Finsbury

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1925

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15-31

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'Finsbury', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2: West London (1925), pp. 15-31. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=119697 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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3. FINSBURY.

(O.S. 6 in. London Sheet K.)

The borough of Finsbury consists of the parishes of St. James and St. John, Clerkenwell; St. Luke, Old Street; precinct of the Charterhouse, the Liberty of Glasshouse Yard, and those parts of the parishes of St. Sepulchre and St. Botolph, Aldersgate, without the bounds of the City of London. The principal monuments are St. John's church and gatehouse and the Charterhouse.


Parish Church of St John Clerkenwell

Parish Church of St John Clerkenwell

Ecclesiastical

(1). Parish Church of St. James, Clerkenwell, was entirely rebuilt between 1788 and 1792; it stands on the site of the church of the Benedictine Nunnery of St. Mary founded in the first half of the 12th century and retains from the old building the following:—

Fittings—Brass: In N. aisle—on N. wall, of [John Bell, Bishop of Worcester, 1556], mitred figure in episcopal vestments, head of crozier and feet of figure missing, modern inscription, brass replaced in church, 1884. Monuments: In S. chapel—on E. wall, (1) to William Booth, son of Lord de la Mere, 1661, plain white marble tablet. In N. aisle —against N. wall, (2) of [Sir William Weston, Prior of St. John of Jerusalem, 1540], shrouded and emaciated figure of stone on slab representing a rush-mattress, right arm broken, left arm and parts of feet missing, modern altar-tomb, rest of monument, including canopy, etc., destroyed. In S. aisle—against E. wall, (3) to Elizabeth (Drury), widow of William Cecil, K.G., Lord Burleigh and Earl of Exeter, 1653–4, rectangular inscription-panel flanked by achievements with lozenges-of-arms and surmounted by lozenge-of-arms, supporters, etc., above a small cornice, a shield-of-arms; former altar-tomb, destroyed; on S. wall, (4) to Sir William Wood, 1691, plain marble tablet with broken pediment, restored by the Toxophilite Society, 1791. In N.W. lobby—(5) of Elizabeth (Holder), wife of Henry Partridge, 1702, scrolled and draped cartouche, with bust of lady and cherubs at sides. In S.W. lobby—(6) of Thomas Crosse, "J.P. to her majesty," large black and white marble wall-monument with busts of man and wife, double side pilasters, segmental pediment and achievement-of-arms, probably early 18th-century; (7) to Henry Penton, 1714, black and white marble tablet, surmounted by obelisk and two urns, shield-of-arms on apron. In crypt—at W. end, (8) said to be of Elizabeth, wife of Sir Maurice Berkeley, 1585, much defaced effigy of woman in ruff, etc., head on cushion, legs, etc., missing. Plate: includes beadle's staff with silver head, probably of the 17th century, having a tower and figures of SS. James and John back to back and inscriptions showing that staff was repaired in 1722, 1825 and 1849.

Condition—Rebuilt.

(2). Parish Church of St. John, Clerkenwell, stands on the E. side of St. John's Square. The walls are of rag-stone rubble with dressings of limestone; the 18th-century work is of brick. The roofs are covered with slates and lead. The priory of St. John, Clerkenwell, was founded temp. King Stephen by Jordain Fitzralph or Brisset, and Muriel, his wife, as the English headquarters of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. The mid 12th-century church consisted of a round nave and an aisleless presbytery with a crypt under, both of three bays and probably terminating in an apse. Not long after the presbytery was enlarged by removing the apse, adding a bay to the E. and aisles on the N. and S. sides, the building thus terminating in a square E. end. This enlargement was no doubt that consecrated by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1185. In 1381 the church and priory buildings suffered severely at the hands of Wat Tyler, who burnt the house. It was probably after this event that the round nave was cleared away and replaced by a rectangular structure with side aisles and a tower at the W. end of the N. aisle; the chancel or presbytery was also much repaired and its windows entirely renewed. Prior Thomas Docwra (1501– 1527) did much building at the house and added on the S. side of the S. aisle of the chancel a vestry and chantry-chapel. The priory was suppressed in 1540, and in 1546 the destruction of the church began; this was continued by the Protector Somerset, who is said to have pulled down the nave and steeple. The chancel served as a private chapel and for other purposes until the foundation in 1721 of the new parish of St. John, Clerkenwell, when the building was re-roofed, re-fronted and generally repaired for use as the parish church; it was consecrated in 1723. The church has been restored at various times in the 19th century, the crypt cleared out and restored to use. In 1906 buildings abutting on the S. wall were removed and the remains of Docwra's vestry and chapel exposed to view.


Parish Church of St John Clerkenwell, Plan of Crypt

Parish Church of St John Clerkenwell, Plan of Crypt

The crypt is an extremely interesting example of two periods of 12th-century work, and the remains of the round nave are also remarkable.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (61 ft. by 52¼ ft.) has an 18th-century roof and galleries supported by a row of columns on each side; the outer walls on the E. and S., and, perhaps, partly on the N., belong to the 12th-century building altered and repaired in the 15th and early 16th centuries; the W. wall is entirely of the 18th century. The late 12th-century chancel had N. and S. arcades and aisles, and of these arcades there remain the bases of the N.E. and S.E. responds and the six free piers; the N.E. respond was of three orders with round attached shafts, moulded bases and square plinths; there was an additional shaft of slight projection on the S. face; the S. half of the respond remains to the top of the base-moulding, but only the plinth of the N. half survives; the first and second free piers on both N. and S. retain their circular plinths, hollowchamfered at the top; the third pier on each side consisted of four round shafts divided by as many keeled shafts; the bases only remain, that on the N. retaining part of its base-moulding, but that on the S. much damaged. In the E. wall are three 15th-century windows with restored tracery and mullions, but with original moulded and shafted splays and two-centred rear-arches. The N.E. angle of the building retains a late 12th-century vaulting-shaft consisting of three grouped shafts, the middle one being keeled on the face; in the S.E. angle only the plinth of a similar shaft remains. The N. wall has no ancient features with the possible exception of a blocked window with moulded and shafted splays and two-centred rear-arch, which may be of the 15th century, but is covered with plaster and paint. In the S. wall are three 15th-century windows similar to that just described, but not blocked and having modern mullions and tracery. Below the middle window is a 13th-century doorway, perhaps reset early in the 16th century; it has chamfered jambs and two-centred head. Between the windows and opposite the original piers are traces of the former existence of vaulting-shafts. Adjoining this wall on the S. was a vestry of two bays and Prior Docwra's chapel, also of two bays and both probably built early in the 16th century. Of the vestry only a fragment of the E. wall remains, adjoining the S.E. buttress of the church; in it are parts of the N. splay of a window. Of the Docwra chapel there remain parts of two four-centred brick arches in the S. wall of the church, both blocked, and the western arch, mostly destroyed. The intermediate buttresses of the church, both in the vestry and chapel, were remodelled by Docwra as semi-octagonal piers with moulded bases; the splayed sides are brought to the square at a height of some 10 to 12 ft. above the former floor, by trefoiled and moulded stops, with spandrels carved with a flower having the Docwra badge, a globe charged with a pallet, in place of the corolla; on the eastern of the two piers this decoration has weathered away.

