7

232. SBL Mins: BN, 15 June 1877, p.606

233. TNA, ED21/11424

234. IBC

235. DSR: ILHC, Building Act applications, vol.4: POD

236. IBC: ILHC, cuttings L1.7

237. IBC

238. FBC, Industries of Finsbury, 1949 edn, pp.44–5, 47

239. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/31,35

240. ILHC, cuttings: IBC

241. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/37/1: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.12, p. 591

242. Dennis Griffiths (ed.), The Encyclopedia of the British Press 1422–1922 , 1992, pp.233, 341–2: Dennis Griffiths, Plant Here The Standard , 1996, p.121: ODNB

243. Griffiths 1992, p.427: Griffiths 1996, pp.131–2

244. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/37/5–6: IBC

245. IBC

246. Ibid.

247. The Printers' Register, 6 March 1911, pp.4–5: MDR 1877/24/375

248. MDR 1877/24/375: TNA, IR58/42653/1801–2

249. RB: POD

250. POD: IBC

251. IBC

CHAPTER II (pp.72–85) Sekforde Street Area

1. This account of the Seckford estate and its development draws principally on the following: Mabel I. Redstone, 'Thomas Seckford the Founder', paper, 1 Oct 1957, for the History of Parliament Trust, of which there is a copy in Suffolk RO (Ipswich), HD822:4730: A. Daly Briscoe, A Tudor Worthy: Thomas Seckford of Woodbridge , 1979: Carol & Michael Weaver, The Seckford Foundation, 1987: PP 1831 (231), XI.1, 24th Report of the Commissioners for inquiring into Charities , 1830. Other sources are indicated in the text

2. TNA, PROB11/72

3. Cromwell, p.241

4. Information supplied by Mr Graham Watson, director, Seckford Foundation

5. TNA, PROB11/72: Suffolk RO (Ipswich), HD21 (480)

6. Suffolk RO (Ipswich), HD822: 4730

7. Suffolk RO (Ipswich), HB10/427/214

8. LMA, Acc/137/212–234 (Box 10)

9. 7 Geo. IV, c.24 (private), pp.491–2: LMA, MJ/OC/18, p.406: Cromwell, p.253

10. Colvin: BAL, Archives, CoC/9; CoC/10

11. Suffolk RO (Ipswich), HD822:4730

12. SE, Letters 4, pp.403–5

13. SE, Letters 1, pp.284–5

14. Ibid., pp.490–1

15. POD

16. SE, Letters 2, pp.554–5

17. SE, Letters 2, p. 572

18. SE, Letters 1, pp.206–7

19. SE, Letters 2, pp.436–7

20. SE, Letters 2, p.231

21. Nancy Martin, In A Changing World, 1982: John Grooms Association, John Grooms, 125 Years Working with Disabled People , 1991

22. LMA, LMA/4305/01/03

23. Ibid; LMA/4305/3/19

24. DSR: IBC: Suffolk RO (Ipswich), HD 822:4730

25. IBC

26. Years of Reflection: 1783–1953: The Story of Haywards of the Borough , 1953, pp.22–3

27. RB: MDR 1836/2/79

28. Hackney Archives, D/B/NIC, 2/15: RB

29. Censuses of 1881 & 1891

30. IBC: Inscribed stone on rear of houses: LMA, RM22/50

31. POD: M. S. Cotterill, 'The Development of Scottish Gas Technology 1817–1914: Inspiration and Motivation', in Industrial Archaeology Review, vol. V, No.1, Winter 1980–1, p.37: J. P. Bell, A Biographical Index of British Engineers in the 19th Century , 1975, p.55

32. SE: Pinks, p. 190

33. LMA, LMA/4305/9/19; LMA/01/03–04

34. P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, p.40

35. OS of 1871–4: Pinks, p.390

36. Pinks, p.177

37. IBC

38. LMA, LMA/4305/47/29

39. John Grooms Association, John Grooms, 125 Years Working with Disabled People , 1991

40. IBC

41. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 26 March 1829: MDR 1830/2/398: Cromwell, pp.238–9: Pinks, p. 178: Colvin

42. ILHC, local index: IBC

43. MDR 1829/3/620

44. MDR 1834/3/118; 1837/6/706

45. LMA, RM 22/50: IBC: POD

46. IBC: POD

47. MDR: SE

48. SE, Letters 3, pp.100–1

49. H. Oliver Horne, A History of Savings Banks, 1947, p.111

50. Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal, vol. III, July 1840, p.217

51. IBC: DSR

52. POD: IBC

53. MDR 1829/4/225; 1829/6/258: SE, Letters 1, pp.191, 201–2, 205–6

54. POD: EH, Historians' File ISL 43

55. Cromwell, pp.252–3

56. RB: MDR 1769/1/429; 1772/7/243

57. SE, Letters 3, pp.395–6; Letters 5, pp.590–2: POD

58. Suffolk RO (Ipswich), GB 431/10,025 (Box 1), location DF13: POD

59. MDR

60. IBC

61. In addition to SE, this account is based on 'Recollections of The Vice Chancellor Sir James Bacon P. C. Written For His Children' (typescript, with introduction and index by Lesley Lewis), c. 1983, in London Library: Cromwell, pp.447–8: Pinks, pp. 177–8

62. LMA, Acc/137/212–234 (Box 10)

63. MDR 1836/5/391–2

64. POD

65. Cromwell, p.448

CHAPTER III (pp.86–114) Clerkenwell Green

1. 'A Survey of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, the seat of the Revels Office', c. 1586–7, in Albert Feuillerat (ed.), Documents Relating to the Office of the Revels in the Time of Queen Elizabeth , 1908, p.48

2. LMA, E/NOR/M/284/01–02

3. TNA, E310/19/91,97: LPL, MS 2732/1–24 passim

4. TNA, C112/34/98; PROB11/160, sig.75, ff. 51v–52v: Feuillerat, p.48

5. LPL, MS 2732/1–13: LMA, E/NOR/M/284/01–02: TNA, E310/19/97: Pinks, p.289

6. Norden's map, 1593

7. Pinks, p. 102

8. TNA, E310/19/97

9. IBC

10. ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677 (transcript of BL, Sloane MS/3928 by T. Veevers- Thompson, 1929): TNA, PROB11 passim

11. Pinks, pp. 633, 798–9: see also Cromwell

12. LMA, E/NOR/M/284/01–02: Leicester & Rutland RO, 16 D66/461

13. James Peller Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol.III, 1803, pp. 207–8

14. Pinks, pp. 107–9

15. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Minutes 1654–1725, f.112

16. MDR 1712/4/26–7; 1712/5/86–7

17. e.g. MDR 1718/1/242; 1719/6/102

18. MDR 1737/2/29–30; 1740/1/19; 1746/2/11

19. ILHC, ms notes by Samuel Warner: RB: LMA, MR/PLT/1655–1695: MDR

20. Cromwell, p.236: James Walker's engraving of the Middlesex Sessions House, 1796

21. LMA, MR/LV/10/55,63,87: MDR

22. B. Lillywhite, London Coffee Houses, 1963, p.318: MDR 1721/3/111–12; 1768/2/163–4

23. TNA, PROB11 passim: RB: MDR: LMA, MJ/SP passim

24. RB: Sheila O'Connell, London 1753, 2003, pp.93–4: ODNB

25. Pinks, pp.633–4: The Times, 14 July 1803, p.4a

26. Real John Bull, 4 Aug 1822: Cromwell, pp.236–7

27. William Lovett, Life and Struggles of William Lovett in His Pursuit of Bread, Knowledge and Freedom , 1876

28. RB: POD

29. IBC: ILHC, FBC Mins, Vol.4, 1903–4, p.588; Vol.5, 1904–5, p.418

30. Census of 1901

31. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 1846–54, p.43

32. City Press, 2 Sept 1871, p.6

33. Bernard Roberts, Writers and Printers in Clerkenwell, n.d. (c. 1987): POD

34. Census of 1871 & 1891: POD: TNA, IR58/42659/2496–7: MDR 1866/13/597

35. DSR: IBC

36. Islington Gazette, 8 May 1973, p.3

37. LMA, E/NOR/M/284/01–02

38. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/83–9; MJ/OC/11, pp.124–7; MJ/OC/26, pp.374–5: MDR: Pinks, p.18

39. LMA, MBW/2612; MBW/2613

40. Horwood's map, 1792–3 edn: ILHC, ms notes by Samuel Warner: RB

41. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/84–7

42. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/88: Pinks, p.102

43. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/89/4; MJ/OC/11, pp.117, 124–7, 139–40, 194, 271; MJ/OC/20, p.393; MJ/OC/26, pp.374–5; MJ/SP/1785/05/022,026

44. Rocque's map, 1747: James Walker's engraving of the Middlesex Sessions House, 1796: Cromwell, p.236

45. ILHC, ms notes by Samuel Warner; Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.1, 1856–7, pp.160, 175, 179, 194; vol.2, 1857–8, pp.31–2, 44, 585

46. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.4, 1860–62, pp.596, 606–9, 705: Pinks, pp. 102–3

47. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.6, 1864–6, pp.210, 253

48. The Times, 28 Aug 1871, p.10e

49. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.13, 1878–9, pp.220–3: MBW Mins, 14 March 1879, pp.392–3

50. LMA, MBW/1203, p.458: MBW Mins, 28 Sept 1878, p.1014; 4 April 1879, p.518: The Times, 14 Aug 1878, p.11c

51. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.19, pp.57–8

52. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 1898–9 (printed series), pp.39, 40, 287; 1899–1900, pp.102, 155

53. OS of 1938 (LCC revision)

54. LMA, LCC/MIN/8791, pp.24, 157–8; LCC/MIN/8793, pp.17–18, 59: LCC/MIN/9023, 27 Jan 1950, item 16: LCC Mins, 1–2 July 1952, p.332; 7 Feb 1956, p.42: Islington Gazette , 8 May 1973, p.3

55. ILHC, FBC Mins, 8 May 1958, p.40; 9 Jan 1964, p.601: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/093912

56. ILHC, cuttings: The Times, 20 Oct 1964, p.14f; 5 May 1967, p.11c: Architectural Review, vol.145, May 1969, pp.363–5

57. The following draws particularly on Andrew Rothstein, A House on Clerkenwell Green , 1972 edn

58. The Times, 21 Aug 1794, p.2d; 22 Aug 1794, p.2b

59. Cromwell, pp.258–9

60. see Andrew Whitehead, 'Red London: Radicals and socialists in late-Victorian Clerkenwell', in Socialist History, vol.18, 2000, pp. 1–31

61. Rothstein, p.27

62. Whitehead, p. 3

63. The Times, 16 Feb 1839, p.6a; 24 April 1866, p.12c; 22 Nov 1867, p. 5c

64. The Times, 15 July 1884, p.10b

65. ILN, 29 Oct 1887, p. 504

66. ILN, 19 Nov 1887, pp.605–6: Commonweal, vol.3, no.97, Nov 1887, pp.369–70: E. P. Thompson, William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary , 1977 edn, pp.488–90

67. The Times, 18 Aug 1842, p.6f; 20 Aug 1842, p.6d; 31 May 1848, p.5d; 23 Dec 1887, p.9c: LMA, MJ/SP/1888/01/007,029–31

68. The Times, 31 May 1848, p.5d; 1 June 1848, p.8b; 2 June 1848, p.8d; 25 July 1848, p.5f

69. Quoted in Rothstein, p.29

70. The Times, 20 Oct 1873, p.7d: The Graphic, 19 Oct 1872, pp.367, 369: ILHC, cuttings

71. George Gissing, The Nether World, 1889, Chapter 21

72. LMA, MA/S/29,40,44

73. LMA, MA/S/46

74. LMA, MA/S/47

75. LMA, MA/S/57

76. LMA, MA/S/65,114

77. 18 Geo. III, c. 67

78. LMA, MA/S/58,64,67

79. LMA, MA/S/59,75,78

80. LMA, MA/S/136,138

81. LMA, MA/S/134,150: Public Advertiser, 31 Aug 1779

82. LMA, MA/S/160,430

83. LMA, MA/S/196,210

84. J. P. Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol.III, 1803, p.239

85. LMA, MA/S/98–9

86. LMA, MA/S/160

87. LMA, MA/S/163

88. LMA, MA/S/167,172

89. V&A Museum, MSL/8184–1979, p. 6 (information kindly supplied by John Kenworthy-Browne)

90. J. T. Smith, Nollekens and His Times, 1829 edn, vol.II, p.123

91. Geoffrey Beard, The Work of Robert Adam, 1978, p. 11

92. King's College London Archives, Leathes 7/7: New Monthly Magazine , 1 Feb 1818, pp.8–9: Gentleman's Magazine , March 1818, pp.273–6: B, 3 July 1914, pp.3–4

93. B, 29 June 1850, p. 303; 5 Feb 1915, p.130: Colvin, pp.228–30,833: Clare Graham, Ordering Law. The Architectural and Social History of the English Law Court to 1914 , 2003, p.397: ODNB

94. Gentleman's Magazine, Oct 1817, p.368

95. LMA, MA/S/189; MJ/OC/11, pp.9–10

96. LMA, MA/DCP/87: George Richardson, New Vitruvius Britannicus , 1802, Plate xxxiv

97. Graham, pp.76, 79–80, 89, 105–6, 142–3; figs 41,45–7,49

98. LMA, MA/S/210,212,227; MJ/OC/10a, pp.539–40; MJ/OC/11, p. 11

99. LMA, MA/S/50,56

100. LMA, MA/S/191–3

101. John Bull, 13 Jan 1833

102. LMA, MA/S/424

103. ILHC, cuttings: New Vitruvius Britannicus: LMA, MA/S/211; MA/S/357; MA/S/372

104. LMA, MJ/OC/11, pp.47, 117, 139–40; MJ/OC/21, pp.34, 282

105. LMA, MJ/OC/19, pp.10–11, 39

106. LMA, MJ/OC/36, pp.204–5; MJ/SP/1827/07/060/01; MJ/SP/1827/07/061/01

107. LMA, MJ/OC/11, pp.430, 437, 460

108. John Bull, 13 Jan 1833

109. LMA, MJ/OC/36, p.206: B, 25 Jan 1845, p.46

110. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/693

111. LMA, MJ/OC/49, p.208; MJ/SP/1857/08/008; MJ/SP/XX/696–7,702; MA/DCP/74a—b; MA/S/478–9

112. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/697–8; MA/S/479: BN, 5 Aug 1859, p.715

113. B, 19 May 1860, p.314

114. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/698/01–14

115. BN, 5 Aug 1859, p.715

116. LMA, GLC/AR/HB/02/0064

117. BN, 5 Aug 1859, p.715; 27 July 1860, p.584

118. LMA, MJ/SP/1860/01/007

119. BN, 5 Aug 1859, p.715; 3 Feb 1860, pp.76, 79: LMA, MJ/OC/51, pp.524, 551

120. LMA, MJ/OC/51, pp.489–90, 551; MJ/OC/53, p.106

121. LMA, MJ/OC/72, pp.320–1; MBW/1176, pp.402–3: B, 3 Aug 1878, p.815

122. LMA, LCC/MIN/2803, p.710: LCC Mins, 15 Nov 1910, pp. 1006–10

123. LCC Mins, 21 Dec 1920, p.1061; 8 Feb 1921, p.190

124. LCC Mins, 8 May 1923, p.710: TNA, IR58/42678/4400: LMA, LCC/MIN/7843, pp.55, 95

125. DSR: IBC

126. ILHC, cuttings L7.1: Evening Standard, 12 May 1978, p. 17: Michael Cohen, 'Preserve or Perish? Case Studies of Six Historic Buildings in Greater London', in London Journal , vol.6, no.2, Winter 1980, pp.181–2: Len Cacutt, The Old Sessions House. Its setting and its history, 1999: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/HB/02/0064

127. IBC

128. Times Weekend, 25 Sept 1999, p.13: Sunday Times Magazine , 29 March 1998, pp.64–6: AJ, 30 Oct 1997, pp.28–9, 35–52

129. MDR 1878/29/436–9; 1879/18/924: DSR

130. The Times, 13 Nov 1880, p.16d

131. POD: RB

132. Olive O. Chant (later Pursaill), The Sign of the Peel, 1913, pp.31–2: ILHC, cuttings

133. Marx House Bulletin, Nov 1935, p.6, in Hull University Archives, Papers of Robin Page Arnot, DAR(2)/11/128

134. LMA, LCC/FB/GEN/9/25: The Times, 9 June 1913, p.18c; 11 June 1913, p.10e: DSR: TNA, IR58/42674/ 3972–7: IBC

135. IBC: DSR

136. POD

137. IBC

138. The Manuscripts of the House of Lords, vol.6 (New Series), 1912, p.383: Cromwell, pp.172–4: MDR 1712/4/26–28

139. RB: MDR 1758/1/276–7: C. Clutton, the late G. H. Baillie & C. A. Ilbert (eds), Britten's Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers , 1973 edn, pp.352, 393

140. POD: Censuses 1851–1891

141. EH, London Region photographs

142. IBC

143. IBC: ILHC, cuttings L1.7

144. LMA, MR/LV/9/100; MR/LV/10/55

145. MDR 1863/22/274; 1866/23/81,141; 1867/6/17–18; 1867/12/738

146. M. H. Port, 'An Architect's Progress in the 1850s and 60s', in East London Papers, vol.ii, no.1, Summer 1968, pp.20–39: M. Girouard, Victorian Pubs, 1984, pp.126–9: M. H. Port, 'The Life of an Architectural Sinner: Thomas Wayland Fletcher, 1833–1901', in London Journal, vol.15, no.1, 1990, pp. 57–71

147. MBW Mins, 28 Sept 1866, p.1186: B, 27 Oct 1866, p. 804

148. Port, 1968, p.38: Port, 1990, pp.62, 69

149. Port, 1990, p.61

150. DSR

151. POD

152. TNA, IR58/42660/2499–502: IBC

153. IBC: BAL, Biog. file

154. Ibid

155. POD

156. IBC

157. MDR 1758/2/436; 1771/2/282; 1771/6/47: RB

158. RB: TNA, PROB11/941: MDR 1771/2/282

159. IBC

160. DSR: LMA, GLC/RA/D2G/4/24: IBC

161. IBC: ILHC, cuttings

162. Ibid

163. Andrew Rothstein, A House on Clerkenwell Green, 1983 edn, offers a detailed 'political' history of No. 37a

164. Rachel Leighton, Rise and Progress. The Story of the Welsh Girls' School and of the Honourable and Loyal Society of Ancient Britons , 1950

165. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 1: Gentleman's Magazine , Nov 1788, p.952

166. Daily Post, 18 Sept 1724: National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 2

167. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 2

168. MDR 1746/2/10

169. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 3

170. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 2

171. Ibid: Colvin

172. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 3

173. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 2

174. Ibid

175. Ibid

176. R. T. Jenkins and Helen M. Ramage, A History of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion , 1951: Leighton, pp. 54–6, 151

177. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 3 & 99

178. National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 3

179. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser, 24 Aug 1772: Public Advertiser , 28 Aug 1772: National Library of Wales, Ashford Mss 2: MDR 1772/7/231

180. RB: MDR 1778/7/162

181. Cromwell, p. 179

182. ILHC, ms notes by Samuel Warner, p.2: The Times, 25 Nov 1831, p.2f

183. MDR 1884/27/650

184. Rothstein, pp.37–42

185. RB: POD

186. T. A. Jackson, The History and Working Class Associations and Traditions of Clerkenwell Green , supplement to Counter Attack , Dec 1933: Howell Collection, Bishopsgate Institute, 'Minute Book of General Council of International Workingmen's Association, 1866–69' and notebook: Documents of the First International, 1864–1866, 2 vols, Lawrence & Wishart, London, n.d.

