Inventory of Monuments of Westminster Abbey
The Monastic and Collegiate Buildings

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English Heritage

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1924

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76-93

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'Inventory of Monuments of Westminster Abbey: The Monastic and Collegiate Buildings', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 1: Westminster Abbey (1924), pp. 76-93. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=119463 Date accessed: 03 September 2014.


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MONASTIC BUILDINGS, ETC.

(28). The Monastic and Collegiate Buildings, including those of Westminster School, are grouped on the S. side of the church. The earliest work is the Undercroft of the Dorter, forming part of the E. range of the cloister, which is of late 11th-century date; to a slightly later period in the same century belong the main walls of the Dorter (School Hall) and the remains of the Rere-dorter and the Frater range with a building adjoining it on the S. Foundations have also been found of the W. arcade wall of the early cloister, which was built under Abbot Gilbert, c. 1090–1100. The Infirmary was built during the 12th century and probably consisted of the usual aisled 'nave' and chancel forming the Chapel; remains of this chapel of c. 1160–70 still survive. There are probable remains of 12th-century work to the W. of the cloister and in the Abbot's Lodging. The mid 13th-century rebuilding of the church by Henry III involved also the building of the Chapel of St. Faith adjoining the S. transept, the Chapter House with its Vestibule and the N.E. parts of the E. and N. walks of the Cloister. The only other 13th-century work surviving in the monastic buildings is the remains of vaulting in the sub-vault under the Misericord. In 1298 a great fire destroyed much of the monastic buildings, including the Frater, Dorter, Infirmary, etc.; these were gradually restored during the 14th century, probably beginning with the Dorter, which has a window of c. 1300; the W. window of the Chapter House may have been reconstructed at the same time; the rebuilding of the cloister was resumed c. 1340, when the rest of the E. walk was re-built, probably during Abbot Byrcheston's rule (1344–9). Under his successors, Abbots Langham (1349–62) and Litlington (1362–86), but chiefly under the latter, much work was done—the Infirmary Cloister (probably in place of the former aisled hall) was built with the surrounding lodgings between the years 1364–1393; in 1351–2 the reconstruction of the S. walk of the great cloister was in progress and was finished in 1366; the W. walk with the Abbot's Lodging followed immediately after, the latter being begun in 1367, the Jerusalem Chamber finished in 1372 and the Abbot's Hall glazed in 1375–6. The Cellarer's Range extending along the E. side of Dean's Yard, begun in 1388, was also Litlington's work, as was a large block to the W. of it, now entirely destroyed. The Prior's Lodging (now Ashburnham House) was also built or re-built at this period. Little alteration was made to the buildings during the 15th century except the building or rebuilding of the Chapel of St. Dunstan E. of the Dorter sub-vault. Abbot Islip (1500–32) added the Jericho Parlour to the Abbot's Lodging. The Abbey was dissolved in 1540, when the buildings were mostly transferred to the collegiate body, the Abbot's Lodging became first the Bishop's then the Dean's House, and the infirmary and cellarer's building were transformed into canons' lodgings. Westminster School used part of the Dorter as a hall from 1599, and various other alterations were made. The Frater was destroyed at this period as being superfluous. In the 17th century Ashburnham House was remodelled, and there are many 17th-century and later additions to the canons' houses and the school buildings.

(29). The Cloister (151 ft. by 140 ft.) has an E. walk (Plates 147, 153) of eight bays, of which the four on the N., with the vault of the three N. bays, are of mid 13th-century date; the vault and arcade-wall of the remaining bays with the vault of the fourth bay are the work of Abbot Byrcheston (1344–9). The three N. bays have quadripartite vaults with moulded ribs and foliated bosses at the inter-sections; the ribs spring from triple grouped shafts with moulded capitals and bases. Each bay of the E. wall has a moulded wall-arch enclosing blind-tracery of three trefoiled bays with three trefoils above them; the wall-arch and tracery spring from Purbeck-marble shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the N. wall is the E. processional doorway (see S. aisle of nave). The arcade-wall has two large windows, entirely restored but each of three trefoiled lights with trefoiled tracery in a two-centred head. The fourth bay has an arcade of moulded two-centred arches in the E. wall, but the wall above has no blind-tracery and the vault is of the 14th century and has had ridge-ribs in addition to diagonal ribs; the webs of the vault are banded with Reigate stone; the arcade-wall of this bay is largely occupied by a large buttress-turret enclosing a staircase, but to the S. of it is a 14th-century window of two cinque-foiled ogee lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head. The fifth bay containing the entrance to the chapter house has a more elaborate 14th-century vault with subsidiary and lierne-ribs and foliated bosses at all the intersections. The entrance (Plate 155) to the chapter house is of mid 13th-century date and has two arches with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed arches with sprigs of foliage in the hollow; the moulded labels have head-stops; the whole is included in a wall-arch of two orders, the inner carved with much damaged foliage and the outer with foliage and a series of small figures said to represent the stem of Jesse; the tympanum was covered with a diaper of scrolled foliage, now much perished; it has also three foliated pedestals, the middle one now supporting parts of a draped figure, probably not in situ, and the side ones bearing remains of two original figures of angels, both much mutilated. The arcade-wall of this bay has a large restored 14th-century window of four elaborately cusped lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head. The vaults of the three S. bays are similar to that over the fourth bay. In the E. wall of the first of these bays is a 13th-century doorway with a shouldered head, leading to the day-stairs from the dorter, it is enclosed in a two-centred arch of two moulded orders with a Purbeck marble shaft to each jamb and a shafted moulding to the S. jamb; the tympanum has tracery consisting of two-pointed arches and a quatrefoil filled with foliage; in the next bay to the S. is a plain doorway of uncertain date, with a segmental-pointed head and a restored inner order; the last bay has remains of the W. jamb and springing of the head of a doorway of late 11th-century date. In the arcade-wall of these bays are two mid 14th-century windows, entirely restored and each of three lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head. The N. walk (Plates 4, 148) of the cloister is of eight bays, including the two angle bays; the second to the fifth bays from the E. are of the third quarter of the 13th century and the sixth and seventh bays are of mid 14th-century date; the vaulting and vaulting-shafts of all these bays are generally similar to the 13th-century work in the E. walk. Each bay of the 13th-century work of the N. wall has blind-tracery and arcading similar to that in the E. wall but with quatre-foiled tracery; the 14th-century bays of the wall are blank except for the moulded wall-arch with its shafts. The vaulting of the W. bay (see W. walk) is at a lower level than the rest, and the tympanum (Plate 148) thus formed on the E. side has 14th-century blind-tracery. The five windows in the arcade-wall are completely restored and each is of three trefoiled lights with three quatrefoils in a two-centred head; the blank bay at the E. end has blind-tracery similar to that in the N. wall. The S. walk (Plates 151, 153) is of ten bays, including the two angle bays; it was re-built c. 1350–70 and has a vault, each bay of which has diagonal, subsidiary and ridge-ribs with foliated bosses, all much weathered; the grouped vaulting-shafts are cut into the 11th-century wall on the S. side. The arcade-wall has in each bay a completely restored window of three elaborately cusped lights with 'honey-comb' tracery in a two-centred head. In the S. wall of the eighth bay from the E. is a recess with a square head and an ogeecrocketed label with side pinnacles, much weathered and enclosing a traceried tympanum; it has been pierced for a modern doorway, subsequently blocked; in the next bay to the W. is the early 14th-century towel-cupboard (Plate 152), consisting of four recesses with moulded jambs and two-centred heads, above the recesses is much weathered blind net-tracery extending to the vault; in the next bay is the early 14th-century frater-doorway; it has shafted jambs with foliated capitals and a two-centred arch of two-moulded orders, the inner with cinque-foiled ogee and sub-cusped inner members having the spandrels richly carved with foliage; the moulded ogee label has head-stops and a weathered finial. The W. walk (Plates 149, 153) is of nine bays, including the two angle bays; it was re-built shortly after the S. walk and has a similar vault and windows, except that the latter are each of four lights except the N. window, which is of two pointed lights with tracery in a segmental-pointed head. At the N. end is the western processional entrance (see S. aisle of nave). In the W. wall of the N. bay is an early 16th-century doorway with a three-centred head; in the eighth bay from the N. is the 14th-century lavatory, a recess with a moulded segmental arch; the lower part is filled with a modern wall and the back of the recess is also modern; above the arch is a tympanum with blind-tracery; the vaulting on each side springs from large corbels carved with half-figures of men; in the ninth bay is a doorway with restored jambs and 14th-century moulded two-centred arch with a moulded label and crowned head-stops.

Fittings in Cloister—Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In E. walk—on E. wall, (1) to Jane Lister, 1688, "dear childe," and Michael, her brother, 1676, buried at St. Helen's, York, plain white marble tablet; (2) to Elizabeth (Mansell), wife of Charles West, 1710, plain white marble tablet; (3) to George Whicher, 1680–1, white marble tablet with architrave; (4) to Edward Godfrey, 1640, white marble tablet with scrolls and three shields-of-arms, renewed in 1696 and with inscription (5) to Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, 1678, added; (6) to Arthur Agarde [1615], and Margaret, his wife [1611], stone tablet with round head and achievement-of-arms; (7) to James Broughton, 1710–1, and Rebecca, his wife, 1699, white marble tablet with scrolls, drapery and angel-heads. On W. wall, (8) to Elizabeth, wife of Gilbart Abrahall, 1710–11, white marble tablet with skull.

In N. walk—on N. wall, (9) to William Fox, 1680, and James Fox, 1677, black and white marble tablet with eared architrave, cornice, cherub-heads and two shields-of-arms; (10) to William Laurence, 1621, plain marble tablet; (11) to Humphrey Langford, M.P., 1685, grey marble tablet with self, apron and shield-of-arms; (12) to John Coleman, 1709, plain white marble tablet; (13) to Richard Gouland, 1659, black marble tablet with eared stone architrave, drapery and skull; (14) to Francis Newman, 1649, plain white marble tablet; (15) to Ann (Bush), wife of William Gawen, 1659, five children and Isaac Bush and Frances, his wife, parents of Ann Gawen white marble tablet with cornice, apron and lozenge-of-arms; (16) to Richard, 1672–3, Christopher, 1675, and Peter, 1672, sons of Christopher Chapman, plain tablet; (17) to Christopher Chapman, 1681, Melior, his wife, 1707, and Elizabeth, their daughter, 1680–1, white marble tablet with architrave, round head, apron and cartouche-of-arms.