The Crypt consists of a central chamber, two chambers flanking the E. end and two further chambers on the N. side, further W. The central chamber (62 ft. by 16¼ ft.) is of five bays (Plate 32), of which the two eastern are of c. 1180 and the three western of c. 1140. The eastern bays have a quadripartite vault of stone with a moulded cross-arch and diagonal ribs springing from responds consisting of a main keeled shaft and two round shafts taking the diagonal ribs; all have moulded bases and capitals and square moulded abaci; those to the side shafts being set diagonally. The vaulting shafts in the E. angles are similar to the side shafts of the responds. The abaci are carried round the walls as a string-course. The three W. bays have each a quadripartite vault of stone with simply moulded ribs and plain cross-arches between the bays; the responds are of simple rectangular plan with a second order at the sides to take the diagonal ribs; the responds have hollow-chamfered and grooved abaci, continued along the walls as strings, and chamfered bases standing on a stone bench. The W. bay has only the springers of the vault-ribs and is covered by a modern barrel-vault of brick. The cross-arches and diagonal ribs of the older work have remains of indented decoration in plaster. In the E. wall of the crypt is a blocked window with old splays. The N. and S. walls of the E. bay have each a two-centred arch of one chamfered order with imposts continued round from the string-course. The N. and S. walls of the three W. bays had each a narrow round-headed window, but of these that in the W. bay of the S. wall is blocked except for the lower part of the splays, and that on the N. has been destroyed, except for the E. splay, by a late doorway, perhaps of the 16th century, with rebated jambs and segmental head. The two other windows on the N. retain parts of their original iron uprights and cross-bars. In the W. wall is the N. jamb and splay of a doorway, perhaps of the 15th century. The wall itself is standing only some 5 ft. high, the modern closure of the crypt being partly modern and partly the original E. wall of the round nave.

The N.E. chamber (Plate 34) or chapel (11¼ ft. by 12½ ft.) has a quadripartite vault and angle-shafts, all similar to those of the E. part of the main crypt. In the E. wall is an opening, retaining the splays of the original window, afterwards converted into a rough doorway. In the N. wall is an opening, skewed towards the N.E. and now blocked; it contains three steps descending from N. to S. In the W. wall is a doorway, perhaps of the 15th century, with a modern lintel, and over it is a pointed single-light window, splayed towards the W.; part of the four-centred door-head remains on the W. side.

The middle chamber on the N. (16½ ft. by 12½ ft.) is of the same date as the E. chamber and has the same string-course carried round the walls; it has a plain pointed barrel-vault of rubble, with a large patch of brick on the S. side; this vault is an addition. In the N. wall is a blocked opening, retaining the E. jamb of an original window; the head is groined into the vault. In the W. wall is a modern doorway incorporating on the W. face part of the S. splay of a 12th-century window.

The W. chamber is of various dates and has been much altered. The vault of the E. part is segmental and of rubble, but the rest of the vaulting is of brick and mostly modern. On the S. wall near the E. end is part of an original mid 12th-century buttress to the main building; it has a chamfered plinth and stands on a chamfered offset. In the N. wall towards the E. end is the E. jamb and head of a 15th-century doorway, apparently of a former staircase; on the return is the S. jamb of a second doorway; the head of the first is cut into the vault and is four-centred.

The S. chamber (Plate 32) or chapel (35 ft. by 13½ ft.) is of similar date and detail to the E. part of the main crypt, but with some details restored. In the E. wall is a window, all modern except the splays. In the S. wall are three windows, each of one lancet-light and of two orders externally; the two western are modern externally. In the W. wall is a circular drain-hole with the projecting basin cut away.

The Round Nave (about 65 ft. diam.) has been destroyed except for the lower part of the eastern segment, where it adjoined the chancel; this has a chamfered plinth and there are remains of the doorway on the N. leading into the crypt. A part of the curved wall on the S.E. was recovered by excavation and the line of the foundations is now marked in the pavement. The round nave must have had an inner arcade, but of how many bays this consisted is doubtful. This nave was presumably destroyed in 1381 and was replaced by a building with side aisles of the normal form; foundations of part of the W. wall of this building have been discovered. The tower stood at the W. end of the N. aisle and the set back in the modern building line probably marks its position.

Fittings—Altar-frontal: (Plate 170) In S. chapel of crypt—of red velvet, embroidered with gold, oval panels with figures of St. John the Evangelist, the Annunciation, St. Clare, and St. John the Baptist, c. 1530, said to have come from the Baptistry, Florence. Bracket: In S. chapel of crypt—on E. wall, semi-polygonal, 13th-century. Glass: In S. aisle—in E. window, shield-of-arms, (Plate 3) gules a cheveron or between three combs argent, a chief of the order of St. John: round it a black-letter inscription, "Robertus Botyll Pryor Elect. A.D. 1439 Resign. 1469." Monument: In crypt—of Juan Ruyz de Vergara, Proctor of the Langue of Castile from 1575, alabaster effigy (Plate 35) of man in armour with cross of St. John on breast-piece, mantle of the Order thrown back, head bare, rosary in right hand, left hand broken off, feet on lion; reclining on left side of feet, sleeping page in doublet and hose and holding book, monument formerly in Valladolid cathedral, altar-tomb modern. Lockers: In N.W. chamber of crypt— two, one in E. wall, S. of doorway, and one in N. wall, near E. end, mediaeval. Niche: In S. aisle—in S. wall, small, with two-centred head, mediaeval; Picture: In S. aisle—as altar-piece, painting on canvas of St. John the Baptist, attributed to Correggio. Plate: includes silver head of beadle's staff, inscribed, "This staff and silver head was made at ye charge of ye inhabitants of ye east liberty of St. John of Jerusalem." "Anno q. Regni Regis Jacob Secundi nom. Aug. Primo." Top of head and figure modern. A parcel-gilt chalice (Plate 36) with circular bowl enriched at bottom with applied pear-shaped drops, hexagonal stem with knop enriched with leaf-ornament and six medallions, each incised with the head of a saint (one with cockle-shell on hat, representing St. James the Great), wide spreading base, concave in section, and of sexfoiled plan; faces of base in panels enriched with leaf-ornamented scrolls in repoussé, with I H S on one face and X P S on another, both in black-letter, probably southern French or Spanish, early 16th-century; processional-cross (Plate 36) with head of embossed silver on a wooden core, arms of cross with Early Renaissance ornament, foliated ends and symbols of the Evangelists and on intersections a Maltese cross and an Agnus Dei. Below figure of Christ on front a shield-of-arms a lion with a chief of the Order of St. John; in corresponding position at the back the inscription "F. P. Declvys 1527." Italian. Miscellanea: Built into S. wall, moulded abacus of large column, late 12th-century. In the N. crypt is a museum of carved and moulded stonework of various dates, vault-ribs, capitals, window-tracery, etc., also wood-work, slip-tiles and fragments of the chapel or monument of Prior Docwra with his badge. In the main crypt is a vault-boss (Plate 33) carved with figures of a knight and squire, the former holding a rosary (?), late 14th-century.

Condition—Good.

(3). Bunhill Fields, Nonconformist burial-ground, on the W. side of City Road, contains the following ancient Monuments: (1) to—— Petkin, 1687, head-stone with skull and cross-bones; (2) to Hannah (Hewlings), widow of Henry Cromwell (grandson of the Protector), and William and Anne, their children, early 18th-century table-tomb with moulded angles; (3) to Mary, wife of William Limbery, 1713, head-stone with skull and crossbones; (4) to Rev. John Owen, D.D., 1683, plain table-tomb; (5) to Lieut. Gen. Charles Fleetwood, 1692, table-tomb with enriched pilasters at angles, cartouche at either end, one with a cherub-head and skull; (6) to Henry Jay (?), 1684, head-stone with scrolled top; (7) to Rev. Thomas Goodwin, D.D., 1679, table-tomb with enriched panels at sides and ends, marble slab with defaced achievement-of-arms; (8) to Rev. William Jenkyn, M.A., 1684, plain table-tomb; (9) to Elizabeth Adams, 1714, head-stone with skull and cross-bones; (10) to Elizabeth French, 1714, and others later, head-stone with skull and cross-bones.