187. Rothstein, pp.58–60: RB: POD

188. TNA, IR58/42659/2494–5: DSR

189. POD

190. IBC: Rothstein p.72

191. POD: RB

192. Hull University Archives, Papers of Robin Page Arnot, DAR(2)/11/4

193. Rothstein, p.74: Marx Memorial Library, Quarterly Bulletin , no.26, April—June 1963

194. Hull University Archives, DAR(2)/11/5; Marx Memorial Library, 40th Anniversary Programme, 1973, in DAR(1)/38

195. Hull University Archives, DAR(2)/11/3

196. Marx Memorial Library, Quarterly Bulletin, no.26, April—June 1963

197. Rothstein, pp.73–5: 1933 photograph of No. 37a, reproduced in a Marx Memorial Library leaflet

198. Marx House Bulletin, March 1935, in Hull University Archives, DAR(2)/11/127

199. Marx Memorial Library and Workers' School, Annual Report , 1940, in Hull University Archives, DAR(2)/11/10: The Studio, vol.120, July—Dec 1940, p.137

200. Hull University Archives, DAR(2)/11/13,15,31: POD

201. POD

202. Ibid: Hull University Archives, DAR(2)/11/13,15,31

203. Rothstein, pp.76–7: POD

204. V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, vol.19, 1977, p.371, translated by George Hanna

205. TNA, IR58/42659/2494–5

206. IBC

207. POD: RB: IBC

208. Marx Memorial Library, Quarterly Bulletin, no.11, July—Sept 1959, p.5; no.27, July—Sept 1963

209. Marx House Bulletin, Nov 1935, in Hull University Archives, DAR(2)/11/128

210. Daily Mirror, 10 Oct 1935: Guardian, 20 June 1969

211. LMA, LCC/MIN/9051

212. The Times, 5 May 1967, p.11c

213. EH, Historians' file ISL 2 (part 2), including draft minutes of the Historic Buildings Council's discussions: Historic Buildings Council for England, Sixteenth Annual Report, 1968, p. 19

214. MDR 1746/2/11: RB

215. DSR: IBC

216. MDR 1746/2/11

217. ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: Cromwell, 'St. James's Church. South View', opposite p.202

218. IBC

219. ILHC, ms notes by Samuel Warner, p.3: GL, MS/11936/29

220. MDR 1788/8/835: Cromwell, pp.210–11: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808

221. RB: ILHC, St James's Church Trustees Mins, 19 Oct 1836, 16 Nov 1836, 21 Dec 1836: Colvin, p.135

222. LMA, MJ/SP/1814,1827 passim

223. MDR 1838/4/607; 1849/8/857; 1869/8/538–9: RB

224. ILHC, oversize cuttings L4.6

225. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/12/011: MBW Mins, 23 July 1886, p.173; 1 April 1887, p.573; 21 Oct 1887, pp.575, 585; 10 Feb 1888, p.239

226. B, 15 May 1869, p.395: MDR 1869/8/538–9: Architect's, Engineer's and Building-Trades' Directory , 1868

227. MDR 1838/5/607; 1849/8/857: POD

228. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.12, 1876–8, pp.209, 227, 352: B, 21 Oct 1876, p.1035

229. POD: RB

230. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, printed series, 1897–8, pp.112, 296, 407: MDR 1897/15/648–9: TNA, IR58/42659/2486

231. ILHC, FBC Mins, vol.4, pp.166, 282, 587; vol.5, p.203; vol.6, p.686

232. RB: MDR: ILHC, photographs of c.1900 by Henry Fincham

233. IBC

234. RB: IBC

235. Information kindly supplied by Gill Jackson of Robert Hale Ltd

236. RB: POD: PP 1831 (231), XI. 1, 24th Report of the Commissioners for inquiring into Charities , 1830, p.618

237. DSR: Suffolk RO (Ipswich), Seckford Estate, Letters 4, p.495; Letters 5, pp.3, 17–18

238. MDR 1859/10/262: TNA, IR58/42659/2483: DSR: T. Goode, printer, various works

CHAPTER IV (pp.115–141)

St John's Church and St John's Square

1. George Gissing, The Nether World, 1889

2. MDR 1722/1/109

3. Barney Sloane and Gordon Malcolm, Excavations at the Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, London (MoLAS Monograph 20), 2004

4. For details of these remains see Kevin Wooldridge, '49–52 St John's Square, Clerkenwell, London EC1. Excavation and recording of the standing building', in Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society , vol.38, 1987, pp.131–50

5. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol.21, pt 1, 1546, p.567: David Starkey (ed.), The Inventory of King Henry VIII: vol.I, The Transcript , 1998, pp.344–6

6. Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward VI, vol.II (1548–1549), pp.20–1

7. Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Philip and Mary, vol.IV (1557–1558), pp.313–14

8. E. K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage, 1923, vol.i, pp.10–11, 101–2

9. A. Feuillerat (ed.), Documents relating to the Office of the Revels in the time of Queen Elizabeth , 1908, p.48

10. Chambers, pp.90, 223–4

11. Calendar of State Papers Domestic, James I (1603–1610), p.356: MLOSJ, K/12/1/1

12. MLOSJ, K/12/1/1: LPL, MS 2372/7: LMA, E/POL/1,3

13. LPL, MS 2372/11

14. GEC

15. TNA, PROB11/239, sig.356: LPL, MSS 2732/14–15: GEC

16. W. E. Buckley (ed.), Memoirs of Thomas, Earl of Ailesbury. Written by himself , 1890, vol.i, p.21

17. Wilts. & Swindon RO, 1300/670, p.66; 1300/671, pp.144–5, 272–3: Gunnis, p.87

18. RB: TNA, PROB11/133, sig.4; C7/552/108; C10/493/228

19. TNA, PROB11/160, sig.75

20. GL, MS 14,806: RB

21. B, 26 June 1931, p.1125

22. TNA, C5/240/42: MDR 1715/1/143–4

23. TNA, C10/243/220: MDR 1715/1/143–4: TNA, PROB11/374, sig.110

24. Roger North, Lives of the Norths, ed. A. Jessop, 3 vols, 1826, vol.1, pp.xv–xvi: MDR 1722/4/342–3

25. LPL, MS 2372/26

26. MDR 1726–8, sub Hartshorne, Westbrooke

27. GL, MS 8674/4, f.667; MS 8674/71, f.258: MDR 1761/4/192

28. MDR 1717/5/241

29. GL, MS 8674/4, f.667; MS 8674/71, f.258

30. O. A. Sherrard, A Life of John Wilkes, 1930, pp.13–14: Percy Fitzgerald, The Life and Times of John Wilkes, M.P., 1888, vol.1, pp.7–9

31. RB: POD: H. R. Plomer, A Dictionary of Printers and Booksellers … 1726 to 1775, 1932, pp.84–5, 215: Philip A. H. Brown, London Publishers and Printers, c. 1800–1870, 1982, pp.31, 72, 111

32. RB: MDR: Geoffrey Beard and Christopher Gilbert (eds), Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660–1840, 1986 passim: C. Clutton, the late G. H. Baillie & C. A. Ilbert (eds), Britten's Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers, 1973 edn, passim

33. GL, MS 11936 passim

34. ODNB: RB: MDR: Pinks, p.329

35. ILHC, Clerkenwell Charity School Trustees Mins, 1740–74; Accounts, 1729–72: Cromwell, p.231

36. RB

37. Gentleman's Magazine, June 1817, p.497: B, 3 April 1858, p.238; 22 Aug 1863, p.597: 1851 census

38. MDR 1822/1/120

39. RB: MLOSJ, K33/2–8; K37/2–3

40. 1901 census: W. Dawson, A Mid-London Parish: Short History of the Parish of S. John, Clerkenwell , 1885, pp. 40–6: Home Mission Field, Feb 1903, pp. 12–15: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 72319(1)

41. LMA, LCC/MIN/7383, case 9

42. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp.148–9

43. Home Mission Field, Feb 1903, p.14

44. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 72318(1)

45. MLOSJ, K37/7

46. IBC

47. Ibid

48. MLOSJ, K/40: B, 1 Sept 1900, p.191

49. Sloane and Malcolm, pp.40, 43

50. For a detailed study of the priory church's development, see Sloane and Malcolm

51. John Stow, A Survey of London, ed. C. L. Kingsford, 1908, vol.2, p.84

52. Alfred W. Clapham, 'St. John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell', in Transactions of the St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, vol.VII, pt II, 1912, pp.39–40

53. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol.21, pt 1, 1546, p.567: Stow, vol.2, p.84: Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society , New Series, vol.IX, 1948, pp.181–7

54. Sloane and Malcolm, p.147: LMA, E/POL/1: LPL, MS 2732/7

55. LPL, MS 2732/11: GEC: Thomas Fuller, The ChurchHistory of Britain (1655), 1845 edn, ed. Rev. J. S. Brewer, vol.III, p.490

56. Fuller, op.et loc.cit

57. LPL, MS 2732/14,20,25–6: LMA, P76/JNB/24, pp.4–5: Fuller, op.et loc.cit

58. LPL, MS 2732/26–35: MDR 1714/5/180–1

59. LPL, MS 2713, f.69: The Manuscripts of the House of Lords, vol. VIII (New Series), 1708–1790, p.368: T. E. S. Clarke and H. C. Foxcroft, A Life of Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury , 1907, p.441

60. M. H. Port (ed.), The Commissions for Building Fifty New Churches , 1986, p.4

61. LPL, MS 2713, f.69

62. LPL, MSS 2732/37–40: LMA, P76/JNB/24, pp.4–5

63. LPL, MS 2732/41; MS 2713, ff.79–81

64. Survey of London, vol.xxvii, 1957, pp. 152–3 and Chapter XIII

65. LPL, MS 2713, ff. 83, 88–90, 94, 105–7: Port, p.102

66. William Hone, The Every-Day Book, 13 Nov 1825, cols 1475–82: Cromwell, pp. 141–2: B, 15 June 1867, p. 427

67. LPL, MS 2713, ff. 111, 115–16

68. Port, p. 110: LPL, MS 2706, p. 199

69. LMA, P76/JNB/ 24, pp.280–3, 285–8

70. MLOSJ, portfolio B7/3: LMA, P76/JNB/24, pp.389–93, 414; P76/JNB/25, pp.240, 244: B, 15 June 1867, p. 426

71. Dawson, pp.71–2: LMA, P76/JNB/25, April 1884–July 1885: BAL, Archives, MSS ScJO/1/1, p. 143; ScJO/2/2, p.73; Drawings Collection, ScJ[42](1–3): B, 16 April 1887, p. 587

72. Gentleman's Magazine, May 1827, pp.402–3: Cromwell, pp. 144–7

73. B, 7 Oct 1854, p.519: Echo, 19 July 1889: H. W. Fincham, The Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 1933 edn, p.66

74. London Gazette, 2 June 1931, pp.3545–7

75. LMA, P76/JNB/25 passim; P76/JNB/26, pp.9, 11–12: MLOSJ, K28/ 34: Islington Daily Gazette, 28 Dec 1910

76. BAL, Archives, MSS ScJO/1/1, p. 143; ScJO/2/2, p.73; Drawings Collection, ScJ[42] (4,6–9): MLOSJ, K40/1/2 (Hudson MS): Echo, 27 Jan 1890

77. BAL, Archives, MSS ScJO/1/1, p. 142; ScJO/2/2, p.73; Drawings Collection, ScJ[42](5): B, 1 Sept 1900, p. 191

78. LMA, P76/JNB/26, p.5: BAL, Archives, MSS ScJO/1/1, p. 142; ScJO/2/2, p.59: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 72319½

79. MLOSJ, Order of St John, Annual Report, 1930, p.32; Council Mins, 1927–35, pp.263, 1935–40, pp.38, 54, 129; K33/8

80. MLOSJ, Church Committee Mins, 1 July 1941, 7 Jan 1943

81. BAL, Archives, COJ/130/5–11 passim; Biog. file

82. BAL, Archives, COJ/130/5, Shaftesbury to Comper, 8, 22 April 1943

83. MLOSJ, Church Committee Mins, 19 Jan 1944

84. MLOSJ, K27/36; B7/3/714–26; Church Committee Mins, 21 Sept 1943

85. MLOSJ, Church Rebuilding box file, Sharpe to Barnes, Sept, Dec 1948

86. MLOSJ, Church Committee Mins, 12 July 1951; K/34, Paget diary note, 1 May 1951

87. Quoted in A. Symondson, Sir Ninian Comper: The Last Gothic Revivalist. The Life and Work of Sir Ninian Comper 1864–1960 (Exhibition Catalogue, RIBA Heinz Gallery), 1988, p.29

88. Symondson, op. et loc.cit

89. MLOSJ, K/34, Lady Brabourne to Paget, 23 July 1951

90. MLOSJ, Church Committee Mins, 5 Nov 1951; 7 May 1952, 5 Feb 1953

91. MLOSJ, K/34, Mottistone to Comper, 10 Dec 1951; Comper to Mottistone, 18 Dec 1951: BAL, Archives, COJ/130/11, Shaftesbury to Comper, 8 Dec 1951

92. MLOSJ, Church Committee Mins, 5 Nov 1951

93. MLOSJ, H4

94. B, 24 Oct 1958, p.689

95. Daily Telegraph, 14 Oct 1958

96. MLOSJ, Church Committee Mins, 7 July 1955: B, 24 Oct 1958, p. 689

97. Pinks, p.47

98. Gentleman's Magazine, June 1788, p.501

99. ILHC, St James's Trustees Mins, 11 April 1788

100. Gentleman's Magazine, June 1784, p.409

101. Gentleman's Magazine, Oct 1788, pp.853–4: Notes & Queries , 9 April 1859, p.496: information kindly supplied by Maurice Dunman

102. Pinks, p.66

103. Fincham, p.75: GL, MS 18,319/59

104. MLOSJ, notes on church fabric

105. This section is based on MLOSJ, Order of St John, Report of the Chapter-General for the two years ended 31 December 1915 , pp.38–9: Marjorie Trusted, 'A work by Esteban Jordán: an effigy of a Spanish Knight of the Order of St John', in Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueología (Valladolid), 1987, vol.LIII, pp.351–9: Fincham, p.69

106. BAL, Drawings Collection, ScC[28](1)

107. Fincham, pp.55–8: The Times, 25 June 1914, p. 11e

108. Fincham, pp.55–8: ILHC, cuttings file L2.276

109. MLOSJ, K40/1/12 (Hudson MS); K40/5/28

110. Pinks, p.312: GL, MS 9580, vol.7, p.54: Church News, 30 Nov 1863: The Christian Freeman, May 1871, p.72

111. LMA, MBO 22, pp.42–62; MBO 72/436, pp.436–7, 440, 445: Pinks, pp.329–30

112. B, 7 May 1887, p.689; 5 Jan 1889, p.20; 26 July 1890, p.77: LCC Mins, 1895, 1899: BN, 12 Aug 1898 (tender)

113. ILHC, cuttings

114. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/36/003524

115. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/36/003524; GLC/AR/BR/07/ 0210: IBC

116. City Press, 11 Jan 1973, p.21: ILHC, cuttings: IBC

117. MDR 1906/16/266; 1909/21/197–8: POD: www.moderncityliving.net

118. IBC

119. DSR: IBC

120. IBC

121. Plaque on building

122. RB: POD

123. MDR 1843/6/83: FBC, Industries of Finsbury, 1949 edn, p.77; 1954 edn, p. 115

124. ILN, 20 Sept 1851, pp.370–1: Pinks, pp.314–17

125. POD: RB: Industries of Finsbury, 1949 edn, p. 77

126. TNA, IR58/42675/4020: DSR: IBC

127. IBC: Industries of Finsbury, 1954 edn, p.115

128. IBC

129. Ibid: information supplied by Meritcape Ltd

130. RB: Apollo, vol.22, 1935, p. 337

131. Daily Courant, 4 Aug 1731

132. Quoted in Apollo, vol.22, 1935, p.337

133. GL, MS 11936/31

134. RB: MDR 1778/7/190–1: GL, MS 11936/122

135. TNA, PROB11/834, sig.370: MDR 1778/7/190–1

136. MDR 1887/1/213

137. RB: LMA, MR/LV/100,115,122,158

138. MDR 1826/11/3; 1843/6/83: POD

139. Censuses of 1851–71

140. B, 15 June 1867, p.426

141. RB: POD: Jeweller's and Metalworker's Almanack, 1879: MDR 1887/1/213

142. TNA, IR 58/42675/4018

143. DSR

144. Information kindly supplied by Billy Gall-Gray of McCann-Erickson

145. MDR 1786/1/52; 1780/3/478

146. RB: C. Clutton, the late G. H. Baillie and C. A. Ilbert (eds), Britten's Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers, 1973 edn, pp.433, 508