In S. walk—on S. wall, (18) to John Collins, 1681, plain black marble tablet; (19) to Mary Peters, 1688, white marble shaped tablet with lozenge-of-arms and cherub-head. In recess under S. bench, (20) of Abbot Laurence, 1176, freestone slab with defaced effigy in high relief, modern inscription; (21) of Abbot Gilbert, 1121, tapering slab of black marble with sunk panel containing effigy in relief holding crozier in right hand, head bare, modern inscription; (22) of [Abbot William de Humez, 1222], defaced effigy in high relief, apparently in mass-vestments with mitre and crozier, incorrect modern inscription (Plate 202).

In W. walk—on W. wall, (23) to John Banester, 1679, plain black marble tablet; (24) to John Laurence, 1684–5, convex white marble tablet, with architrave, cornice and cartouche-of-arms; (25) to Catherine (Partridge), wife of Andrew Palmer, 1676–7, white marble shaped tablet with cherub-head and lozenge-of-arms.

Floor-slabs: In E. walk—(1) to Thomas Nurse, [1667], with traces of former brass; (2) to Herbert Thorndick, 1672, canon; (3) to Mrs. Aphra Behn, 1689; (4) to Thomas Brown, 1704; (5) defaced but with achievement-of-arms, probably early 18th-century; (6) to Ambrose Fisher, 1617; (7) defaced but with lozenge-of-arms. In N. walk—(8) to John Fox, 1691, with defaced achievement-of-arms; (9) to Thomas Fox, 1691, with defaced achievement-of-arms; (10) to John Frost, 1696, with defaced shield-of-arms. In S. walk—(11) large slate slab said to cover the bodies of 26 monks who died of the Black Death; (12) to Philip Clark, 1707.

Miscellanea: In S. walk—in sixth bay from E., above the bench, stone with the word Abbas in incised Lombardic letters, probably early 14th-century. On bench, mainly in N. walk, several groups of cup-markings, nine in each group, said to be for playing "nine men's morris."

The East Range consists of the Chapel of St. Faith, the Chapter House Vestibule, the daystairs to the dorter and the Dorter Undercroft on the ground-floor, and the Library and Dorter (School Hall) on the first floor.

(30). The Chapel of St. Faith (58 ft. by 15 ft. on E. and 13½ ft. on W.) is entirely of mid 13th-century date and is in two divisions, the eastern of one bay and the western of two; between the divisions is a broad two-centred arch. The E. bay has a sexpartite vault with moulded ribs springing from moulded head-corbels. In the E. wall is a wide recess with chamfered S. jamb and two-centred arch; at the back is a groove for the former altar. There is a similar recess in the N. wall. The western division has two bays of quadripartite vaulting with moulded ribs and head-corbels. On the N. side is a wall-arcade of three segmental-pointed arches of two moulded orders and springing from Purbeck-marble shafts with moulded capitals and bases; in the middle bay is the doorway from the S. transept. In the S. wall are two pointed recesses with a smaller recess between them; in the eastern recess is a square-headed doorway. In the W. wall is a lancet-window and below it is the stone gallery formerly providing communication between the dorter and the church; under the gallery is a small chamber with a barrel-vault and separated from the chapel by an iron grate.

Fittings in Chapel of St. Faith— Locker: In S. wall of E. bay—with rebated jambs and square head, 13th-century.

Paintings: In recess of E. wall (Plate 154)— of St. Faith, tall draped figure of crowned female saint holding book and grid-iron; above is a trefoiled and gabled canopy with crockets, finial and side-shafts with traceried pinnacles; below is a dado, above the altar level, painted with geometrical panels and a much defaced Crucifixion; the reveals of the recess are painted with zig-zag bands, and on the N. reveal is a geometrical panel with the kneeling figure of a monk and an inscription reading " Me quem culpa gravis premit erige virgo suavis, Fac mihi placatum Christum deleasque reatum," probably all late 13th-century.

Piscina: In S. wall—with chamfered jambs and trefoiled head, two round drains, 13th-century.

Recesses: In chamber at W. end—in S. wall, two with square heads; in W. wall, with two-centred head.

Tapestry: On N. wall—large figure-subject (Plate 25) of the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael, part of the van Orley series in the Jerusalem Chamber, c. 1540–50; on S. wall, two panels of 'vase and arcade' type, Brussels, 16th-century.

Tiles: At E. end—several slip-tiles, mostly with foliage, 13th-century. In gallery at W. end— pavement of alternate black and slip-tiles, the latter mostly heraldic and including (a) England, (b) Clare, (c) a lion, (d) a fleur-de-lis, (e) a double-headed eagle, (f) a mounted knight.

Miscellanea: Incorporated in modern bench— elbow-rest carved with foliage, early 14th-century.

(31). The Chapter House Vestibule (Plates 155, 156) is in two portions, the outer (32 ft. by 17 ft.) and the inner (23½ ft. by 16 ft.); both are of mid 13th-century date. The outer vestibule is divided into three bays from E. to W. and two from N. to S. by a range of Purbeck marble columns with moulded capitals and bases from which springs the quadripartite vaulting; the vault has moulded ribs and carved foliage bosses and rests against the walls on shafts similar to the columns. The N. and S. walls have in each bay a wall-arcade of two moulded segmental-pointed arches springing from Purbeck marble shafts; the easternmost of these arches on the S. encloses a doorway with a shouldered head; there is a corresponding doorway in the N. wall with a square head. In the E. wall are two doorways, opening into the inner vestibule, with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed heads both carved with sprigs of foliage, the labels on the E. face have head-stops, two of them modern. The inner vestibule is a much loftier building than the outer and has a flight of steps leading up to the chapter house. It is of two bays with a quadripartite ribbed vault springing from Purbeck marble shafts; the W. wall has a moulded and shafted arch of three orders, the middle one carved with continuous foliage; the space above the entrance from the outer vestibule has blind-tracery of three lights with three quatrefoils in the head and three corbels for figures, all much restored. In the N. wall are two pairs of lancetwindows with pierced spandrels opening into St. Faith's chapel, and in the S. wall are two windows, the eastern a lancet with shafted splays and moulded rear-arch and the western of three graduated trefoiled lights with trefoiled spandrels in a two-centred head; the jambs, mullions and splays are shafted, the shafts have foliated capitals and the rear-arch is moulded.

(32). The Chapter House (56 ft. diameter) is of mid 13th-century date and of octagonal form (Plate 157) with a modern vault and 14th-century flying-buttresses. The entrance in the W. bay has a two-centred arch of four orders, externally, the two middle moulded and carved with continuous foliage, the foliage of of the inner of the two enclosing figures; the jambs have Purbeck-marble shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases and two bands of carving, one on the S. having a series of small figures; the inner shafts with that dividing the doorway and the sub-arches and tympanum above are modern restorations; on the inside face (Plate 158) the arch is of two orders only, the outer carved with running foliage enclosing figures (Plate 7); the jambs have shafts similar to those on the W. face, one capital having three lions in addition to the foliage; the band of foliage on the S. jamb has a series of small figures. Flanking the entrance are moulded trefoiled wall-arches and above, flanking the arch, are two trefoil-headed niches containing original statues of the Annunciation; the spandrels above the arch are filled with diaper-work and moulded trefoils enclosing four figures of angels. Each face of the chapter house except the N.W. contains a four-light window with modern tracery; the N.W. bay has a blind window of similar design and of 13th-century work; the window over the entrance bore traces, before the restoration, of division into five lights; the jambs and mullions of all the windows are shafted, and the modern vault springs from Purbeck-marble vaulting-shafts in the angles of the building and a central pier consisting of one main and eight subsidiary shafts with moulded bases and bands and foliated capitals each with an iron hook for a tie; similar hooks exist in the capitals of the vaulting-shafts. Below the window in each face of the building is a moulded string-course and a wall-arcade of five bays; each has a moulded trefoiled arch springing from Purbeck-marble shafts with moulded or foliated capitals and having diapered spandrels; the labels have stops on either side the vaulting-shafts, carved with heads, and one angel.

Fittings in Chapter House and Vestibule— Door: In doorway on S. of outer vestibule—of plain battens with strap-hinge and large iron staple and padlock, mediaeval; under iron hinge remains of skin, said to be human.

Locker: In inner vestibule—In S. wall, with rebated jambs and square head, stone shelf, 13th-century.