Secular

(4). St. John's Gate, gatehouse, (Plate 16) built over St. John's Lane, 70 yards S. of Clerkenwell Road. The gateway, or middle block, is of two storeys, and the flanking wings each of four storeys with cellars. The walls are of brick with a facing of ragstone, and the roofs are covered with lead and tiles. It was originally the southern gateway to the Priory of St. John of Jerusalem, and was built by Prior Docwra in 1504. Above the archway is one large room, and the flanking wings have, on each floor, one chamber with a staircase-turret at the N. end and, on the S., a smaller chamber which originally was probably used as a garde-robe. In the middle of the 17th century the staircase in the E. wing was remodelled, the walls of the original circular staircase being cut back and one with straight flights inserted. Later buildings have been built against the staircase and garde-robe turrets on both the N. and S., and the gateway has been completely restored at various dates in the 19th century—especially between 1885 and 1893.

Except where otherwise stated, all the dressings on both the N. and S. elevations are modern.


Clerkenwell, St John's Gateway

Clerkenwell, St John's Gateway

The S. Elevation. The side wings are carried up a little above the central block and all the walls are finished with a modern embattled parapet. The archway has a steep four-centred arch of two continuous hollow-chamfered orders on the outside and of one plain chamfer on the inside behind the rebate of the door; the responds are original, and one old iron staple remains in the W. jamb. Above the archway are five panels, each with a modern shield-of-arms, and higher up a completely restored three-light window. The side wings have each a modern three-light window on the ground-floor, and each upper floor has in the S. wall a single-light with a four-centred head.

The N. Elevation is generally similar to the S. elevation and has a moulded plinth, partly restored, a modern embattled parapet and a horizontal string course above the central arch carried across the whole front. The central arch is mainly original, and is four-centred with two moulded orders on the outside with responds of two hollowchamfered orders, and on the inside of two continuous hollow-chamfered orders separated by a deep casement-moulding. Above the archway are three cinquefoil-headed panels containing the following shield-of-arms, (a) Docwra, a cheveron engrailed between three plates, (b) the Order, a cross, (c) Docwra impaling? D'Aubusson a cross moline, the whole with a chief of the Order; the shields are modern, but replace similar pre-existing ones. Below the string-course is a much weathered inscription "Ano dni 1504." On the E. side of the central archway is a modern doorway, and in the E. wall of the W. staircase-tower is a doorway with a four-centred head, partly original; in the spandrels are a shield of the Order and a defaced shield with a chief of the Order, probably for Docwra.

The E. Elevation, which faces a yard, retains portions of its original plinth and parts of the string-course at the level of the second floor, but both are much worn; part of the upper wall has been rebuilt in modern brick.

The Gateway (21½ ft. by 19¾ ft.) has a ribbed vault with moulded main, intermediate, ridge and wall-ribs springing in the angles from attached shafts with moulded capitals; at the intersection of the ribs are carved bosses, including a central boss of an Agnus Dei standing on a book with clasp, two shields-of-arms of the Order, two shields-of-arms of Docwra and foliage.

Interior: Some of the windows retain their original splays and internal oak lintels.

East wing—The main room on each floor has now a modern partition inserted across the N. end. On the ground-floor, now the library (28 ft. by 14½ ft.), the ceiling is divided into three bays by moulded cross-beams, and each bay is divided into panels by moulded secondary beams; the S.W. corner has been rebuilt. Behind a cupboard in the E. wall some original brick facing remains, which is probably part of the back to the 16th-century fireplace. The ceiling of the first floor is divided into panels in a similar manner by chamfered beams and joists. In the N.W. corner is a small room with a small piece of early 18th-century panelling. The ceiling of the second floor is divided into panels by chamfered beams and joists. In the S. end of the W. wall, opening into the room over the archway, is an original doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the E. wall is an early 17th-century stone fireplace (Plate 33), brought from the Baptist's Head Inn and inserted here in 1895; it is flanked by tapering Jacobean pilasters, fluted, shaped and enriched; they support a richly carved frieze with a strapwork cartouche in the middle carved with a shield of the arms of Forster impaling Foster, and at the N. end a crest of a hart and at the S. end a talbot's head razed and collared; between the cartouches and the crests are carved branches of fruit, serpents and foliated spirals. The third floor has the roof timbers exposed in the ceiling; the roof is of low pitch and is divided into three bays by chamfered and cambered tie-beams; the ridge is chamfered and each bay is divided into panels by a chamfered purlin and principal rafters; the ordinary rafters are laid flat. The staircase, (Plate 33) which was inserted in the middle of the 17th century, rises in two flights between each floor; it has a plain handrail, moulded string, turned balusters and square newel-posts with ballfinials and turned pendants; the steps are mostly modern, as are most of the ball-finials.

West wing—The ground-floor room, now the museum (28 ft. by 14½ ft.), has a similar ceiling to the corresponding room in the E. wing. In the S. wall is a doorway opening into the former garde-robe, now a cupboard; part of the original W. jamb is preserved and in the E. jamb is a small recess with a pointed head. In the W. wall at the S. end is an original blocked window with a four-centred head containing the remains of an old wrought-iron grate; further N., above the modern fireplace, is an original three-centred arch of brick, which probably marks the old fireplaceopening; in the N. end of the wall are the lower parts of the jambs and the sill of an original window, now blocked. Preserved in the museum is the old head of an original doorway brought from the basement of the W. wing; it is four-centred and has in the spandrels carved shields of the arms of Docwra and the Order. On the first floor the ceiling of the main room is divided in a similar manner to the room below, and has hollow-chamfered or chamfered ceiling-beams. In the W. wall the W. jamb of the original doorway into the garde-robe remains, and in the upper part retains the old iron staple; the garde-robe now forms a bay at the W. end of the room. In the N. wall the doorway opening off the staircase is original and has chamfered jambs and a four-centred head. On the second floor the ceiling is divided into three bays by two stop-chamfered cross-beams and each bay is divided into three panels by chamfered horizontal beams. The opening in the S. wall, to the former garde-robe, retains some original stones of the E. jamb and an old iron staple. In the N. wall is the original doorway opening off the staircase; it is similar to the corresponding doorway in the room below. The top floor has in the N. wall a similar doorway, and the roof timbers are exposed in the ceiling in a similar manner to the corresponding room in the E. wing. The newel-staircase was originally of stone to the first floor and wood above. In 1814 the steps to the first floor were replaced by a staircase of another form, but this has since been removed, and the steps are now similar to those above. Between the ground and first floor on the W. side is a small four-centred light, now blocked, and between the first and second floors, on the same side, is a blocked square-headed light; on the N. side is another blocked opening.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(5). The Charterhouse, remains of Carthusian Priory, Howard House and Sutton's Hospital, stands on the N. side of Charterhouse Square. The walls are partly of rag-stone rubble with freestone dressings and partly of brick; the roofs are covered with tiles, slates and lead.