147. MDR 1780/2/306; 1780/3/478

148. RB: MDR 1786/1/52; 1805/6/768

149. RB: Philip A. H. Brown, London Publishers and Printers c.1800–1870, 1982, p. 113

150. ILHC, Finsbury Dispensary Mins, 1795–1808, 12 Feb–6 Aug 1806: RB: POD

151. RB

152. Pinks, p.312

153. RB

154. EH, London Region photographs

155. Brown, p.58: MDR 1831/5/786: LMA, HFCS/303–7: RB

156. FBC, Industries of Finsbury, 1954 edn, p. 115: POD

157. IBC

158. Ibid

159. Ibid

160. RB: MDR: IBC

161. This account is based largely on [Ned Ward] A Compleat and Humorous Account Of all the Remarkable Clubs and Societies in the Cities of London and Westminster , 1756 edn, pp.299–302: Sir John Hawkins, A General History of the Science and Practice of Music , 1875 edn, vol. II, pp.700, 788–93: Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , 1980, vol.3, p.308

162. Ward, p. 302

163. TNA, C10/430/32: LMA, O/126/1–3

164. MDR 1727/6/315: MDR 1727–31 passim, sub Cook

165. MDR 1727–31 passim, sub Cook: RB: LMA, HFCS/15, 22 Oct 1731

166. OS: LMA, photographs

167. Thomas Pennant, Some Account of London, 2nd edn, 1791, pp.211–12: GEC

168. RB: MDR: GL, MS 8674 passim: MS 24172

169. LMA, MR/LV/9/100

170. RB

171. LMA, O/126/5–6: MDR 1780–3 passim, sub Graves: RB

172. RB: POD: Censuses of 1841 & 1851

173. LMA, photograph (84/4040)

174. RB: MDR 1729–31: GL, MS 8674/40, ff.40–1; MS 8674/55, f.97

175. MDR 1782/2/60

176. RB: Colvin, p.216

177. B, 15 June 1867, p.427; 3 March 1877, p.217

178. DSR 1876/168–9: RB

179. IBC: information kindly provided by David Quigley

CHAPTER V (pp.142–163)

St John's Gate and St John's Lane

1. ILHC, cuttings L2.277

2. Suggested by Barney Sloane

3. Barney Sloane and Gordon Malcolm, Excavations at the Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, London , 2004, pp. 173–4, 196–7

4. Sloane and Malcolm, pp.141–2

5. TNA, C142/309/188: LMA, Q/DEW/23: PROB11/194, sig. 127: Centre for Kentish Studies, E265/2–6; T 102/1–3

6. RB: John Lord Campbell, The Lives of the Chief Justices of England , vol. 1, 1849, pp. 503–10

7. Surrey Local Studies Centre, U269/T102/1: H. W. Fincham, The Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 1933 edn, pp.37–8: Pinks, pp.334–5

8. ILHC, cuttings L1.7: information kindly provided by Gordon Brindley and Yvonne E. Long

9. RB: History of Parliament

10. John Smyth, The Berkeley Manuscripts, vol.II, The Lives of the Berkeleys , 1883, pp.428, 437: TNA, PROB 11/139, sig.10: Cromwell, pp. 164–5: Pinks, pp.40, 279–80

11. E. S. De Beer (ed.), The Diary of John Evelyn, vol. IV, 1955, p. 607: The Autobiography of Sir John Bramston, K. B., Camden Society, Old Series, vol.32, 1845, p.332: Narcissus Luttrell, A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs from September 1678 to April 1714 , 1857 edn, vol.1, pp.474, 477: Pinks, p.310: ODNB: Lincolnshire Archives, NEL III/18/1a

12. TNA, C10/168/129: Ogilby & Morgan's map, 1676

13. MDR 1725/6/448

14. MDR 1723/5/29

15. MDR 1742/4/407; 1714–22 passim

16. H. R. Plomer, A Dictionary of Printers and Booksellers … 1688 to 1725 , 1922, p. 106

17. Michael Treadwell, 'London Printers and Printing-Houses in 1705', in Publishing History, vol. VII, 1980, pp.23–4: John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, 1812, vol.1, pp.288–310: Plomer, pp.33–4, 106, 159–60, 295

18. RB

19. RB: MDR: ILHC, cuttings: Geoffrey Beard and Christopher Gilbert (eds), Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660–1840, 1986: GL, MS 11936 passim

20. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, vol.12 (1876–8), pp.540, 545: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 156–7

21. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 156–9, 161

22. ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: RB: POD

23. LMA, LCC bomb damage map 62: IBC

24. IBC

25. Ibid

26. Sloane and Malcolm, p.169: ILN, 2 Feb 1856, pp. 133–4

27. Sloane and Malcolm, p.136

28. MLOSJ, K36/18/1

29. Cromwell, p. 131: B. Foster, Ye History of ye Priory and Gate of St. John , 1851, p.35

30. A. Feuillerat (ed.), Documents Relating to the Office of the Revels , 1908, p.7

31. Calendar of State Papers Domestic, 1603–10, p. 170

32. TNA, PROB11/128, sig.109: GEC: MDR 1736/5/283–4; 1781 sub Newcastle, Duke of

33. Home Counties Magazine, vol. 10, 1908, pp.260–7: Notes and Queries , vol. 179, 27 July 1940, p. 58: RB

34. BL, Add. MS 6212, f.71

35. RB: Anthony D. Barker, 'Edward Cave, Samuel Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine', D.Phil. dissertation, Christ Church, Oxford, 1981, pp. 14–15: London Gazette, 14–19 Oct 1669; 27 June—1 July 1678

36. ODNB

37. Treadwell, p.24: Plomer, pp. 159–60, 295: Barker, pp.11–15: RB

38. RB: Barker, p. 15: ODNB: B. Lillywhite, London Coffee Houses , 1963, pp.269–70: The Times, 26 Jan 1799, p.4a: MLOSJ, K26 passim: LMA, MR/LV passim

39. Barker, p. 13: RB

40. Except where otherwise indicated, this and the following two paragraphs are based on C. Lennart Carlson, The First Magazine. A History of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1938, pp.3–30: Thomas Keymer's Introduction to the 1988 reprint of the Gentleman's Magazine, vol.I, 1731, pp.vii-xxiv: Barker, passim: ODNB

41. MDR 1750/2/354

42. Gentleman's Magazine, Aug 1752, p. 383

43. James M. Kuist, The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine , 1982, pp.vii,4: ODNB

44. ILHC, St John's Clerkenwell, Paving Commissioners' Mins, 4 Sept 1812–2 July 1813, passim

45. ILHC, cuttings: Foster, p.67n: MLOSJ, Press Cuttings A, p.20: The Times, 30 July 1833, p.3c

46. MLOSJ, Hudson MS, p. 14: ILHC, St John's Clerkenwell, Paving Commissioners' Mins, 6 Dec 1844–7 Dec 1845

47. BL, Add Ms 71008

48. ILHC, St John's Clerkenwell, Paving Commissioners' Mins, 1771–81, ff.10, 14,19,37,42–4; St John's Clerkenwell, Paving Ledger, 1771–90, f.8: BL, Add. MS 71008, f.43v

49. Except where otherwise indicated, this section is based on MLOSJ, 06 (W. P. Griffith's papers on St John's Gate, of 1845–78, selected and bound in 1909 by the Rev. T. W. Wood), pp.3–45

50. DSR: The Times, 31 March 1845, p.8d: ILN, 2 Aug 1845, p.70

51. B, 19 June 1847, p.289

52. John Wilson, A Concise Account of St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell , 2nd edn, 1869, pp.18–25, 29: J. R. S. Vine, A Record of the Urban Club and its Old Home at St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell , 1879, p.9

53. The Times, 20 Oct 1866, p.10c: B, 20 Oct 1866, p.781; 15 June 1867, pp.424–5: Wilson, pp.5, 18–21: MLOSJ, K26/38

54. MLOSJ, K26/42

55. MLOSJ, 06, p.17; Hunter Weston Papers, Lechmere to Weston, 9 Nov 1871

56. MLOSJ, Hunter Weston Papers, Lechmere to Weston, 20,21 April 1873

57. MLOSJ, Council Mins, 1871–3, p.80; K26/51–2, 60–1; 'Occupation' file

58. Andrew Saint, Richard Norman Shaw, 1983 edn, pp.404, 407, 409–10, 449

59. MLOSJ, Hunter Weston Papers, Lechmere to Col. Weston, 5 Jan 1877

60. MLOSJ, Council Mins, 1871–83, pp.87, 90

61. MLOSJ, Hunter Weston Papers, Lechmere to Col. Weston, 5 Jan 1877

62. Royal Academy Library, Prints & Drawings Collection, Shaw drawings RP2/11A

63. The Times, 3 July 1876, p.5d

64. MLOSJ, Council Mins, 1871–83, p.333: Hunter Weston Papers, Lechmere to Col. Weston, 15 Jan 1877, 28 April 1877

65. B, 1 July 1876, p.652

66. BAL, Drawings Collection, ScC[34](1–7); Archives, MS ScJO/1/1, p. 142

67. E. Walford, In Memoriam. Sir Edmund A. H. Lechmere, Baronet , 1895, pp.6, 10, 16, 20–1

68. MLOSJ, Council Mins

69. MLOSJ, K36/12, Scott to Lechmere, 7 Feb 1885

70. MLOSJ, K36/12, Scott to Lechmere, 7 Feb 1885: BAL, Archives, MS ScJO/1/1, pp.142–3

71. MLOSJ, 'Tavern' file; K26/59; K36/13/6

72. MLOSJ, K36/13/19; K36/16/4

73. MLOSJ, K36/16/4: BAL, Archives, MS ScJO/1/1, p.143; Drawings Collection, ScJ[52](1)

74. BAL, Archives, MS ScJO/1/1, p. 142; Drawings Collection, ScJ[19](3–4)

75. BAL, Archives, MS [Ledger IV]; Drawings Collection, ScJ[34](8)

76. MLOSJ, K36/19/10/1; St John's Gate Co. reports: DSR

77. MLOSJ, K36/10/17

78. MLOSJ, K36/19/15

79. MLOSJ, K36/14/16: The Times, 26 June 1893, p.4e

80. BAL, Archives, MSS ScJO/1/1, p.142; ScJO/2/2, p.74; ScLO/2/3/6

81. MLOSJ, K26/57–8; K33/11; 'Occupation' file: MLOSJ, Council Mins; St John's Gate Co. Mins

82. MLOSJ, K26/67; K33/10; K36/13/13,20; 'Occupation' file

83. BN, 25 Sept 1903, p.407: Fincham, pp.42–3: MLOSJ, K26/65,67; Council and Chapter Mins, 1894–1903, p.392; St John's Gate Co. Mins, 1896–1901: BAL, Drawings Collection, ScJ[52](4–6)

84. MLOSJ, K37/5–7

85. MLOSJ, Council Mins 1927–35, p.39; K33/7

86. MLOSJ, East tower basement, N2 'Historic Property' files: Executive Officers' Committee Mins, 1928–45, p.2

87. BAL, Drawings Collection, RAN/11/L/2/(3–8): MLOSJ, Council Mins 1917–35, p. 113

88. MLOSJ, K34: TNA, WORK4/1041

89. MLOSJ, N2 Historic Property file 'Correspondence with Mr. Etchells'; Council Mins, 1935–40, p.143: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/005382; GLC/AR/BR/22/ ES/103426

90. MLOSJ, K34; Architects' Drawings 842–59: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/ 22/ES/103426

91. MLOSJ, T/21/54; T/4/51

92. ILHC, H. W. Fincham, 'Notes on the Library and the Museum … at St John's Gate, Clerkenwell', 1945, p. 16: TNA, WORKS 14/1041

93. MLOSJ, 'File A, St John's Gate, Re-organization of accommodation'; Report of the Chapter-General for the year ended 31 December , 1965, p.10: Col. Sir Edwin King, The Knights of St. John in the British Realm , 1967 edn, revised by Sir Harry Luke, pp.251–2: David Braithwaite, Building in the Blood: The Story of Dove Brothers of Islington 1781–1981 , 1981, p.145: information kindly supplied by Pamela Willis

94. MLOSJ, K26/66: MDR 1887/5/54: IBC: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins

95. DSR

96. IBC: RB: TNA, IR58/46276/4119

97. IBC: DSR

98. MLOSJ, 'Occupation' box, Robt Vigers to Edwin Freshfield, 6 July 1887: POD

99. POD: IBC

100. IBC: information supplied by St John Ambulance

101. MDR 1882/41/607: TNA, BT 31/18040/92643; IR58/42676/4123

102. B, 12 June 1886, p.871: DSR: BAL, Biog. file: IBC

103. DSR: TNA, IR58/42676/4122: LCC Mins, 26 June 1900, p.858

104. DSR: plaque on building

105. IBC: Evening Standard, 29 June 2001, p.74

106. Pinks, p.334

107. POD: IBC

108. IBC

109. Except where indicated otherwise, this section is based on David M. Butler, The Quaker Meeting Houses of Britain, 1999, pp.411–12: W. Beck and T. F. Ball, The London Friends' Meetings , 1869, pp.192–2: Pinks, pp.286–7

110. B, 11 May 1895, p. 365: DSR

111. Clare Willsdon, Mural Painting in Britain 1840–1940, 2000, p.370: Peel Institute, Annual Reports, 1927–8, p.4; 1928–9, p.37: Sir Joseph Duveen, Thirty Years of British Art, 1930, p.1: The Studio, Feb 1928, pp.79–80

112. IBC

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid.

115. MLOSJ, T/21/54; T/21/60

116. Ibid.; T/21/62; K33/12–13

117. MLOSJ, T/21/60; T/21/62

118. POD: IBC

119. POD

120. MLOSJ, T/21/60

CHAPTER VI (pp.164–181)

Britton Street Area

1. A New Guide to London: or, Directions to Strangers, 1726

2. Survey of London, vol.XXVII, 1957, pp. 178–82

3. Barney Sloane and Gordon Malcolm, Excavations at the Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, London , 2004, pp.84, 123, 139

4. The descent of the Ballet holding in Butt Close can be traced in LPL, MS 2732

5. Cromwell, pp. 173–4

6. Cromwell, pp. 170, 172

7. Historical Manuscripts Commission, The Mansucripts of the House of Lords , vol.6 (new series), 1704–1706, 1912, p.383: Commercial Union (CGU), Hand-in-Hand Insurance Co. Policy Register, vol.1/A, policy nos 257–8: MDR 1711/2/4; 1712/4/26–7; 1716/1/140–1

8. MDR 1716/2/45, 48

9. Survey of London, vol. XXVII, 1957, p.178n

10. GL, MS 8674/29, p. 145

11. Survey of London, vol. XXVII, 1957, p. 182

12. Cromwell, p. 144

13. RB: M. H. Port (ed.), The Commissions for Building Fifty New Churches , 1986, p. 108

14. MDR 1720/6/22

15. MDR 1719/5/279

16. MDR 1720/1/288

17. LMA, HFCS 14, 31 May 1721

18. E. G. W. Bill, The Queen Anne Churches, 1979, p.43

19. MDR

20. MDR: GL, MS 8674 passim

21. RB

22. RB: Gentleman's Magazine, Nov 1737, p.702

23. MDR 1727/5/445: GL, MS 8674/34, p.188

24. GL, MS 8674/22, p.44; 8674/26, p.264

25. RB: GEC

26. RB: C. Clutton, the late G. H. Baillie & C. A. Ilbert (eds), Britten's Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers, 1973 edn

27. RB: The New Complete Guide to London, 1774

28. ODNB: RB

29. Leonard Weiss, Watch-Making in England 1760–1820, 1982, p.45: Britten's Old Clocks and Watches

30. Chris Ellmers, 'The Impact of the 1797 Tax on Clocks and Watches on the London Trade' in London & Middlesex Archaeological Society, Collectanea Londinensia, 1978, pp. 395–6

31. RB: POD

32. Bryan's Dictionary of Painters & Engravers, 1920 edn, p. 88

33. RB: Geoffrey Beard and Christopher Gilbert (eds), Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660–1840, 1986, pp.349–50, 571

34. RB: POD: GL, MS 11936/370: Sir Ambrose Heal, The London Furniture Makers from the Restoration to the Victorian Era 1660–1840 , 1953, p.183: Beard and Gilbert, p.885

35. RB: POD: Heal, pp.24,71: Beard and Gilbert, pp.106, 375

36. RB: GL, MS 8674/72; 8674/84, p.278; 8674/109, p.94: Pinks, pp.289–90: Peter Willett, An Introduction to the Thoroughbred , 1975, pp.28, 29, 30, 32

37. RB

38. RB: Cromwell, p. 170

39. RB

40. POD: Census of 1841

41. Pinks, p.337

42. Cassell's Complete Book of Sports and Pastimes, 1893, p.280

43. POD

44. GL, MS 9580/7

45. POD: OS: DSR: ILHC, Lamb and Flag Ragged Schools and Mission, Red Lion Street, Clerkenwell: Report of the Fiftysixth Year's Work, c . 1901, pp.4, 10

46. POD

47. Ibid: Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905–1970, p. 82

48. POD

49. Ibid.

50. B, 11 May 1872, p.362: LMA, LCC/MISC.P/114, sheet 5, pt 1

51. MBW Mins

52. LMA, LCC/MISC.P/114, sheet 5, pt 1

53. Sir Walter Besant, London: North of the Thames, 1911, p. 471

54. DSR: POD

55. POD: Lesley Richmond & Bridget Stockford, Company Archives , 1986, p.366: LMA, Acc/2169

56. IBC

57. BN, 24 June 1910 (tender)

58. DSR

59. TNA, IR58/42677/4216: CM, sale particulars for auction of the House Property and Investment Co.'s assets, Nov 1951

60. IBC: DSR

61. POD

62. DSR: POD

63. Ibid.

64. DSR

65. LMA, LCC bomb damage map 62

66. IBC.

67. MDR 1753/1/92: Cromwell, p. 174n

68. B, 10 Jan 1857, pp.23–4: Pinks, pp.290–1

69. LMA, MBW 2612: B, 3 March 1877, p.217

70. Account based largely on information from YRM: Journal of the RIBA , March 1978, pp. 86–96; March 2000, pp.52–8: AJ, 29 Sept 1982, pp.48–53; 14 June 1989, pp.67–9: Alan Powers, In the Line of Development: FRS Yorke, E Rosenberg and CS Mardall to YRM, 1930–1992 , 1992, pp. 71–2