Paintings: In chapter house—the paintings in the E. bay and possibly also those in the third arch of the S.E. bay are probably all of mid 14th-century date and may all have formed part of a large Majesty or Doom with attendant figures. The rest of the paintings represent the various incidents of the earlier part of the Apocalypse, the first arch on the N.W. bay being introductory and having incidents in the legendary history of St. John leading up to his imprisonment in Patmos. Each subject in this series has under it a panel of blackletter inscription, written on paper or parchment and pasted on the wall. Except in the arch mentioned above, they all contain extracts from the Vulgate version. The head of each arch was probably occupied by a half-angel with a musical instrument, and some of these remain. The two lowest compartments in each arch formed a bestiary, of which six beasts remain. The date of these paintings is late 14th-century. The first three arches in the N.W. bay are protected by glass, but the rest are uncovered. Those in the E. bay have suffered very severely since they were uncovered at the restoration of 1865, when they were largely intact. The subjects of the paintings are as follows—In E. bay remains consisting of heads only of large figure-subject—Christ enthroned. In middle arch of wall-arcade—head of Christ much defaced with heads of angels round all with gilt nimbi; traces of the spear and reed on either side formerly held by angels, of which there are now small remains. In arches flanking, a seraph with other angels each with nimbus as above; the seraph on the S. has remains of painted inscriptions in black letter, apparently names of virtues—Simplicitas, Humilitas, etc. In N. arch, traces of heads of saints or angels. S. arch, all obliterated. The mouldings of the arches in the E. bay have remains of red paint and gilding. In N.W. bay (Plates 13, 14, 15), first arch—(a) angel with musical instrument; (b) St. John the Divine before Domitian— king on left with noble behind, St. John on right with five other men, probably guards; (c) black-letter inscription referring to (b); (d) St. John in a cauldron with four 'tormentors,' Domitian on left; (e) inscription relating to (d); (f) St. John in boat with one man, two men on shore and one pushing off the boat; (g) inscription relating to (f); (h) St. John with two men in boat, arriving at Patmos, on left; on right St. John landing, with book in hand; (i) inscription; (j) and (k) figures of a "Reynder," apparently lodged, and a "Ro," both with the names above and divided by a tree in the middle. Second arch—(a) angel as above but largely obliterated; (b) St. John asleep holding a book, angel on right with hand outstretched, all with an architectural setting; (c) inscription, first three verses of Revelation, chap. i, Vulgate, one and a half lines obliterated; (d) seven Gothic churches with an angel in the porch of each; St. John seated on left, writing in book; (e) inscription, chap. i, verses 4–12, one line gone; (f) God enthroned with sword in mouth, seven stars in hand and seven candle-sticks at back; St. John prostrate with angel; (g) inscription, verses 12–16, with glosses in red; (h) three compartments, middle one a Majesty with the four beasts in the angles, also seven lamps. The first and third compartments have each two divisions containing the 24 elders with musical instruments and crowns; (i) inscription, chap. iv, verse 1 et seq., 7 and glosses in red; (j) and (k) figures of two animals, much decayed, with the names over "Wyld asse" and "Tame asse." Third arch—(a) obliterated; (b) two old men, on right St. John and angel on left; (c) inscription; (d) a Majesty in a vesica in middle with book of seven seals; at sides the elders casting down their crowns; (e) inscription, chap. iv, verse 9, etc.; (f) the Lamb upon the throne in a vesica with the four beasts, elders at sides seated; (g) inscription, chap. v, verse 6; (h) the Lamb opening the book, in vesica with the four beasts; at sides, upper compartments, cherub-heads; in lower, the elders casting down their crowns and instruments; (i) inscription, chap. v, verse 7 et seq.; (j) and (k) figures of two animals, one much decayed, with names above "Dromedary" and "Kameyl." Fourth arch—(a) angel with musical instrument, almost obliterated; (b) the rider on the white horse; on left, St. John with book and the first beast; (c) inscription, chap. vi, verse 2, almost obliterated; (d) the rider on the red horse, St. John with the second beast; (f) the rider on the black horse, St. John with the third beast; all the rest obliterated. On the riser of the first step below this bay are traces of paintings said to have been fishes and marine beasts. S.E. bay—first and second arches obliterated. Third arch—remains of six large heads, part of large subject, rest obliterated. Fourth arch—(a) obliterated; (b) four faces at right hand lower corner and apparently a fork thrust at them; traces of other figures; (c) figure on left, kneeling figure on right, much decayed; (d) and (e) traces of other subjects. Fifth arch— traces of two subjects only. S. bay—subjects in first four arches obliterated. Fifth arch—(a) obliterated; (b) destruction of a city, figure on left pouring out the vial of wrath, angel at top right-hand corner (Revelation, chap. xvi, last verses); inscription gone; (c) slight traces of large figures; (d) the woman riding on the sevenheaded beast, in hand the cup of abominations, St. John and the angel on left (chap. xviii, verse 3); (e) remains of two haloes at top, rest gone. S.W. bay, first arch—(a) remains of angel with musical instrument; (b) angel and Babylon fallen, St. John on left; (c) remains of inscription from chap. xviii, verse 9, inter alia; (d) angel at top with ring, three men, one with scroll, on right, St. John on left, in middle figure in porch of house (?); (e) inscription, much mutilated; (f) angel in white casting mill-stone into sea (verse 21); (g) figure of God defaced, small figures of angels, one with scroll above, elders at sides, St. John on left with book, in foreground the great whore burning (chap. xix, 3 and 4). Second arch—(a) angel with pipes; (b) the marriage of the Lamb, with kneeling figures in front; (c) chap. xix, verse 6 et seq.; (d) St. John falling down before the angel, angel saying " See thou do it not," etc. (verse 10); (e) chap. xix, verse 9 et seq.; (f) figure of St. John and traces of others, including man on white horse (verse 11); (g) remains of figure and fowls of the air (verse 17).

Pavement: In N. half of outer vestibule—of flagstones, much worn, mediaeval.

Tiles: In chapter house—original pavement of slip-tiles (Plate 16), with a few modern repairs; the tiles are set in broad bands running E. and W.; the majority are conventional foliated designs, but there are two bands of large shields of England with monsters and centaurs in the spandrels (four tiles to each shield); other tiles include archer shooting stag, huntsman on horseback, St. Edward and the Pilgrim, minstrels, a bishop, king, queen, pike, etc.

Miscellanea: In inner vestibule—Roman stone coffin or sarcophagus of oolite (Plate 181) with panel in front flanked by Amazon shields and with incised inscription MEMORIAE . VALER . AMANDINI . VALERI SVPERVENTOR . ET . MARCELLVS . PATRI . FECER., probably 4th-century; lid with cross cut in relief on top surface, possibly in Saxon times. In outer and inner vestibule—various carved and moulded stones, various dates but mostly 13th-century.

(33). The Crypt (Plate 159) of the chapter house (28½ ft. across) is of mid 13th-century date and of octagonal form with walls 17½ ft. thick. The six windows have chamfered jambs and square heads and are heavily barred; the jambs are set 5½ ft. back from the outer face of the wall and have a segmental-pointed arch in front of them; this outer thickness may be an addition to the original design, but more probably the wall is all of one date. The stone vault has chamfered ribs springing from a round column in the middle with moulded capital and base and vaulting-shafts in the angles. The crypt is entered by a doorway in the W. wall and a corridor and stairs leading from the turret-staircase E. of St. Faith's chapel. The corridor has a raking barrel-vault except at the right-angled bend, where there is a ribbed quadripartite vault.

Fittings in Crypt—Lockers: In N. side of E. embrasure—with rebated jambs and square head, sockets round embrasure for former grate; in middle column, two both round internally.

Piscina: In S. side of E. embrasure— with two-centred head and round drain.

(34). The Dorter Sub-vault (111 ft. by 32 ft.) is of seven bays, all of mid to late 11th-century date. It is now divided into the Chapel of the Pyx (Plate 159) forming the two N. bays and a long undercroft (Plate 160) formerly sub-divided into three rooms. N. of the Pyx chapel is about half of the next bay transformed in the 13th century into the 'day-stairs' from the dorter. The sub-vault generally is roofed with rubble groined vaulting springing from a row of round piers down the middle, some with moulded bases and some with square plinths; the capitals were originally splayed and had square abaci, these have been subsequently altered and carved with late. 12th-century fluted leaf-ornament in two instances and by rich late 12th-century conventional foliage on the S. capital of the Pyx chapel; foliage of similar date is carved on three capitals of the undercroft. The vaulting bays are divided by plain cross arches springing from plain square responds against the walls. The two bays of the E. wall of the Pyx chapel have each a modern window, that on the N. being set in the blocking of an earlier window of uncertain date. The E. wall of the undercroft has in the N. bay the moulded jambs of an early 16th-century window. In the second bay is an archway opening into St. Dunstan's chapel and possibly of the 12th century. In the fifth bay is an original window with a round head, widened eastward, and now blocked. In the W. wall the first bay has an 18th-century or modern doorway, now blocked; the second bay has a 14th-century doorway with jambs and segmental-pointed head of two chamfered orders and a moulded label with defaced head-stops; the third bay has a blocked doorway of uncertain date and the N. part of an original opening, now blocked; the fourth bay has a modern doorway, and the fifth bay an early 16th-century doorway with a four-centred head. The partition between the Pyx chapel and the 'day-stairs' is of the 13th-century in the E. bay and of the 12th-century in the W. bay, as is shown by the carving on the capital of the pier, which is stopped against the W. wall and continued behind the E. wall. There was a blocking wall, dividing the two bays of the Pyx chapel, built before the end of the 12th century. The S. wall of the Pyx chapel is probably of the 12th century, as the carvings of the capital of the pier are not continued behind it. There were other partitions on the lines of the second and fourth piers of the undercroft.

Fittings in Pyx chapel—Altar: of masonry, top formed of several stones with chamfered lower edge, round sinking in top for Sigillum.

Chests: (1) mainly of plain battens with strap-hinges, ornamented hasps and three plain lock-plates, 15th or 16th-century, restored; (2) of hutch-shape with three strap-hinges, chain fastenings at back and plain hasps in front, three lock-plates, ornamented end rails and plain hinges, 13th-century, restored and altered.

Doors: In W. doorway—two with trellis-framing, one square and one diagonal, each with three strap-hinges and three oak locks, both probably 13th or early 14th-century.

Piscina: S. of altar—pillar-piscina with round shaft, moulded base and capital sunk for drain, mid 13th-century, not in situ.

Tiles: pavement much patched, parts laid in chequer of black glazed and slip-tiles, the latter have simple geometrical designs, vair, leopard, dragon, fleurs-de-lis, etc., 14th or 15th-century.

Miscellanea: oak ' tester' in middle E. arch of chapel, 14th or 15th-century. Traces of colour on soffit.

In undercroft—Door: In doorway in third bay on W.— late 17th or early 18th-century, in two folds.

Niche: In second pier from N—with trefoiled head, 13th-century.

Painting: On soffit of arch in second bay of E. wall—zig-zag bands of red with a border of squares on each face, probably 12th-century.

The undercroft now contains a small museum of objects found in the Abbey at various times, they include the following—Bell: (Plate 28) saucer-shaped, with corrugations, probably the frater bell, mediaeval. Chests: (1) with ornamental iron-work, three locks, chain guards, etc., early 14th-century (Plate 21); (2) small box with iron hinges, probably 15th-century. Coffin-lids: three, two with crosses and one plain, 13th-century. Funeral-effigies: of oak, of Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, Edward III, Katherine of Valois (painted), Henry, Prince of Wales, James I, Anne of Denmark, and one other. Funeral-helms: four of late 17th-century date and a tilting-helm, late 15th-century. Grate: of wrought-iron with moulded rail, fleur-de-lis heads and buttressed standards with twisted finials, from monument of Mary, Queen of Scots, early 17th-century. Monuments: On N. wall, to Esther de la Tour de Gouvernet, 1694, small wall-monument with panelled base having relief of dying woman, inscribed tablet above with two cartouches and a lozenge-of-arms. Miscellanea: fragments of late 12th-century cloister arcade with carved capitals, including one with the Judgement of Solomon; parts of twisted marble shafts from the Confessor's shrine; an 11th-century tau-cross capital; 13th-century misericord from quirestalls, etc.