In 1349 a chapel was built on the site, which is substantially the existing main chapel. In 1371 the Carthusian Priory of the Salutation was founded by Sir Walter Manny, and the first of the cells built. Other cells followed, and in 1398 all except five, round the great cloister, were finished. The remaining buildings, including a little cloister S.W. of the great cloister, the frater N. of the little cloister, the chapter-house E. of the chapel, the outer gatehouse, and various chapels, were added in the 15th century. Early in the 16th century the little cloister was removed and the frater perhaps rebuilt, the kitchen being to the S. of it. The Wash House Court was added at the same time, partly on the site of the little cloister, and the inner gateway and boundary walls on the W. side were built. The lower stage of the W. tower of the chapel was built in 1512. The general plan of the priory is known from a drawing of the water-supply of 15th-century date. From this there appear to have been twenty-five cells grouped round the great cloister. The cloister had alleys on all four sides and in the middle was an octagonal conduit-house. The general arrangement shown on the accompanying site-plan, differs in some respects from that shown in the water-supply drawing but these amendments are necessitated by the existing remains on the E. side of the cloister. Each cell followed the ordinary Carthusian model, and had a small garden on two sides of it. On the S. of the cloister stood the church, with chapels to the N. of it, a central tower and a nave with further chapels on the S. side. E. of the church was the chapter-house, approached from the N. chapel. The priory was finally suppressed in 1537, the building remaining in the hands of the Crown until 1545, when it was granted to Sir Edward, subsequently Lord, North, who transformed the priory into a mansion. It is impossible to say how much of his work is now existing or to differentiate it from the probably more extensive alterations of his successor, Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of Norfolk, who acquired the building in 1565. Either one or the other of these owners, however, built the great hall S. of the old frater and added the large court known as the Master's Court, perhaps on the site of earlier buildings. During this period most of the great cloister, with all the cells, was pulled down, the doorways of the cells being most probably reused in the new portions of the house. There were also built at this time two wings, one projecting E. from the Master's Court, and one N. from the Wash House Court, both of which were demolished probably late in the 18th century. In 1571 the long gallery was erected on the site of the west walk of the great cloister, and incorporated its outer wall; the same date is carved upon the screen of the great hall. All the chapel W. of the tower was pulled down about the same time. The great staircase is mentioned as new in a document of 1571.

In 1611 the mansion, then known as Howard House, was sold to Thomas Sutton for £13,000 by Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk. Sutton, in the same year, founded here the "Hospital of King James." The work done at this period was not extensive, but included the opening out of the north aisle to the chapel, the erection or rebuilding of the upper part of the tower, which extended right across the W. end of the chapel and N. aisle, the building of the cloister connecting it with the Master's Court and various smaller alterations, such as fireplaces, doorways, etc.

Probably late in the 17th century the porch of the great hall was partly rebuilt. Early in the 19th century the interior of the Master's Court was refaced in brick on the E., S. and W. sides, and the northern half of the chapel tower was demolished. Soon after an outer N. aisle was added to the chapel and various repairs and restorations of a minor character have since been done.

The building has interesting survivals of the Carthusian priory, and is itself a fine example of a large 16th-century mansion. The monuments and other fittings of the chapel, the screen in the great hall, and various fireplaces, are all noteworthy.

The Outer Gatehouse faces the N. side of Charterhouse Square. The lower part is probably of rubble, but plastered and painted; on the E. side is a modern porter's lodge. Above the gate is a brick house, dated 1716, rising two storeys over the gate. The S. elevation has a large archway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch with a moulded label having modern stops. It is probably of the 15th century. Above it is an early 18th-century wooden flat hood supported by two brackets carved with lions holding scrolls. In the archway is a large oak door of two leaves, each of five panels with moulded ribs and traceried and foliated heads. There are also cusped heads below the middle rail, and in the W. fold is a squareheaded wicket, with a lion's head knocker and a spy-hole. East of the main arch is a modern small arch. The N. elevation has a wide open archway with moulded oak jambs and depressed four-centred head. The small arch is modern.

The Inner Gateway is of early 16th-century date, and is of red brick with moulded jambs and four-centred arch of stone, rebated for doors.

The Master's or Inner Court has ranges on all four sides, and the internal faces on the E., S. and W. have been covered with a skin of modern brickwork. The S. Range (Plate 37) was built c. 1550, and is of two storeys with walls of ragstone rubble. Most of the windows are original, but thickly painted or plastered, and have three-centred lights in square heads with moulded labels to the upper windows. In the middle of the range is an entry or gatehouse with a completely restored archway in the inner and outer walls of the range; the outer archway has a band of traceried panelling, of Gothic design, on the soffit; above the arch is a sunk panel with a 17th-century achievement of the Sutton arms and a moulded label. The parapet, above, rises in a small gable flanked by the bases of two former pinnacles. At the E. end of the N. side of the same range is a blocked doorway with a round arch and plain imposts and key-block; a similar doorway, formerly external, is now included in a modern annexe in the S.W. angle of the court.

The E. Range is of three storeys, of which the two lower are of rag-stone rubble and of c. 1550, and the upper a modern addition of brick. The inner, or W., face has no ancient features except the window next to the N. doorway; the window is of mid 16th-century date and of three lights with rounded heads. The outer, or E., face of the range (Plate 38) has a projecting chimney-stack of rubble, and further S. another stack of brick, probably of early 17th-century date, and resting on moulded corbelling; below this stack is a blocked doorway, and there are three blocked 16th-century windows of stone.


The Charterhouse

The Charterhouse

The E. and most of the S. range now forms the Master's House. The entrance-hall has in the N. windows two glass shields of Sutton's arms and the date 1614, helm crest and mantling; both have been slightly repaired. The late 17th or early 18th-century fireplace has festoons of drapery and a cartouche in the centre of the frieze, with a monogram. The other rooms on the ground-floor have no ancient features. On the first floor the S. range formed the Long Gallery, but has now been cut up into rooms. The room over the entrance archway has walls covered with early 17th-century panelling with a fluted frieze, consoles and a modillioned cornice. In the E. wing the southernmost room, the small drawing-room, has in the E. wall a fireplace (Plate 40) with an enriched eared architrave flanked by carved pilasters and enriched trusses supporting the entablature or mantel-piece, all of late 17th-century date. The overmantel is of the 18th century, but the two pairs of coupled Corinthian columns are probably early 17th-century material reused. The large drawing-room, adjoining on the N., has a fireplace (Plate 40) with a modern marble surround flanked by early 17th-century terminal Ionic pilasters (male and female) supporting a moulded cornice enriched with lions' heads and arabesques. The overmantel has two pairs of coupled Corinthian columns, standing on pedestals and supporting a continuous entablature. The centre has an oval panel containing a painted portrait on canvas of Sutton, formerly in the overmantel of the small drawing-room. All the other panels with the frieze are enriched with painted arabesques. The last room on the N., used as a museum, has walls lined with Jacobean panelling with an entablature. On the E. side is the early 17th-century fireplace (Plate 47) flanked by fluted Ionic pilasters supporting a panelled and fluted frieze, above which the overmantel has a large carved panel in high relief with figures of Faith, Charity and Hope; it is flanked by enriched diminishing pilasters supporting a fluted frieze with carved trusses and small modillions. The three fireplaces last described are all of wood.

The Registrar's House occupies part of the S. range and extends into the Wash House Court. The doorway in the entrance to the Master's Court has a stop-moulded 16th-century frame of oak, with a four-centred arch in a square head and carved spandrels. In the hall are two stone doorways, probably reset. There is a little old panelling and the kitchen has an old hollow-chamfered door-frame.

The N. Range of the Master's Court (Plate 41) is occupied by the great hall in the middle with the great staircase E. of it and the butteries and kitchen W. of it. The walls are of rubble, but are mainly rendered in cement.