71. The Times, 23 Aug 1971, p. 12.

72. Ibid.

73. Journal of the RIBA, March 1978, p.91

74. AJ, 29 Sept 1982, p.49

75. Bryan Appleyard, 'From God's house to Bauhaus and back again', The Times, Saturday section, 20 Nov 1982, p.1

76. Journal of the RIBA, March 2000, p.54

77. MDR 1722/2/166,167; 1723/5/116,117: GL, MS 8674/27,28,40

78. RB: GL, MS 3110

79. MDR 1723/5/116,117: RB: GL, MS 8674/28,40

80. DSR: EH, Historians' file ISL 39

81. Building Design, 4 March 2005, pp. 13–17: AJ, 30 June 2005, pp.26–37: www.tonyfretton.co.uk/britt.htm

82. MDR 1723/151–5

83. Martin Pawley, 'The house that Janet built', Guardian, 17 Oct 1988

84. Deyan Sudjic et al, English Extremists: The Architecture of Campbell Zogolovitch Wilkinson Gough , 1988, pp.36–8

85. Islington Gazette, 3 April 1987, p.7

86. Evening Standard, ES Homes and Property supplement, 27 Sept 2000, pp.30–1: 'Half-way House', Telegraph Sunday Magazine , 24 May 1985

87. MDR 1721/5/114; 1722/6/153

88. POD: DSR

89. POD

90. TNA, IR58/42678/4231

91. MDR 1724/2/309: GL MS 8674/26, p.299

92. RB: POD: ODNB

93. DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/13/112570

94. IBC

95. Ibid.

96. RB: LMA MR/PLT/1751

97. MDR 1724/2/309: GL, MS 8674/26, p.299

98. MDR 1723/2/79–81: GL, MS 8674/26, p.234; 8674/40, p.19

99. GL, MS 8674/26

100. J. P. Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol. III, 1803, p.266

101. Bill, p. 293: Pinks, p.293: RB: POD

102. GL, MS 19,224/335

103. MDR

104. TNA, IR58/42677/4214: POD: FBC, Industries of Finsbury , 1949 edn

105. Besant, p.471

106. MDR 1714/4/100

107. ODNB: Pinks, pp.268–9

108. Cromwell, p.170: Pinks, p.268

109. This account based in large part on EH, Historians' file ISL98

110. E. R. Robson, School Architecture, 1874, pp.315–16

111. Robson, p. 316

112. SBL Mins

113. LCC Mins, 13 July 1915, p.84; 21 Jan 1919, p.41

114. Sir Gwilym Gibbon and Reginald W. Bell, History of the London County Council 1889–1939 , 1939, p. 281: LCC Mins, 9 May 1922, pp. 503–4; 11 July 1922, p. 117

115. LCC Mins, 26 June 1923, pp.967–8; 24 July 1923, pp. 193–4; 27 Jan 1931, p.83; 21 July 1931, p.156; 4 July 1939, p.24

116. LCC Mins

117. Robson, p.228

118. MDR 1725/6/391

119. IBC

120. Ibid.

121. LMA, P76/JNB, pp.61a, 65–7, 79

122. GL, MS 18319/37

123. B, 30 June 1866, p.490

124. William Dawson, A Mid-London Parish: Short History of the Parish of S. John, Clerkenwell , 1885, pp.79–82: Besant, p.471

125. GL MS 18319/18

CHAPTER VII (pp.182–202)

Cowcross Street and Turnmill Street

1. MBW Mins, 28 April 1865, p. 511; 4 Aug 1865, p. 957

2. Barney Sloane and Gordon Malcolm, Excavations at the Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, London , 2004, pp.25–6

3. Chris Ellmers, 'Clerkenwell: a study in urban growth, with special reference to the period 1590–1841', unpublished draft Ph.D. thesis, 1979, p.18

4. Pinks, pp.338–40: Sonia Roberts, The Story of Islington, 1975, p. 124

5. Sloane and Malcolm, p.88

6. Ellmers, p.27

7. Sloane and Malcolm, p. 138

8. Ibid., p.275

9. ODNB

10. Pinks, p.339

11. Ibid., p.340

12. Pauline Burden, 'Marvell after Cambridge', in British Library Journal , 4, 1978, pp.45–6

13. ODNB

14. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 25 Aug 1789, p.225

15. LMA, MJ/SP/1797/07/023

16. The Times, 10 Sept 1796, p.3c: LMA, MJ/SP/1795/ 10/041

17. Gillian Darley, John Soane, An Accidental Romantic, 1999, pp.73–4: Alec Forshaw and Theo Bergström, Smithfield Past and Present , 1990 edn, pp. 158–60

18. B, 28 Oct 1865, p.772: City Press, 23 Nov 1867

19. LMA, MR/L/SP/043

20. Cromwell, p. 174

21. Pinks, pp.304–5

22. GL Print Room, cat. no. p5371416

23. LMA, MJ/SP/1791/01/049

24. The Times, 7 Jan 1848, p.7b

25. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/175C

26. LMA, MR/B/C/1802/415: LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/175C

27. The Times, 5 Oct 1829, p.2e

28. The Times, 7 Jan 1848, p.7b

29. Chris Pickford, Bedfordshire Clock and Watchmakers 1352–1880 , 1991, p.291: John B. Penfold, The Clockmakers of Cumberland , 1977, p.153

30. Camden Local Studies & Archive Centre, trade card in Heal Collection, 118.18

31. Geoffrey Beard and Christopher Gilbert (eds), Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660–1840 , 1986, p.328

32. The Times, 17 July 1790, p. 1b

33. M. H. Port (ed.), The Commissions for Building Fifty New Churches , 1986, p.108

34. LMA, MJ/SP/1769/10/090; MJ/SP/1769/A/020: www.oldbaileyonline.org

35. The Times, 7 Jan 1801, p.3d

36. POD

37. The Times, 11 June 1844, p.5e

38. ODNB

39. TNA, SP16/345/92

40. Clerkenwell News, 24 April 1861

41. B, 26 July 1862, p. 531

42. Clerkenwell News, 24 April 1861

43. B, 21 Dec 1850, p. 609

44. Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, 1861–2, vol. I, p. 174

45. James Greenwood, 'London Courts and Alleys', in In Strange Company; being the experiences of a Roving Correspondent , 2nd edn, 1874

46. B, 21 Dec 1850, p. 609

47. B, 12 March 1853, pp. 161–2

48. Ibid.

49. B, 2 Jan 1864, p. 9

50. B, 7 May 1870, p. 370

51. MBW Mins, 1873–7

52. Walter Besant, London: North of the Thames, 1911, p. 470

53. B, 25 Aug 1855, p. 398

54. POD: Illustrated Times, 29 Aug 1863

55. POD

56. The Times, 6 Sept 1873, p. 1b

57. BL, Evanion Collection of Ephemera, Evan. 9071

58. POD

59. R. Spink, DBC: The Story of the Danish Bacon Company 1902–1977 , 1977

60. DSR: POD: B, 1 Jan 1881, p. 32

61. The Times, 2 Dec 1931, p. 5e

62. DSR: MDR: RB: POD

63. ILHC, Report of Medical Officer of Health, Finsbury, 1936, pp. 119–120 (in cuttings L1.7)

64. B, 6 May 1865, p. 324; 19 May 1866, p. 359

65. The Times, 11 Aug 1876, p. 5d; 12 Aug 1876, p. 9f: DSR

66. IBC

67. B, 26 June 1880, p. 807

68. Robert Opie, Sweet Memories, 1988, p. 60

69. POD: GLC/AR/BR/7/070205

70. B, 19 July 1879, p. 817

71. David Taylor, 'Connectivity and Movement', in Peter Neal (ed.), Urban Villages and the Making of Communities, 2003, pp. 102, 106: Town and Country Planning, March 2004, p. 175

72. IBC: www.epr.co.uk

73. MDR 1773/4/354

74. MDR 1777/2/302: GL, MS 9110/23; MS 8674/114; MS 11936/216: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/EE/017936

75. GL, MS 11936/341

76. TNA, J90/1244: H. D. G. Holt, Sir Felix Booth, 1963

77. ODNB

78. Lord Kinross, The Kindred Spirit: A History of Gin and of the House of Booth , 1959, p. 82

79. LMA, Tanqueray Gordon Collection, Booth's Distillery Ltd, Directors' Minute Book 1897–1904

80. Ibid.: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/070205

81. LMA, Tanqueray Gordon Collection, Booth's Distillery Ltd, Directors' Minute Book 1897–1904

82. B, 17 Aug 1901, p. 157: Kinross, p. 82

83. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/070205: Academy Architecture, 1901, p. 48

84. Architectural Review, May 1904, pp. 206–14: LMA, Tanqueray Gordon Collection, Booth's Distillery Ltd, Directors' Minute Book 1897–1904

85. Architectural Review, May 1904, p. 213

86. Kinross, p. 78

87. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/017936

88. IBC

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid.

91. Ibid.

92. B, 24 Jan 1874, p. 80: DSR

93. IBC

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid.

96. Ibid.

97. Ibid.

98. LMA, MR/PLT/2371–2: MDR 1776/4/192

99. LMA, MR/PLT/2367: MDR 1776/4/192

100. LMA, MR/PLT/2367–2413: MDR 1776/4/247

101. Census

102. LMA, MR/PLT/2367–9: MDR 1782/3/330: IBC

103. LMA, MR/PLT/2386–7: MDR 1786/6/434: IBC: Census

104. Information from Hazlitts Ltd: www.gusalexanderarchitects.com

105. DSR: MBW Mins, 22 Nov 1878, p.693

106. IBC: The Times, 17 April 2007, p. 76: information kindly supplied by Paul Cooke

107. B, 27 April 1867 p. 300: TNA, IR58/43018/248

108. LMA, MR/PLT/2367–9

109. B, 25 Dec 1886, p. 934

110. IBC: www.epr.co.uk, 2 Feb 2007

111. B, 13 Sept 1879, p. 1037: BN, 12 Sept 1879, p. 330: DSR

112. B, 28 May 1864 p. 403: Census of 1871

113. The Times, 5 May 1860, p. 4a; 1 July 1897, p. 3a

114. IBC

115. B, 28 Oct 1865, p. 772 (tender): City Press, 23 Nov 1867: ILHC, cuttings

116. GL, MS 11551

117. The Times, 30 Dec 1870, p. 9e

118. DSR

119. IBC

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid.

122. David Braithwaite, Building in the Blood: The Story of Dove Brothers of Islington 1781–1981, 1981: DSR

123. DSR

124. Ibid.

125. IBC

126. ILHC, cuttings L 1.7: IBC: City Recorder, 26 Sept 1991

127. DSR

128. RB

129. MDR 1733/1/470–2; 1735/1/206; 1745/1/108, 114: Ogilby & Morgan's map (1676)

130. TNA, IR 58/43019/3780

131. IBC

CHAPTER VIII (pp.203–241)

St John Street

1. Nellie J. M. Kerling, Cartulary of St Bartholomew's Hospital , 1973, pp. 20–3, 25

2. Pinks, p. 294

3. A Brief Director for those That would send their Letters to any parts of England, Scotlaud [sic] or Ireland, n. d. (c. 1650): John Taylor, The Carriers Cosmographie, 1637: see also J. A. Chartres, 'The Capital's Provincial Eyes: London's Inns in the Early Eighteenth Century', in London Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1977, pp. 24–39

4. BL, MS Cotton Nero EVI, ff. 6v, 19, 19v; MS Lansdowne 200, ff.42v–43: TNA, E303/8/55; E303/8/58; E303/27/64: Kerling, pp. 20–5, 156–7: Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. 19, pt 2, 1544 , pp. 176, 194

5. LMA, MA/S/50

6. Middlesex County Records (Old Series), vol. II, 1974 edn, p. xxiii; vol. IV, 1975 edn, p. 344

7. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/014

8. Middlesex County Records (Old Series), vol. II (1603–1625), 1974 edn, pp. xxiii, 84: Cromwell, pp. 111–12: Pinks, pp. 296–7

9. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/026,038

10. Gentleman's Magazine, Nov 1827, p. 424

11. ILN, 28 Feb 1863, p. 231

12. LMA, MA/S/17

13. LMA, MA/S/56

14. LMA, MJ/SP/XX/026; MA/S/5,13

15. LMA, MJ/SP/1622/1

16. LMA, MA/S/3

17. Pinks, p. 301

18. LMA, MA/S/50,56

19. LMA, MA/S/55

20. LMA, MA/S/56

21. LMA, MA/S/196, 226–7

22. Pinks, p. 304

23. MDR 1882/3/148–9; 1882/31/521; 1884/13/330: B, 17 Nov 1883, p. 674

24. St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, HA3/22, p. 22

25. St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, HC9/9, vol. 6; HC9/5; HC 15

26. The Times, 28 Feb 1994, p. 1: IBC

27. IBC

28. Port of London Authority RO, London & India Docks, Dock and Warehouse Committee Mins; London & India Docks Joint Committee Mins; London & India Docks Joint Committee, Engineer's Half-Yearly Reports

29. DSR: IBC

30. DSR: B, 30 April 1887, p. 659

31. RB: GL, MS 11936/480: POD

32. The Times, 4 March 1882, p. 9f: DSR

33. DSR

34. LCC Mins, 27 Feb 1900, pp. 283–4: DSR: IBC

35. LCC Mins, 17–18 Dec 1907, p. 1467

36. IBC

37. LMA, LCC/MIN/7263–6; LCC/MIN/7394, case 9

38. POD

39. M. Duffy, 'The Growth of Pollards: 79 Years of Progress', typescript, c. 1974

40. Information supplied by Keith Haskins, Ken Thurlow, James Salmon

41. LCC Mins, 30 April 1912, p. 1050; 30 July 1912, p. 591; 14 Oct 1913, p. 653: IBC

42. The following account of the buildings is mainly based on LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/38512

43. B, 8 Oct 1926, p. 575: Board-room illustrated in AJ, 9 Feb 1927, p. 227

44. MDR 1828/8/147

45. DSR: IBC

46. The Property Guide, Spring—Summer 1995, p. 5

47. IBC

48. FBC, Industries of Finsbury, 1949 edn, p. 67: PP 1831 (231), XI. 1, 24th Report of the Commissioners for inquiring into Charities , 1830, plan [1] after p. 621: Hackney Archives, D/B/NIC 1/8/28

49. 7 Geo. IV, c. 24 (private), 2nd Schedule, pp. 503–4

50. SE, Letters 1, pp. 132, 179, 207–8, 213–16

51. MDR 1834/3/105

52. SE, Letters 2, pp. 439–40, 462–3

53. Ibid, Letters 4, p. 286: Hackney Archives, D/B/NIC, 1/7/12, lease of 21 Jan 1851

54. SE, Letters 4, pp. 448–9, 459–60, 634–5

55. Leopold Farmer & Sons, sales particulars

56. EH, registry file LRS 000809/187

57. Information provided by Bellway Homes

58. SE, Letters 1, p. 230: Pinks, p. 683

59. MDR 1830/9/191

60. Leopold Farmer & Sons, sales particulars: NMR, photograph 43/2370

61. Museum of London, Ephemera Collection, drawings dated 17 Nov 1875, 4 April 1883: DSR

62. Illustrated in Leopold Farmer & Sons' sales particulars

63. SE, Letters 2, pp. 439–40, 484, 485–6, 488–90, 600–1; Letters 3, pp. 259–60

64. J. M. Crook, The Dilemma of Style, 1989, edn, p. 281

65. Peter Jackson, 'John Tallis 1818–1876' in Peter Jackson (ed.), John Tallis's London Street Views 1838–1840, London Topographical Society, 2002, pp. 19–35: POD

66. B, 24 Feb 1872, pp. 145–7

67. Ibid: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/048663

68. DSR

69. IBC

70. DSR: TNA, B11/4: Information from Nationwide Building Society Archives

71. TNA, PROB11/489, sig. 143: Bedfordshire County RO, Copies of the Deeds, Will, and Codicil of Mrs Jane Cart, 1736 (reprinted 1922), pp. 36, 40, 53: RB

72. Bedfordshire County RO, X699/10

73. St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, HC/56, p. 62; HC5/57: RB

74. MDR 1778/5/584; 1824/1/247: RB: POD

75. OS: POD

76. TNA, IR 58/43016/91: DSR 1923/521: ILHC, FBC Housing Committee Mins, 12 April 1948

77. B, 18 Nov 1994, pp. 50–1

78. ILHC, FBC Official Guide, 1958, p. 107: RB: Title deeds, courtesy of Mr Tim Farmiloe and Royds RDW

79. Title deeds, courtesy of Mr Tim Farmiloe and Royds RDW

80. B, 9 Oct 1897, p. xxxii

81. Advertisements in B, 17 Nov 1894, p. xxxii; 9 Oct 1897, p. xxxii

82. RB

83. The Times, 12 March 1868, p. 7f: City Press, 14 March 1868, p. 5f: B, 14 March 1868, p. 200; 6 Feb 1869, p. 105

84. BN, 12 June 1868, p. 405

85. B, 6 Feb 1869, p. 105

86. Information from Jonathan Clarke: B, 6 Feb 1869, p. 105

87. Architect & Building News, 30 Dec 1938, pp. 364–5

88. B, 12 Jan 1878, p. 36: DSR: St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, HC/13/3, p. 275: MDR 1890/27/84

89. IBC: POD

90. DSR: MDR 1891/19/491–2; 34/861

91. Letterhead of Perry Gardner & Co. in LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/ES/00257

92. RB

93. MDR 1787/2/293: RB

94. Illustrated in Treve Rosoman, London Wallpapers: Their Manufacture and Use 1690–1840 , 1992, p. 33

95. MDR 1772/2/108–9: RB

96. RB: POD

97. The Times, 10 July 1878, p. 5f

98. Journal of the RIBA, Oct 1988, pp. 114–17

99. Architect & Building News, 17 Dec 1926, p. 720: AJ, 11 Aug 1926, p. 169

100. Architect & Building News, 18 Oct 1935, pp. 61–4: B, 25 Oct 1935, pp. 725–7, 734: BAL, Biog. files

101. MDR 1780/2/147–8; 1829/10/237; 1831/5/525; 1832/2/725

102. RB: Censuses of 1871–1891

103. TNA, IR 58/42674/3901–4

104. IBC: information supplied by Carol Thomas

105. RB: Goad insurance plans: TNA, IR 58/42673/3899

106. IBC: Ronald E. Wilson, Two Hundred Precious Metal Years: A History of the Sheffield Smelting Co. Ltd, 1760–1960 , 1960, pp. 76–7