The range is continued S. of the undercroft by two 11th-century bays each with a barrel-vault of rubble running E. and W.; the northern forms the passage to the farmery and has at each end a plain 11th-century round archway. The S. bay has in the N. wall a 14th-century doorway with a two-centred head; in the S. wall is a round arch of two plain orders. In the E. wall is a rounded-headed doorway, now blocked.

(35). The Dorter (173 ft. by 34½ ft.) extends over the buildings just described, from the chapter house outer vestibule to the southernmost of the two barrel-vaulted bays; the northern 59 ft. is now occupied by the chapter library and the rest of the building by the school hall.

(36). The Chapter Library (Plate 162) was altered for its present use c. 1620 by Dean Williams; the walls of the N. part over the vestibule of the chapter house are presumably of the 13th century, but those of the rest of the building are probably of late 11th-century date, altered and repaired in the 14th century. In the E. wall are four windows, all except the second being of two four-centred lights and apparently of early 17th-century date; the second window is of 15th or early 16th-century date and of two four-centred lights in a square head; N. of the first window is the pointed rear-arch of a blocked window probably of the 14th century. In the N. wall is a range of low recesses of the 13th or 14th century; in the western recess is the doorway opening on to the gallery at the W. end of St. Faith's chapel; it is now blocked. The W. wall has slight traces of blocked windows. The roof of eight bays is probably of the 16th century and is low pitched with plain hammer-beam trusses and curved braces to the hammer-beams and collars.

Fittings in Chapter Library— (all early 17th-century). Bookcases: (Plate 168) against the walls and projecting from them on each side—of oak with enriched entablature and pierced cresting with two vases on each projecting end; the ends have each an enriched tablet with a pedimental head and the projecting cases have book-rests or desks, on shaped brackets.

Gallery: At N. end—on oak posts, the upper part turned as columns, moulded cornice and front with open balustrade (Plate 168) of turned balusters, moulded rail and square uprights with ball-tops.

Staircase: round well of 'day-stairs' from cloister—re-set, symmetrically turned balusters.

(37). The School Hall (Plate 163) is of late 11th-century date, but much of the walling has been altered and re-built in 1814. In the E. wall are remains of three original windows with round rear-arches; the first has been widened and has two early 14th-century trefoiled lights inserted in it; the second has been destroyed except for the N. jamb; the third is similar to the first but now blocked; the other windows are 18th-century or modern; there are two old doorways, one opening into the chamber over St. Dunstan's chapel, and perhaps of early 16th-century date, and the other probably of the 14th century and with chamfered jambs and two-centred arch; it is now blocked. In the W. wall at the N. end are remains of four original windows, all now blocked and partly destroyed; at the S. end of the wall are two original windows altered early in the 14th century but lacking the tracery and now blocked; the other windows are 18th-century or modern; there are four old doorways; the easternmost with chamfered jambs and two-centred arch, probably of the 14th century; the second with a four-centred head and of 15th or early 16th-century date; the third is original and has jambs and round head of two plain orders; it opens into a spiral staircase, of which the greater part has been destroyed; the westernmost doorway is probably of the 14th century with a two-centred head and is now blocked. In the S. wall are two original doorways formerly opening into the rere-dorter, they are much restored and both have jambs and round heads of two plain orders. The roof of eleven bays has hammer-beam trusses with curved braces to the hammer-beams and collars and moulded pendants below the middle of the collar-beams; the purlins have curved wind-braces; the moulded wall-plates are of the 15th century, but the rest of the roof is probably later.

Fittings in School Hall— On the N. wall are fixed six 17th-century achievements-of-arms in carved oak—Queen Elizabeth, College of Westminster, Oxford University, Trinity College, Cambridge, Cambridge University, and Christ Church, Oxford.

(38). The Chapel of St. Dunstan (31½ ft. by 16½ ft.) with the storey above it projects at right angles to the E. of the dorter range. It was built probably early in the 16th century, the walls are mainly of stone faced with ashlar with later alterations and patching of brick. The chapel has remains of a blocked E. window with moulded splays. At the W. end of each side wall is a segmental-pointed arch of two chamfered orders. Above the arch opening into the undercroft is a stone corbel, probably indicating the existence of a ' pentise' before the building of the chapel. The early 16th-century boarded ceiling is of four bays, each sub-divided into eight panels with moulded plates, beams and ribs and square foliated bosses at the intersections.

Fittings in Chapel of St. Dunstan—Niche: In S. wall—near E. end, with ribbed and vaulted canopy and remains of tabernacle work above, but all cut back flush with the wall-face, early 16th-century.

Piscina: below niche, with moulded jambs and four-centred heads to recess and to shelf, drain destroyed, early 16th-century.

The room above the chapel (now a class-room) has an 18th-century E. window and an early 18th-century fireplace in the S. wall with marble eared architrave, bay-leaf frieze and enriched cornice. The doorway in the W. wall is set with the early 16th-century moulded oak frame and four-centred arch on the E. face of the wall. The roof is partly of early 16th-century date, low pitched and of four bays with moulded and cambered tie-beams and moulded wall-plates.

(39). The Rere-dorter (originally about 96 ft. by 30 ft.) is set centrally across the S. end of the dorter range. The upper storey has been destroyed, but the middle part of the lower storey remains with other portions of the N. wall and the E. end. An enclosed drain 4 ft. wide ran along each side of the building. The remaining part of the main structure now forms three divisions and has a barrel-vault of rubble with a broad ashlar band in the middle, continued down the walls as pilasters; the cross-wall to the W. of this band is of uncertain date and has a loop stopped against the vault and splayed on the E. side; the base of the existing W. wall of the building is probably of mediaeval date. The E. end is partly standing (Plate 176) and forms part of the W. wall of the farmerycloister; in it is an original round-headed window, and the wall above is faced with squares of stone and tiles set diagonally. The N.W. angle of the building is apparently represented by a small nib in the coal-cellar of Ashburnham House; a short distance to the E. of it is an original round-headed opening for access to the N. drain. In the outer wall of the S. drain there is also an original round-headed opening, rebated for a shutter.

Adjoining the rere-dorter on the N. is the main entrance and staircase to the school. The lower archway was built in 1734, but the upper archway and porch were re-built in 1664–69; the round arch has moulded imposts and a plain key-stone, and is flanked by Ionic pilasters supporting friezes and a continuous cornice. The porch is of brick and has quoins of alternate brick and stone; in the E. wall is a round and in the S. wall an oval window, both blocked. The roof has a plaster vault. Within the porch and above the reredorter is a lobby with a late 17th-century doorway on either side surmounted by an oval panel, that on the E. having the arms of Edward the Confessor. The Busby Library (Plate 164), E. of the lobby, is said to have been built in 1656, and has a round-headed window in the S. wall. The elaborate ceiling has a saucer-dome in the middle surrounded by a wreath of fruit and flowers and having spandrelpanels enriched with foliage; the four angles of the ceiling have each a small saucer-dome with a wreath similar to the middle feature and enclosed in a square panel of twisted foliage with cherub-heads; between the angle panels are rectangular panels similarly enriched; the cornice has acanthus ornament. The bookcases against the E. and W. walls are of the same date and are enriched with carved foliage. There are also two original tables with turned legs.

The range S. of the cloister comprises the frater with the passage known as the Dark Cloister at its E. end.

(40). The Dark Cloister (12 ft. wide) is of late 11th-century date (Plate 147) and has a plain barrel-vault, plastered on the soffit; there are plain round archways at the N. and S. ends lining with the side walls of the frater. Above the N. arch, in the cloister, is a blocked window of two square-headed lights and set in one of them is a large early 16th-century moulded corbel. In the W. wall are two 18th-century 'bull's-eye' windows. The dark cloister is continued southwards by a passage, of rather less width, with an outer or western wall, probably of the 14th century. The northern half of this wall has a long range of windows now forming twenty-three lights, they have moulded oak frames and square heads, all of mid 16th-century date. Further S. is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and altered head. At the S. end of the passage is an archway, possibly of the 16th century, and inserted when that part of the reredorter was destroyed. The original passage turned W. at this point to skirt the rere-dorter. Above the N. end of the dark cloister is a modern classroom with a mid or late 16th-century fire-place in the E. wall; it is of stone and has a moulded three-centred arch.

(41). The Frater (130 ft. by 37 ft.) flanks the cloister on the S. side. It was built late in the 11th-century and originally extended further towards the W. as the existing W. wall cuts across the last bay of the Norman wall-arcade on the S. wall. About the middle of the 14th century the side walls were apparently raised and a row of tall windows inserted in the N. wall. At the same time the Norman wall-arcades were built up flush with the face above and the floor-level was lowered, either to make a more lofty hall or to insert a low undercroft beneath it. In 1544, shortly after the Dissolution, the building was unroofed and two thirds of the S. wall were destroyed. The western part of the building is now occupied by modern workshops, latrines, etc., but the eastern part is open garden.

The E. wall has a 14th-century wall-arcade of eleven bays and ranging with the Norman arcade. Each bay is divided by three clustered shafts with moulded bases and foliated capitals, and the heads are moulded, two-centred and trefoiled. The stone-work is much weathered and near the end has been cut away for a 17th or 18th-century doorway, now blocked with brick. The four northern bays are filled in flush with the wall and further S. in the fifth and eighth bays are the oval windows of 17th or 18th-century date. Above the heads of the arcade the wall is modern.

The N. wall (Plate 161) is standing to the plateline and has an 11th-century wall-arcade, of which the bench is about 6 ft. above the former floor-level. The arches are of one plain order and spring from circular shafts with plain cushion capitals with square grooved abaci and chamfered bases. The stonework is much weathered away and the arcade has been built up; two bays have again been opened out, but the shafts are missing. Below this arcade the wall-face is very rough, as though the early footings had been cut back when the floor was lowered. In the eighth and tenth bays of the S. cloister-alley are doorways (Plate 152), for which see description of the Cloister. Above the arcade is a much weathered string-course and above it a range of nine 14th-century windows. Each is of two cinque-foiled lights in a two-centred head with a moulded label. The internal splays have attached shafts with moulded bases and foliated capitals. All these windows are blocked on the mullion face except the first, which is blocked to the face of the wall. Above them is a row of moulded and carved angel-corbels, the angels apparently carrying shields. The corbels are not spaced with the windows and indicate a roof of eleven bays.

