Holborn

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1925

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43-63

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'Holborn', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2: West London (1925), pp. 43-63. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=119701 Date accessed: 31 July 2014.


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7. HOLBORN.

(O.S. 6 in. London, Sheet K.)

The borough of Holborn includes the parishes of St. Andrew Holborn without the bars, St. George Bloomsbury, and St. Giles in the Fields, the extraparochial areas of Lincoln's Inn, Gray's Inn and Staple Inn, and the Liberty of Saffron Hill. The principal monuments are Ely Chapel, the three Inns and Newcastle House.

Ecclesiastical

(1). Parish Church of St. Giles in the Fields was rebuilt from the designs of Henry Flitcroft in 1731–33; it contains from the old church the following:

Fittings—Chest: In N.W. vestibule—of iron, bound with straps and with openwork between the straps, large iron handles at ends, and four feet in the shape of large birds' feet; on top initials THF, (?) CH, FB, IG, RD, IW, SB, RE, SS, ID, GD, RS, WP and WL, also achievement-of-arms three horses' (?) heads razed and the initials R.H. 16th-century, foreign. Monuments: On third pier of N. arcade—(1) to Sir Roger L'Estrange, 1704, marble tablet with scrolls and cartouche-of-arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) to John Hawford, 1712; Elizabeth (Banbrigge), his wife, 1714; John, 1713, and William, 1715, their sons, draped marble tablet with cherub-heads, etc.; (3) of Frances (Dudley), wife of Sir Gilbert Kniveton, Bart. [1669], altar-tomb with black marble slab and white marble recumbent effigy in shroud, monument re-erected in 1738. At W. end of aisle—(4) monument in form of Roman upright tomb with modern inscription to George Chapman, 1634, monument erected by Inigo Jones. In S.W. vestibule—(5) to Richard Pendrell, Preserver of Charles II, 1671, part of slab of table-tomb, removed from churchyard; restored table-tomb in churchyard. Organ: originally built by Bernard Schmidt in 1671, but much altered and enlarged. Table: In large church-room—oval, with turned and twisted legs, early 18th-century. Miscellanea: In N. aisle—on W. wall, (1) oval tablet recording benefaction of Hon. Robert Bertie, 1677. In N.W. vestibule—(2) stone tablet recording benefaction of Sir William Cony, 1672. In S.W. vestibule—(3) stone tablet recording benefactions of Richard Holferd, 1658, and (4) John Pearson, 1707.

The gateway on W. side of the churchyard incorporates a carved oak lunette representing the resurrection of the dead. It formed part of a gateway erected in 1687 on the N. side of the churchyard and taken down in 1800.

Condition—Good, rebuilt.

(2). Parish Church of St. George the Martyr, on the W. side of Queen's Square, Bloomsbury, was built in 1706 as a chapel-of-ease to St. Andrew, Holborn, and consecrated in 1723. In 1868 the building was almost entirely altered externally and largely faced with stucco; probably at the same time the interior was remodelled and the present columns and roof-system inserted.


Parish Church of St. George the Martyr, Plan

Parish Church of St. George the Martyr, Plan

Elevations—The elevations have no ancient features except on the S.E. front, where the original stock brickwork is exposed and has two plain band-courses, and the round relieving-arches of two original windows. The three square-headed windows in the S.W. wall may also be original.

The Interior (85½ ft. by 60¼ ft.) has no ancient features.

Fittings—Plate: includes two flagons, two cups, two plates, two small and one large paten and a spoon, all of 1705, and all except the spoon bearing the date 1706. Reredos: said to have been moved from the S.E. wall, of mahogany and of three bays with two round-headed panels in middle with the Commandments and two cherub-heads from which hang clusters of fruit, etc.; flanking the panels are coupled Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature; side bays each with a panel and surmounted by a small pediment, probably early 18th-century.

Condition—Good, much altered.

(3). West Street Chapel stands on the N.E. side of the road 250 yards S. of St. Giles' Church. The walls are of brick, partly rendered in cement and with some stone dressings; the main roof is tiled and the lantern covered with slates. It was built in 1700 as a chapel for French Protestant refugees; it was repaired in 1759, refitted in 1799, used as a school for boys in 1824, and after further repairs reused again as a chapel in 1840.

In consequence of the various repairs and alterations the building presents few original features.

It is rectangular on plan with the main axis running from N.W. to S.E., and is in four bays with a lantern over the middle of the second bay from the N. The church has buildings against it at either end and the front to West Street has been completely restored or rebuilt, but probably reproduces the original design. The front is of brick with cement plinth, stone cornice and stone coping to a brick parapet; in the upper part of the wall is a range of four round-headed windows in modern recesses, the jambs of which are continued down to form doorways below the first and fourth windows and plain recesses under the two middle windows, each pierced by a small rectangular light. The N.E. elevation is cement-rendered.

Interior—The building is divided into a nave and side aisles by square columns of wood with moulded bases and Doric capitals supporting an entablature with square panelled gallery-front finished with a moulded capping; the gallery is carried across the S.E. end of the nave between the third and fourth bays and is here supported by an intermediate column. Above the gallery, on either side, are circular columns corresponding with those below and having capitals of Greek Ionic type, apparently late 18th-century restorations. The ceiling is flat and the lantern square; in each side of the lantern is a three-light window; the round-headed middle light has a moulded archivolt and plain key-blocks and the square-headed side-lights are surmounted by a moulded cornice. The sides are finished with a moulded cornice and the ceiling is flat.

Fittings—Plate: includes two cups, now at the Wesleyan Kingsway Hall, without date-marks but each with an inscription recording the gift by Pierre Fenowillet "MDCIIIC" to the French congregation.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(4). Chapel of St. Etheldreda, on the W. side of Ely Place. The walls are of rag-stone with limestone dressings; the roofs are tiled. The chapel, with its undercroft, was built c. 1300, perhaps by Bishop William of Louth (1290–98), and formed part of the town house of the bishops of Ely, the rest of which has been destroyed.

The chapel, though much restored, is an interesting example of a large private chapel of the period.

The Chapel (80½ ft. by 30 ft.) has been refaced externally, and the external dressings are modern. The E. window is of five trefoiled lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head; the splays and mullions are moulded and shafted and the rear-arch is moulded; flanking the window are two wall-arches with shafted jambs and trefoiled head under a crocketed gable with a cinquefoil in the tympanum. In the N. wall were five windows, each of two trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head and with detail similar to the E. window; the easternmost window has been blocked and the sill cut away to form a side chapel; between the windows are wall-arches similar to those flanking the E. window; at the W. end of the wall is a blocked doorway with shafted splays and moulded segmental-pointed rear-arch; above the doorway is a panel of blind tracery of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head and otherwise similar to the windows. In the S. wall (Plate 67) are five windows and wall-arches similar to those in the N. wall; the easternmost is blocked and has a doorway cut through below it; between the windows externally are the restored trefoiled heads of small niches; at the W. end of the wall is a partly restored doorway (Plate 67) with a two-centred arch of three moulded orders; the modern jambs have each three attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the splays and rear-arch are similar to those of the N. doorway, and above it is blind tracery similar to that in the N. wall. In the W. wall is a window of five trefoiled lights with semi-geometrical tracery in a two-centred head; the details are similar to those of the E. window, and flanking the window internally are two wall-arches similar to those in the E. wall.

The Undercroft (78½ ft. by 25½ ft.) has a row of modern columns down the centre. In the E. wall is a two-light window, all modern except the splays and rear-arch; further S. is a doorway, all modern externally. In the N. wall are six windows similar to that in the E. wall, but the easternmost is of two original trefoiled lights and is now blocked. In the S. wall are two single-light windows, all modern except the splays and segmental-pointed rear-arches; further W. is a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the W. wall are two blocked windows or recesses similar to the window-recesses in the N. wall. In the N.W. angle is a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head to the turret. At the western external angles are octagonal projections or turrets, that on the N.W. containing a blocked staircase. The ceiling has old joists laid flat, and the floor appears to have been lowered about 2½ ft.

Fittings—Lockers: In N. wall of upper chapel —rectangular, with moulded edge, 14th-century. In S. wall of undercroft—two, each double and with two two-centred heads rebated for shutters, 14th-century. Mortar: In S. porch—large mortar of hard stone, now used as stoup, date uncertain. Royal Arms (Plate 68): In S. porch—Stuart arms carved in oak, late 17th-century. Sedile: In upper chapel—E. splay of S.E. window cut back and with defaced attached shaft with moulded base and carved capital, c. 1300. Miscellanea: In undercroft—fragments of masonry, including capital of column, elaborately carved with foliage, c. 1300.


Holborn, Church of St Ethelreda, Ely Place, Plan of Undercroft.