The Great Hall (Plate 44) (49½ ft. by 25¾ ft.) has a mid 16th-century roof of four bays with five hammer-beam trusses springing from moulded stone corbels. Each truss consists of a main curved principal, moulded where exposed, and having moulded hammer-beams with curved braces beneath them and pendants; the wall-plates have moulded cornices and a second cornice is run along the ends of the hammer-beams forming a springing for the plastered elliptical cove which conceals the main span. This cove is cut up into panels by moulded ribs. The space between the hammer-beams has a plastered horizontal soffit also cut up into panels by moulded ribs. The spandrels of the trusses and braces below this soffit are filled in with traceried panelling with carved flowers. The pendants have moulded cappings, and are carved with cherub-heads or foliage. On the ridge is an hexagonal timber lantern with three-centred lights and a cornice surmounted by a pinnacle with ogee braces. The S. wall has two ranges of windows, all entirely restored externally; the 'oriel' in the E. bay has five lights on the face and one on each return, all with double transoms; the lowest light in the E. return is blocked; the arch opening into the 'oriel' has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with foliated spandrels enclosing blank shields; the soffit has cusped panelling continued down the jambs; the spandrels on the outer face have foliage and scrolls, one defaced and one with the motto "Thynke and Thanke" in black letter. The two middle bays have each a five-light window with a traceried four-centred head. The windows of the upper range have square heads, and the parapet has a cement cornice below it; in the middle of the parapet is a square painted sundial with the Sutton arms and of late 17th or early 18th-century date. The 16th-century main entrance door from the porch has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with foliated spandrels, each with a blank shield; it is now all painted. At the N. end of the 'screens' is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with sunk spandrels; it is probably of the 15th century, reused. In the W. wall are three doorways under a common moulded string-course, which is stepped up over the central doorway which has moulded jambs and square head of the 16th century; the side doorways are perhaps of the 15th century, reused, and have moulded jambs and four-centred arches in square heads with spandrels carved with human figures or beasts. In the E. wall of the hall is another doorway, probably also reused, and having moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with spandrels carved with Tudor roses and foliage. In the N. wall is a large fireplace (Plate 45) of stone, of early 17th-century date. It has heavy mouldings; the opening is flanked by Ionic diminishing pilasters and the main cornice is enriched with two straps carved with lions' heads, and, in the middle, a cartouche carved with a salamander in flames. Above the cornice is a parapet terminating in pedestals supporting a cannon, barrel of powder, shot, etc. Over the middle is a centre-piece flanked by pilasters and strapwork, and having a voluted pediment and enclosing a carved achievement of the Sutton arms. In the 'oriel' are three panels of stained glass, (a) the quartered coat of Seymour with the garter, 16th-century; (b) the Sutton arms, 17th-century; (c) a panel of fragments with the name Christian Richter, 1670; (d) part of a shield of Katherine of Aragon, &c. In the next window further W. is an oval panel with the achievement of Sutton. The E., N. and S. walls are covered to about half the height of the lower window with early 17th-century moulded panelling. The carved oak screen (Plate 42) at the W. end is of five bays divided by fluted Corinthian columns standing on panelled pedestals and supporting an enriched entablature with a frieze ornamented with elaborate strapwork and small cartouches; on these are the date and initials 1571 T.N. Supporting the entablature in each bay is a voluted console carved on the face with a lion's head. The three middle bays have each an opening with a carved and enriched semi-circular arch. Above the entablature the screen is carried up with solid panelling divided into bays by terminal pilasters, alternately male and female, resting on pedestals, and carved brackets, and having on their heads masses of carved fruit; above them is an enriched cornice broken out over each figure. The N. end of this screen appears to have been cut back and rearranged when the gallery was added along the N. side of the hall. The gallery (Plate 43) was probably added early in the 17th century and consists of eight bays. It is on a level with that over the screen and has a coved plaster soffit with moulded ribs. The bays are divided by carved terminal pilasters, terminating below in scrolled pendants and supporting tall square Ionic obelisks enriched with arabesques. Each bay is sub-divided into three, with similar terminal pilasters and semi-circular arches having carved spandrels and keys. The front is close panelled and has a cornice at top and bottom. The late 17th-century porch has rusticated angles, a cornice and a plain parapet surmounted by a carved achievement of the royal Stuart arms; the outer entrance has an elliptical arch with a plain key-stone.

The Buttery adjoins the hall on the W. It has now no ancient features except a wide archway in the N. wall, which has jambs and four-centred arch of three chamfered orders; it is probably of the 15th or early 16th century.

The Library, probably the former frater, adjoins the great hall on the N. and is entered from it by doors in the panelling. The roof has heavy chamfered beams supported by a row of four plain round oak columns with moulded capitals. In the N. wall is an early 17th-century doorway leading into the cloister gallery. It has plain stone jambs and semi-circular arch with a carved key-stone and plain imposts; above it is a moulded stone over-door of unusual design, the mouldings running horizontally, and three fluted and enriched vertical straps; it rests on brackets springing from the door imposts and having strapwork ornament. The door is of old battens. In the S. wall is a large early 17th-century stone fireplace (Plate 45); the opening is flanked by strapwork pilasters supporting a Jacobean cornice on which rests a bold openwork cresting having a pedimented centre-piece with the arms and crest of Sutton. The walls are covered to half their height with late 16th and early 17th-century panelling. In the N. wall are three 16th-century windows, each of three transomed lights in a square head.

The Great Staircase adjoins the great hall on the E. It has in the E. wall a doorway with moulded stone jambs and square head. The late 16th-century staircase itself (Plate 53) is in two broad flights, and has square newels richly carved with conventional foliage, ribands, trophies of war and the chase, musical instruments, etc. The central newel (Plate 43) between the flights has the Sutton crest inserted and all three are surmounted by tall square moulded terminals surmounted by the Sutton crest in cast iron, probably modern. The strings and rail are moulded and the flat raking balusters are in the form of terminal pilasters, with grotesque busts, from which spring keyed and rusticated arches. Newels, balusters and rail (Plate 43) are repeated against the walls, but are modern against the S. wall of the half landing; they are continued across the top landing, where the floor is masked by a rich arabesque frieze. The walls below and above the staircase have a dado of late 17th or early 18th-century panelling. The top landing has one doorway in the E. and two in the W. wall, (Plate 57) all probably of the 15th century and brought from monks' cells, now destroyed. All have moulded jambs and four-centred arches in square heads, with shields or roses in the spandrels, in two cases set in quatrefoils. The N. window of the landing has in each splay a Doric pilaster of oak and an oak soffit, all richly carved with arabesques and of 16th-century date. The N.W. doorway from the landing opens into a corridor leading to the terrace and also to the officers' library, which adjoins on the W. This room was formerly part of the great chamber, but was partitioned off in 1784, to which date probably belong the arms and crest of Sutton over the fire-place, though they appear to be earlier.