The S. wall has been destroyed except for the return at the E. end and about 34 ft. at the W. end. In the E. return is the E. jamb of a doorway formerly with a segmental-pointed arch and probably opening into the staircase to the pulpit. The remaining western part of the wall has a Norman wall-arcade similar to that in the N. wall, and of which the westernmost arches have been partially unblocked. Cutting into this arcade is a 14th-century archway with a moulded semi-circular arch and responds with clustered shafts having moulded capitals and bases. It is blocked on the outside face and the blocking has a square-headed window, probably of the 16th century and now also blocked.

The frater building originally extended 33½ ft. W. of the existing end-wall, which is perhaps of the 14th century. A portion of the late 11th-century W. wall still remains at the N. W. angle, the outer or W. face being treated with squares of tufa, freestone and red tiles set diamond-wise; above this work is a range of 14th-century square cusped panels; lower down is part of the jambshaft of a 12th-century window. In the N. wall is a staircase in the thickness of the wall and entered by a narrow doorway, now blocked, with a three-centred head in the parlour or vestibule to the cloister. The staircase is steep and straight, leading up in two flights to a doorway opening on to the lead roof of the S. walk of the cloisters, like the blocked doorway at the foot of the stairs. About two-thirds of the distance up the stair is a landing with a recess on the N. side, in which is a shelf, now broken, supported by a middle mullion and originally pierced by four circular holes. In the S. wall of the upper flight are two shapeless holes formerly trefoiled loops into the frater; down the S. side of the stairs is a groove. It is suggested (see Archaeologia, Vol. 53, p. 161) that the shelf on the landing contained a filtering cistern; the whole is probably of the 14th century.

(42). The Misericord with its sub-vault adjoined the frater on the S. near its W. end. The upper storey has gone except for a portion of the E. wall, but there are considerable remains of the sub-vault (45½ ft. by 27 ft.), which have been uncovered by excavation. The E. and S. walls are probably of late 11th-century date and there are remains of an original round-headed arch or doorway in the S. wall. In the 13th century the building was reconstructed and a stone vault inserted; the moulded bases of a number of the vaulting-shafts remain and two on the N. side can still be seen under a modern floor. The S. wall of the two E. bays was pierced in the 15th or early in the 16th century by two depressed arches. The entrance from the frater in the N. wall has a filling of similar date with two openings in it. In the N. bay of the W. wall the base of a 14th-century archway was found opening into a corridor running W. There are no remains of the middle row of columns. It is probable that the great kitchen adjoined the misericord on the S. and was bounded on the E. by Ashburnham House.

(43). The Prior's Lodging, now Ashburnham House, lies parallel to and 48 ft. to the S. of the frater. It is a 14th-century rectangular building of rubble, refaced and altered in brick in the 17th century. The house was originally of two storeys, the kitchen occupying the W. part. In the N. wall of the ground-floor are remains of windows, probably of the 14th century, one has a 15th-century cinque-foiled head, but the majority of them have been much altered and blocked; there is also a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and segmental rear-arch; above the doorway externally is a corbel, probably indicating a former 'pentise'; further E. is part of the hollow-chamfered jamb and square head of another doorway. At the point of junction of the western cross-wall is a semi-circular recess, part of a former staircase to the floor above. In the S. wall the only mediaeval feature now showing is the E. splay of the middle window of the kitchen. Projecting E. from the main building is a short length of corridor formerly communicating with the dark cloister but now forming part of the house. In the N. wall is a 16th-century window of three square-headed lights and partly blocked; there is a similar window in the blocking wall at the E. end of the corridor. In the S. wall is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head.

There is no direct evidence of the date of the reconstruction of the prior's lodging, but the balance of probability seems to favour the first few years after the restoration of the Stuarts. Early in the 19th century the house was much altered and the existing top storey was added.

As re-built the house consists of the original block of the prior's lodging with a long addition on the N. side. It was formerly of two storeys with attics, but is now of three. The 17th-century walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled.

The S. Elevation has a projecting wing at the E. end. There is a brick band between the ground and first floor and the windows have rubbed brick heads.

The N. or Rear Elevation has similar windows, a band between the lower storeys and a moulded cornice between the first and second floors. The doorway in the centre is set in a brick projection with a cornice; the doorway has an eared architrave.

Interior: The middle room on the ground-floor has a pavement of square stones set diagonally In the E. wall is a 17th-century fireplace flanked by large upright trusses each with a terminal cherub attached; they support a moulded cornice. The W. room, formerly kitchen, has two old chamfered beams in the ceiling. The back middle room has walls covered with large bolection-moulded panelling with a moulded cornice enriched with guttae, etc. In the E. and W. walls are elliptical-headed doors of two folds with moulded architraves. Further S. in the W. wall is a square-headed doorway with a two-panel door. In the E. wall is a similar but sham door to correspond. The W. part of Bishop Thomas's room is original and has a plaster cornice enriched with egg-andtongue ornament.

The staircase (Plates 166 to 169) has elaborately panelled walls divided into bays by fluted Ionic pilasters supporting an architrave, cove and cornice and standing on panelled pedestals, with enriched mouldings continued along as a dado. Below this is an enriched string-course and a lower range of panels. The main stair forms an oblong on plan but projecting to the E. is an annexe into which it is continued and which has at the angles, including the salient one, engaged Ionic columns and a free column on the line of the staircase-rail. The stairs have broad moulded hand-rails and widely spaced balusters of the Palladian Ionic form. Resting on the coved ceiling is an elaborate oval lantern consisting of an open gallery surmounted by a saucer-dome of plaster. The main ceiling has an enriched band within the cove, conventional foliage enrichments in the spandrels and a rich wreath of flowers round the opening of the lantern. The gallery of the lantern (Plate 166) has a parapet partly solid and partly balustraded, and on it stand Ionic columns grouped in threes and supporting the base of the dome. The dome has a broad wreath of fruit and flowers and an enriched cornice.

The drawing-room, now the reading-room (Plate, 165), on the first floor, has an enriched plaster ceiling, coved at the sides, with rectangular panels at the ends and a round panel in the middle having a wreath of fruit and flowers; this round panel was formerly surmounted by a dome, removed when the top storey of the house was added in 1821. The room to the S. is lined with enriched panelling, with cornice and dado; the doorway, from the staircase (Plate 168), is flanked by Ionic pilasters, and has a fanlight filled with pierced conventional foliage; the ceiling has an enriched plaster band.


Ashburnham House

Ashburnham House

To the W. of the cloister is an open court, partly built over; it was no doubt occupied before the 14th-century rebuilding by the W. or cellarer's range, of which a portion of the W. wall at the S. end is still standing; it shows traces of the position of the former roof corbels. In the 14th century the cellarer's department was moved to the W. side of Dean's Yard. Continuing the S. walk of the cloister westwards is the Outer Parlour or Entry. It is in two divisions and was re-built in the second half of the 14th century by Abbot Litlington. Both divisions have a stone vault of two bays with diagonal, ridge, subsidiary and wall ribs; the bosses at the intersections are carved with roses, foliage, a rose with four leopards' faces, a shield with the arms quarterly [argent] quartering [gules] fretty [or] with a bend [azure] over all and the crowned initials N. L. for Nicholas Litlington; the vaults spring from grouped shafts flanked by hollow mouldings. In the N. wall of the inner division is a blocked 14th-century doorway and two much altered windows. The doorway between the two divisions has moulded and shafted jambs and moulded two-centred arch with an ogee crocketed label with carved finial and crowned head-stops. The much restored archway, at the W. end, has moulded and shafted responds and a moulded two-centred arch. In the S. wall are three modern doorways.

(44). The Abbot's Lodging, now the deanery and the college hall, adjoins the church on the S. W. It consists of four ranges of building round a courtyard (Plate 172). The S. wall of the courtyard may be of the 12th century and the early abbot's camera probably extended S. from this wall over the outer parlour. The whole lodging was reconstructed under Abbot Litlington, late in the 14th century, and much extended; it then included the hall, Jerusalem chamber, kitchen and offices on the W., the range comprising the vestibule or entry on the S., a narrow range or corridor on the E. communicating with the church and the rooms over the parlour. Abbot Islip built the Jericho parlour with the adjoining chambers early in the 16th century and vaulted the entry from the Conventual parlour. In 1606 Dean Neile built a small addition E. of Islip's building. The main building on the E. of the courtyard and the house over the S. W. angle of the cloister, now part of the deanery, was built or re-built probably by Dean Williams (1620– 44). Other alterations and additions to the E. range were made by Deans Sprat and Atterbury late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. There are small modern alterations.

(45). The Abbot's Hall (Plate 170), now the College Hall (52½ ft. by 27 ft.), was built in the second half of the 14th century and is of four bays with a dais at the N. end and screen at the S. end. The side walls have each four windows restored externally and each of two cinque-foiled and sub-cusped lights with a transom and tracery in the two-centred head with a moulded label; N. of the windows in the E. wall is an early 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head and a plain oak door with two strap-hinges; S. of the windows in the same wall is a late 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head; it is approached by a flight of steps, covered by a modern porch. The S. wall of the hall is timber-framed with two doorways, each with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square embattled head; the southern doorway has a nail-studded door with heavy strap-hinges. The mid 17th-century screen has plain posts and cornice and is surmounted by a gallery with a three-sided bay projecting in the middle; the gallery-front has a series of panels with round arches, having base, impost and key-blocks, the latter with small pendants; the panels in the projecting bay have an ornamental pierced circle in the middle of each; above the rail is a range of rectangular panels, some close and some with gratings and made to open. The low pitched roof has five trusses, of which the two against the end walls are original and have heavy tie-beams with moulded strainers and braces with traceried spandrels; they support dwarf king-posts with curved braces to the central purlin or ridge; the other trusses have original tie-beams and king-posts but the plain strainers, curved braces and wall-posts are probably of the 17th century. In the middle of the roof is the original louvre or lantern; it is rectangular with a gabled roof and has a series of openings with trefoiled heads, eight on the E. and W. and six on the N. and S. The roof rests on late 14th-century stone corbels with angels holding scrolls or painted shields-of-arms—(a) Edward the Confessor; (b) [argent ?] quartering [azure ?] fretty or ? over all a bend sable ? with three fleurs-de-lis or ? thereon for Litlington; (c) as (b) but with a border charged with six mitres or; (d) Abbey of Westminster; (e) as (c), and (f) as (b). The hall is paved with grey and reddish white marble squares set diagonally. Four of the tables are of early 17th-century date and have turned legs. The space S. of the hall, the former buttery, etc., has been much altered and has been divided up by modern partitions. In the wall between it and the abbot's kitchen is a late 14th-century doorway with a four-centred head and two rectangular serving-hatches; E. of the doorway is a second doorway, now blocked. The Kitchen has a large fireplace recess in the E. wall with a four-centred arch. At the S. end of the recess is a square-headed window, perhaps of the 16th century; further W. is a modern window. Below the hall is a cellar roofed with plain joists, set close together. In the E. wall are two wide doorways with three-centred heads, all of modern stonework, and two small rectangular windows.