Holborn, Church of St Ethelreda, Ely Place, Plan of Undercroft.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(5). Lincoln's Inn stands on the W. side of Chancery Lane. The Old Buildings are ranged round an irregular quadrangle with the hall on the W. side, the gatehouse to Chancery Lane on the E. and the Chapel on the N. and blocks of chambers on the S. extending beyond the hall. The Old Hall replaces a former one; it was begun in 1489–90 and was finished by 1492. The Treasurer's accounts of 1517–18 record the building of the existing Gatehouse. Chambers Nos. 18, 19 and 20 Old Buildings, which run westward from the W. end of the S. range of the Old Square, were built in 1524, and the range running N. from the W. end of this block, and containing chambers No. 16, Old Buildings, and 12 and 13 New Square, were built ten years later. In 1583 the passage on the S. of the hall was made. The S. side of the Old Square, containing chambers Nos. 21–24 Old Buildings, was rebuilt in 1609. Inigo Jones prepared a model for the New Chapel in 1618, but the building was not begun probably until 1620, and the chapel was consecrated in 1623. In the same year the hall was enlarged by the addition of the southernmost bay with its 'oriels,' and the existing screen is also of that date. The chapel was considerably restored in 1685. The New Square, originally known as Serle Court, was built towards the end of the 17th century, but the top storey is an 18th-century addition. During the 18th century the chambers known as Stone Buildings were erected N. of the chapel. In 1791 the E. window of the chapel was renewed and in 1794 a new roof was put on. The existing ceiling was inserted in the hall in 1819, when the building was lengthened. The carriage-way between the New Square and Carey Street was altered in 1843, when the side walks were converted into shops. In 1843–5 the New Hall was built. In 1882 a block W. of the hall was pulled down, the end of the hall rebuilt, and the chapel restored, re-roofed and lengthened westward one bay, the old W. window being re-erected in the new W. wall. Various alterations and restorations have been made to the chambers during the 18th and 19th centuries, including the taking down and rebuilding of a block on the N. of the gatehouse, with an extension which ran W. from it, and the rebuilding of Nos. 2 and 10 New Square.


Lincoln's Inn.

Lincoln's Inn.

The buildings round the Old Square are interesting as a survival of mediaeval planning and the chapel and crypt are remarkable specimens of early 17th-century Gothic. Amongst the fittings the stained glass and the seating in the chapel are noteworthy. The photographs, here reproduced in Plates 75, 231–5, of the glass were taken before the work was partly destroyed during the Great War.

The Gatehouse is H-shaped on plan; the central block has a carriage-way with a room above and is of four storeys on either side; the cross-wings are each of five storeys. The walls are of brick with some stone dressings; the roofs are covered with lead. The E. front (Plate 69) has a projecting plinth of late 17th-century date with Portland stone capping and a plain parapet. The central archway has cemented jambs of two hollow-chamfered orders on to which die the moulded orders of the four-centred arch. On the N. side is a small modern doorway opening into a side passage. Above the central archway are three stone panels, all renewed; the middle one is taller than the others and has a shield of the Tudor royal arms with crown and garter; the S. panel has a shield of the arms of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, a lion rampant within a circular label, and the N. a quartered shield of the arms of Sir Thomas Lovell K.G. (Lovell a cheveron between three squirrels with a ring for difference quartering Muswell two cheverons each charged with a cinq foil) within a garter; below, carved on a raised scroll in Lombardic capitals, is "Anno Doni 1518." Under this is a stone panel inscribed "Insignia haec Refecta et Decorata Johanne Hawles Armig . . . 1693." The entrance-gates are original and in two leaves hung on massive iron strap-hinges; each leaf is divided into three tiers of four vertical and moulded panels; in the southernmost leaf is a small wicket. A small single-light window to the ground-floor of the S. cross-wing and one partly rebuilt, are the only original windows remaining on this face. The chimney-stacks on either side are of grouped diagonal shafts. The carriage-way has a flat ceiling, but the side walls retain the deep toothing for an intended vault of brick. In the S. wall is an original stone doorway with a four-centred head. The W. front is generally similar to the E. front, but has a considerable amount of diaper-work. The central arch is of stone with a cemented label and above is a small stone panel carved with a quartered shield of the arms of John Hawles and the date and initials I.H. 1695 E.S. With the exception of the small squareheaded lights to the staircases in both the crosswings, all the windows are late 17th-century or modern. On the E. face of the S. cross-wing to the top storey is a small recess with a four-centred head.

The chambers (Plate 70) to the S. of the gatehouse and on the S. side of Old Square (Nos. 25 to 21) are of three storeys with attics, and the polygonal staircase-turrets in the S.E. and S.W. corners of the square are one storey higher. The walls are of brick; the S.W. stair-turret is covered with cement; the roofs are tiled. The walls have a series of pointed gables over the attic windows. The doorways are of late 17th-century date and are square-headed with painted cement rustications and flat arches; over the doorways of Nos. 23 and 24 are four-centred brick relieving-arches, and over the doorway of No. 25 is a small square panel with enriched brick jambs and head. The walls have been much repaired and renewed and have had later chimney-stacks added on their outer faces; the parapets to the gables and the plinths are of modern brickwork and all the windows are later insertions except those to the staircase-turrets, which are mainly of two square-headed lights with moulded jambs, heads and mullions finished in cement. The S.E. staircase-turret has a plain parapet and moulded string below the topmost storey; the S.W. turret has a modern string and modern embattled parapet.

The L-shaped block (Plate 71) S.W. of the old hall, consists of chambers Nos. 16, 18, 19 and 20 Old Buildings, and Nos. 12 and 13 New Square; the W. wing is of three storeys with attics and the S. wing is of four storeys with the S.E. stair-turret one storey higher. The walls are mostly of brick, but partly of timber-framing rendered in cement; the roofs are tiled. They are generally of similar character to the chambers in the Old Square and, like them, have been considerably renewed and altered. The S. range at front and back has a plain parapet. The two upper storeys on the N. front at the W. end of this range project, as does also the whole of the topmost storey at the back; all the projecting portions are rendered in cement. The parapet wall to the W. range on both the E. and W. fronts is carried up in a series of pointed gables, but much of the upper part of these walls has been rebuilt. The windows to the stair-turret (No. 20 Old Buildings) are original and similar to those in the corresponding turret in Old Square; the stair-turret to No. 16 has some original single-light windows and some old windows with wood frames; all the others in both ranges are either of late 17th-century, 18th-century, or modern date. Except on the W. front to New Square the doorways are similar to those in Old Square. On the W. front (Plate 80) the doorway to No. 13 New Square is of late 17th-century date and has a moulded architrave and cornice and broken pediment supported on console-brackets. The lower part of the chimney-stacks with grouped diagonal shafts at the S. end of the W. range is original, but the upper part has been rebuilt and the greater part of each of the three external stacks, one on the N. front and two on the W. front, is also original. On the S. wall is a stone tablet (Plate 83) with the date 1693, initials I.G.T. and a lion rampant.

The interiors of the gatehouse and chambers have been much altered. In some of the rooms fragments of late 16th or early 17th-century panelling remain, and rooms A and B in No. 13 New Square have overmantels of that period. The overmantel in Room A has the upper part divided into two bays by three carved half-figures of crude caryatid form which support a cornice with shaped dentils; in the middle of each of the Jacobean panels between the figures is a carved cartouche with a shield of the arms of Thomas Saunderson on one side and a carved boss on the other. Under the figures is a convex moulding with arabesque enrichment with a long arabesque panel below, and immediately above the mantelshelf are three panels with lozenge-shaped centres; the whole is of painted oak. This room has a cased ceiling-beam with similar panelling. The chimneypiece in Room B has a late 17th-century bolection-moulded architrave round the fireplace-opening. The overmantel is divided into two bays by three Doric pilasters, enriched with arabesque work; the pilasters stand on consoles carved with leaves and supporting a cornice with shaped dentils; between the consoles are raised panels with a dentilled moulding above, and between the pilasters are four L-shaped panels with a rectangular one in the middle; one has a carved cartouche with the arms of Thomas Saunderson, and the other a similar cartouche with his crest. In one of the ground-floor rooms of No. 19 is a chimney-piece with moulded shelf supported on carved brackets with carved swags in between. The circular staircases have octagonal or round oak newels; the steps have in some cases been renewed. Most of the original doorways opening to the chambers off these staircases remain; they have moulded jambs and square heads and some retain their original panelled doors.

The Chapel (Plates 72, 73) finished in 1623, stands on the N. side of Old Square. The walls are covered with cement; the modern parapet and some of the dressings are of Portland stone; the roof is covered with slates.

Architectural Description—The Chapel (90½ ft. by 40½ ft.) is now of four bays, but before 1882 was of three only. The bays are divided by plain buttresses of six stages finished with plain square pinnacles, but all the stonework now showing is modern. The parapet is also plain. The E. window is of two tiers of seven cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; it was renewed in 1791, but probably reproduces the old lines. The N. and S. walls have both four windows, each of four cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a two-centred head; the jambs, splays and mullions are all moulded. The windows in the westernmost bay are modern. The reset window in the W. wall is uniform with the E. window.

The Crypt (90¼ ft. by 40 ft.) under the chapel (Plate 74) is of four bays in length and two in width; the westernmost bay and W. wall are modern. The buttresses of the chapel are pierced at the base with four-centred arched openings of two plain orders, the outer continuous, the inner springing from flat Doric pilasters. The walls and buttresses have a moulded plinth. In each bay of the E., N. and S. walls is an archway with a four-centred arch of two orders, the outer moulded continuously and stopped, the inner chamfered and springing from attached, semi-circular Doric shafts with moulded capitals and bases. Down the centre of the crypt, supporting the vaulted roof, is a row of three rectangular piers. The bays of the roof from E. to W. are divided by two bands of flat cusped panelling; a single band of similar panelling divides the bays from N. to S. The vault itself has moulded ridge, diagonal, wall and numerous intermediate and lierne ribs with bosses at the intersections carved with leaf-rosettes, blank shields, and shields of the arms of England, a chevron ermine between three cinqfoils, and the present arms of the Inn. The main ribs spring from semi-circular attached Doric shafts with moulded capitals and bases; two of these shafts are set against each face of the rectangular piers, two against the side walls between each opening. The intermediate ribs between the panelled bands spring from moulded corbels, and there are similar corbels at the angles of the piers. Similar vaulting is reproduced in the modern W. bay.