107. LMA, Acc/1876/MP/01/07, p. 18; Acc/1876/D1/989: POD: AJ Interiors, 26 Oct 2000

108. IBC

109. DSR: IBC: RB: POD

110. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/537: CM, Vouchers Box, Oct 1896–March 1897: POD

111. Building Design, 10 Jan 1997, p. 8: Evening Standard 'Homes & Property' supplement, 9 July 1997, p. 3: IBC

112. This and much of the following account is based on Frank A. King, The Story of the Cannon Brewery, 1951

113. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/150: BL, Crace Collection, Portfolio XV, no. 39

114. M. Girouard, Victorian Pubs, 1984, p. 91

115. DSR

116. Licensed Victualler and Catering Trades Journal, 27 Feb 1901

117. Brewers' Journal, 15 March 1893, p. 152; 15 July 1876, p. 164; 15 Nov 1894, p. 632: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/ 17/012104

118. CM, AOB, Q, p. 355: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/012104

119. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/641, 642a

120. DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/012104

121. AJ, 8 March 2001, p. 6: information provided by Berkeley Homes

122. IBC: www.carrotltd.com

123. Plaque on building: B, 5 Jan 1901 (tender)

124. OS

125. ILHC, cuttings L1.7: TNA, BT 41/350/2002; BT41/164/924; BT31/879/910C: POD

126. DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/042997

127. John Laing & Son Ltd, Team Work: the Story of John Laing and Son Limited , 1950, pp. 33–4

128. IBC

129. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/718/1: B, 18 May 1867, p. 358

130. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/13/000309: IBC

131. LMA, E/NOR/E/9/56: Goad insurance plans

132. MDR 1891/21/924; 1892/1/698–9: DSR: B, 12 April 1890, p. 276: M. Girouard, Victorian Pubs, 1984, p. 133

133. Independent, 6 Oct 1993, p. 11; 11 Dec 1993 (Food & Drink supplement): Girouard, p. 160

134. GL, Skinners' Company Estates Committee Mins, 3 Nov 1908, p. 167; Skinners' Company Court Mins, 20 May 1909, p. 77

135. AJ, 17 Feb 2000, p. 23: Building Times, Sept 1934, pp. 13–14: S. John Teague, The City University: A History, 1980, pp. 174–6,179

136. MDR 1833/5/249,525: Gloucester RO, D3549/38/4/6: LMA, Acc/1953/C/945

137. Gloucester RO, D3549 passim: DSR

138. LMA, Acc/1953/C/896–7,921–2,944, 938

139. LMA, Acc/1953/C/838

140. LMA, Acc/1953/C/946

141. POD

142. EH, Historians' file ISL 149

143. IBC

144. LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, p. 36: POD: IBC

145. DSR

CHAPTER IX (pp. 242–279)

Charterhouse Square Area

1. GL, Packington Gift Committee, The Relation of the Liberty or Lordship of Glass House Yard to the Parish of St. Botolph Aldersgate , 1864: Albert Bassett Hopkins, The Boroughs of the Metropolis , 1900, p. 148

2. Notes and Queries, 16 July 1853, p. 63

3. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/123A

4. CM, AOB, B, ff. 174, 180, 185v: LMA, Acc/1876/G/3/3, pp. 144–5

5. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. 20, 1545, p. 303: TNA, C54/673/51

6. LMA, Acc/1876/G/6/3, p.422

7. TNA, E164/45

8. TNA, SC6/H. VIII/2396

9. Ibid: Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. 15, 1540, p. 476; vol. 17, 1542, pp. 398–9; vol. 18, 1543, pp. 132, 368; vol. 20, 1545 , p. 213; vol. 21 pt 1, p. 767

10. James Howell, Londinopolis, 1657, p. 343

11. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/123A—B

12. The Autobiography of Sir John Bramston, Camden Society vol. 32, 1845, pp. 103–9

13. John Adair, Roundhead General: The Campaigns of Sir William Waller , 1997, p. 27

14. TNA, E164/45

15. Middlesex County Records, vol. I, 1886, p. 275; vol. II, 1886, p. 91

16. LMA, Acc/1876/G/3/4, f. 61v; Acc/1876/G/5/65/1

17. CM, AOB, B, ff. 137v–8, 144v–5: LMA, Acc/1876/G/3/4, f. 101

18. Edward Hatton, A New View of London, 1708, p. 16

19. Clyve Jones, 'A London "Directory'" of Peers and Bishops for 1708–9', in London Journal, vol. 18, 1993, pp. 23–30

20. CM, AR/5/13: ODNB

21. CM, AOB, F, pp. 30–3

22. Robert Smythe, Historical Account of Charter—House, 1808, p. 290

23. The London Guide, 1755: Victoria Moger, The Favour of Your Company , 1980, p. 11: CM, CS/1/2, p. 84: POD

24. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/843–5,854,858,867

25. CLRO, 384D/17

26. CM, CS/1/5

27. Ibid.

28. POD

29. CM, E/1/87, letter 9 June 1947

30. POD: ILHC, FBC Official Guide, 1963, p. 64

31. TNA, E164/45

32. LMA, Acc/1876/AR/1/5/1

33. LMA, Acc/1876/AR/3/6A; AR/1/22

34. Howell, Londinopolis, p. 343

35. CM, AOB, D, pp. 155–6: LMA, Acc/1876/G/5/65/1

36. Survey of London, vol. XXXIV, 1966, p.433

37. LMA, Acc/1876/G/2/60/2

38. 16 Geo. II, c. vi

39. CM, CS/1/2: LMA, Acc/1876/AG/1/22

40. The History of the Charterhouse, 1816: CM, AOB, I, p. 409; CS/1/3, pp. 82, 84

41. CM, CS/1/2, p. 143; CS/1/3, p. 82

42. CM, CS/1/3, pp. 128, 161–4

43. Lionel Goodrich (ed.), The Metropolis Local Management Acts , 1888 edn, pp. 142–3: CM, AOB, N, pp. 205–6

44. CM, AOB, N, pp. 198–9

45. CM, G/3/6, p. 309: 21 & 22 Geo. V, c. xciii, clause 16: LCC Mins, 28 July 1931, p. 324

46. CM, CS/1/3, pp. 102, 109, 110

47. CM, ECM, G, pp. 191, 193: CS/2/4, pp. 1, 70, 104; CS/2/11, Mins of Trustees, 26 Feb 1954: BAL, Archives, S&P (job files of Seely & Paget), AE, box 47, misc. file

48. CM, Misc. accounts, 1959–60; CS/1/4

49. CM, AR/3/459

50. CM, AG/5/4,5

51. CLRO, 384D/21, pp. 55, 112; Surveyor's Misc. Plans 649

52. The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1558–1603 , ed. P. W. Hasler, vol. II, 1981, pp. 118–19, 290–3

53. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/24

54. The Autobiography of Sir John Bramston, pp. 103–9

55. LMA, Acc/1876/G/6/3, pp. 422–6: MDR 1713/1/42

56. TNA, C8/569/16

57. CM, AOB, D, p. 63: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/913

58. TNA, C8/569/16; PROB5/4809: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/ 914: MDR 1713/1/42

59. Harleian Society, vol. xv, 1880, pp. 96–7

60. TNA, PROB5/4809; C7/630/11; C10/305/24

61. CM, AR/5/13

62. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/901b

63. The Private Collection of Mr. W. Snoxell, 2, Charterhouse Square, EC , 1873 edn: William C. Smith, Concerning Handel , 1948, pp. 132–3: Jacob Simon (ed.), Handel: A Celebration of his Life and Times , 1985, p. 180

64. RB

65. LMA, MDR 1898/48/15–16

66. DSR

67. TNA, IR 58/42710/38

68. Commercial General Union, Hand-in-Hand Insurance Co. Policy Register, vol. 1/A, policy no. 192

69. TNA, C7/630/11; C10/305/24; PROB5/4809

70. Notes & Queries, 4th series, vol. 5, p. 401: Harleian Society, vol. xv, 1880, pp. 96–7

71. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 74309 (St Sepulchre)

72. Survey of London, vol. XL, 1980, p. 147

73. RB: POD: ODNB: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 9494 (St Thomas's Charterhouse)

74. RB: POD: Census

75. TNA, IR58/42710/39

76. LMA, DC/PH/12/2–3

77. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 74309 (St Sepulchre)

78. LMA, Acc/1876/G/6/3, p. 579

79. Old Charterhouse Magazine, Dec 1933, p. 22

80. British Museum, Prints and Drawings, J. W. Archer Collection, Case 261 Portfolio 5, 1874/3/14/63

81. EH, AR/HB/2984: original correspondence in possession of Survey of London

82. CM, CS/1/4, rate lists, 1860–72; CS/1/5, 4 July 1894, 1 March 1904: TNA, IR58/42710/41–2: Census: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p. 83

83. DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/075521: Architect & Building News , 30 July 1937, pp. 142–6. Harold P. Clunn, London Marches On, 1947, p. 35

84. POD: Harold P. Clunn, The Face of London, 1951 edn, p. 95

85. AJ, 13 April 1988, p. 11: Peter Haining, Agatha Christie's Poirot, A Celebration of the Great Detective , 1995, pp. 40–4

86. IBC: POD

87. POD

88. TNA, C10/235/22

89. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/64

90. CM, CS/1/2, pp. 3, 18–19: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/72: RB: MDR 1808/5/259

91. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/81: RB

92. BAL, Archives, S&P (job files of Seely & Paget), AE, box 36: LMA, Acc/1876/E/1/40

93. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/83–5: CM, CS/1/3, p.93: RB

94. MDR 1825/10/15: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/90

95. RB

96. Ibid: MDR 1833/6/468

97. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/145

98. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/93a: POD: RB: CM, CS/1/2, p. 138

99. K. Baedeker, London and its Environs … Handbook for Travellers , 1879, p. 9: ODNB

100. RB: POD

101. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/119,170: RB: POD

102. DSR: CM, AOB, R, p. 93

103. CM, AOB, D, pp. 145–6, 161, 163; ECM, D, pp. 503–5: LMA, Acc/1876/D/1/23A

104. LMA, Acc/1876/AR/7/15/1

105. CM, ECM, D, pp. 111, 114, 124–5: LMA, Acc/1876/ G/3/4

106. LMA, Acc/1876/AR/7/22/1; Acc/1876/MP1/124

107. LMA, Acc/1876/G/2/60/146

108. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/704, 756: GL, MS 8674/130, pp. 16, 19, 20

109. CM, CS/1/2, p. 66: GL, MS 8674/130, p. 19; 8674/132, p. 367

110. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/780: POD

111. CM, AOB, Q, pp. 147, 160, 187, 336; AG/5/20, Buckland & Garrard's a/c, 1895–7: LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/142

112. CM, AOB, R, pp. 4–5, 9, 29: LCC Mins, 11 Dec 1900, p. 1688; 5 Feb 1901, p. 148; 30 April 1901, p. 515; 18 March 1902, p. 459; 7 Oct 1902, p. 1354: IBC: The Caterer, 16 Feb 1902; 15 June 1918

113. CM, AOB, R, pp. 363, 380, 433: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/786

114. IBC

115. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/759–61

116. CM, AOB, Q, pp. 115, 127: LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/ 140, 141A, 161

117. IBC

118. TNA, E164/45

119. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/123B: CM, AOB, B, ff. 137–8

120. CM, AOB, G, pp. 37–45; AR/3/455; AR/7/22/1: LMA, Acc/1876/G/2/60/145

121. London Gazette, 8–11, 15–18 April 1700: LMA, Acc/1876/G/6/3, pp. 582–4

122. CM, CS/1/3, pp. 144, 146; ECM, F, p. 48

123. CM, AOB, Q, pp. 126, 138–9, 146; AG/5/7; CS/1/5: LMA, Acc/1876/MP/1/143: POD

124. CM, AG/5/4,10

125. CM, AOB, Q, p. 335; ECM, F, p. 335; CS/1/5, 20 Oct 1892

126. POD

127. POD: ODNB (which erroneously states that Ferranti first set up at No. 57b Charterhouse Square): Dictionary of Business Biography

128. IBC: Brick Bulletin, vol. 3, No. 6, 1956, front cover illustration: CM, letter to the Governors, 20 Nov 1956

129. IBC

130. ILHC, FBC Official Guide, 1963, p. 64: Estates Gazette, 14 Sept 1974

131. POD: Mary Cosh, The Squares of Islington Part I: Finsbury and Clerkenwell , 1990, p. 19

132. GL, MS 9081: LMA, Acc/1876/G/3/2, p. 71: CM, AOB, C, ff. 166v, 182; ECM, D, p. 29

133. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/123B

134. LMA, Acc/1876/G/3/4

135. John Stow, A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, ed. J. Strype, 2 vols, 1720, III, p. 284

136. CM, CS/1/2, affidavit of Francis Wollaston, 20 Feb 1767

137. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/911

138. GL, MS 10,500

139. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/120a

140. John Nichols, Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century , vol. 1, 1817, p. 832

141. RB: CM, CS/1/2: ODNB

142. E. Treacher Collins, The History and Traditions of the Moorfields Eye Hospital , 1929, pp. 12–15

143. GL, MS 7018: CM, CS/1/3, p. 136

144. RB

145. POD

146. LMA, Acc/1876/MP/1/139: B, 29 July 1876, p. 748; 14 Oct 1876, p. 1011: DSR: The Architect, 14 April 1877, pp. 250–1

147. POD: Information kindly supplied by Richard M. Candee

148. Progress, Commerce: Illustrated London, 1893, p. 169

149. DSR

150. POD

151. AR, Jan 1981, pp. 54–5: Deyan Sudjic et al, English Extremists: The Architecture of Campbell Zogolovitch Wilkinson Gough , 1988, pp. 20–1: Simon Bradley and Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England: London I: The City of London , 1997, p. 453

152. TNA, SC11/451; SCG/Hen8/2396

153. TNA, LR2/61; CM, AOB, A, 13 Oct 1617

154. LMA, Middlesex Sessions Records SR 509/98, 510/36

155. Middlesex County Records, vol. III, 1888, p. 13

156. LMA, MR/LV/6/11

157. MDR 1791/8/407

158. St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, HCI/2920

159. LMA, Acc/1876/E1/5

160. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/825

161. MBW Mins, 2 July 1869, p. 782

162. CLRO, Central Markets Sub-Committee Mins, vol. 2, 1876

163. B, 21 Oct 1876, p. 1035: CLRO, Central Markets Sub-Committee Mins, vol. 1, 1875–6

164. IBC

165. TNA, IR58 43016/78: DSR

166. IBC

167. DSR

168. William Morris Gallery, autobiographical notes by Mackmurdo

169. MDR 1900/19/22: POD

170. IBC: DSR

171. IBC

172. DSR

173. W. J. Neatby's initials in tiled entrance

174. DSR: POD

175. IBC

176. GL, MS 9078/6, 1872–5: DSR

177. Endowed Charities (County of London), vol. III, 1908, pp. 812–3, 837–8

178. GL, MS 9078/6, 1872–5

179. POD

180. Ibid

181. DSR

182. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/889–90: POD

183. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 80–1

184. TNA, C8/569/16; C10/305/24: CM, AOB, D, p. 63: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/913

185. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/901A–905

186. TNA, PROB5/4809: LMA, Acc/1876/E/1/5; Acc/ 18976/D1/905

187. RB: IBC

188. DSR

189. IBC

190. CM, AOB, Q, p. 435: DSR

191. London Archaeologist, vol. 5, no. 10, 1987, p. 271

192. Stow (ed. Strype), III, p. 122

193. LMA, A/CSC/778,786

194. Edward Hatton, A New View of London, 1708, p. 736

195. LMA, A/CSC/790–1

196. LMA, A/CSC/798: B, 29 Aug 1885, p. 312: DSR

197. Augustus Muir, Nairns of Kirkcaldy: A Short History of the Company (1847–1956), 1956, p. 67: POD

198. LMA, A/CSC/785

199. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/59139: Architect & Building News , 23 Sept 1928, p. 345; 14 Nov 1928, p. 677

200. Muir, pp. 124–6

201. Building Design, 14 Nov 1986, p. 14

202. Stow (ed. Strype), III, p. 122

203. GL, 8/ALD 1857

204. B, 17 Nov 1877, pp. 1151, 1153: CLRO, Commissioners of Sewers Plan Book 8, p. 112

205. IBC

206. Ibid

207. Ibid

208. Ibid

209. Ibid

210. Ibid

211. RB

212. Ibid

213. CLRO, Commissioners of Sewers Plan Book 8, p. 101

214. B, 21 May 1887, p. 789

215. RB

216. POD

217. AJ, 12 Jan 1994, p. 6: IBC

218. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/346–50

219. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/13/420

220. IBC

221. R. H. Hadden (ed.), Reminiscences of William Rogers, 1888, p. 48

222. CM, AOB, L, p. 141: William Rogers, The Educational Prospects of St. Thomas Charterhouse , 1856, p. 9

223. Christian Guardian, 1841, p. 180: V & A Museum, Prints & Drawings Collection, 1820: LMA, Acc/1876/MP/1/199: ILN, 13 Aug 1842, p. 216

224. CERC, Church Commissioners' files 19,224/663, 15450

225. Hadden, p. 91

226. BN, 25 Nov 1881, p. 705: Boucher, p. 217

227. CERC, Church Commissioners' files 27306 (1/2, 2/4, 3/4): Church Times, 23 Oct 1908

228. Hadden, pp. 56–7

229. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 15450: B, 25 April 1846, p. 203: Boucher, 1988, p. 210

230. Hadden, pp. 61–90

231. The Times, 26 Oct 1880, p. 9g

232. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 9494

233. Ibid.: LMA, MDR 1869/19/733

234. William Maitland, The History and Survey of London, 1756, vol. VIII, p. 135

235. GL, Packington Gift Committee, The Relation of the Liberty or Lordship of Glass House Yard to the Parish of St. Botolph Aldersgate , 1864