The Great Chamber, now mainly occupied by the governor's room, (Plate 46) is of late 16th-century date and adjoins this library on the W.; it is a large room with a projecting rectangular bay at the W. end of the N. side. The flat plaster ceiling is cut up into panels of geometrical design by moulded ribs enriched at the intersections with bosses and flowers. There are ten main square panels, each with an enriched cartouche surrounded by the garter and having a ducal coronet; they enclose (a) gules a lion rampant or, three times; (b) the Howard arms, three times; (c) Howard arms with four quarters in all; (d) the Howard crest. The side panels have the motto "Sola virtus invicta" in an ornamental border, eight times repeated. An inscription recording the repair of the ceiling in 1838 is twice repeated. The panels adjoining the rectangular panels have rampant lions. The ceiling of the projecting bay is similar, but on a lower level, and with more elaborate foliage ornament; it has the quartered shield of Howard and, in the side panels, rampant lions. The doorway in the S. wall has stopped chamfered jambs and four-centred arch of stone on the S. face of the wall, with iron hooks for the former door; on the N. face the doorway is modern. The fireplace (Plate 47) further E. in the same wall has moulded jambs and straight-sided four-centred arch in a square head, all of stone. The hearth is raised and has an oak curb; the fireplace is flanked by two pairs of Doric columns, widely spaced on a pedestal, and between each pair is a round-headed panel with jewel-key and imposts. The columns support an entablature, above which is the overmantel consisting of a tall plinth supporting two pairs of Ionic columns corresponding to those below and having similar round-headed panels; the space over the fireplace has a large oval panel between four other panels. The whole is finished with a continuous entablature. The overmantel is elaborately decorated with painted panels and foliage; in the middle oval panel are the Stuart royal arms with the initials C.R.; in the surrounding panels are figures of the Evangelists and, on the columns, the twelve Apostles; in the side panels are figures of Peace and Plenty and, in the base, are paintings of the Annunciation and the Last Supper, and the initials T. S. of Sutton, supported by amorini. On the lower panels are represented Faith, Hope and Charity, a soldier and Amazon, and the Four Elements. The lower woodwork is all of Sutton's date, the paintings being by Rowland Buckett "limner"; the overmantel is of earlier date and of more finished execution, the arms, etc., being additions. Round the room at the ceiling level is an enriched entablature with a double fluted frieze and a series of small carved brackets. On the walls are three large panels of 17th-century tapestry with figure subjects. On the N. wall is a decorative tapestry panel of similar work, probably made up of borders, and on the W. wall are figures in tapestry (in two pieces) of ten out of the twelve worthies. The N. wall and the recess has early 18th-century panelling. The room is lit by large square-headed, mullioned and transomed windows in the N. and W. walls.

The Chapel Cloister (Plates 38, 39) stands to the W. of the chapel and occupies part of the site of the former nave. It is of early 17th-century date; the ground-storey is built of Portland stone; the walls above are of 18th-century and modern brick. The outer arcade is of six bays, now glazed, with rusticated arches, shaped key-stones and plain imposts. Above the arches is a simple entablature. The inner wall of the cloister has a wall-arcade corresponding to the arches just described; in the fourth bay of this wall is a late 17th or early 18th-century doorway with a round head, plain imposts and key-block, and a plain pediment.

Brooke Hall, N. of the cloister, has early 18th-century panelling and a moulded cornice. The fireplace has an eared architrave of stone and an early 18th-century overmantel in the form of a large carved panel with a cartouche of the Sutton arms and crest surrounded by foliage and flowers; at the sides are carved and scrolled supports. The Vestibule, W. of the cloister, has a ceiling supported by two oak columns probably of the 18th century. In the E. wall is a 16th-century fireplace with moulded jambs and depressed arch in a square head. In the N. wall is a window of the same date and of four lights in a square head with a moulded label, it was formerly external, but now opens into the store-room of the Preacher's house. The first floor is occupied by the Preacher's House. The inner hall is lined with late 16th and early 17th-century panelling, and there are portions of panelling elsewhere in the house. The newel staircase was formerly semi-octagonal and stood free on the W. side. At the top is a late 16th-century balustrade with turned balusters. There are several doorways with four-centred heads on this staircase. In the room over Brooke Hall is an early 16th-century stone fireplace, and in the E. wall of the same room are the remains of a stone doorway, formerly opening into the chapel.

The Chapel. The quire is the original chapel of 1349, but there is no detail of this date. In 1512 the ground-storey of the West Tower was built, and the windows of the quire were inserted and the buttresses added about the same time. Sutton's executors built the N. arcade, the North Aisle being formed of two earlier side-chapels, and built the upper part of the tower to extend also over the Vestibule. Probably in 1841 the N. half of the upper part of the tower was removed, the Outer North Aisle added and other alterations made, under Edward Blore, Architect.

Architectural Description—The Quire (Plate 49) (41½ ft. by 20 ft.) has in the E. wall a window of five plain pointed lights under a segmental-pointed head and of early 16th-century date, restored in 1841. The lower part of all the lights has been blocked with brick, probably early in the 17th century. The E. wall has a chamfered plinth stopped opposite the end of the N. wall, but continued along the S. wall. In the N. wall is a plastered arcade of three bays of 1612–14, designed by Nicholas Stone. The two columns are of the Doric order, and the responds have attached half-columns. The semi-circular arches are of two orders, the inner square, the outer with a large quarter-round moulding springing from fluted and strapped corbels, immediately above the caps of the columns; the arches have on each side a shaped key-stone with a carved cartouche of the Sutton arms and six fluted straps. In the S. wall, which is divided into three bays by rag-stone buttresses, are two windows (in the second and third bays) of early 16th-century date and each of three pointed lights in a four-centred head. The mullions are modern, and the lower part of both windows is blocked with early 17th-century brickwork. Further W. is a 14th-century doorway with weathered jambs and pointed head, now blocked.

The North Aisle (40 ft. by 15 ft.) is of early 17th-century date, except the E. wall, which is probably of late 14th-century date. In the E. wall is a modern window, and below it is a blocked doorway of 17th-century brick. In the N. wall is a modern arch to the outer N. aisle. There is no structural division between the S. aisle and the vestibule next to it on the W. and in which there are no ancient features.

The West Tower (Plate 48) is of rubble with most of the top stage of brick and the S.W. buttress also of brick. The tower is of three storeys, undivided by external string-courses, and has a modern parapet. Standing on the existing N. wall, but formerly in the centre of the tower, is a large timber cupola of early 17th-century date and of two stages. The lower stage is square on plan and has a modillioned cornice; each face has four openings divided by posts and each having a keyed semi-circular head; the heads of the two side openings are lower than those in the middle, and above each is a round opening with an architrave moulding and four key-blocks. The upper stage is octagonal and has a moulded cornice; each face has a round opening with four key-blocks; above is an octagonal lead-covered dome terminating in a finial and weather-vane (see Fittings).

The ground-stage has in the E. wall a moulded four-centred arch of early 16th-century date; the responds have attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the N. wall is a plain four-centred archway, probably modern. In the S. wall is a window of three three-centred lights in a square head; it is almost entirely restored. In the W. wall is an early 17th-century doorway (Plate 39) with a rusticated semi-circular arch flanked by Doric pilasters enriched with bands and straps and supporting a cornice, which is stopped on either side of a tablet with an inscription to Nicolaus Mann, Master; the tablet has an enriched cornice with a cherub-head and is supported by carved consoles. Immediately to the N. is the turret-staircase, entered on the W. by a doorway with chamfered jambs and segmental arch. In the S.W. face of the turret is a squareheaded window. Both are of early 16th-century date. The ground-stage is covered by a ribbed vault (Plate 56) of stone with moulded ribs springing from carved angel-corbels with blank shields. At the intersections are carved bosses—(a) angel holding a shield, (b) spear and hammer on shield, (c) two scourges saltirewise on shield, (d) three nails, (e) two bunches of hyssop saltirewise. Above the arch in the N. wall is carved the date 1512. The second stage of the tower has in the S. wall a modern window of two square-headed lights, mostly modern; between this window and the one below is a square stone pierced with a small circular opening. The third stage has in the S. wall a 17th-century window of three transomed lights with a wooden frame. In one wall is a 16th-century fireplace with moulded jambs and depressed arch.