Fittings—Communion Rails (Plate 1): with turned and twisted balusters, moulded rails and panelled standards, late 17th-century. Glass: In E. window, in cartouches of decorative scroll-work with plain panels bearing inscriptions below, small shields of the following arms with names and dates —first light, Luke Astry, 1680; William Coward, 1689; Henry Long, 1690; Nicholas Martyn, 1691; Patrick Crawford, 1707; Sir James Montague, Solicitor General, 1708; Robert Eyre, 1709; in second light, William Guidott, 1682; John Green, 1692; Edward Byde, 1693; Sir John Hawles, 1694; Fleetwood Dormer, 1710; Charles Coxe, 1711; Sir Robert Raymond, Solicitor General, 1712; in third light, Thomas Jones, 1684; Sir Richard Holford, 1695; William Dobyns, 1696; James Wittewrong, 1697; John Hungerford, 1713; William Rogers, 1714; in centre light, modern shield within old cartouche; within large cartouche, large shield with the arms of Lincoln's Inn with cherub below, inscription and date, 1703; in fifth light, John Eldred, 1685; Edwin Griffin, 1698; Henry Penton, 1699; Eld. Lanc. Lee, 1700; in sixth light, Sir Thomas Powys, 1686; Robert Dormer, 1701; John Weddell, 1702; Sir James Butler, 1703; in seventh light, Sir Samuel Eyre, 1687; Peter Warbuton, 1704; Henry Poley, 1705; Edmund Bridges, 1706. In N. wall, in each of the main lights of the second and third windows, is a figure of a prophet with canopy above and name below; figures stand on pedestals with shields-of-arms, Latin inscription and name, and are as follows—in second window, (a) St. Peter with keys; a quartered shield of Henry Wriothesley, K.G., Earl of Southampton; (b) St. Andrew with books and cross; a quartered shield (Plate 76) of William Herbert, K.G., 3rd Earl of Pembroke; (c) St. James the Great with staff and book; quartered shield of John Egerton, 1st Earl of Bridgewater, and date 1623; (a) St. John with chalice; shield-of-arms of James Hay, Earl of Carlisle; by apostle's foot the artist's cypher R.B. The shields are held by angels and surmounted by coronets; in tracery, in six principal panels, angels holding medallions, four lower ones bearing crests; four spandrels with cherubs playing musical instruments; central spandrel, sun between two grotesque winged heads. In third window, (a) Zachariah, dated 16[24], below, arms of John Darcie; (b) Amos with shepherd's crook and pouch, dated 16[24], below, arms of Sir Thomas Richardson; (c) Ezekiel, robed as priest with mitre, etc., holding in left hand model of temple, below, arms of Sir Thomas Harrys (of Tong), Bart.; (d) Jeremiah, in robes and long mantle, in right hand a staff and in left an ewer, dated 1624; below, the arms of Sir Randal Crewe; in tracery above, six figures of kings, a crest of a griffon, a sun and strapwork ornament. The glass now in these two windows was inserted in 1921 and is mainly modern, although such fragments of the original 17th-century glass as could be recovered from the ruin caused by the air-raid of October, 1915, and were usable, have been incorporated in the modern work. A considerable quantity of the old fragments so used were, before the air-raid, in the westernmost window on the S. side and they constitute the larger pieces among those fragments. In each of the main lights of the two middle windows in the S. wall is a figure of an apostle and a shield-of-arms similar to those in the N. windows and are as follows—in second window, (a) St. Philip with cross and book, below, quartered shield-of-arms of George Nevill, 5th Lord Abergavenny, impaling Stafford, for Lady Mary Stafford, his third wife, with date 1623; (b) St. Thomas with carpenter's square and book, below, quartered shield of Francis Fane, 1st Earl of Westmorland, impaling Mildmay, for Mary Mildmay, his wife, with date 1626; by name of apostle, initials R.B. of artist R. Bernard; (c) St. Bartholomew with knife; by apostle's name, artist's cypher R.B.; below, quartered shield (Plate 76) of Henry Neville, 6th Lord Abergavenny, impaling Manners, for Lady Frances Manners, his first wife, below, the date 1623; (d) St. Matthew with spear; by name of saint, monogram probably representing R. Bernard Van Ling fecit; below, shield-of-arms of Sir Thomas Fane impaling those of his wife Mary, Lady Le Despenser; in six principal panels of tracery, angels, five with medallions bearing respective crests of the families with shields in bottom of window and one with a blank medallion; in side spandrels, angels with musical instruments and in middle one IHS; the shields in the bottom of the window are flanked by small figures representing the Virtues. In third window—(a) St. James the Less with book and fuller's club; below, quartered shield of Robert, 1st Lord Spencer of Wormleighton with supporters; landscape background; (b) St. Simon with saw, background of chapel, hall and old buildings of Lincoln's Inn; quartered shield of Sir Henry Compton; (c) St. Jude with book, background of parts of London and Westminster from the river; the quartered shield-of-arms of Thomas Spencer of Claredon; (d) St. Matthias with axe and book, landscape background with ruins of Oseney Abbey, at foot of figure, artist's name "Bernard Van Ling"; quartered shield of John Spencer of Offly; in four principal panels of tracery, nude winged figures holding shields of the families mentioned; in spandrels, small figures playing musical instruments and, in two top lights, draped figures of angels. In the W. window is the following old glass, which, though protected from the weather has been left in the much damaged condition occasioned by the hostile air-raid of October, 1915. In the middle three lights, much damaged large achievement of royal arms of William and Mary; in head of first light, shield with the name of William Hackwell; in head of second light, shield with the name of Sir Peter Mutton; in sixth light, broken shield and name of Thomas Thornton; in seventh light, fragment only of shield and name of Richard Tayler; in tracery above much of the old glass has completely gone, but fragments remain of the foliated designs and of the shields or names of the following: Thomas Spenser (complete), Anthony Irby, Thomas Wentworth (complete), Christopher Brooke (complete), William Ayloffe (complete), Hugh Pyne (complete), Jasper Salwyn (complete), Roland Wandesford, Robert Eyre, Nicholas Duckett (?), Edward Hadd, Hugh Cressie, Anthony Hevenden, Thomas Sanderson, Richard Digges, Giles Tooker, John Darcy (complete), John Briscoe, Thomas Woodward, William Noye (complete), and William Ravenscroft. Monuments and Floor-slabs: Monuments: In crypt, on N. wall—(1) to Mark Hilsby, 1693, stone tablet with inscribed Latin verse; (2) inscribed stone tablet with two lines of English and two of Latin verse and date 1692, both tablets taken from a window at back of No. 13 Old Square, destroyed in 1881. Floor-slabs: In crypt—(1) to—enus Wynne, Sergeant-at-law, 16—;(2) to John Thurloe, Secretary of State to the Protector Oliver, 1667. Panelling: of oak, as dado to side walls of chapel extending as far as third window on each side, 17th-century; behind altar, early 18th-century. Plate: includes two cups, two flagons, and two patens, all of 1708. Pulpit: hexagonal, each side with an enriched and inlaid panel, enriched and moulded cornice and base mould, panelled stem; stairs with carved brackets, turned and twisted balusters and moulded rail; carved, panelled and inlaid upright to sounding-board (against wall); sounding-board with cornice and inlaid soffit, all oak, early 18th-century. Royal Arms: See glass. Seating: (Plate 8). In chapel, pews, of oak, mainly original with carved and shaped heads to bench-ends and doors as follows: to both ends of ten eastern pews of middle block (except easternmost); to both ends of bench in front of middle block; to seven eastern pews of N. block; to eleven eastern pews of S. block; to all the quire-stalls and four stalls at W. end of modern screen. Below moulded pew-rails, panels of arabesque work. Tiles and Paving: paving to E. half of chapel, of black and white marble squares, set diagonally, 17th-century. Miscellanea: In crypt, part of reconstructed arch of wall-arcade, moulded and with dog-tooth ornament, moulded capitals to former side-shafts, 13th-century; moulded fragments of various dates. In case, in lobby of New Library, fragment of alabaster 'table' found under chapel.

The Old Hall (Plate 77), is of one storey with cellars; the E. and W. walls are entirely covered with plaster and painted, the N. wall is modern, the S. wall abuts on to the adjoining buildings; the roof is covered with slates and has a modern Gothic lantern.

Elevations.—The side walls are each of five bays; the end bays in each case having a square projecting 'oriel' and the intermediate bays are divided by massive buttresses of three stages; there is a chamfered plinth and an embattled parapet, probably all modern. Adjoining the N. side of the S.W. projecting bay is a modern porch. The projecting bay-windows have each on the outward face four, and on the return faces two, cinquefoiled and transomed lights under square heads with moulded labels; the lights below the transoms are also cinquefoiled. The intermediate bays have each a window of three cinquefoiled lights under a four-centred head with hollow chamfered jambs and mullions, and a moulded label all much restored or modern.

Interior (Plate 78).—The bay-windows have each a moulded four-centred arch springing from moulded corbels carved with angels holding blank shields. In the W. wall, immediately S. of the modern door from the porch, is the original doorway of which the S. half remains in situ; it has double-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the spandrels are cusped and have blank shields in the middle quatrefoil; the N. jamb and part of the arch are reset at a lower level adjoining the S. jamb.