236. GL, MS 1492/1: CLRO, plan schedule B 10j

237. Hadden, p. 50

238. BN, 13 May 1859, p. 452

239. R. J. Charleston, English Glass, 1984, p. 98

240. Peter Francis, 'The development of lead glass: The European connections', in Apollo, Feb 2000, pp. 48–9

241. W. A. Thorpe, History of English and Irish Glass, vol. I, 1929, p. 104

242. Charleston, pp. 98–9

243. W. T. Whitley, The Baptists of London 1612–1928 [n. d.], pp. 19, 114: MDR 1825/10/210: RB

244. RB

245. MDR 1825/10/210: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/109

246. RB

247. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/350; GLC/AR/BR/13/420: DSR: Goad insurance plans

248. IBC

249. B, 24 Feb 1848, p. 88

250. RB: Goad insurance plans: DSR

251. IBC

252. Ibid.

253. Ibid.: AJ, 28 June 2001

254. IBC: Oliver Marriott, The Property Boom, 1967, Appendix 9, pt ii

CHAPTER X (pp. 280–293)

Great Sutton Street Area

1. For accounts of Pardon Chapel and churchyard and their relationship to the early history of the Charterhouse see John Stow, A Survey of London, ed. C. L. Kingsford, 1908, vol. 2, pp. 81–2: Sir W. H. St. John Hope, The History of the London Charterhouse , 1925, pp. 1–36: Gerald S. Davies, Charterhouse in London, 1921, pp. 4–7: VCH, Middlesex, vol. 1, pp. 159–60: David Knowles and W. F. Grimes, Charterhouse, 1954, pp. 17–21: Kieron Tyler, 'Excavations at the former Allied Brewery, 148–180 St John Street, London EC1', in Transactions of the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society , vol. 49, 1998, pp. 107–32

2. Davies, p. 4: Stow, loc. cit.

3. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/181–3

4. BL, Cotton MS Claudius E VI, ff. 136–7,230: Calendar of Patent Rolls , 1563–1566, pp. 306–7; 1547–1548, p. 201: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/181A,183

5. M. H. Port (ed.), The Commissions for Building Fifty New Churches , 1986, pp. 13, 28, 29, 34, 151, 161: LPL, MSS 2705, f. 6; 2713, f. 71; 2750/39

6. TNA, E164/45

7. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/A01, f. 4

8. Ibid

9. LMA, Acc/1876/G2/02, ff. 5–6; Acc/1876/D1/191

10. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/A02

11. CM, AOB, C, p. 62

12. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/170

13. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/169

14. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/170,173A; Acc/1876/D1/A/2: LCC, Names of Streets and Places in the County of London, 1901 & 1955 edns

15. LMA, Acc/1876/G5/067–8

16. CM, AOB, D, p. 308

17. LMA/Acc/1876/D1/210

18. CM, AOB, G, pp. 21–2

19. John Nelson, History of Islington, 1811, pp. 208–15: Gentleman's Magazine, July 1793, p. 678: MDR 1777/5/88

20. MDR

21. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/7–8

22. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/210

23. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/171,173

24. MDR 1786/4/592

25. CM, AOB, K, pp. 302–3: ILHC, Letters to Clerkenwell Vestry, 1856–9

26. CM, AOB, M, pp. 151–2; AOB, N, pp. 287–9

27. John Hollingshead, Ragged London in 1861, 1861, p. 29

28. B, 15 Oct 1859, p. 677; 8 Dec 1860, p. 791

29. BN, 16 Aug 1861, p. 681: B, 20 July 1861, p. 503; 4 Jan 1862, p. 7: Daily Telegraph, 9 Jan 1862

30. B, 4 July 1874, p. 573: Boucher, pp. 184–94: CM, AOB, Q, pp. 105–6,172,225

31. CM, AOB, R, p. 103; Vouchers, 1912: IBC

32. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/7, p. 78: RB

33. POD: RB

34. BN, 26 Feb 1860, p. 141: Pinks, p. 693

35. BN, 28 Aug 1874, p. 254: MDR 1874/19/364–5

36. Goad insurance plans

37. PP 1884–5 (4402), XXX. 1,87,819, Royal Commission for inquiring into Housing of the Working Classes, First Report, Mins of Evidence, etc , pp. 7, 62–4

38. LMA, Acc/1876/AR/01/244–5

39. CM, AOB, D, pp. 263, 271

40. MDR: RB

41. MDR

42. LMA, Acc/1876/E/01/2/1: CM, AOB, G, pp. 158–9

43. RB: Pinks, pp. 69–70: ODNB: Frederick Boase, Modern English Biography , 1965 edn, vol. I, p. 217: POD

44. Lewis Melville, The Thackeray Country, 1911, pp. 34–5

45. W. R. Ward (ed.), The Works of John Wesley, vol. 22, 1993, pp. 210–11: RB

46. P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, p. 132: RB: LMA, Acc/1876/D1/308: Proceedings of the Wesleyan Historical Society , vol. xxi, 1937–8, pp. 173–5

47. POD

48. Ibid.: Peter Hall, 'Industrial London: A General View', in J. T. Coppock and Hugh C. Prince (eds), Greater London, 1964, pp. 232–3

49. LCC Mins, 27 June 1899, pp. 918–19

50. Ibid.

51. LCC Mins, 21 June 1904, p. 1103; 12 Dec 1905, p. 2087

52. LCC Mins, 14 June 1904, p. 1009; 25 July 1905, p. 704: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/025163

53. DSR: IBC

54. BN, 20 Aug 1909 (tender): B, 14 Aug 1914 (tender)

55. DSR

56. DSR: CM, AOB, R, p. 120

57. LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/187A—D

58. DSR: CM, AOB, R, p. 418: IBC

59. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/299E; Acc/1876/MP1/8, p. 141; MDR 1882/18/619–21: TNA, IR 58/42672/3751: IBC

60. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 84–5

61. CM, AOB, Q, pp. 105–6, 172, 225: Boucher, pp. 184–94

62. DSR

63. CM, Box 10: DSR

64. DSR

65. CM, Box 10: B, 20 Jan 1883, p. 96; 17 Feb 1883, p. 230; 7 April 1883, p. 464; 5 May 1883, p. 623

66. TNA, IR58/42671/3683: CM, Box 10: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 88–9

67. CM, AOB, Q, p. 246; AOB, R, p. 225: MDR 1889/12/ 980–1

68. CM, AOB, Q, p. 355; AOB, R, p. 376

69. The Times, 28 June 1929, p. 10d

70. ILHC, local index: CM, Spiller's Accounts, Dec 1955–March 1956

71. TNA, IR 58/42671–73 passim

72. POD

73. Ibid.

74. CM, AOB, S, pp. 2, 3, 24, 30, 83, 117, 134

75. Highbury & Islington Express, 12 June 1998, 'property express' supplement, p. 1

76. CM, AOB, S, p. 117: DSR

77. IBC

78. Ibid.

79. POD

80. DSR: CM, Estate Deeds, Correspondence; Vouchers, Dec 1892–March 1893: LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/8: IBC

81. IBC

82. CM, AOB, R, p. 141; Spiller's Accounts, Sept—Dec 1957: POD

83. IBC

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid.: DSR: ILHC cuttings

86. IBC: POD

87. City Press, 19 Feb 1959: CM, AOB, T, pp. 164–5: IBC

88. CM: POD

89. CM, Estates Committee Mins (G), pp. 206–7

90. CM, AOB, Q, pp. 421, 428, 435: IBC

91. CM, AOB, Q, pp. 414, 421, 428; Vouchers, Nov 1898– March 1899: IBC

92. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/310: CM, AOB, S, p. 134: IBC: POD

93. CM, Estates Committee Mins (G), pp. 60, 70, 72: IBC

94. B, 6 Feb 1886, p. 257: IBC

95. POD: RB

96. CM, Estates Committee Mins (G), p. 49: DSR: POD: IBC

97. IBC: BAL, Biog. file: Building Design, 17 March 1978, p. 16

98. MDR 1786/4/592

99. DSR: CM, Estate Deeds, Correspondence, Vouchers: LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/8: IBC

100. DSR: CM, miscellaneous files, vouchers: LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/7: POD

101. IBC: CM, AOB, T, p. 164

102. CM, AOB Q, p. 333: Financial Times Weekend Section, 9/10 March 1996, p. XIII

103. IBC: POD: LMA, DSR: IBC: CM, Estate Deeds

104. CM, Estate Deeds, Correspondence, Vouchers; LMA, Acc/1876/MP1/8: IBC

CHAPTER XI (pp. 294–335)

Northampton Square Area

1. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/3, p. 145

2. Chris Ellmers, 'Clerkenwell: a study in urban growth, with special reference to the period 1590–1841', unpublished draft Ph. D. thesis, 1979, pp. 28–30, 37, 53: TNA, E164/45

3. LMA, E/NOR/M/284/1, 2: William Bingham Compton (6th Marquess of Northampton), History of the Comptons of Compton Wynyates , London, 1930, p. 64: Cromwell, pp. 273–5: ODNB

4. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/868; MDR 1722/4/229: map in John Stow, A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, ed. J. Strype, 2 vols, 1720: ODNB: Cromwell, pp. 272, 276: Pinks, pp. 271–6: Compton, p. 129: Mary Cosh, The squares of Islington Part I: Finsbury and Clerkenwell , 1990, p. 64

5. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/837–40,867; MDR 1712/3/82, 1713/6/136: Cromwell, pp. 269–71: Pinks, p. 154

6. Charles Hore, A True and Exact Account of Many Great Abuses Committed in the Victualling Her Majesties Navy, etc , 1703: MDR 1721/2/284; 1722/1/218–19; 1724/4/480: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/739: TNA, C6/359/49: Cromwell, pp. 270–1

7. Rocque's map (1747): Horwood's map (1792–3 edn): MDR

8. Compton, pp. 179, 197–8, 208, 211, 215: Victor Belcher, Boodle, Hatfield and Co., The History of a London Law Firm in Three Centuries , 1985, pp. 34, 52: Survey of London, vol. XXXIX, 1977, pp. 9–11, 34–47: ODNB

9. WAC, Acc/1934/134, p. 198

10. WAC, Acc/1934/131, pp. 77, 285, 462–3

11. John Summerson, Georgian London, 2003 edn, pp. 184–5

12. WAC, Acc/1934/132, p. 70

13. Ibid., pp.440, 544–6, 649, 698–9: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/ 1/4, pp. 95, 123, 125, 169–70, 191, 264, 268: Compton, p. 211

14. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/5, pp. 44–5,49

15. WAC, Acc/1934/140, p. 423: Thames Water, Abbey Mills Archive, New River Company Plan, 14 Jan 1805

16. WAC, Acc/1934/132, p. 698; Acc/1934/134, p. 170

17. D. Olsen, Town Planning in London, 1982 edn, p. 79

18. WAC, Acc/1934/134, pp. 382, 448, 589

19. R. Ward, London's New River, 2003, p. 189

20. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/5, pp. 312, 327, 364–5; Acc/2558/NR/1/6, pp. 24–6, 36, 62–4, 195, 296, 304

21. see Survey of London, vol. XXXIX, 1977, p. 44

22. Cromwell, p. 277

23. WAC, Acc/1934/139, p. 78: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: Horwood's map: LMA, E/NOR/L/2/2A

24. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/606,752: WAC, Acc/1934/138, p. 327: P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, p. 123

25. LMA, E/NOR/L/03/545

26. H. T. Boodle, letter to The Times, 15 Jan 1884, p. 10

27. ILN, 1 July 1871, p. 652

28. PP 1884–5 (4402), XXX. 1,87,819, Royal Commission for inquiring into Housing of the Working Classes, First Report, Mins of Evidence, etc (hereafter RCHWC), p. 58 (evidence of the Rev. B. O. Sharp)

29. The principal sources for this and the following paragraphs are: RCHWC: WAC, Acc/1934/173,174: Olsen, pp. 102–6, 163–193: Belcher, pp. 112–17

30. Lord William Compton in RCHWC, p. 40

31. RCHWC, p. 61

32. Robert Whelan (ed.), Octavia Hill's Letters to FellowWorkers 1872–1911, 2005, p. 416

33. GL, MPGA Cuttings, COL/LIB/PB04/012, p. 92

34. DSR: BN, 2 Sept 1892, p. 340

35. PP 1887 (260), XIII, 41, Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Town Holdings , 1887, pp. 303, 319–322, 332–350, 367–9: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, April-May 1889

36. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B236, p. 1; B353, pp. 88–101: Booth's poverty map

37. LCC Mins: ILHC, FBC Mins

38. ILHC, FBC Mins, 1928–9, p. 556

39. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/20

40. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/TP/033257; E/NOR/E/9/ 3–5: ILHC, FBC Mins: Evening Standard, 1 April 1946

41. LMA, E/NOR/E/8/9: The Times, 7 Dec 1948, p. 6: Northampton Estate Archives, Castle Ashby, maps of Clerkenwell estates, 1940, amended c. 1949

42. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/044158: Northampton Estate Archives, Castle Ashby, box LON 24

43. VCH, Middlesex, vol. VIII, 1985, p. 19

44. LMA, E/NOR/L/03/541–552; Acc/2558/NR/1/6, p. 258

45. EH photographs: POD: IBC

46. LMA, E/NOR/L/03/546,777: TNA, C107/127: RB: IBC

47. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/2A: ILHC photograph

48. Based on LMA, E/NOR/L/02/002A; E/NOR/L/03/ 13,267,541–52, 776–7: MDR: RB: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808

49. Daily Chronicle, 9 July 1885

50. GL, MPGA Cuttings, COL/LIB/PB04/002–4

51. WAC, Acc/1934/173, p. 43; Acc/1934/174, p. 328: LMA, E/NOR/L/03/538–40: DSR: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, cuttings and photographs: IBC

52. RB: POD: Census: GL, MS 11936/475/942365

53. LMA, E/NOR/L/03/735: St James, Clerkenwell, parish registers: GL, MS 11936/472/927925: Register of Apprentices of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers , 1931, p. 50: Cecil Clutton, the late G. H. Baillie & C. A. Ilbert (eds), Britten's Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers, 1973 edn

54. Gentleman's Magazine, Jan 1831, p. 92: Jutta Schickore, 'Cheese mites and other delicacies: the introduction of test objects into microscopy', in Endeavour, vol. xxvii, no. 3, Sept 2003, pp. 134–8

55. RB: POD: ODNB: Christian Guardian, Nov 1817

56. RB: GL, MSS 11936/474/927015; 11936/484/983709; 11936/518/1099725

57. RB: GL, MS 11936/492/993292: TNA, J90/628

58. Sir Henry Bessemer, An Autobiography, 1905, p.42

59. ILHC, photographs and cuttings: ODNB

60. RB: POD: Census

61. POD: Census

62. DSR: RB: LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, p. 33: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 14 Sept 1899: TNA, IR 58/42656/2197: IBC

63. DSR: POD: OS

64. Census: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p.93

65. LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, pp. 23, 33–6: POD

66. ILHC, FBC, Housing Committee Mins; cuttings L3. 151

67. LMA photographs: OS of 1938: IBC: information kindly supplied by Michael Sierens

68. LCC Mins, 29 May 1962, pp. 458–9: LCC Architect's Report, 21 April 1964

69. ODNB

70. The Times, 9 Oct 1879, p. 10: Horological Journal, vol. XXII, 1879–80, pp. 29–35, 113; vol. XXVI, 1883–4, p. 155: WAC, Acc/1934/173, p. 531; Acc/1934/174, p. 52: DSR: TNA, IR58/42658/2340–1: Paul Dobraszczyk, 'Historicizing Iron: Charles Driver and the Abbey Mills Pumping Station (1865–68), Architectural History, vol. 49, 2006, pp. 223–56

71. IBC

72. BN, 13 Dec 1912, pp. 829–30; 21 Feb 1913, pp. 270–1: B, 27 March 1914, p. 395: DSR: LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, p. 40: LCC Mins, 3 Feb 1914, p. 236: POD

73. IBC: www.3w.org, accessed 10 Feb 2006: www.studius.com, accessed April 2007

74. ILHC, FBC Official Guide, 1958, p. 97: DSR: POD

75. LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2: DSR: POD: IBC: Islington Gazette , 20 June 1990: Sunday Times, 11 Jan 1998, p. 15: The Times, 21 Feb 1998, p. 8

76. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/780; E/NOR/E/7/2, DSR: POD: IBC: AJ, 23 Sept 1948, pp. 290–1: Architectural Design, Feb 1949, p. 42

77. LMA, photograph 69/4250

78. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/044158

79. Standard, 20 March 1869

80. ILHC, cuttings: Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England. London except the Cities of London and Westminster , 1952, p. 114: see also Basil Clarke, cited in Boucher, p. 199

81. B, 25 Feb 1871, p. 145

82. CERC, Church Commissioners' files 35306, 35317: Clerkenwell News, 18 April, 29 May 1867

83. LPL, ICBS file 06946: B, 25 Feb 1871, pp. 145–6

84. LPL, ICBS file 06946

85. B, 25 Feb 1871, pp. 146–7

86. B, 3 July 1869, p. 522

87. B, 25 Feb 1871, p. 146: ILHC, cuttings

88. B, 25 Feb, 11 Mar 1871, pp. 146, 196

89. LPL, ICBS file 06946: CERC, Church Commissioners' files E1790L, 35306/2: B, 21 March 1874, p. 253; 9 Oct 1875, p. 918; 9 April 1876, p. 325; 3 March 1877, p. 224: IBC: information kindly supplied by Duncan Haines

90. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 35306: B, 17 July 1880, p. 96

91. LPL, ICBS file 09443: BN, 1 Aug 1890, p. 167

92. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 35306

93. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 35306/2: Martyrs' News (Smithfield Martyrs' Memorial Church Newsletter), 1948–51, passim

94. Boucher, p. 199

95. City University Archives, 'The Polytechnic, its origin and growth', 1950: www.city.ac.uk/aboutcity/facts/students, May 2006