(46). The Jerusalem Chamber (Plate 171) adjoins the hall on the N. It is possible that it stands on the site and may incorporate remains of an earlier building, but the existing structure is substantially of late 14th-century date. In the E. wall is an early 16th-century doorway with a four-centred head. In the N. wall is a four-light window of the same date but completely restored externally; the splays have small remains of painted drapery. In the W. wall are two windows, all modern except for the late 14th-century splays and rear-arches. The low-pitched roof is of three bays with moulded tie-beams, strainers and curved braces springing from carved grotesque heads. The fireplace (Plate 169) in the E. wall has an elaborate early to mid 17th-century overmantel of cedar resting on coupled Doric columns, flanking the opening; the overmantel is of two stages each of three bays flanked by coupled and divided by single columns of the Ionic and Corinthian orders respectively; the three panels of the lower range and the side panels of the upper range have each an enriched tablet with broken pediment, etc., the middle panel of the upper stage has a large shield of the arms of Dean Williams impaling the See of Lincoln and the college of Westminster. The glass (Plates 17, 18, 19) in the N. window is of 13th-century date and comprises seven panels, of vesica, quatrefoil or round form, representing the following subjects—(a) the massacre of the innocents, (b) the stoning of Stephen, (c) the Resurrection, (d) the descent of the Holy Ghost, (e) the Ascension, (f) St. Nicholas drawing the ship to land with the false pilgrim falling overboard, (g) the beheading of St. John the Baptist; there is in addition an early 17th-century shield of the arms of Dean Williams. The tapestries include five portions of two large panels in a series representing the life of Abraham, by Bernard van Orley, executed at Brussels by W. Pennemaker, c. 1540–50. These panels, now cut up and the parts dissociated from one another, are as follows: (1) The return of Sarah from the Egyptians; four portions (a) about half the main subject; (b and c) two portions showing men with treasure, a camel, etc.; (d) part of a border with figures of Luxus, Caristia, etc.; (2) The circumcision of Isaac; main portion of subject with small subject on left—the birth of Isaac; the right hand part of this panel, representing the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael is now in St. Faith's chapel. The other two panels of tapestry are (a) a 17th-century Flemish panel of Rebekah giving drink to Abraham's servant at the well and (b) a late 17th-century English or Flemish panel of the Apostles at the Beautiful Gate of Jerusalem, an adaptation of Raphael's cartoon of this subject. On the S. side is a painting on oak of Henry IV.

The basement below the Jerusalem chamber has heavy oak posts with curved braces supporting the floor above; towards the S. end is an old timber partition with a 17th-century door. There are three original windows with square heads. Between the Jerusalem chamber and the S. W. tower of the church is a narrow area, and on the W. wall (that of the chamber) are two rows of stone corbels indicating the existence of a building on this side before the erection of the tower.

(47). The Jericho Parlour forms part of a range of three storeys built early in the 16th century. The parlour itself (Plate 177) is on the first floor and is separated from the Jerusalem chamber by a small lobby with a window in the S. wall of three four-centred lights in a square head in the window are three early 16th-century glass panels—a portcullis, Tudor rose and wreath and a three-towered castle, all crowned. The lobby has also a lamp-niche with moulded jambs, trefoiled and sub-cusped head, moulded cornice and cresting. The Jericho parlour has in the S. wall a window similar to that in the lobby but of eight lights; the window contains as many panels of glass—the Tudor royal arms in a Garter, the Confessor's arms in a wreath, dated 1601, Tudor rose, portcullis and two eagles, a falcon (?), all with crowns; also two early 17th-century oval panels with the arms of the college and the crossed keys of St. Peter surrounded by fragments of the cartouche, etc.; there is also a large quarry with the badge of Abbot Islip. The parlour is lined with early 16th-century linen-fold panelling with a little later panelling. In the E. wall is an original fireplace of stone with moulded jambs and depressed arch in a square head. The two doorways have moulded jambs and four-centred heads; the doors are of linen-fold panelling. The parlour also contains a leather-covered chest, probably of the 17th century, with the words "West Col." in nail-heads. The lobby to the E. of the Jericho parlour has a modernised doorway in the S. wall approached by a flight of steps in the courtyard. Further E. is a small chamber with an early 16th-century window of three four-centred lights in the E. wall and a stone fireplace of the same date in the S. wall; it has a four-centred arch in a square head with shields and foliage in the spandrels. The basement or lower floor of the range incorporates a 14th-century wall running E. and W. and forming a corridor on the S. of the S. W. tower; this wall contains a 14th-century window with a square head and an early 16th-century doorway with a four-centred head. At the E. end of the corridor is a small chamber with a 16th-century vault of brick and a square flue or shaft in the N. E. corner, carried some distance up the tower. The S. wall of the range towards the courtyard has two early 16th-century windows with four-centred lights and a doorway of the same date with a four-centred arch in a square head. The top storey of the range has three early 16th-century windows of three, four and two lights respectively, opening on to the courtyard; the storey contains three main rooms, two with original ceilings divided into panels by moulded ribs; the three rooms (Plate 177) are lined with 16th and 17th-century panelling and have panelled doors; the fireplaces in the two western rooms have four-centred arches in square heads; N. of these rooms is a narrow chamber with two windows opening into the N. W. tower. A short lobby further E. communicates with the abbot's pew (see S. aisle of Nave). On the S. wall of this range is a lead rain-water head dated 1704.

(48). The Deanery on the E. side of the courtyard is a building partly of three and partly of two storeys; the external walls are of plastered brick and the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The building is mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries but incorporates part of the walls of the 14th-century gallery leading to the church. The E. wing over the W. walk of the cloister was built c. 1631 and has in the E. wall several windows of this date with solid frames and transoms; in the N. wall are some late 17th-century casement windows. At the back of this building is the stone E. wall of the early abbot's lodging lining with the W. wall of the cloister. The E. face of the main block of the deanery has only 18th-century features. The W. elevation of this block, fronting the abbot's courtyard, has few ancient features; the lower part of the wall is of late 14th-century stonework, now plastered; the upper part is timber-framed and plastered, and is of doubtful date. The upper storey at the N. end was added by Dean Neile in 1606 and has in the S. wall an oriel window of that date and of three lights with moulded frame and mullions and a pediment; in the W. wall of the same storey is a late 17th-century oriel window of four lights; the eaves have an early 18th-century cove and cornice. Inside the building the upper parts of two subsidiary staircases are old; that adjoining the lobby of the Jericho parlour has early 17th-century flat shaped balusters; the staircase of the E. wing has mid 17th-century turned balusters, moulded rail and square newels. On the second floor one room has moulded 17th-century ceiling-beams. On one wall of the staircase is a panel of 16th-century Brussels tapestry of the 'vase and arcade' type.

The South Range has a N. wall of rubble, possibly of the 12th century; in it are two square-headed windows, probably of the 14th century, and above them are relieving arches of two earlier windows; there are remains of other blocked windows higher up, all square-headed and probably of the 14th century. The late 14th-century opening into the Entry has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and defaced label. The Entry has an early 16th-century stone vault of two bays with moulded ridge, diagonal, subsidiary and wall ribs with moulded rings at the intersections; the vault springs from grouped shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The late 14th-century archway from the outer parlour has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label with defaced head-stops, one wearing a mitre; in the rear-arch is a socket and iron staple for a vertical draw-bar; the oak door is perhaps of the same date; it is of two thicknesses of boarding and has a small wicket, probably of later date, with strap-hinges. In the E. wall of the Entry are two doorways, the northern modern and the southern of the 14th or 15th century but with a 17th or 18th-century wooden frame. In the W. wall is a blocked doorway with a four-centred head. On the W. wall are two early 18th-century wrought-iron lamp brackets.