The screen (Plate 78) is now set against the S. wall and is of early 17th-century date. A projecting Gothic gallery at the level of the main cornice is modern. The oak screen is of five bays divided by terminal pilasters standing on panelled pedestals and having male busts and strapwork ornament; they support the main entablature, which has enriched straps over each pilaster; the two doorways occupy the second and fourth bays and have been entirely modernised; the end bays have each a large rectangular panel enclosing an oval rusticated one with enriched straps; below is a single rectangular panel. The middle bay (Plate 79) has a similar panel at the base and above it is a richly ornamented panel with a perspective rusticated arch flanked by elaborately scrolled pilasters. The upper part of the screen is also of five bays divided by diminishing Ionic pilasters enriched with swags, etc., and standing on open arcaded pedestals; the pilasters support a dentilled entablature with a strap above each pilaster. The middle and side bays have each an opening with diminishing pilasters to the jambs and flat shouldered arches with a curved pendant in the middle of each and carved spandrels; the second and fourth bays have each two openings similarly treated with curved arches. The gallery-front below the openings has a series of rectangular panels enriched with scroll-work. Above the entablature is a large panel enclosing a clock-face, flanked by Ionic pilasters and finished with Jacobean cresting and supporting consoles; this part is possibly a modern addition.

The Basement under the hall is now divided into two by a cross wall; the main building has an elliptical vault of brick groined to the openings in each bay. All the openings are modern except one on the E. side, which has an original window of three lights with chamfered stone mullions and old iron uprights and saddle-bars. Under the S. bay of the hall is a segmental vault running E. and W. and there are other cellars running S. beyond it.

The heraldic glass taken from the Old Hall and now fixed in the E. oriel window of the New Hall, consists of the achievements-of-arms, with names or inscription, of the following, each set within a coloured oval; in first light, Sir John Fortescue; Sir Henry Hobart, Bt., 1613; Sir Wadham Wyndham; Sir Samuel Browne, 1673; Henry Powle, 1692, and the Rt. Hon. Robert Harley; in second light, Sir Thomas More; Sir William Jones; Sir Harbottle Grimston; Sir Henry Bedingfield, 1686; Sir Giles Eyre, 1694, and Sir James Ley, Bart.; in third light, the Earl of Bedford, with supporters and motto (damaged in air-raid); Sir Henry Spelman; Sir Mathew Hale; Sir Thomas Jones; Sir Samuel Eyre, 1694; Robert Dormer, 1705, and the Marquis of Halifax, 1685, with old inscription and later shield; in fourth light, the Earl of Derby, with supporters and motto (damaged in air-raid); Sir Robert Long, Bt.; Sir Edward Atkyns, 1688; Sir Littleton Powys, 1695; and Sir Robert Eyre, 1710; in fifth light, Sir Thomas Egerton; the Earl of Sussex, with supporters and motto (damaged in air-raid); Sir Richard Raynsford, 1673; Sir Robert Wright, 1688; Robert Price, 1702; and Sir James Montague, 1714; in side light, Sir John Puckering, 1593; Sir Peter Warburton; Sir Edward Atkyns; Sir Robert Atkins; John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1694; Sir Thomas Powys; and Sir Christopher Wray. In lobby W. of the New Hall is a lead rain-water cistern (Plate 91) with elaborately ornamented panelled sides, the date "1675" and the initials "N.W.A."; and in the courtyard is another with the date "1703" and the initials "H.P." on a cartouche.

On the E. wall of the New Hall are hung seven framed canvas panels painted with the achievements-of-arms of the following, inscribed and dated "Feb. 26th, 1671": (a) Earl of Manchester; (b) Lord Henry Howard; (c) James, Duke of York; (d) King Charles II; (e) Prince Rupert of the Rhine; (f) Lord Newport; (g) Earl of Bath.

The late 17th-century chambers in New Square (Plate 81) are symmetrically designed and of four storeys with basements. The walls are of brick. The roofs are covered with slates or tiles. The top storey is a later addition and other additions have been built along the back of the S. range. Slightly projecting brick bands mark the levels of the first and second floors, but these have in places been cut back. The windows have square heads with flat brick arches, but the sashes, with few exceptions, are all 18th-century or modern. The doorways have moulded architraves with entablatures surmounted by broken curved pediments supported by curved console-brackets; within the pediments are pedestals with balls, but many of the latter have been broken off. Under one of the first-floor windows of No. 11 is a rectangular boundary-stone panel with fruit swags carved at either side and a Latin inscription in the middle surmounted by a lion carved in low relief and the initials H.L. and date 1691 (Plate 83). Below the fourth window to the N. of this is a smaller boundary-stone of St. Clement Danes with the initials S.C., an anchor, and the date 1693. At the E. end of the S. range is an archway (Plate 82) opening into Carey Street. It was altered in the 19th century, when the side footways were converted into shops; it is covered on both sides with painted cement. The arch towards the square is semi-elliptical and of two orders, the inner plain, the outer with an eared architrave and grotesque keystone; above the ears to the architrave are carved brackets supporting a broken curved pediment. The side openings are rusticated and are surmounted by scrolls rising to the main archway. Between the windows above are two cement panels with moulded cornices and curved pediments; the face of each panel is ornamented with scroll-brackets, leaf, fruit and flower enrichments with a shield in the middle, the one charged with the arms of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, the other with those of Serle; below the panels are shaped aprons with the initials and date W.T.D., 1697. The passage between the square and Carey Street has a semi-elliptical groined barrel-vault of plaster divided into four bays by plain ribs; it is possibly modern. The archway to Carey Street is semi-elliptical and of two orders, the inner plain and slightly wider than the opening below, which has small brackets, the outer rusticated and with grotesque keystone and moulded and enriched imposts. Flanking the arch are panelled Doric pilasters with console-shaped triglyphs to the entablatures supporting a continuous cornice and a broken voluted pediment. The archway to the former E. foot-way has a segmental head with a rectangular panel above, but on the W. side it is covered by later additions. On the N. end of the W. range is a stone tablet (Plate 83) between the first-floor windows; it bears an inscription recording the completion of "this terrace wall" in 1694, and has carved swags and moulded sill.


Gray's Inn, Block Plan

Gray's Inn, Block Plan

Interior—The entrance-hall to each block of chambers had a semi-circular archway with moulded archivolt and key-blocks, responds with moulded caps and bases and panelled spandrels. The staircases, where original, rise in two flights to each floor and have panelled dados, moulded strings and handrails and turned balusters. On each landing solid panelled doors hung on heavy strap-hinges open into the chambers on either side. Most of the chambers retain their original staircases, which stop at the second floor, but some of the dados have been removed as has also much of the interior panelling and in some cases the archway in the entrance-hall.

Condition—Good.

(6) Gray's Inn, hall, chapel, gatehouses and offices on the W. side of Gray's Inn Road.

The Society appears to have first settled on the present site, in the 14th century. The earliest existing building is probably the Chapel, which has early 16th-century windows, but the walls of which may be even older. The Hall was 're-edified' in 1556–60 at a cost of £863 10s. 8d., but apparently incorporates earlier work, including two doorways. The chapel was enlarged in 1624 and largely rebuilt in 1698–99. The Gatehouse to Holborn was built originally in 1593, but the existing structure seems to be of late 17th-century date and was covered with stucco in 1867. During the last quarter of the 17th century most of the Chambers were rebuilt, those on parts of the N. and W. sides of Coney and Chapel Courts (now Gray's Inn Square) in 1676, and the rest of the square after two fires in 1679–80 and 1683–84. The chambers on the W. side of Holborn Court (now South Square) were rebuilt in 1685, and the chambers opposite are of about the same date. The Gatehouse to Gray's Inn Road was built in 1688, and Gray's Inn Place was begun in 1695, though apparently not completed until 1714.


Gray's Inn, Plan of Hall and Chapel

Gray's Inn, Plan of Hall and Chapel

The hall, with its screen and roof, is a fine example of early Elizabethan work and contains a good collection of 16th and 17th-century heraldic glass.

The Hall (69 ft. by 35 ft.) is of red brick with stone dressings, and stands upon an undercroft. The N. and S. elevations (Plate 84) are generally similar; they have a late 17th-century modillioned eaves-cornice and are divided into bays by buttresses of two stages with tabled offsets. The easternmost bay on the N. side has a much restored bay-window with four lights on the N. face and two on each of the canted sides; all have cinquefoiled heads, moulded mullions and a transom with three-centred heads to the lights below. The remaining bays on this side and each bay on the S. have a restored window of three transomed lights in a square head with a moulded label; all the lights have four-centred heads. Below the northwest window, projects a modern porch. The inner doorway is of the first half of the 16th century and has stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the spandrels are carved with conventional foliage and a shield with the arms of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, in a garter. The corresponding doorway in the S. wall is similar, but has no carving in the spandrels; it is now covered by a modern or much rebuilt porch, above the door of which is a 17th-century panel carved with the griffin. The undercroft is lit on the N. side by a window of four four-centred lights in the projecting bay; further W. is a single-light window with moulded jambs and four-centred head and a two-light window, probably original, but with the mouldings cut away; the other openings in this and the S. wall are either modern or completely restored externally.

The E. and W. ends of the hall have each a crow-stepped gable of brick and a large window of five pointed lights with two transoms and a four-centred head; below each transom the lights have three-centred heads; below the W. window is a modern doorway above which is a four-centred relieving arch, probably original.