96. S. John Teague, The City University: A History, 1980, pp. 1–34: ILHC, cuttings

97. British Architect, 31 March 1893, p. 218: BN, 3 March 1893, p. 320; 6 Sept 1895, p. 354; 13 March 1896, p. 380

98. Islington Gazette, 21 March 1898

99. City University Archives, E. W. Mountford, 'Report on Design', 1892, p. 11

100. City University Archives, photographs: information kindly supplied by Chris Pickford: Teague, pp. 102–3

101. City University Archives, E. W. Mountford, 'Report on Design', 1892, p. 2

102. As quoted by Sef Architects, 'College Building, City University: Heritage Assessment Report', May 2002, p. 15

103. BN, 3 July 1896, p. 31

104. City University Archives, Mountford correspondence

105. B, 30 Jan 1909, p. 129: Teague, p. 171

106. Teague, pp. 84–5, 177–8

107. www.city.ac.uk, May 2006

108. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/765: Teague, pp. 176–7

109. LCC Mins, 29 May 1962, pp. 458–9: Teague, pp. 180–2

110. LCC Mins, 29 May 1962, p. 459: City University Archives, Report by Sheppard, Robson & Partners, 1963: EH, registry file LRS 000526/0, Northampton Square 1947–1986

111. Teague, pp. 183–4: AJ, 1 Jan 1975, pp. 21–35: IBC

112. AJ, 1 Jan 1975, pp. 21–35: City University Archive, 'Opening of the Tait Building', commemorative booklet

113. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 88–9

114. MDR 1711/1/38: VCH, Middlesex, vol. VIII, 1985, p. 15: Rocque's map (1747)

115. Commercial General Union, Hand-in-Hand Insurance Co. Policy Register, vol. 1/A, policy nos 393–5

116. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/90–5,97,106,108,153; MDR 1775/ 6/508

117. www.oldbaileyonline.org: WAC, Acc/1934/145, p. 665: Census: Pinks, p. 281

118. Walter Besant, London: North of the Thames, 1911, p. 483

119. DSR: POD

120. Ibid: Evening Standard, 1 Sept 2005 p. 4

121. IBC

122. DSR

123. LMA, MR/LV9/86; MDR 1819/4/591; E/NOR/L/3/ 149–52; E/NOR/E/7/2, p. 44

124. LMA, E/NOR/L/1/2; E/NOR/L/3/156–7,725

125. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/155: RB: EH, London Region photographs

126. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/153: E/NOR/L/3/154/1–2: DSR

127. POD: RB: Census: LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, p. 45

128. SBL Mins, 14 July 1880, p. 301

129. SBL Mins, 3 June 1886, p. 54: WAC, Acc/1934/174, pp. 161–2

130. TNA, ED21/56899

131. AJ, 19 June 1968, pp. 1359–61, AJ, 31 March 1971, pp. 707–19

132. Boucher, p. 240

133. B, 19 Aug 1871, p. 654: RCHWC, pp. 42–3: DSR

134. B, 29 Sept 1877, p. 988

135. B, 6 June 1874, p. 475; 28 Nov 1874, p. 997; 2 Jan 1875, pp. 2–3; 9 Jan 1875, p. 30; 17 April 1875, pp. 346–9; 24 April 1875, p. 378: BN, 27 Nov 1874, p. 654; 1 Jan 1875, p. 25: DSR: J. N. Tarn, Working-class Housing in 19th-century Britain , 1971, pp. 19–21

136. RCHWC, pp. 43, 46: Census

137. IBC

138. ILHC, cuttings

139. ILHC, FBC Housing Committee Mins, 1929–34: LCC Mins, 8 Dec 1931, p. 726; 5 Dec 1933, p. 710: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/117: DSR

140. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/052955; E/NOR/E/8/5,6,8: LCC Mins: ILHC, FBC Mins

141. ODNB

142. IBC: LCC Mins: LMA, LCC/CON/V243

143. LMA, LV/11/129: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808

144. LCC Mins: IBC: DSR

145. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/052955; LCC/CON/V290: LCC Mins: ILHC, FBC Mins: IBC: John Partridge, interviewed by Elain Harwood, 1999: correspondence with John Partridge, 2006

146. IBC: LCC Mins: LMA, LCC/CON/A8165

147. GLC correspondence with Islington Borough Council: E. A. Willats, Streets with a Story: The Book of Islington, 1988 edn, p. 175

148. IBC

149. FBC Mins: LCC Mins: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/ 22/TP/063690

150. Holborn Guardian, 18 July 1958

151. C. Benton, A Different World: Emigré Architects in Britain 1928–1938 , 1995, pp. 152–4: IBC

152. Architect & Building News, Dec 1958, p. 871

153. ILHC, FBC Mins: Holborn Guardian, 18 Oct 1957; 18 July 1958: Contract Journal, 24 Oct 1957, p. 433: Architect & Building News , Dec 1958, pp. 871–5: ILHC, booklet for ceremonial opening of the estate, 1958

154. ILHC, FBC Mins: AJ, 2 May 1979, p. 892: Alec Forshaw, 20th Century buildings in Islington, 2001, p. 46

155. ILHC, FBC Mins: Official Architect and Planner, Nov 1967, p. 1624

156. POD: Census: ODNB

157. Goad insurance plans: DSR

158. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/2A: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: RB

159. Cromwell, p. 277

160. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/869–873; Acc/2558/NR/1/5, p. 330: RB: Horwood's map

161. GL, MS 11936/490/997887: POD: Census

162. ILHC, FBC Housing Committee Mins, 11 Jan 1954, p. 302; 12 March 1956, p. 458; 23 Oct 1957, p. 237; 4 Nov 1957, p. 243

163. LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, p. 16; LMA photographs: IBC

164. ILHC, FBC Mins: Islington Gazette, 21 Dec 1954

165. ILHC, FBC Mins

166. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/13/132608: AJ, 18 March 1970, p. 656: Baumeister, Dec 1977, pp. 1153–5: interview and correspondence with Gerald Levin, July 2006

CHAPTER XII (pp. 336–357)

Rawstorne Street to the Angel

1. T. E. Tomlins, A Perambulation of Islington, London, 1858, p. 21: Pinks, p. 472: Barney Sloane and Gordon Malcolm, Excavations at the Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, London , 2004, p. 146

2. Pinks, pp. 472, 475

3. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. 20, pt 1, 1545, p. 525

4. Pinks, p. 483

5. For fuller accounts of Dame Alice Owen and the foundation of her charity see R. A. Dare, A History of Owen's School (1613–1976) , 1980: Pinks, pp. 473–83: Clive Rose, Alice Owen: The Life, Marriages and Times of a Tudor Lady, 2006

6. GL, MS 5445/27, p. 189

7. GL, MS 5445/28, p. 63: MDR 1742/3/181–2

8. Pinks, p. 485: MDR

9. BL, Crach. 1. Tab. 4. b. 4, vol. 1 (Percival Coll.)

10. MDR 1758/2/248; 1772/2/229–30: RB

11. Census of 1851

12. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 100–1

13. GL, MS 5445/41, pp. 43, 205

14. Ibid., pp. 214, 225: GL, MS 18,402

15. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/044178

16. Brewers' Company, estate maps: DSR

17. MDR 1765/2/358

18. MDR

19. GL Print Room, Map case G4, plan of Alice Owen Estate, 1832; MS 5445/34, pp. 328, 333: Cromwell, p. 393

20. This account is based on GL, MS 5445/30–33: Society of Friends Library, Records relating to the Islington Road Estate: MDR: RB

21. Pinks, p. 480

22. Survey of London, vol. XLI, 1983, pp. 3, 8, 36, 38, 39

23. MDR 1791/8/459; 1792/7/465–7

24. GL, MS 5445/32, pp. 116–7, 429

25. GL, MS 5445/31, p. 291; 5445/32, p. 34

26. GL, MS 5445/31, p. 290; 5445/32, p. 34: Cromwell, p.395: Colvin: Friends' Library, Biog. file

27. Cromwell, p. 396

28. Ibid.

29. GL, MS 5445/35, pp. 75–6

30. RB

31. The following account of the school is largely based on R. A. Dare, A History of Owen's School (1613–1976), 1980: GL, MS 5445: ILHC, cuttings

32. Dare, p. 22

33. ILHC, cuttings: Finsbury Weekly News, 1 Nov 1963; ILN, 2 Nov 1963

34. IBC

35. Commemorative stone

36. IBC

37. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/27993: ILHC, cuttings L 1.7

38. GL, MS 5445/32, p. 107

39. RB

40. Ibid.

41. MDR 1775/6/184–5: RB

42. IBC

43. RB: MDR 1773/6/466; 1773/7/20

44. GL, MS 5445/38, p. 63

45. TNA, IR 58/2043/360

46. GL, MS 5445/40, p. 285

47. GL, MS 5445/34, pp. 318, 428, 433, 457, 509

48. DSR

49. London Landmarks. A Guide with Maps to Places where Marx, Engels and Lenin lived and worked , 3rd edn, n.d., p. 11: E. A. Willats, Streets with a Story: The Book of Islington , 1988 edn, p. 210: Herbert T. Fitch, Traitors Within: the Adventures of Detective Inspector Herbert T. Fitch , 1933, pp. 21–5

50. GL, MS 5445/35 pp. 301, 303

51. GL, MS 5445/35, pp. 297, 301, 356, 359, 363, 416: MDR 1842/7/191; 1845/9/186–190; 1846/1/83–4

52. GL, MS 5445/35, pp. 296–7

53. IBC: www.groveworld.co.uk

54. Pinks, pp. 483–4: ILHC, Deeds of the Old Red Lion: GL, MS 5445/32, pp. 74–6

55. Quoted in Pinks, p. 484

56. Cromwell, p. 388: Pinks, p. 483

57. EH, Historians' file ISL 130: DSR

58. EH, Historians' file ISL 84

59. B, 8 Nov. 1884, p. 644

60. IBC

61. Information from van Heyningen & Haward

62. www.vhh.co.uk, May 2007: Building Design, 7 April 2000, p. 4: AJ, 25 April 2002, p. 12: IBC

63. Islington Gazette, 25 March 1993: www.chapmantaylor.com: IBC

64. Percy J. Edwards, History of London Street Improvements 1855–1897 , 1898, p. 67: B, 19 Oct 1872, p. 824; 2 Nov 1872, p. 871

65. LMA, MBW/1209, pp. 244–5; MBW/1210, pp. 581–2,699

66. LMA, MBW/1220, pp. 322–3; MBW/1189, pp. 362–4

67. MBW Mins, 30 Sept 1881, p. 381

68. LMA, MBW/1189, pp. 460–71

69. MDR 1882/30/739; 1884/29/791: POD: GL, Loan & Company prospectuses: Stock Exchange Yearbook, 1908

70. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Work Committee Mins, 22 Aug, 3 Oct 1882

71. POD

72. ILHC, cuttings L3. 151: Islington Housing Committee Mins, 1 Sept 1977

73. P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, pp. 27, 42: Cromwell, p. 396: IBC

74. GL, MS 5445/40, p. 286

75. IBC: www.pateltaylor.co.uk, May 2007

76. GL, MS 5445/38, pp. 7, 21

77. EH, Historians' file ISL 123

78. GL, MS 5445/38, pp. 36, 56

79. Clerkenwell News, 14 May 1872: B, 18 May 1872, p. 383

80. GL, MS 5445/38

81. DSR

82. RB

83. ILHC, cuttings L1.7: ODNB: Bill Manley, Islington Entertained , 1990, p. 113

84. RB

85. GL Print Room, Map case G4, plan of Alice Owen Estate, 1832

86. IBC

87. GL, MS 5445/40, pp. 178, 285

88. IBC

89. GL, MS 5445/37, p. 437

90. ILHC, Finsbury Dispensary Annual Report, 1865, p. 187

91. B, 18 Feb 1871, p. 134 (tender)

92. ILHC, cuttings L5.11: Islington Gazette 19 Nov 1937

93. MDR 1774/3/483–4, 1774/5/434–7, 1774/7/145–7,468, 1775/5/144–6, 420–2: H. Clifford Smith, 'Two Commodes by Gates', in Burlington Magazine, vol. 59, 1930, pp. 22–7

94. RB: GL, MS 5445/32, p. 128: London Directory, 1788

95. RB: www.oldbaileyonline.org

96. RB

97. Dare, p. 70

98. RB

99. GL, MS 5445/34, pp. 318, 322, 348

100. IBC

CHAPTER XIII (pp. 358–384)

Farringdon Road

1. John Gwynn, London and Westminster Improved, Illustrated by Plans , 1766, p. 123

2. Nicholas Barton, The Lost Rivers of London, 1982 edn, pp. 76–7

3. Pinks, p. 350: CLRO, 564D (Clerkenwell Improvement Commission Minute Book, 1840–6)

4. CLRO, Plan I7d

5. CLRO, 601D (Minute books of the special committee in relation to the proposed improvement opposite Farringdon Street, 1832–42); Petition Roll No. 46: LMA, MJ/OC/25, pp. 294–5

6. CLRO, 601D, 23 July, 14 Dec 1832, 5 Jan 1833: LMA, MJ/OC/26, p. 522: PP 1837–8 (661), XVI. 9, Second Report from the Select Committee on Metropolis Improvements , 2 Aug 1838, pp. 79, 83

7. CLRO, P.D. 22.20, Proposals For establishing a Company … for continuing the Line of Farringdon Street to Clerkenwell Green, mid-1830s

8. PP 1836 (517), XX. 1, Report from the Select Committee on Metropolis Improvements , 2 Aug 1836, pp.2, 4, 7; PP 1837–8 (661), XVI.9, Second Report from the Select Committee on Metropolis Improvements , 2 Aug 1838, p. 10

9. 1 & 2 Vic., c.lxxxiii

10. 3 & 4 Vic., c.cxii

11. CLRO, 564D, pp.138, 197: B, 4 Oct 1845, p.484 (advertisement)

12. 8 & 9 Vic., c.xvii

13. 14 & 15 Vic., c.cxx

14. CLRO, 564D, pp.13–14,136; 601D, 13 Nov 1840

15. CLRO, Common Council Papers, 27 July 1848, report of Improvement Committee; P.D.54.2: PP 1837–8 (661), XVI.9, Second Report … on Metropolis Improvements, 2 Aug 1838, Plans 19–20; PP 1840 (410), XII. 1, First Report … on Metropolis Improvements , 25 June 1840, Plan E

16. CLRO, 601D passim: Gentleman's Magazine, Sept 1842, p.303

17. CLRO, 564D, pp. 162–4

18. B, 20 Sept 1845 et seq, advertisement

19. CLRO, 564D, 1849–50 passim; 344B/11, Report of the Improvement Committee, 18 Jan 1849, p.7: 14 & 15 Vic., c.120

20. ILN, 22 Oct 1853, p.353: CLRO, 564E—F (Improvement Committee Mins)

21. 22 & 23 Vic., c.97

22. B, 11 Aug 1860, p. 512

23. CLRO, 564E—F, 1855–6: Pinks, pp.166–7, 353

24. Pinks, pp.166–7: ILHC, 'Newspaper Cuttings 1860–1870 on Clerkenwell and Neighbourhood', L1.12, p.4: The Times , 12 Aug 1862, p.9f

25. Companion to the Almanac, 1857, p.231

26. Except where indicated otherwise the following account is based on: Alan A. Jackson, London's Metropolitan Railway, 1986: C. Baker, The Metropolitan Railway, 1951: T. C. Barker and Michael Robbins, A History of London Transport , vol.1, 1963, Chapter 4

27. B, 20 May 1865, p.361; 22 July 1865, p.530: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/911: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 1860–70: CLRO, 564E—F, 1868–9

28. Pinks, pp.360–1: ILN, 17 Jan 1863, p.74

29. BN, 2 Aug 1861, pp.635–6

30. B, 10 Jan 1863, p.22

31. BN, 1 March 1861, p. 189

32. BN, 13 Sept 1861, p.744: Pinks, p.361

33. BN, 13 Dec 1861, p.989

34. B, 15 Feb 1862, p.120

35. Pinks, pp.361–3: B, 5 July 1862, p.473; 10 Jan 1863, p.22

36. Illustrated Times, 13 July 1867, p.18: ILN (Supplement), 8 Feb 1868, p. 141

37. B, 10 Jan 1863, p.22

38. ILN (Supplement), 8 Feb 1868, p.142: Jackson, p.122: London Transport Museum, Film and Photo Library, print H/3958

39. BN, 12 Sept 1862, p.205; 10 Oct 1862, p.268

40. ILN (Supplement), 8 Feb 1868, p.142: City Press, 15 April 1865, p.138: B, 30 Sept 1865, p.697

41. POD: Goad insurance plans

42. Jackson, p.367: Goad insurance plans: POD: sign on building

43. LMA, Acc/1297/MET1/116, p.134: ILHC, draft letter 1 July 1898 to Massey Mainwaring, in cuttings L5.91

44. LMA, Acc/1297/MET1/1, pp.446, 449

45. BN, 12 Sept 1862, p.205; 10 Oct 1862, p.269

46. CLRO, H.V.I. Plans, Misc. No.100

47. BN, 20 Oct 1865, p.728

48. BN, 10 Oct 1862, pp.268–9: B, 10 Jan 1863, p.23

49. ILN, 17 Jan 1863, pp.57,74: Pinks, p.363

50. Jackson, p.47: ILN, 10 Feb 1866, p.137

51. LMA, Acc/1297/MET1/2, pp.75, 79, 105, 110

52. B, 30 Sept 1865, p.697: The Times, 25 Dec 1865, p.4f: LMA, Acc/1297/MET25/1, p.75: Jackson, p.47

53. Jackson, pp.26, 330

54. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/028778; Acc/1297/MET10/ 285: DSR: Jackson, pp.267–8

55. LMA, Acc/1297/MET10/285427: DSR: Jackson, pp.267–8

56. LMA, Acc/1297/MET10/285: DSR: Jackson, p.268

57. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/28778: DSR: POD

58. Jackson, pp.37–8

59. Account based largely on reports in B, 9 May 1874, p.397; 16 May 1874, p.425; 19 June 1875, pp.549–50; 26 June 1875, p.586; 4 Sept 1875, p.806; 21 Sept 1878, pp.995–6: Jackson, p.48

60. TNA, RAIL 236/522

61. Daily Telegraph, 1 Feb 1956, p.7

62. IBC: Islington Gazette, 9 Oct 1987: B, 9 March 1990, p.18

63. Sunday Times Magazine, 28 June 1992, p.49

64. RB: POD

65. CLRO, Misc. Mss 319.11; 564E—F, 1856–9, 1863

66. 3 & 4 Vic., c.112

67. CLRO, Holborn Valley Box 21.5, 21.8, Clerkenwell Improvement Act 1851, 'conditions for letting on a building lease'; 564E—F