Projecting S. from the tower there appears to have been a 15th-century Chapel of St. John the Evangelist of which parts of the E. wall are perhaps preserved in the E. boundary wall of the Chapel Court.

Fittings—Bell: one, by Thomas Bartlett, 1631, and said to be recast from one of 1428. Communion Table (Plate 43): of oak, with bulging top-rail enriched with arabesques, swags, cherub-head and cartouches of the Sutton arms; on thirteen legs in form of Corinthian columns with carved drums and standing on a continuous plinth, early 17th-century. Door: In W. doorway of tower—of oak, nail-studded, probably 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs—Monuments: In quire—on W. wall, (1) of John Law, 1614, executor to Thomas Sutton, tablet with painted bust in oval recess flanked by two female figures and surmounted by a shaped entablature having an achievement on the frieze and a broken pediment with a skull and cherub in the cleft; monument by Nicholas Stone. In N. aisle—against N. wall at E. end, (2) of Thomas Sutton, died 1611, tomb, finished 1615, by Bernard Jansen, sculpture by Nicholas Stone, large altar-tomb (Plate 50) with effigy and canopy surmounted by a lofty centrepiece, all in coloured marbles and alabaster. The altar-tomb is plain and panelled, with a plinth and cornice. The effigy (Plate 35) is in a long fur-lined cloak with false sleeves; at the neck and wrists are ruffs; the bearded head rests on a rich cushion. The canopy is supported on piers with panels carved with trophies, foliage and fruit, ribands, etc.; in front and on the outside of the piers stand Corinthian columns supporting a continuous entablature with a dentilled cornice forming the actual canopy. At the back, behind the effigy, is a square inscription-slab flanked and supported by bearded and armed figures (Plate 51); above, in high relief, are figures Innocence ? (blowing bubbles), and Time, reclining against a skull and hour-glass. On the cornice stand four figures, two of partially draped women, probably Faith and Hope, and two 'putti,' each with a spade, and one with a skull at his feet. The centre-piece above the cornice has a large bas-relief representing the brethren attending a preaching in the chapel. Above is a square panel flanked by Corinthian half-columns and having an achievement of the Sutton arms. On either side stand female figures of Peace and Plenty, and on the cornice is a group of Charity with three children and two seated cherubs blowing trumpets. The bill of this monument is preserved amongst the muniments; here the materials are described as "alabaster, touch, rance and other hard stone." Round the front of the monument and returned at the W. end is an iron rail with three standards having buttresses below the rail and twisted finials terminated with balls and the Sutton crest. The rail itself has a series of small bosses, birds, roses, etc., one with the initials W.S. The 'strikes' are of the spear variety, two of these alternating with one of fleur-de-lis form. On S. wall E. of E. respond, (3) of Francis Beaumont, M.A., Master, 1624, painted tablet (Plate 51) with recess containing a kneeling figure in gown and ruff at a prayer-desk; on both sides are vertical rows of hutches, eight containing books, one an hour-glass and skull, and one sphere and cube; above each row is an entablature with a shield-of-arms, and over the recess is an achievement-of-arms; on the apron are two shields and an achievement-of-arms. In vestibule—(4) to Andrew Tooke, white marble cartouche with cherub-heads, etc., c. 1700. Floorslabs: In quire—(1) to John Patrick, D.D., Preacher, 1695. In vestibule—(2) to James Sidgrave, 1707, "21 years housekeeper of this Hospital." Panelling: Under tower, late 16th-century panelling as dado. In vestibule, forming low screen, with carved pierced upper panels, (Plate 100) plain lower panels, late 17th-century. Paving: Round founder's tomb, of black and white marble, 17th-century. Piscina: In E. wall with moulded jambs and four-centred head with remains of cusping; damaged s'll and remains of upper shelf; late 14th-century, much defaced. Plate: Includes two cups of 1630, the gift of John Postan, first Chapel Clerk. Pulpit: (Plate 52) hexagonal, sides panelled and having strapwork ornament at the angles; frieze of similar ornament with strapped brackets at the angles supporting dentilled cornice, moulded stem of double ogee form with moulded ribs, on a modern post; pulpit made by Francis Blunt, Thomas Herring and Jeremy Wincle, 1613. Royal Arms: on screen at W. end of chapel—Stuart arms, in carved and painted wood. Screens: At W. end of chapel, modern, but with royal arms (see above) and two cartouches of the arms of Sutton fixed on it, 17th-century. At W. end of N. aisle, (Plate 52) but not in situ; of oak, of three bays divided by posts having diminishing Corinthian pilasters on the face; the pilasters have each a long panel carved with ribands, trophies of arms, musical instruments, etc. The middle bay has an openwork head carved in the form of two scrolls, with a cherub-head in the centre of each, and having in the middle a large projecting cartouche of the Sutton arms. The side bays have semi-circular arches with spandrels carved with strapwork and cherub-heads. Above these arches is a cornice supporting an 'attic storey' of five bays divided by narrow diminishing pilasters richly ornamented. The side bays have each a round panel in a square panel with four carved key-blocks. The middle panel is delicately carved in relief with conventional foliage, etc., and the remaining two bays have perspective masoned arches. The three middle bays form a slight projection. Seating: oak benches with sixteen carved bench-ends with heads shaped and scrolled; made by James Ryder, 1613; four other old bench-ends have been altered to take small pedestals with the Sutton crest in cast iron. Under tower— benches with turned legs, probably partly early 17th-century. Weather-vane On cupola of tower— pennon-vane, painted with the Sutton arms and with greyhound's head at point, carried on ornamental scrolled finial, probably 17th-century. Miscellanea: In vestibule—on S. wall, in glass case, fragment consisting of the head of a niche having a two-centred moulded arch formerly cusped; with one sunk spandrel remaining and having a small shield of the Manny arms, or three cheverons sable; flanking one side, remains of a buttress; niche of semi-hexagonal plan with vaulting shafts, and a rich ribbed vault with small carved bosses. All of Reigate stone, with considerable remains of painted decoration, late 14th-century.


Great Cloister

Great Cloister

The Wash House Court (Plates 54–56) adjoins the Master's Court on the W. The E. range, which forms the W. range of the Master's Court, is of rag-stone rubble, but the rest of the building is mainly of red brick with much rag-stone rubble on the S. side and a little on both faces of the W. range. (Plate 55). The building is of two storeys with attics, and the roofs are tiled. The whole building, which formed the offices court, is of early 16th-century date, but the middle of the W. range appears to have been partly reconstructed at a later date. The chimney-stacks on the outside face rest on moulded brick corbelling, but the shafts are modern. The windows, both inside the courtyard and in the outer walls, are, where original, of stone and of one or more four-centred lights in square heads; there are also some 17th-century windows with solid frames. The courtyard is entered from the Master's Court by a passage with a stone doorway at each end, both with four-centred heads. The doorways to the various offices within the courtyard have chamfered jambs and four-centred heads of stone. The entrance passage in the W. range has an outer archway of stone with a four-centred head and an inner archway of brick and of similar form with traces of a square label above it; above the label is a small niche of brick with a rounded head and a square label cut back. The inner and outer faces of the W. range have a certain amount of diapering in black brick, including several crosses and the large initials I.H. (Plate 54). These initials are said to be for John Houghton, prior 1531–35, but the H, with the crosses, appears to have been reset at a later date, and the original design was more probably an I.H.S.; immediately below the large cross is a wide four-centred arch, now blocked; it possibly contained a dole window. The interior of the building contains in the E. range, at the N. end, the kitchen, and, further S., the bake-house, now disused; it has in the S. wall two wide recesses with four-centred arches, probably former fireplaces; the rest of the range with all the S. range forms part of the Registrar's house. The N. range is mainly occupied by the head-porter's house and has no ancient features. The W. range is divided up into various rooms and offices and contains four original fireplaces, mostly blocked; they have moulded jambs and four-centred arches in square heads. The staircase near the N. end has solid oak treads, and the newel staircase has an original octagonal newel. Several rooms have old chamfered ceiling-beams and a room on the first floor has a 17th-century modillioned cornice.