Interior (Plate 86).—The Hall has an oak roof (Plate 85) of six bays, the trusses are of hammerbeam form, each truss having moulded principals, hammer-beams, posts, wall-posts, collars, and curved braces below the hammer-beams and collars. The mouldings of the hammer-beams are in the form of a cornice and are continued along the wall-plates; under the posts they form a diagonal projection and the posts terminate below with an enriched pendant finished with a double cornice all set diagonally. The purlins also are moulded, together with the hexagonal framing round the louvre; the spandrels below the hammer-beams have Gothic traceried heads, but the other spandrels are divided up by simple moulded mullions. The wall-posts stand on moulded stone corbels. The lantern of the louvre is of Gothic form with buttresses and pinnacles at the angles and two lights in each face; the external decoration is probably of 18th-century date and the lantern is finished with a lead-covered cupola. The walls of the hall have a panelled wainscotting to the lower parts, two panels in height and finished with a cornice. This panelling was put up in 1706. The oak screen (Plate 87) at the W. end of the hall is of late 16th-century date and of five bays divided by Greek Ionic columns with enriched shafts supporting a continuous entablature, the frieze of which is richly ornamented with strapwork and large jewel ornaments; each bay has a round arch with an enriched and scrolled key-block and spandrels carved with reclining female figures holding palms and wreaths; two of the arches are pierced for doors, and have glazed tympana and panelled doors of two folds with a double border of strapwork ornament in the panels; the other bays have panelling similar to the doors and the tympana are filled with radiating flutings rising from a half rosette at the bottom. Above the main entablature is a second frieze and cornice, the former enriched with strapwork and masks; above each column is a scrolled corbel with acanthus-ornament, supporting an enriched terminal figure with male and female busts alternately and supporting the moulded and enriched rail of the gallery-front. Between the terminal figures each bay has a separate architectural composition consisting of a fluted and enriched plinth, scrolls, double cornice and scrolled pediment.

The heraldic glass in the various windows is as follows—In the E. window, (1) Sir Richard Wingfeild; (2) Edward the Confessor; (3) Charles Hales; (4) Sir John Spencer, c. 1600; (5) Sir William Seintlo; (6) Walter Haddon, dated 1559; (7) Sir John Butler; (8) Sir Reynold Bray; (9) Sir Anthony Thorold; (10) Ralph, 3rd Lord Eure; (11) Richard Payton; (12) John Gosnold; (13) Richard Wingfield; (14) Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, K.G.; (15) Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, K.G., with the garter; (16) Butler, Earl of Ormond; (17) Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntington, K.G.; (18) Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, K.G.; (19) J. Molineux, dated 1558 and 1559; (20) Sir Thomas Tyldesley, dated 1606; (21) Richard Aunger, late 16th-century; (22) Thomas Watton, dated 1559; (23) Humphrey Purefoy. In the bay-window—(1) Thomas, Lord Wentworth, Earl of Strafford (Plate 3); (2) Sir John Markham, Chief Justice; (3) Shirley (?); (4) Henry Nevill, 6th Lord Bergavenny; (5) Sir Thomas Widdington, 17th-century; (6) Francis Brackin, c. 1600, shield, mostly modern, in old wreath; (7) Henry Grey, 6th Earl of Kent, late 16th-century; (8) Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, with garter; (9) Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, dated 1620; (10) Robert Sidney, 1st Earl of Leicester, with garter; (11) Thomas Ratcliffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, with garter; (12) Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper of the Great Seal; (13) George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, with garter, dated 1663; (14) Sir William Gascoigne; (15) Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, with garter; (16) Sir Robert Carr, Bart.; (17) Sir John Finch, keeper of the Great Seal, 1634; (18) Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton, K.G., with garter; (19) W. Molineux; (20) C. Grice; (21) John, 2nd Lord Darcy of Chich; (22) Robert Flynte; (23) William Cardinal; (24) 18th-century; (25) Sir William Williams, Solicitor-General, late 17th-century; (26) 18th-century; (27) Sir George Hutchins, c. 1700; (28) Sir William Rawlinson, c. 1700; (29) Sir John Holt, c. 1700; (30) 18th-century; (31) Salathiel Lovell, 1708; (32) Sir Edward Lutwyche, 1683; (33) Sir Thomas Raymond, 1681; (34) Thomas Powel, 1683; (35) Sir William Gregory, 1679; (36) Sir William Jones, 1674; (37) Thomas Holt, 1677; (38) Sir Thomas Stringer, 1677; (39) Robert Baldock, 1677; (40) Richard Newdigate, 1660; (41) Sir William Richardson, 1679; (42) Sir John Powell, 1686; (43) Tracy (?); (44) Sir Dudley Digges, 1631; (45) John Archer, 1663; (46) Thomas Flynt, 1669; (47) Nicholas Willimott, 1669; (48) Thomas Hardres, 1669; (49) Sir William Scroggs, Chief Justice, 1678; (50) Sir William Ellys, 1672; (51) Thomas Waller; (52) 18th-century; (53) John Bennet, 1705; (54) Sir Edward Nevill, 1691; (55) Sir William Dethick, 1587; (56) Timothy Turner, 1669; (57) Henry Dixwell, 1622; (58) Reynold Britland, 1692; (59) Sir Thomas Bury, 1700; (60) 18th-century; (61) Lawrence Agar, 1700; (62) John Hooke, 1700; (63) Sir John Smith, 1702; (64) Thomas Raymond, 1680; (65) Henry Chetham, 1710; (66) William Fitzherbert, 1674; (67) Thomas Leek, 1642; (68) Thomas Fane, 1554; (69) Sir John Turton, 1696; (70) George Sterlinge, 1654; (71) Nicholas Rotherham, 1654; (72) Thomas Hunt, 1629; (73) Richard Weston, 1677; (74) Henry Binge, 1623; (75) Sir Creswell Leving, 1680; (76) Sir Paul Barrett, 1683; (77) Sir Thomas Bedingfield, 1660; (78) Thomas Mason, 1632. In the next window W. of bay-window— (1) Ellis Brantingham; (2) Francis Crawley, 1632; (3) Sir John Holt, 1686; (4) Sir Thomas Billing, 16th-century; (5) Francis Noone, mid 16th-century; (6) Thomas Gooding, 1692; (7) Roger Moore, 1692; (8) William Huse; (9) Sir John Ernle; (10) Sir John Fineux; (11) Geffery Nightingale, late 16th-century; (12) Sir Robert Shafto, late 17th-century; (13) Robert, 2nd Lord Rich, 17th-century; (14) Sir Gilbert Gerrard, late 16th-century; (15) John Southwell (?), late 16th-century; (16) Sir John Brograve, early 17th-century; (17) Edward Forde, mid 16th-century; (18) 18th-century; (19) Sir Thomas Hesketh, Attorney General; (20) Ralph Barton, 1559; (21) (?); (22) Sir Humphrey Wingfield, 16th-century; (23) Sir Samuel Starling, 17th-century. In the westernmost window, on the S. side, was a sundial with the arms of Gray's Inn, a motto and the initials and date T T C 1702; it is now stored elsewhere in the building.

The Chapel (55½ ft. by 25 ft.) has no ancient features externally. In the E. wall is a modern window. In the N. wall are three modern or entirely restored windows and a doorway, also modern. In the S. wall (Plate 34) are two early 16th-century windows each of three four-centred lights in a four-centred head; they are now blocked on the outside face of the wall; further E. is a modern recess and doorway.

Fittings—Bell: one by James Bartlet, 1689. Glass: In N.E. window—(1) shield of the See of Canterbury impaling Sheldon, architectural border and date 1664; (b) shield of the same See impaling Juxon in a wreath with the date 1660. Two similar shields of Crew, Bishop of Durham, 1663, and Morley, Bishop of Winchester, 1664, are now in a cupboard in the vestry. Plate: includes cup and cover-paten of 1583, cup and cover-paten dated 1618, flagon of 1618, given by John Gulston, flagon of 1633, given by Robert Dewhurst, plate of 1639 and two alms-dishes of 1706; all the above bear the griffin of the Inn. Pulpit: (Plate 5) of oak, semi-hexagonal, three sides each with enriched angles, moulded panel below and oval strapped panel above, cornice with arabesque ornament, c. 1630. Stoup: W. of N. doorway—rough recess for stoup. Miscellanea: On S. wall—wood carving of irradiated holy dove, gilt, probably early 18th-century.

Gray's Inn Square, (Plate 90) formerly Coney Court and Chapel Court, was rebuilt between 1676 and 1688, the former range dividing the area into two courts being removed. The buildings surround three sides, the E., N. and W., of the square and are of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. The three ranges are generally of uniform design with brick bands between the storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice of wood. The doorways (Plate 99) opening into the square are also uniform and have moulded architraves, pulvinated frieze and cornice supported on scrolled brackets and surmounted by a broken segmental pediment and a ball. The windows generally have flush frames and double-hung sashes, mostly renewed; some of the basement windows have two-light windows with solid frames. Part of the wall of No. 4 was damaged by a bomb in the war (1914–18) and has been repaired. In the E. range is the Gatehouse from Gray's Inn Road. Externally it forms a slight projection from the range and has rusticated stone quoins and stone bands; the ground-storey is faced with rusticated masonry and the gateway has a flat arch with a griffin carved on the key-stone; the heavy doors are of two folds with bolection-moulded panels and a wicket in the S. fold of the door. Towards the square the gatehouse is similarly treated; on this side there is an enriched pediment above the main cornice of the building and the key-stone of the arch is carved with a pegasus.

Interior—No. 1 on the W. side of the square has an original dog-legged staircase with close strings, turned balusters and square newels and original panelling in several rooms. A fireplace on the first floor has a moulded surround and carved overmantel; a second fireplace has an original moulded surround and on the second floor is an archway with carved spandrels.

No. 2 has a staircase similar to No. 1. In the N. front is a round arch with spandrels carved with foliage and flowers. Several rooms have original panelling and a fireplace on the ground-floor has a moulded surround.

No. 3 has a staircase, similar to No. 2, but with different mouldings and turned pendants to the newels. Several rooms have original panelling, and there are some original panelled doors, some with strap-hinges.

No. 4 has a staircase and doors similar to No. 3, a doorway on the ground-floor has a moulded architrave, and a fireplace on the first floor has a carved and moulded surround.