68. CLRO, 568G (Act of Parliament Agreements), plan for lease no. 119

69. CLRO, 568G, no.63: LMA, LCC/Misc.P/114; MBW 2612

70. DSR: LMA, School Board for London List of Schools, 1893: TNA, ED21/11423

71. TNA, IR58/42650/1559: DSR: IBC

72. DSR: Arthur Crow, 'The Clerk's Well', in Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society , New Series, vol. V, 1923–8, pp.57, 67–84

73. References are not given for buildings described more fully in the main text. Occupants' names are mostly taken from the Post Office Directory or ratebooks

74. CLRO, 568G, no.81; 564E—F, 15 March 1875: B, 21 Aug 1875 (tender): MBW Mins, 1 Oct 1875, p.334: DSR

75. B, 11 Sept 1875, p.830 (tender): MBW Mins, 26 Nov 1875, p.607: DSR

76. CLRO, 568G, no.75: DSR: POD

77. CLRO, 568G, no.53

78. CLRO, Surveyor's Approved Plans 1029; 568G, nos 70–1; 564E–F, 1874–6

79. CLRO, 568G, no.53

80. CLRO, 568G, no.87

81. CLRO, 568G, no.80

82. CLRO, 564E—F, 20 Jan 1873; 568G, no.80

83. CLRO, 568G, no.8

84. CLRO, 568G, no.101

85. CLRO, 564E—F, Book 36, pp.90, 96, 103, 107, 155; 568G, no.119

86. DSR: BN, 23 March 1888, p.445

87. CLRO, 568G, no.61; Surveyor's Approved Plans 995: B, 29 May 1875, p.496

88. CLRO, 568G, nos 108,113: DSR

89. CLRO, 564E—F, 19 Feb 1877, 28 May 1877; 568G, no.92

90. CLRO, Surveyor's Approved Plans 1273

91. POD: TNA, IR58/42645/1039

92. CLRO, 564E—F, pp.117,121,128; 568G, no.127: DSR

93. CLRO, Surveyor's Approved Plans 1141: plaque on building

94. IBC: DSR

95. DSR: MDR 1875/15/249

96. MBW Mins, 14 Dec 1883, p.980: DSR

97. MDR 1879/3/245–7: DSR

98. The Architect, 5 Oct 1872, p. 192

99. MDR 1878/10/547–8

100. RB: POD

101. MDR 1875/25/863

102. MDR 1876/29/644–50: DSR

103. CLRO, 564D, p.120

104. Illustrated Times, 29 Aug 1863: POD

105. CLRO, 564D, 25 Aug 1845, 18 Dec 1848; 564E—F, 20 Nov 1865

106. CLRO, 564E—F, e.g. 20 March 1876; 20 Sept 1877; ILHC, cuttings

107. CLRO, 564E—F, 20 June 1853, 20 Nov 1854, 15 Oct 1855, 20, 23 Oct 1856; 344B/18 (Common Council Mins), 20 Nov 1856, p.273; 15 Dec 1856, p.286; Improvement Committee Report, 20 Nov 1856

108. CLRO, 344C/5 (Common Council Mins), 1 Oct 1863, p. 165; Improvement Committee Report, 1 Oct 1863

109. George Smalley, The Life of Sir Sydney H. Waterlow, Bart., 1909, p.60: BN, 13 March 1863, pp. 195–7: City Press, 29 July 1865: CLRO, 344C/5, 1 Oct 1863, p.165; Improvement Committee Report, 1 Oct 1863

110. CLRO, 564E—F, 19 March 1863: B, 23 May 1863, p. 369

111. CLRO, 564E—F, 25 Nov 1863, 1 Feb 1864; 334C/5, 24 March, 2 April, 1 Oct 1863

112. CLRO, 344C/6, 21 April 1864; 344C/7, Improvement Committee Report, 25 July 1865

113. CLRO, 344C/6, 21 April 1864, p.115

114. City Press, 29 July 1865, p.5: CLRO, 344C/7, Improvement Committee Report, 25 July 1865

115. B, 8 July 1865, p.484: ILN, 10 March 1866, p.238: City Press , 29 July 1865, p.5: Companion to the Almanac, 1866, pp. 148–9

116. CLRO, 564E—F, 20 July 1868

117. CLRO, 344D/3, pp.83, 222; Common Council Papers, 24 July 1879, Report of Improvement Committee; 564E—F, 17 Nov 1879, 19 April, 20 Sept, 20 Dec 1880

118. CLRO, 344C/7, Improvement Committee Report 25 July 1865: Companion to the Almanac, 1866, p.149: Censuses of 1871, 1881

119. IBC

120. J. N. Tarn, Working-class Housing in 19th-century Britain, 1971, p.11

121. B, 23 Nov 1872, p.934: POD

122. This and the following paragraphs based largely on: B, 9 May 1874, p.393; 5 Dec 1874, pp. 1003–4: BN, 20 Nov 1874, p.600

123. B, 17 June 1876, pp.583–4

124. Ibid

125. BN, 20 Nov 1874, p.600; 27 Nov 1874, p.652

126. BN, 13 March 1863, pp. 195–7: Smalley, pp. 65–6: ILN, 10 March 1866, p.233: B, 8 June 1878, p.585

127. Census of 1881: Companion to the Almanac, 1875, p. 147

128. George Gissing, The Nether World, 1889, p.274

129. GLC Mins, 23 July 1968, pp.463–5: LMA, GLC/MA/SC/3/2196, 2197: ILHC, local index

130. ILHC, cuttings file L1.7

131. IBC: RB: TNA, IR58/42650/1574–6: ILHC, cuttings L5.62

132. MDR 1874/1/613: BN, 7 July 1865, p.478

133. CLRO, 564E—F, 17 Feb 1873; 568G, no.84: DSR: City Recorder , 27 Sept 1990: Camden online planning records

134. BN, 7 May 1875, p.516: TNA, IR58/42650/1556

135. MBW Mins, 14 Dec 1883, p.980: DSR: Goad insurance plans

136. MDR 1879/3/245–7: Goad insurance plans

137. CLRO, 564E—F, 27 June 1864; 568G, no.4; P.D. 70.30: MBW Mins, 30 Sept 1864, p.957

138. RB: DSR: IBC

139. CLRO, 568G, nos 108, 113: DSR

140. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/133/1–25: B, 24 Jan 1880, p.118

141. CLRO, 568G, no.5; Surveyor's Approved Plans 1141: plaque on building

142. IBC

143. Clerkenwell News, 10 May 1872, p.4

144. The Architect, 1 Feb 1873, p.67

145. MBW Mins, 11 Aug 1871, pp. 198–9, 13 Oct 1871, p.344: LMA, MBW/2461: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/4, p.11

146. MDR 1872–4: DSR: LMA, MBW 2461: POD

147. POD: ILHC, posters, handbills etc in classified boxes L3. 11, L5.6

148. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/911

149. MDR 1878/10/547–8: DSR

150. POD: MDR 1874–6: DSR

151. POD

152. Frank Swinnerton, Swinnerton: An Autobiography, 1937, pp. 19,41,44

153. ILHC, FBC Mins, Oct 1948—Jan 1951: IBC

154. POD: J. E. Martin, Greater London: an Industrial Geography , 1966, p.36

155. B, 8 June 1878, p.586; 15 June 1878, p.612

156. POD

157. Ibid: ODNB (which incorrectly gives the address as '113 Farringdon Street')

158. Plaque on building

159. LMA, LCC/FB/WAR/3/2: LCC/VA/DD/133/1–25: DSR

160. London Borough of Camden, Planning Department, Statutory Register

161. IBC: www.jetcoinvestments.co.uk

162. ILHC, cuttings L6.23, obituary notice of James Dabbs, from The Publishers' Circular, 19 April 1919: TNA, MEPO2/212: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 5 May 1891, p. 528: obituary notices of George Jeffery in The Times , 21 Jan 1995; and Bookdealer, 26 Jan 1995: Alec Forshaw, The Markets of London, 1989, p.119

163. Guardian Weekend, 15 June 2002, pp.442–6: www.guardian.co.uk, June 2002

164. Information from John Haylett, editor, Morning Star

165. People's Press Printing Society Ltd, prospectus, in BAL Archives, GolEr/467/3

166. BAL Archives, GolEr/467/1

167. CLRO, 568G, no.61; Surveyor's Approved Plans 995: B, 29 May 1875, p.496

168. BAL Archives, GolEr/467/1; GolEr/467/4: B, March 1950, pp.107–113

169. BAL Archives, GolEr/467/4

170. Information from Kim Reynolds, Slough Estates

171. IBC

172. Paragraph based on article in Guardian, 15 Sept 1976, p.17

173. IBC: Guardian, 15 Sept 1976, p.17

174. IBC

175. Alec Forshaw, 20th Century Buildings in Islington, 2001, p.49

176. LMA, AR/TP 50: IBC

177. LMA, Acc/137/212–34

178. DSR: IBC: TNA, IR58/42650/1588

179. New London Architecture and Jackson Coles Construction Consultants websites

180. IBC

CHAPTER XIV (pp.385–406)

Clerkenwell Road

1. BN, 1 Aug 1879, pp. 116–17

2. MBW Mins, 4 June 1856, p.228; 6 Feb 1857, pp.86–7; 18 Nov 1870, pp.599–600; 21 July 1871, pp.76–7: 35 & 36 Vic., c.163. loc. & pers

3. MBW Mins, 1 March 1872, pp.326–7

4. LMA, MBW/1159, p. 537; MBW/1164, p. 19; MBW/ 1167, pp.347–8; MBW/1432, pp.64–5

5. MBW Mins 1873–4: LMA, MBW/1172, p.470; MBW/1175, pp.228–9; MBW/1178, p.110

6. LMA, MBW/1191, p.76; MBW/1195, pp.589–90; MBW/ 2389, Engineer's Monthly Report, Jan 1876, p.2: BN, 9 Oct 1874, p.449

7. MBW, Annual Report, 1878, p.26: LMA, MBW/1196, pp.518–19; MBW/1198, p.229

8. Paragraph largely based on LMA, MBW/1186–1228

9. LMA, MBW/1197, pp. 597–8: MBW, Annual Report, 1879, pp.27–8

10. BN, 22 Aug 1879, p.207; 25 May 1883, p.729

11. 35 & 36 Vic., c.163, loc. & pers., clause 49

12. LMA, MBW/1357, 16 July 1883, item 45; MBW/1359, 2 Aug 1883, item 16

13. MBW, Annual Report, 1883, p.8: LMA, MBW/1228, pp.676–7; MBW/1229, pp.120–2: MDR

14. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 9424/2

15. GL, Merchant Taylors' Company, Court Minute Books, vol. 27, pp. 34–5,173–4

16. GL, Merchant Taylors' Company, Court Minute Books, 1869–74 passim

17. LMA, MBW/1164, pp.447–50; MBW/1166, p.540

18. LMA, MBW/1164, pp.477,565; MBW/173, pp.15–16, 309–10

19. GL, MSS Dept, Drawings Folder B3/1

20. BN, 16 Oct 1885, p.595: B, 10 Oct 1885, p.490: City Press, 10 Oct 1885, p.7a; 14 Oct. 1885, p.3f: The Graphic, 17 Oct 1885

21. St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, MS 30/3, ff. 111,338

22. www.thornsettgroup.com: IBC

23. LMA, MBW/1187, p.372; MBW/1189, pp.362–4; MBW/1190, pp.403, 635–6; MBW/1191, pp.94–5; MBW/1290, 5 March 1877, item 42: DSR

24. MDR 1870/11/810; 1870/12/897; 1871/6/436

25. The following account is largely based on Foresters' Miscellany , Jan 1872, pp. 118–19: Foresters' Monthly Journal , Feb 1872, p.5: B, 15 April 1871, p.293; 17 Feb 1872, p.124; 23 Jan 1875, p.80; 24 Aug 1878, p.894: BN, 21 April 1871, p.307; 12 Jan 1872, p.47

26. B, 17 Feb 1872, p.124

27. MDR 1874/17/264; 1874/18/191: B, 23 Jan 1875, p. 80

28. LMA, LCC/AR/BR/22/ES/257; GLC/AR/BR/22/ ES/565

29. St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, MS 30/3, f.225

30. B, 25 Aug 1877, pp.864–5: LMA, MBW/1196, pp.556–7: DSR

31. LMA, MBW/1186, p.503; MBW/1203, pp.334–5: MDR 1879/7/112

32. B, 25 Aug 1877, pp.864–5

33. LMA, MBW/1186, pp.503–5, 631–2

34. B, 25 Aug 1877, pp. 864–5

35. TNA, IR 58/42673/3894: POD: IBC

36. B, 7 March 1919, p.237

37. LMA, MBW/1199, pp.448–9: DSR

38. DSR: ILHC, cuttings

39. The Times, 14 May 1879, p.12f; 22 May 1879, p.10f

40. H. Oliver Horne, A History of Savings Banks, 1947, pp.182–92: The Times, 14 May 1879, p. 12f; 22 May 1879, p.10f: TNA, BT 31/35934/9145

41. BN, 29 Oct 1880, p.498

42. B, 7 Aug 1880, p.172

43. TNA, IR58/42675/4082–104

44. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/003434

45. DSR: POD

46. B, 18 Sept 1886, p.437: DSR

47. LMA, Ho.BG187, pp.55, 107, 135, 236, 342, 418; Ho.BG189, p.288: MDR 1884/17/197

48. LMA, Ho.BG194, p.91; Ho.BG195, p.271; Ho.BG200, p.152: B, 12 Dec 1885, p.822

49. LMA, Ho.BG 190, p.300; Ho.BG203, p. 183

50. B, 12 Dec 1885, p.822: LMA, Ho.BG 199, pp. 82,121,215

51. IBC

52. LMA, MBW/1229, pp. 120–2

53. TNA, RAIL236/177, p.100

54. LMA, MBW/1229, pp.120–2: MDR 1883/37/311; 1895/21/655–6: RB: DSR: IBC: NMR, photo BB91/19785

55. POD: David J. Jeremy (ed.) Dictionary of Business Biography , Vol.2, 1984, pp. 578–80

56. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/070205: Lord Kinross, The Kindred Spirit: A History of Gin and the House of Booth , 1959, p.89

57. Kinross, p.89

58. British Journal of Photography, 7 Jan 1898, p.1; 8 April 1898, p.219; 3 June 1898, pp.357–9

59. POD: DSR

60. Karen Moon, George Walton: Designer and Architect, 1993, pp. 59–62, 76–82

61. British Journal of Photography, 3 June 1898, pp. 357–9

62. Moon, pp. 72, 188 n.24: The Gentlewoman, 20 Sept 1902, p. 358

63. The Gentlewoman, 20 Sept 1902, p.358

64. POD

65. IBC: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/070205: information supplied by John Lethwitch of Bee Bee Developments

66. TNA, RAIL236/177, p.387; RAIL236/506

67. Ibid

68. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/070275: POD

69. Independent Magazine, 17 April 1993, pp.49–50

70. LMA, Acc/1876/MP/1/7: B, 20 July 1861, p.504

71. B, 12 May 1860, p. 304: MDR 1796/5/524–5: POD

72. Mark Girouard, Victorian Pubs, 1984, p.50

73. DSR

74. CM, AOB, R, and estate deeds

75. ILHC, cuttings; City Press, 19 Feb 1959: IBC

76. CM, correspondence 1955: IBC

77. CM, AOB, O, pp. 106, 138–9, 155, 164

78. LMA, Acc/1876/D1/310: CM, AO, S, p.134: IBC: The House of Pringle 1835–1935: Industries of Finsbury, 1949, p. 46

79. CM, estate deeds

80. Ibid: IBC

81. DSR

82. RB: POD

83. POD: RB: DSR: Achitectural Review, Nov 1995, pp.29–31; AJ, 27 July 1995, p.45; 9 May 1996, pp.41–3

84. RB: DSR: POD: date on building

85. IBC: LCC Mins, 5 May 1896, p.509; 19 May 1896, p.578: TNA, BT 31/7449/52935: POD

86. The Times, 18 Nov 1896, p.9e

87. IBC

88. LMA, MBW/1199, pp.706–7; MBW/1201, p.399; MBW/1203, pp.230, 370; MBW/1207, pp.233–4: B, 11 Jan 1879, p.60: DSR: POD

89. ILHC, deeds: The Times, 1 April 1915, p. 15c: IBC

90. MDR 1883/33/184–5; 1886/23/187: DSR: IBC

91. LMA, photo 57/3945

92. AJ, 9 May 2002, p. 12; 27 May 2006, pp.36–42: Baumeister, June 2005, pp.20–1

93. MDR 1886/17/560: DSR: TNA, IR58/42675/4002: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/E3/000313

94. MDR 1890/9/66–7: DSR: IBC: TNA, IR58/42675/ 3999,4001

95. All the World, April 1890, p. 191; Aug 1890, pp.412–16

96. All the World, Aug 1890, p.414: MDR 1883/37/422; 1884/7/611; 1890/20/912; 1891/9/900: DSR

97. War Cry, 17 June 1911, p.5

98. POD: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/0038919: DSR

99. The Gramophone, Nov 1940, p. 132: Talking Machine News, Jan 1913, p. 1; Feb 1913, pp.542–7

100. Roland Gelatt, The Fabulous Phonograph, 1956, pp. 132, 147–9, 166, 171: The Gramophone, March 1942, pp. 161–2; April 1942, pp. 176–7: A. Pollard, Gramophone: The first 75 years , 1988, p.218

101. Information kindly supplied by EMI Archives: V. K. Chew, Talking Machines, 1981 edn, p.27: POD

102. The Times, 20 March 1931, p. 14b; 1 May 1931, p.20f

103. Information kindly provided by EMI Archives: POD

104. POD

105. MDR 1883/37/422: RB: POD: TNA, IR58/42674/3991

106. Architectural Review, May 1989, p.56: IBC

107. B, 7 June 1884, p. 843: POD

108. LMA, MBW/1188, pp.215–16, 294–6; MBW/1189, pp.553–7; MBW/1195, p.485: MBW Mins, 22 March 1878, p.489: RB

109. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/128

110. IBC: LMA, LCC/VA/DD/128



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