The Great Cloister (about 336 ft. square) is approximately represented, in area, by the large square green of the Merchant Taylors' School. Of the mediaeval buildings considerable stretches of the outer walls on the E., W. and S. remain. The cloister was formerly surrounded by twenty-five separate cells with gardens, etc., attached, but of these only a short length of cross-wall remains on the E. side, together with remains of the openings to three cells on the W. and two on the E. side. The remaining walls on the S. side are shown on the plan and there is another length of walling adjoining the S.E. angle of the cloister. The W. walk (Plates 55, 57) of the cloister was transformed in 1571 into a gallery with a terrace above it, but it now only extends about half the former length of the cloister. Part of the gallery which contained portions of a cell was destroyed when the Merchant Taylors' School hall was built. It is now 143 ft. long by 10 ft. wide internally, and the W. wall is of late 14th-century rubble faced on the W. side with 16th-century brickwork; the E. wall is entirely of 16th-century brick, as is the vault of the gallery. The E. elevation has at the S. end a doorway with a segmental head and flanked by plain pilasters supporting a plain pediment. Further N. are six window-openings with chamfered jambs and segmental heads of two orders; then follows a canted bay with a similar window in the face and four and a half more windows, all similar, beyond which the gallery has been destroyed. Between the windows are plain flat pilasters not carried down to the ground, but having below each a raised diamond panel; below each window is a raised rectangular panel. The W. elevation has near the N. end a door of four chamfered orders, the inner and third forming four-centred arches and the other two square heads. It is all of 16th-century brickwork. Further S. are four recesses, each having a four-centred arch in a square head; the backs show the rubble walling of the cloister wall of c. 1400. Between the first and second recesses is a plain rectangular projecting bay. The terrace over the gallery is protected by a plain brick parapet on each side. On the W. face below the parapet are the words ANNO 1571, with the letters spaced widely apart. The interior of the gallery has a plain semi-circular barrel-vault of brick groined to the window-openings and bays. The W. wall is of rubble, and near the S. end are traces of the blocked doorway of cell A. Immediately S. of it is the small square opening (rebated for a shutter and now blocked) of the food-hatch. The positions of two more cells, B. and C., are traceable from portions of their foodhatches still in situ; the doorways have both been removed, leaving no trace of their presence. Of the E. wall of the great cloister a short length is left exposed, some 80 ft. N. of the S.E. angle. In it are remains of the doorway of cell V., with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head; one quatrefoiled spandrel enclosing a shield is left; the doorway is partly buried. Another doorway (of cell T.) further N. is now completely buried. Near the N. angle a length of return wall between cells P. and Q. survives.

Condition—Good.

(6). House, No. 25, on the N. side, of St. John's Square, is modern, but beneath it is a mediaeval cellar. It runs N. and S. and was entered from the W. side. The roof is four-centred and of squared chalk with a span of about 17 ft. In the later house are several moulded oak timbers, evidently brought from the buildings of St. John's Priory.

Condition—Good.

(7). The New River Head, fittings, in offices of the Metropolitan Water Board, and reservoirs, on the N.W. side of Rosebery Avenue, 600 yards N.N.W. of St. James' church. The Water House of the New River Company was built in 1693; this structure was demolished in 1919–20, but some of the fittings were incorporated in the modern offices on the same site. The Oak Room (Plate 58) on the first floor has the original plaster ceiling, panelling and fireplace from the old Oak Room. The ceiling (Plate 59) is richly moulded and modelled, and has a large oval panel in the middle with a broad surrounding band, round panels outside it and an outer band against the walls. The middle panel contains a painting of the Virtues supporting a portrait-bust of William III; the surrounding border is of foliage, fruit and flowers. The inner band has small panels of landscapes, Neptune, marine monsters, etc.; between the inner and outer bands are panels of richly modelled foliage with birds and round panels enclosing swans, dolphins, and the arms of Middleton (for Sir Hugh Middleton, founder of the Company) and Green. The outer band has small fishing and landscape subjects. The fireplace has a white veined marble architrave to the opening, apparently original, with an oak, eared architrave supported on each side by enriched scrolls. The large panel to the overmantel bears the royal achievement of William III and is surrounded by richly carved work—a group of hanging birds; a landing-net full of fish, a group of lobsters, crayfish, etc., a fishing-basket, crabs, etc., also swags of foliage. On either side of the fireplace is a fluted Corinthian column of oak, the full height of the room supporting a small entablature. The cornice is carried round the room, and has egg and dart enrichment; the walls are panelled with raised panels and a dado-rail. The doorways, windows and recesses have carved acanthus architraves, and over each is a richly carved panel with pipes, wreaths, wings in lure, cherubs, palm branches and a bay-wreath, cross bull-rushes and drapery-swags respectively.

Two other rooms have refixed plaster ceilings, both with the date 1693 in the angles, and a round panel in the middle with a walled and towered city, a hand issuing from a cloud above, and the motto, "Et plui super unam civitatem."

The round reservoir which formed the terminus of the New River, has been partly destroyed for the new offices, but more than half of the old retaining wall and bank are left behind the building. To the N. of the round reservoir are three further reservoirs of irregular form.

On the floor of the round reservoir is now being rebuilt the conduit-head formerly at Queen's Square, Bloomsbury, and called the Chimney Conduit or Devil's Conduit, and one of the two conduit-heads that formed the source of water supply to Christ's Hospital. The Chimney Conduit was demolished in 1911–13 and the stones were marked for identification. The work is probably of the 14th century with later alterations. In the grounds are also a number of ancient oak waterpipes and a number of larger stone pipes.

Condition—Rebuilt.

(8). Headquarters of the Hon. Artillery Company, on the W. side of City Road, immediately S. of Bunhill Fields. The building was entirely reconstructed in the 18th century. It contains in the Long Room a painted achievement of the arms of the Company, perhaps of the 17th century. On the staircase is a 'rover-stone,' for long range archery, from Islington; It is a stone post with the word "Scarlet" and a cast-iron plate of the arms of the Company.

Condition—Rebuilt.

(9). The Clerks' Well, in No. 16, Farringdon Road, 100 yards W.S.W. of St. James', Clerkenwell. The well is of very ancient origin, being mentioned by Fitzstephen in 1174. It was closed in and covered with rubbish in 1857, but was again uncovered in 1924. Excavations then undertaken revealed a brick-steyned well 4 ft. in diameter and 13½ ft. deep. The well is in a rectangular enclosure, partly of stone and partly of 16th-century brick, and is approached by stone steps on the S.E. side. The well and the enclosing walls on the N.E. and N.W. are still exposed. The N.E. wall has seven sockets for the ends of timber joists, perhaps connected with a former windlass or pump. The N.E. wall is of rubble faced with ashlar and 16th-century brick; it appears to have formed part of the precinct wall of St. Mary's Priory.

Condition—Good.



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