No. 5 has a staircase of the well-type but otherwise similar to that in No. 1. The passage through the house to the gardens behind has a squareheaded archway with egg-and-tongue ornament and a fan-light over enclosed in a semi-circular arch springing from panelled pilasters. Two doorways are flanked by panelled pilasters and have round panelled heads, spandrels carved with foliage and an acanthus key-block. Most of the rooms have original cornices and one on the S. has a raised panel over the fireplace. A room on the first floor has original panelling and an enriched cornice; the fireplace has a carved surround, panelled pilasters, carved frieze with a woman's head in the middle, and a carved overmantel with swags of fruit and flowers and a painted landscape with ruins in the panel; flanking the fireplace are cupboards with egg-and-tongue enrichment to the architrave, carved frieze and dentilled cornice and pediment. In the adjoining room is another fireplace having a somewhat similar overmantel also with a painted landscape with ruins in the panel but finished with a broken pediment, in the middle of which is a basket of flowers; the cornice is similar to that in the other room, and the doors of both have overdoors with pediments. On the second floor are some old panelled doors, some original panelling and a fireplace with a moulded surround.

No. 6 has a staircase similar to that in No. 1 and some doors similar to those in No. 3. Some rooms have original panelling. On the ground-floor one room has an original moulded wood surround to the fireplace with egg-and-tongue enrichment; another room has a fireplace with a marble surround. On the first floor a room at the back has two doorways with original architraves and a large fireplace with carved mantelshelf and overmantel carved with swags of fruit and flowers; a corner fireplace has a moulded surround and shelf and a raised panel above. On the second floor a corner fireplace has a mantelshelf carved with acanthus foliage.

No. 7 has a staircase similar to No. 1. Some of the rooms have original panelling and a fireplace on the ground-floor has a moulded surround with egg-and-tongue enrichment and a raised panel above.

No. 8 has a staircase similar to No. 1. Some of the rooms have original panelling. On the ground-floor one fireplace has an original moulded surround with egg-and-tongue ornament and a carved frieze; another fireplace has a raised panel above.

No. 9 has a staircase similar to No. 2 but with turned pendants to the newels. Some of the rooms have original panelling. On the ground-floor the fireplace of the front room has a moulded surround with egg-and-tongue enrichment, moulded mantelshelf, fluted frieze and overmantel with cornice and side pilasters; the fireplace in the back room has a moulded surround. On the first floor, the back room has a large enriched panel above the fireplace; on each side is an old cupboard. On the second floor, two fireplaces have original surrounds, one with a raised panel above; another fireplace has a carved mantelshelf and frieze, with acanthus bracket and a raised panel above.

No. 10 has a staircase similar to that in No. 7. Several of the rooms have original panelled doors and doorways with architraves. Three fireplaces have original surrounds, two of these with a mantelshelf in addition and one with a raised panel above.

No. 11 has a staircase similar to that in No. 10. Several of the rooms have original panelled doors and one is lined with original panelling. A fireplace on the ground-floor has a moulded surround.

No. 12 has a staircase similar to that in No. 11, several original panelled doors and some original panelling. On the first floor is a fireplace with carved surround. On the second floor is a round archway with panelled pilasters and a panelled key-block.

No. 13 has a staircase similar to that in No. 12, several original panelled doors and some original panelling. Three fireplaces have moulded or enriched surrounds; one has a carved frieze and raised panel above. On the second floor are two round archways, now blocked, with panelled pilasters and soffits and key-blocks.

The gateway has on the S. side some original panelling and one old sash-window.

No. 14 has a staircase similar to No. 13. The room on the ground-floor is said to have been the library and has a doorway with an elliptical arch between the two rooms. On the first floor are two round-headed archways, and two fireplaces with enriched surrounds and mantelshelves. Several of the rooms have original panelling and there are two old cupboards.

South Square (Plate 88) has elevations on the E. and W. sides generally similar to those of Gray's Inn Square, but the block on the E. side has lost its eaves-cornice. On the W. side, the southern block returns round the S. side of the square and retains its eaves-cornice. The next block to the N. is lower and has a plain parapet, while the block in the N.W. corner (No. 4 Field Court) is the same height as the middle block but retains its eaves-cornice. The doorways are generally similar to those in Gray's Inn Square, but that of No. 4 Field Court has a segmental pediment and hood, supported on carved brackets. In the N. wall of the kitchen under the modern building on the N. side of the square is a stone inscribed "T.H.C.S. 1708."

Interior—No. 5 South Square has an original dog-legged staircase, with close strings, turned balusters and moulded rails. There are two original folding doors.

No. 6 has a staircase similar to No. 5 and several original panelled doors and some of the rooms have original panelling. A fireplace on the second floor has a moulded surround with egg-and-tongue enrichment and in the passage is a round arch with panelled pilasters and a key-block.

No. 7 has a staircase similar to No. 5 and some original doors and panelling. Two fireplaces have moulded surrounds, one with egg-and-tongue enrichment.

No. 11 has a dog-legged staircase with close strings, turned or twisted balusters, and square newels with moulded pendants. Three rooms on the second floor have early 17th-century panelling refixed, and there is a panelled door of about the same date. In one room is a mid 17th-century moulded mantelshelf with a panelled overmantel flanked by pilasters and finished with a cornice having egg-and-tongue enrichment.

No. 12 has some original panelling. A room on the third floor has a fireplace with a moulded surround, carved mantelshelf and a raised panel above with bay-leaf enrichment and pendants on each side; on either side of the fireplace is a carved over-door (Plate 89). On the S. side of the same room is an elliptical arch with carved spandrels. The ceiling has cased beams, panelled on the soffit.

No. 13 has a staircase similar to No. 11 but with turned balusters. Some of the rooms have original panelling and doors and there are three fireplaces with moulded surrounds.

No. 14 has a staircase similar to No. 13. Most of the rooms have original panelling, cornices and doors and there are several fireplaces with moulded surrounds, two with egg-and-tongue enrichment.

No. 4 Field Court. The front room has original panelling (Plate 89), enriched cornice, two doors and a fire-place with a heavy moulded surround.

The Gatehouse to Holborn is of four storeys with attics; the walls are covered with plaster and painted; the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The S. front has a ground-storey of rusticated masonry, with a flat elliptical arch in the middle and a foot-way on the W. with a round arch. The three upper storeys are divided by cornices, and have a wide bay-window of rectangular form, flanked by round-headed niches; all the details are apparently modern. The N. front has been refaced in brick, about the middle of the 18th century.

Gray's Inn Place. Nos. 1 and 2 were built early in the 18th century and are of two storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of plastered brick and the roofs are slate-covered. The entrance to No. 2 has a hood and pediment supported on two Ionic columns. Inside No. 1 is some original panelling and the N. room on the ground-floor has an elliptical archway.

Nos. 7 and 8 were built c. 1697 and are of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. The storeys are divided by plain brick bands, and between the two parts of No. 8 is a modern or re-cut stone inscribed "Gray's Inn 1697". The doorway (Plate 99) of No. 7 is original and has a moulded hood supported on carved brackets. Inside the buildings is some original panelling. No. 7 has an original staircase from the first floor upwards, with close string and twisted balusters. Gatehouse (part of No. 8) has an original doorway and a fireplace with an original moulded surround and a raised panel above. Warwick House (also part of No. 8) has some original ceiling-beams in the cellars, one of them being moulded. The staircase to the cellars and top floor is original and similar to that in No. 7.

Nos. 10 and 11 were built late in the 17th century and are of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. The storeys are divided by brick bands. No. 10 has a doorway similar to No. 7. Inside the buildings No. 10 has some original panelling and a fireplace with a carved surround. The staircase to the cellar and the top floor is original and similar to that in No. 7. No. 11 has also an original staircase of similar detail and of dog-legged type.

The Garden to the W. of Gray's Inn Square has a lead cistern (Plate 91) with elaborate panels having raised mouldings, various devices and the date and initials 1702 RLE.

Condition—Good.

(7). Staple Inn, hall and chambers, stands on the S. side of Holborn, just without Holborn Bars. It became an Inn of Chancery early in the 15th century. The Hall was built in 1581 by Richard Champion, principal of the Inn, and in 1586 another principal, Vincent Engham, rebuilt the western part of the Holborn front; the remainder of this front no doubt followed in due course. The E. and W. ranges of the courtyard were built or rebuilt in the 18th century. The buildings have been carefully restored late in the 19th century.

The hall is remarkable for its handsome roof and screen and the Holborn front as a survival of an important timber-framed building of the Age of Elizabeth.

The block facing Holborn (Plate 92) is of three storeys with attics, timber-framed in front, but mostly faced with 18th-century brick at the back. The N. front is of seven bays of building of which the two westernmost are set slightly in advance of the rest; all are finished with gables and the upper floors, including the attic, project; the fairly close-set timber-framing is exposed throughout, but has been partly restored. The ground-floor is occupied by modern shops except the third bay from the E., which has a wide gateway (Plate 96) of stone, leading into the courtyard; the gateway is flanked by much-weathered diminishing pilasters and has moulded imposts and round arch with reeded ornament, panelled soffit and pendant key-block; the doors are of two folds with moulded rails, muntin and frame forming rectangular panels; the western leaf has a large wicket. Above the arch are semi-octagonal bay-windows to the first and second floors and the rest of the front has numerous smaller bay-windows of square projection; most, if not all, of these bay-windows represent ancient features, but the detail work is largely modern as are the cornices masking the 'overhangs' and the barge and base-boards to the gables.