(49). Cellarer's Building, etc.—The long range on the E. side of Dean's Yard was built by Abbot Litlington in the second half of the 14th century; the northern part formed the cellarer's building and the southern the Grammar School, Bayliff's Hospice, etc. The building is of ragstone-rubble and was originally of two storeys, but now has a third storey partly of the 18th century and partly modern. The S.W. front to Dean's Yard has a series of stone windows, now all modern, but probably in many cases restorations of 14th-century windows; there are also a number of 18th-century sash windows. The Blackstole Tower in the middle of the range is now incorporated in the later third storey; the gateway beneath it probably formed the entrance into the kitchen yard of the abbey. The late 14th-century outer archway has moulded jambs, two-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a moulded label; above it is a rectangular sunk panel with a much weathered achievement of the royal arms, probably of Henry VIII, and of early Renaissance character; the third storey of the tower has an old square-headed window with a modern wooden frame. About 35 yards further S. is a second Entry opening into Little Dean's Yard; the outer archway has restored jambs and moulded two-centred arch with a defaced label; the third storey above the Entry rises above the adjoining range in the form of a tower. The E. front of the range is much covered by later buildings. The inner archway of the Blackstole tower has moulded jambs, four-centred arch and defaced label; the two storeys above it have each a window with a decayed pointed arch in a square head, both are now blocked; this part of the front is recessed in the range and the N. return wall of the recess has a window of two-pointed lights in a square head. The inner archway of the southern Entry has restored jambs and moulded two-centred arch and label. The interior of the range is now in several occupations; the northern end probably formed a porter's lodge; the next four bays were part of the cellarer's building; the portion between the two entries was the Grammar School in 1461 and the rest of the range was probably the Bayliff's Hospice. The porter's lodge has now no ancient features. The ground-floor of the next four bays has a stone vault (Plate 174) with ridge, diagonal, subsidiary and wall ribs dying on to semi-octagonal responds; the intersections have carved foliage or flower bosses. In the E. wall are several altered or blocked windows and doorways. In the southern part of the range are two slabs of white marble, carved with heads of Christ and the Virgin respectively, foliage, fruit, etc. The first floor has at one point part of the original late 14th-century roof of flat pitch with chamfered tie-beams, ridge and wall-plate; in the E. wall, near the N. end, is an original doorway with a two-centred head and in the reveal of the S. jamb is the start of a wall-passage or garde-robe. A room further S. is decorated with paintings (Plate 175) in brown on white; the work is probably of mid 16th-century date and includes conventional peacocks, half-figures terminating in foliage, monsters and foliated columns and pedestals of baluster form; above the fireplace in the E. wall is a shield of the Tudor royal arms with conventional sea-lions as supporters and flanked by decorated columns supporting an attenuated pediment; the timber-studding is exposed in the S. wall. The next room S. has a late 17th-century cornice for part of its length and plaster ornaments of the same date in the flat spandrel of the roof. The entry under the Blackstole tower has a late 14th-century stone vault with moulded ridge, diagonal, subsidiary and wall ribs, partly restored in cement; the bosses are defaced; the vault springs from shafts with moulded capitals in the angles. In the N. wall is a doorway with a pointed head and now blocked. The entry to Little Dean's Yard has a stone vault in two bays, similar to that in the Blackstole tower, but with semi-octagonal shafts; one boss has defaced figure carving. The range between the two entries has no ancient features except that the S. bay is divided off by a cross-wall and has a quadripartite vault of two bays with chamfered ribs. There are slight indications that the rest of this range may have had a vault, but it has now been entirely removed. The range S. of the southern entry has been completely modernised and partly re-built.

Adjoining the main range on the E. side are a number of added buildings and wings forming part of canons' residences and the house of the head master of the school. They are none of them earlier of date than 17th century and much of the work is modern; the walls are of brick. The house at the N. end adjoining the parlour is apparently of the 18th century, but contains some panelling of c. 1600. In a passage are some fragments of floor-slabs. The next house further S. and on the E. of the cellarer's building is of three storeys with attics and was added late in the 17th century. It has some original windows and the back doorway has an original door with moulded panels, planted on. The two-storeyed annexe to the E. is of about the same date and has original windows with solid frames and a moulded rainwater head. Inside the building the top flights of the main staircase have original twisted balusters and square newels with moulded drops. In the back passage is an original door with strap-hinges, peep-hole, bolt and chain. The next house to the S. is partly of late 17th-century date. The small wing immediately S. of the yard behind the Blackstole tower has an original well-staircase and some original windows. The S. wall, fronting Little Dean's Yard, is of mediaeval rubble at the base, but above it is of late 17th-century brickwork and contains a small oval window of that date.

About 50 ft. to the S. of the main range flanking Dean's Yard is a rectangular building of ragstone-rubble and of late 14th or 15th-century date. It is now used as a stable and has in the W. wall two much damaged original windows each formerly of two trefoiled lights in a square head with a moulded label.

(50). The Farmery or Infirmary lies immediately to the E. of the dorter range and is approached by a passage from the dark cloister. It consists of a Cloister, surrounded by 'Lodgings' now used as houses by various members of the collegiate body, and the remains of a large Chapel on the E. side. It is probable that the late 12th-century farmery consisted of the still partly existing chapel with a large aisled hall (forming a structural nave) extending over the site of the cloister, an arrangement still preserved in many of the large Benedictine houses. This arrangement was abandoned in the 14th century when the hall, ruined by the fire of 1298, was pulled down and the existing cloister and lodgings substituted for it. The arcade walls were re-built late in the 17th century and many alterations were made in the lodgings about the same time. There is also much modern work in these buildings.

(51). The Little (or Farmery) Cloister (65½ and 64½ ft. E. to W. and 70 and 68½ ft. N. to S.) is of five bays on each side; the arcades (Plate 180) were re-built late in the 17th century. The square piers are roll-moulded at the angles and have moulded plinths and cornices. The segmental arches have roll-moulded edges and key-stones cutting into a horizontal cornice. The plinth is carried across the openings except in the middle bay on the W. side, where it is stopped for a gate. The N. and S. cloister walks are built over, but the others are not. The ceilings of the E., N. and S. alleys are plastered and a few chamfered crossbeams are exposed. Excavations in 1922 revealed the rubble foundations of several buttresses, etc., of the 14th-century arcade walls. The outer walls are all of the 14th century except the portion in the S.W. angle described under rere-dorter. The various doors and windows are described under the houses to which they belong. Against these walls is a 14th-century moulded offset of stone in lieu of wall-plate.

(52). The Passage (Plate 173) from the Dark Cloister to the Farmery Cloister consists of the part under the dorter, already described and the part under the W. range of the farmery cloister. This part has at the E. end a 14th-century arch with moulded jambs and segmental arch on the E. face and a moulded segmental rear-arch on the W. face. At the W. end is a 14th-century archway of two hollow-chamfered orders with a two-centred arch and plain plinths. Between the two parts the space is roofed only by a modern glass roof. On the N. side is a 14th-century wall and in it a modern doorway. Beyond it was a small room, of which the roof-line was visible before the recent restorations.

(53). The 'Lodging' S. of the Passage has a 14th-century doorway in the W. wall of the cloister with moulded jambs and two-centred arch; it is now blocked. Inside the building the cross-wall has another 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs, and further S. an early 16th-century fireplace with moulded jambs and depressed four-centred head. In the S. wall are two openings into recesses over the N. drain of the rere-dorter; the western has a 14th-century doorway and the eastern has an ashlar vault running N. and S. Above the modern fireplace in the same wall is the heavy corbel of a former floor and above it an early 16th-century fireplace with moulded jambs and depressed four-centred arch in a square head. On the first floor on the staircase is a small lamp-niche with a flue. On the second floor there is a fireplace similar to that in the S. wall, and E. of it is a locker with a small furnace in the jamb of the fireplace; above the locker is a lamp-niche. The large window on the staircase incorporates parts of the splays of two 14th-century windows one above the other. On the third floor in the E. wall is a lamp-niche, and in the same stone below it is a niche with a drain. The part adjoining the dorter is known as Litlington's tower and has on the N. wall a shield of that abbot's arms, apparently a restoration. The house contains a late 17th-century carved fireplace, with enriched trusses and cornice, moved from a destroyed house adjoining the dark cloister.

(54). The Music Room, formerly the Chamberlain's Store (?), on the W. side of the little cloister, N. of the passage, has in the E. wall a 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch with a moulded segmental-pointed rear-arch. The door is of the 17th century and of twelve panels. Further N. is a two-light 14th-century window with the cusping, etc., cut away. It has a moulded rear-arch. In the N. wall is a large window all modern except part of the splays. In the E. splay is a lamp-niche with a rounded head, a flue and a rough socket; the jambs are rebated. Further E. is a blocked doorway with hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch. In the W. wall is a window now covered up and blocked.

(55). The 'Lodgings' on the N. side of the little cloister now form two houses. The western house is now of three storeys with attics and cellar. The walls are partly of stone and partly of brick. The roofs are tiled. Of the 14th-century building only the S. wall up to the first-floor level and the W. wall remain with the foundations of the N. wall in the cellar. In the S. wall are three doorways; the eastern and western are of the 14th century with moulded jambs and two-centred arches and moulded rear-arches; the western has above it a relieving-arch of ragstone; the middle doorway (now blocked) has chamfered jambs and two-centred arch and may be earlier. Further E. are two windows, one modern and one of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with an original moulded rear-arch. On this wall is a plain stone tablet to Thomas Smith, 1663–4. Projecting from the W. wall is a large stone chimney-stack, which may be of the 14th century. The rest of the house is of late 17th-century date and the N. elevation has bands between the storeys. On this side two windows of this date with mullion and transom remain. On the first floor are four similar windows. Inside the building the staircase (Plate 179) has turned balusters with moulded strings and rails; the square newels have ball finials and moulded pendants. The dining-room on the ground-floor has a fireplace with egg and tongue architrave and acanthus cornice. On the first floor the drawing-room has a similar fireplace and early 18th-century panelling. Two panels retain a stencilled pattern of conventional foliage in terra-cotta tint. Other rooms have panelling of similar date. The eastern house is of three storeys with cellars; the roofs are tiled. The lower parts of the N., S. and E. walls are of the 14th century, but the rest of the building was re-built late in the 17th century together with the added wing on the N. In the S. wall are two windows, one modern and one (the eastern) of the 14th century, restored externally, with a moulded rear-arch. Further W. is a doorway, apparently modern. In the N. wall is a large 16th-century window of five square-headed lights with a transom. The staircase has been rearranged, but is similar in detail to that in the western house. In the cellar are two 17th-century battened doors.

(56). The 'Lodgings' on the S. side of the little cloister now form one house. It is of three storeys, the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in 1687, but the lower part of the N. wall and the entry or corridor at the E. end are of the 14th century.

The N. Front. On the ground-floor the doorway to the corridor is of the 14th century with moulded jambs and two-centred arch. The two doorways to the house are similar but almost entirely restored. Near the W. end is another similar doorway, now blocked. Between the two eastern doors is the four-centred head of a destroyed doorway. There are four windows each of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head; the two eastern are restored and the two western are modern externally but all probably represent old openings. The upper storeys are of 17th-century brickwork, but all the window-frames have been renewed.

The S. Front facing the gardens has a moulded brick band between the first and second storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice. On the ground-floor the middle part of the front has a modern loggia. The kitchen at the E. end has one original double-hung sash window. Projecting from this end is a one-storeyed outhouse of late 17th-century date with a number of original solid frames and lead glazing. Adjoining the house on the E. is the original (14th-century) corridor from the cloister to the garden. It has a two-centred moulded doorway and above it a much defaced trefoil-headed window now blocked.