The S. elevation of the same block (Plate 97) is mainly of the 18th century, but the timber gables rise above the later parapet, and near the E. end and at the W. end are projecting bays, also of timber-framing covered with rough cast.

Inside the building, some original panelling remains in the upper rooms.


Staple Inn, Holborn.

Staple Inn, Holborn.

The Hall (47½ ft. by 28 ft.) on the S. side of the courtyard is of four bays with the 'screens' at the W. end, and an 'oriel' projecting on the N. side. The walls are o; brick with some stone dressings, and the roofs are covered with slates. On the N. side the semi-octagonal 'oriel' has four lights on the N. and one on each return side, all with three transoms and square heads; E. of the 'oriel' is a lead rainwater-head dated 1655; further W. is a square-headed window of four lights with one transom; the doorway to the 'screens' is of 18th-century pseudo-Gothic character. The S. side (Plate 93) has original buttresses, each with three offsets; the four bays have each a square-headed window of three transomed lights, but that in the easternmost bay is set much lower in the wall; the doorway to the 'screens' is of pseudo-Gothic character and is dated 1753. Over the second bay of the roof rises the square louvre or lantern; it is of two low stages, the lower with four small transomed lights on the N. and S., and the upper with four untransomed lights in each face; both stages are finished with cornices and the lantern has an ogee lead cupola and a wrought-iron weather-vane. Near the W. end of the roof is a small 18th-century cupola containing a bell.

Interior (Plates 94, 95)—The roof is of four bays with five hammer-beam trusses; the timbers are all moulded, and the hammer-beams have curved braces and wall-posts springing from moulded brackets; the main uprights have carved and moulded pendants and from bracket-trusses on the uprights spring curved braces to the collar-beams and purlins, all with moulded and carved pendants at the apex of the arch; on the collars and hammer-beams stand curious posts or pinnacles of no structural use, with bands of ornament divided by pierced lozenges; the truss over the 'oriel' springs from a richly carved pendant with a shield of the arms of Richard Champion, and on the W. side is a device with the initials 1581 R.C.; the truss at the W. end has panels on the wallposts, one with a shield-of-arms a fesse between three rings and the date 1581 and the other with a shaped shield bearing the initials I.E. inlaid in black composition. The screen (Plate 96) at the W. end of the hall is of five bays divided by square fluted Ionic pilasters supporting a carved and enriched frieze; the three middle bays have doorways with segmental arches enriched with egg-andtongue ornament, carved voluted key-blocks and medallions with lions' heads in the spandrels; the side bays are panelled; above the frieze is a panelled gallery-front with a cornice or capping. In the N. window are four quartered shields-of-arms with strapwork or mantling—(a) of Charles Bagehot; (b) Champion; (c) Thomas Trayle; (d) Nicholas Brokus, principal, all 16th-century. In the first window on the S. side are the following shields-of-arms, etc., in glass—(a) royal Tudor arms with garter and crown; (b) royal Stuart arms in similar panel; (c) Prince of Wales' feathers, with date 1618, in similar panel, (Frontispiece); (d) of Sir Richard Hutton, in strap-work frame, with inscription and date 1618; (e) is Sir Thomas Walmesley, with similar enrichments, but without date; (f) of Sir Peter Warburton, similar to (d) and with date 1618, all 17th-century. The second window has in the middle light two quartered shields-of-arms, one with the arms of Pope, the other with the name Mansel (?) below, which, however, does not belong to the arms; there are also a crest of a white rose and other fragments of heraldry. In the third window is a Tudor rose, a quartered shield-of-arms and a merchant's mark; all are of 16th or 17th-century date, and very fragmentary.

Condition—Good.

Lincoln's Inn Fields, W. side

(8). Powis or Newcastle House, (Plate 98) Nos. 66 and 67, northernmost house at corner of Great Queen Street, is of three storeys with attics and half basement. The walls are of brick with some stone dressings and the roofs are covered with slates. The present house was built from the design of Captain William Winde, on the site of an earlier house, which was destroyed by fire in 1684; it, however, remained unfinished until 1694, when it was completed by Sir Christopher Wren. The front block was rectangular on plan with two wings projecting westward from either end; various internal alterations were made in the 18th century and in 1771 it was divided into two residences and remained so until reunited in 1906; the original N.W. wing has been demolished and rebuilt. The E. elevation is in seven bays, with the three middle bays slightly projecting; the lowest storey is painted, there are painted stone bands at the floor-levels and at the angles rusticated quoins; the walls were originally finished with an enriched eaves-cornice with a pediment over the three middle bays, but this has been removed and replaced by a low brick parapet; all the windows have flat gauged brick arches except the middle windows on the first and second floors, which have moulded stone architraves with flat surrounds, and the lower has scrolled consoles supporting a moulded cornice; the doorway and the double flight of steps leading up to it were both altered in the 18th century; the northernmost bay is built over the foot-way on the S. side of Great Queen Street and is carried on a semi-elliptical arch in the basement wall with plain imposts and keystone. The N. elevation to Great Queen Street is in five bays and has rusticated quoins, projecting brick bands at the floor-levels, and plain parapets all similar to the E. elevation, but only the E. quoins are painted; the wall, which is built over the foot-way, is pierced by an arcade of five semi-elliptical arches with plain imposts and keystones and rectangular piers; the windows are all similar to those on the E. front, but the easternmost on the ground-floor and the two easternmost on the first floor are blocked. In the W. wall of the main block, facing an internal area, are the remains of an original three-light window, now partly blocked by an inserted window of mid 18th-century date; it is of stone, and two Corinthian pilasters, with parts of the entablature and moulded archivolt of the middle light remain. Inside the building no features earlier than the middle of the 18th century remain except perhaps a carved marble chimney-piece on the second floor; it is surrounded by an architrave carved with a keypattern enrichment and flanked by long scroll brackets and surmounted by an enriched pulvinated frieze with a projecting panel in the middle and enriched cornice.

Condition—Good.

(9). Lindsey House, (Plate 98) Nos. 59 and 60, 60 yards S. of (8), is of three storeys with attics and basement. The walls are of brick and stone with portions of the cornice of wood and the whole front is covered with plaster; the roofs are covered with slates. It was built c. 1640 and the design is generally attributed to Inigo Jones, though there is no direct evidence for this. The house was divided into two in 1751–52, when the interior was much altered. The E. front is symmetrical and in five bays; the walls up to the first-floor level are rusticated and the lower windows have flat rusticated heads; a projecting string-course marks the first-floor level, above which the bays are divided by six Ionic pilasters which stand on pedestals and support a continuous entablature with pulvinated frieze and modillioned cornice surmounted by an open balustrade with moulded plinth and capping and turned balusters with pedestals over each pilaster; the windows to the first floor have eared architraves and are surmounted by entablatures with pediments; the middle window is of different design, the architraves not being eared but flanked at the head by scrolled consoles which support a moulded cornice and curved broken pediment terminating in scrolls with a panelled tablet and fruit swag in the tympanum; the windows to the second floor are square-headed with moulded architraves; in the head of the middle window is a projecting panel. All the internal features of interest are of mid 18th-century date except one room on the ground-floor of No. 59, which is lined with bolection-moulded panelling and has a fireplace with a moulded marble surround. Flanking the forecourt are two fine gate piers; they are of rusticated brick with moulded stone bases and enriched stone capping surmounted by octagonal stone vases with carved acanthus-leaf and egg enrichment and tall finials with ball terminals.

Condition—Good.

(10). House, No. 99, Great Russell Street, on N. side of the road, 90 yards E. of Caroline Street, is of four storeys and a basement; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the latter part of the 17th century and is half H-shaped on plan with the main block on the S. and two small wings projecting towards the N. The front has been altered, and various alterations have been made inside the building, but much of the original panelling remains. The front elevation has no old features. The back elevation is original and has projecting bands of rubbed brick, moulded on the undersides, at the floor-levels; the windows have flat arches and quoins of rubbed brick, but the frames and sashes appear to be of 18th-century date. Inside the building, on the ground-floor, one large room occupies the whole of the back half of the main block; it is lined from floor to ceiling with bolection-moulded panelling in two lengths, with moulded dado-rail and cornice, and has a boldly moulded architrave to the door from the hall and a moulded surround to the fireplace. On the first floor, the room immediately above is similarly panelled and has an enriched cornice; the fireplace has a bolection-moulded surround and on one side is a cupboard with semi-circular head and moulded architrave. Many of the rooms have moulded cornices and the rooms on the second floor are lined with plain panelling in two heights divided by moulded dado-rails. The main staircase has moulded strings and handrail, square newels and twisted balusters. The staircase in the entrance-hall, which rises from the ground to first floor only is similar in character but of slightly varied detail; the opening to the landing on the first floor has a semi-circular head with moulded archivolt, key-block and moulded caps to the imposts; the ceiling (Plate 103) is painted with figures of Bacchus, Venus and Cupid, surrounded by architectural details in perspective, probably of 18th-century date.

Condition—Good.

(11). House, Nos. 100 to 102, Great Russell Street, now two houses, on N. side of road, W. of (10), is of four storeys and basement. It was built in the latter half of the 17th century and was formerly known as Thanet House. Probably the shell of the original house remains, but the interior has been practically entirely rebuilt. The front wall, which is of brick, has been raised one storey and covered with plaster, but the lower window-openings are probably original.

Condition—Good, much altered.