Interior: The house has been almost entirely modernised inside, but the staircase has an original (late 17th-century) enriched ceiling with an oval bay-leaf band in the centre, two acanthus rosettes, shields, foliage and two masks. Round the walls is an acanthus cornice. The drawing-room on the first floor has a ceiling (Plate 178) of similar type; the main panel has festoons of drapery and outside a rich band of fruit and flowers. In the angles are shields with the date 1687. In the basement below the kitchen is a short length of mediaeval culvert with a stone vault.

(57). The Infirmary Chapel stood on the E. side of the little cloister and formed the eastern part of the 12th-century infirmary. In the middle of the 14th century the western part forming the infirmary hall was taken down and a wall built across the W. end of the chapel. The building was mostly pulled down in 1578 and is now a ruin, of which parts of the S. wall are the most complete.

The Chancel (22 ft. by 19¼ft.) has the E. wall standing about 2ft. above the pavement-level and the N. wall about 3 to 4 ft. high. The inside face only has been exposed by excavation. In the N.E. angle is a small fragment of pavement of 4-in. tiles. There are also traces of the former step to the altar platform. A few feet of the S.E. angle have been encroached upon by the angle of a 17th-century house. The S. wall is standing nearly to its full height and has in it two windows, probably of the 14th century, with two-centred heads having traces of labels and segmental-pointed rear-arches. The splays have roll-mouldings, but all the stonework is much weathered and both windows are now blocked, the E. part of the eastern window being cut away by the house already mentioned. At the sill-level of the western window is a weathered internal string which was probably stepped up under the sill of the eastern window, which was at a higher level. Higher up the wall is a 12th-century string, probably at the springing level of the former windows. The chancel-arch no longer exists, but a short section of the respond remains on each side. It is of the 12th century and has three attached shafts.

The Nave (47¼ ft. by 20½ft.) is of five bays, of which two and a half bays on the S. are standing with the columns of the remaining bays on that side. On the N. side the columns and bases stand, but only about 3ft. high, and two of them are under the floor of a modern house. On each side the E. responds are semi-circular and the first and third columns are octagonal with the angles set to the cardinal points; the other columns, including the W. responds in the W. wall, are circular and all have moulded bases on square plinths with a chamfered offset. There are mortices for screens in the bases of the two western bays. The S. arcade (Plate 161) has been much restored; the E. respond capital has weathered away but that of the first column has scallops on both sides, as has the second, but they have been cut away on the N. face. The semi-circular arches are plain on the S. face, but on the N. the first had cheveron ornament, of which the western part remains; the second had embattled ornament, of which the eastern part remains; and the third had cheverons on the edge and a roll-moulding, of which the E. spring remains. Above the arches are traces of a string-course. The three E. arches are under-built and blocked. The W. wall is standing about 15 ft. high and in it is the former W. doorway (Plate 176) of the chapel. It is of the 14th century and has richly moulded arch and responds, each with two groups of clustered shafts with moulded bases and foliated capitals. Both jambs and arch have a band of quatre-foiled panelling between the main members. The moulded label has weathered head-stops.

The South Aisle (8¼ft. wide) has a portion of the E. wall standing as well as the two western bays of the S. wall and the W. end. Between the third and fourth bays a rubble wall, probably of post-suppression date, has been built across the aisle. In the E. wall was a window, probably of the 14th century, of which the N. internal splay remains with a quarter-round moulding on the edge. In the S. wall, in the fourth bay, is a late 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred arch on the S. face and a moulded segmental-pointed rear-arch on the N. face. In the fifth bay is a 12th-century window, partly restored and of one round-headed light recessed in two plain orders externally and having shafted internal splays with small scalloped capitals; the rear-arch is also roll-moulded, and below the internal sill is a 12th-century string-course much weathered and cut away. In the fourth bay are remains of the W. part of a similar window, now blocked and partly cut away by the later doorway. The 14th-century W. wall has a window of two trefoiled ogee lights under a square head with an oak lintel internally and all partly restored. Above it is the offset for a floor and a much weathered early 16th-century fireplace with a depressed arch.

The North Aisle has been entirely destroyed except for the W. wall, in which is a window similar to that in the W. wall of the S. aisle, but now blocked and also much destroyed; the N. wall, standing a few feet high, was incorporated in the modern foundations, and in it was a doorway with pin and hinge still in situ. Adjoining the N. aisle on the N. was a room (35 ft. by 16ft.) entered by a doorway in the cloister with moulded jambs and two-centred arch of the 14th century. The W. wall is still standing and near the N. end are the splays probably of a doorway, now blocked. Between the doorways is a modern window and near the southern door is a corbel of a former floor. The S. wall has been destroyed. The E. wall has been pulled down except one fragment, including the moulded N. jamb of a 15th-century window. Cut through from the angle of the internal splay is a narrow squint, which implies the existence of another room further E. The N. wall has a single-light window, now blocked but probably of the 14th century. In this wall are three corbels for a former floor, two plain and one carved with a lion's head and probably of the 12th century re-used. This wall is continued eastwards to join the precinct wall, and a short distance E. of this room is an early 16th-century fireplace of brick with a depressed arch, probably in the second room mentioned above. The first-floor level, as indicated by the corbels, must have cut across the large window in the E. wall. Also the squint does not command the cloister door, as suggested. The room is now an open yard and coal cellar.

(58). The Infirmarer's Hall (29¼ ft. by 18¾ft.) adjoins the chapel on the S. and is a one-storeyed hall of rubble. It has in the E. wall at the S. end a 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch and moulded segmental-pointed rear-arch. Further N. are two windows of the first half of the 14th century and of two cinque-foiled lights with a sex-foiled spandrel in a two-centred head; both have a heavy transom, a moulded rear-arch and are modern externally. Further N. behind the modern screen is a modern doorway. The N. wall has a 14th-century doorway and a 12th-century window described under the farmery chapel. In the gable are two modern windows. In the W. wall near the S. end is a modern fireplace probably blocking an early 16th-century doorway, of which the four-centred brick arch is visible externally. Near the N. are two doorways, the southern modern and the northern of early 16th-century date and with moulded stone jambs and four-centred brick arch. In the S. wall is a modern doorway, and the western part of the wall is probably modern. The roof is of two bays with trussed-rafters and a central truss with a chamfered tie-beam and octagonal king-post with broach-stops and curved four-way struts. There is a second tie-beam against the S. wall but none against the N. wall. This roof is probably of the 14th century but has been considerably restored.

(59). To the S.E. of the chapel is a house which was built probably in the second half of the 17th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. It is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. All the elevations have been refaced except the N. end of the N. wing. Set in the W. wall of the W. wing are a number of slip-tiles of the 14th and 15th century. They include heraldic designs as— (a) three cheverons; (b) England; (c) sown with lozenges on a chief three lions; (d) and (e) on one tile crowned shields of the Confessor and England; also a lion, fleur-delis, gyronny, a stag, and many geometrical designs. Tiles (d) and (e) and two others, one with a pelican vulning herself in a tree and the other with a crowned ihc and both with an architectural setting belong to a series of dado tiles identical with those still existing at Malvern priory and of mid 15th-century date. The E. wall of the house incorporated and is built upon the precinct wall of the abbey.

Interior: On the ground-floor the hall has in the N. wall two late 17th-century windows with solid mullion and transom. The walls are covered with late 16th and early 17th-century panelling re-set. The late 17th-century staircase (Plate 179) has square newels with round-headed panels with bayleaf ornament and ball finials; the rails and strings are moulded and enriched and the balusters are of the square pilaster type with carved capitals and diminishing shafts with mouldings following the rake of the stairs. All is of pine except the balusters, which are oak. Across the hall from E. to W. is an early 18th-century round arch of wood with panelled piers and a key.

The dining-room has late 17th-century bolection-moulded panelling. In the E. wall is a fireplace with an enriched and eared architrave, a carved frieze and an enriched cornice and a veined marble slip, all c. 1700. Round the walls is a moulded cornice. The study has late 17th-century panelling and fireplace flanked by panelled pilasters and with a bolection-moulded panel to the overmantel. The kitchen has in the N. wall a wooden three-centred archway of early 16th-century date and now glazed; the jambs are moulded. The backstairs are of mid 17th-century date with symmetrically-turned balusters, square newels with moulded drops; there is a small well, and at the foot of the stairs is a small arch with a pendant key. The drawing-room over the dining-room has bolection-moulded panelling and a cornice with egg-and-tongue enrichment. The fireplace (Plate 178) has an eared architrave and a cornice with segmental pediment; the overmantel has carved swags and carved and panelled pilasters, all late 17th-century. The upper flights of the main staircase have massive turned balusters, square newels and acorn finials.

(60). The Precinct Wall is standing for a considerable length in Great College Street with a return wall on the W. side of College Mews. It is of ragstone-rubble and was probably built in the 14th century. A long stretch of the N. and E. walls bounding the infirmary is also standing, and there is another length of mediaeval walling running N. and S. and to the S.E. of the chapter house.

(61). The destroyed portions of the abbey buildings, of which some record or remains have been found, include the Sacristy, Galilee, Bell-tower, Great Gatehouse, Bridge, and a block of buildings including the Bake and Brew Houses. The Sacristy was an L-shaped building forming a long corridor between the N. transept and the nave; it was probably that ordered to be built in 1250 and no doubt included the chequer, etc., as well as the Sacristy; the foundations were discovered in the 19th century but are not now visible. The Galilee, destroyed about 1666, was a porch added to the front of the N. transept under Richard II. The exterior is shown in a view of W. Hollar. The Bell-tower, destroyed about 1750, was a square detached building standing about 80 yards N. of the N.W. tower and on the site of the Middlesex County Hall. When this building was erected in 1912, the piles and great square concrete raft on which the tower stood were uncovered. The Great Gatehouse stood 145 yards to the N. of the modern N. gateway into Dean's Yard, which itself occupies the approximate site of the Inner Gatehouse. The Bake and Brew Houses, and Great Granary formed an L-shaped block and stood on the eastern part of Dean's Yard; they were destroyed in 1756. Remains of a stone bridge were uncovered in 1904 just to the S. of the modern S. gateway to Dean's Yard.