(12). Houses, Nos. 4 to 10, excluding No. 8, on the S.E. side of Denmark Street, are of three storeys with basements and attics. The walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. They were built towards the end of the 17th century but have been considerably altered at later dates. An additional storey has been added to No. 4, and No. 5 has been entirely rebuilt, with the exception of the front wall, which has been heightened and has a modern shop-front inserted on the ground-floor. The houses have projecting stone bands at the first and second-floor levels and squareheaded windows with flat rubbed brick arches with plain key-stones. No. 4 has an original doorway with moulded architraves with a lion's mask in the middle of the square head and panelled pilasters at the sides with scrolled console-brackets supporting a moulded cornice; No. 7 has an original doorway with moulded architrave and an enriched panel in the middle of the head and flanking pilasters with console-brackets supporting a cornice with enriched bed-mould and pediment. Inside the buildings some of the rooms, entrances and staircases are lined with panelling, and some of the old dado-rails, architraves and cornices remain. The staircase in No. 4 has one original flight from the ground-floor to the basement, with a moulded string and handrail, heavy turned balusters and square newel-posts, the bottom one of which retains part of a ball-finial and has panels on the sides carved with low-relief ornament. Most of the other houses have staircases of slightly later date with moulded strings and handrails and turned and twisted balusters.

Condition—Fair.

(13). House, No. 21, Little St. Andrew Street, on E. side of road, 45 yards N. of St. Martin's Lane, is of three storeys with attics and basement; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1700 but has been much altered, and a modern shop-front replaces the original wall on the ground-floor. The front has projecting brick bands at the floor-levels and the windows have flat rubbed brick arches; the southernmost on the two upper floors are blocked.

Condition—Fair.

(14). Old Gloucester Street, terraces of houses, Nos. 7 to 33 on the E., and Nos. 33 to 50 on W. sides of the street running N.N.W. from Theobald's Road to Queen's Square, are generally of three storeys with attics and basements. The walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. The street appears to have been designed as a whole and built early in the 18th century. On the E. side many of the houses have been refronted, and No. 10 has been rebuilt, and on the W. side, No. 46 has been refronted and the attics to Nos. 40, 44 and 45 have been rebuilt. The elevations to the street have projecting bands of brick between the storeys and square-headed windows with rubbed brick jambs and arches. A wooden modillioned cornice originally ran along at the eaves-level, but this is only retained on Nos. 22 and 23, the front wall to the remaining houses having been carried up in a later brick parapet. Some of the houses have their original flush-frames, but many of these have been renewed, and Nos. 7, 22 and 23 on the E. side, and Nos. 33, 41, 48, 49, and 50 have their original hipped dormer-windows lighting the attics. Several of the old doorways remain and have slightly projecting hoods carried on carved consoles, and Nos. 13 and 14, although refronted, have their original doorways flanked by rusticated Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature with modillioned cornice and keystones carved with lions' heads. Inside the buildings many of the entrance-passages are lined with plain panelling with moulded cornices; across some of the passages are round-headed archways with moulded archivolts, plain keyblocks and panelled pilasters with moulded caps. The majority of the houses have original staircases with moulded strings and handrails and twisted balusters.

Condition—Fairly good.

(15). Devonshire Street, terraces of houses on both sides of the street, were built c. 1700. They are generally of three storeys with cellars and attics. The houses have been much altered and some of them refaced; No. 35 has a modillioned cornice and pediment. Many of the houses retain the original hoods to the doorways, resting on carved brackets; No. 14 has an enriched door-frame and above the doors of Nos. 4 and 15 are panels with carved foliage. Inside, the buildings mostly have panelled entrance-halls and original staircases with twisted balusters, close strings and square newels.

Condition—Fairly good.

(16). House at the E. end of Ormond Yard, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built in the 17th century but has been very much altered. Some of the original brickwork is visible on the E. side. The front to the yard has an 18th-century gallery at the first-floor level. Inside the building are some original ceilingbeams.

Condition—Fairly good.

(17). Great Ormond Street was laid out and, at any rate partly, built in the early years of the 18th century. The surviving houses of this period include Nos. 40, 42 and 44 on the N. side, and Nos. 31 to 45 and 53 to 59 on the S. side. They are all of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with tiles and slates.

The Houses, Nos. 40, 42 and 44 (Plate 66), about 150 yards E. of Queen's Square, have red brick dressings to the windows, band-courses between the storeys and key-blocks. The doorway to No. 44 has a flat moulded hood resting on carved and shaped brackets. There is a rainwater-head with the date 1709. The doorway of No. 42 has a round head with a key-block carved with the head of a faun; the opening is flanked by fluted Corinthian columns supporting a dentilled pediment. The doorway of No. 40 has similar columns supporting a segmental pediment, a round rusticated arch and a carving of a phoenix rising from the fire, possibly that formerly over the main doorway of Thanet House. The elaborate front railings (Plate 109), of wrought-iron, are of early 18th-century date.

Inside the buildings, Nos. 40 and 42 have each an original dog-legged staircase with turned and twisted balusters, cut strings with carved brackets; the top flight has a close string, turned balusters and square newels with moulded pendants. The cornices of most of the rooms are original. No. 44 has a front staircase inserted later in the 18th century, and most of the decorations are also of later date. The front room has two original doors with enriched architraves and overdoors. An enriched cornice on the first floor and a door and doorway on the second floor are also probably original.

The eight Houses, Nos. 31 to 45, about 90 yards W. of Lamb's Conduit Street, have red brick dressings and band-courses between the storeys; the front of No. 31 has been plastered and No. 39 refaced. Some of the original window-frames remain. No. 35 has a doorway with a pediment resting on small carved brackets. No. 41 has a doorway (Plate 99) with a flat moulded hood on elaborate carved brackets and Corinthian half columns and pilasters at the sides; the door-frame is moulded and enriched. The doorway of No. 43 has a flat moulded hood on carved brackets. The projecting bay at the back of No. 39 has an original wooden eaves-cornice.

Inside the buildings, Nos. 35 and 39 have each an original dog-legged staircase with turned and twisted balusters, close strings and square newels with turned pendants. In an office on the ground-floor of No. 35 are two fronts of lead cisterns, enriched with moulded panels, flowers and figures; one has the initials and date R.M. 1670, the other D.W.S. 1709. No. 37 has an original panelled entrance-door with strap-hinges; across the entrance-hall is a round arch with panelled soffit and pilasters. The staircase is similar to those just described, but the balusters and rails of the lower flights are modern. A room on the second floor has an original moulded surround to the fireplace. No. 41 has some original panelling and cornices. The staircase is of later character and has a ramped hand-rail, scrolled at the bottom, turned and twisted balusters, and cut strings with carved brackets. No. 43 has a staircase similar to that in No. 35. No. 45 had a similar staircase but the lower flights are modern.

The Houses, Nos. 53 to 59, have fronts generally similar to Nos. 31 to 45. The front of No. 53 has been entirely, and that of Nos. 55 and 57 partly, plastered. The last two houses have doorways with flat hoods and carved brackets. The doorway of No. 59 has a flat carved and moulded hood, carved brackets, enriched pilasters and door-frame and a panelled door.

Inside the buildings, Nos. 53, 55 and 57 have each a staircase similar to that in No. 35, but the lower flights in No. 53 are modern. The entrance-hall of No. 55 has an elliptical archway with panelled soffit and pilasters.

Condition—Good.

(18). St. George's College, house on the S.W. side of Red Lion Square, 5 yards S.E. of Grange Street, is of four storeys; the walls are of brick. It was built probably early in the 18th century but the top storey is probably a later addition, and the front has been entirely refaced in modern times.

Inside the building, the staircase is original and has close moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels with moulded caps. The main front room on the ground-floor has three original doorways each with moulded and enriched architrave, carved frieze, cornice and pediment; two of these doorways are fitted with original panelled doors; the windows have panelled shutters and an enriched moulding round the opening; the walls are panelled and finished with a cornice, dado and skirting. The hall and back room have doorways similar to those described above, but without pediments; the back room has a panelled dado. On the first floor the main front room has doorways, panelling and dado similar to the room below; the doorways have each a frieze with swags and a raised panel in the middle carved with foliage; the fireplace has an original overmantel with a large panel flanked by enriched terminal pilasters supporting an enriched entablature and broken pediment. The smaller front room is similarly panelled and the corner fireplace has a marble surround with enriched architrave and carved frieze; the fireplace in the back room has an enriched architrave. Two rooms on the second floor have each a moulded stone fireplace with a key-block.

Condition—Good.

(19). House, No. 4, on the S. side of Red Lion Passage, is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 17th century, but has been much altered. The windows have flush frames and there is a brick band between the storeys. Inside the building is an original staircase with turned balusters and modern string.

Condition—Poor.

(20). House, No. 11, on the N. side of Red Lion Passage, is of three storeys; the walls are partly of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 17th century, but has been entirely altered and turned into a shop. The upper storeys project in front.

Condition—Poor.

(21). Warehouse, at the S. corner of Streatham Street and Dyott Street, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built probably in the 17th century, and has a plain brick band at the first-floor level. The interior has been entirely altered.

Condition—Good.

(22). Houses, Nos. 12 and 13 Hand Court, on the W. side of the court, 99 yards N. of Holborn, are of three storeys with attics; the walls are partly of brick and partly of plastered timberframing; the roofs are tiled. The houses were built probably early in the 18th century and have brick band-courses between the storeys in front. Several of the flush window-frames and some of the sashes are original. The back is of plastered timber-framing.

Condition—Good.

(23). Hatton Garden, street extending from Holborn Circus to Clerkenwell Road, was laid out c. 1695, and though most of the houses have been rebuilt a certain number of the original ones, mainly on the E. side, are still standing. They were originally of three storeys with attics and cellars, but many have had a fourth storey added; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with tiles or slates.

No. 15, on the E. side of the road, 80 yards S. of Charles Street, has been much altered. Several of the rooms have original cornices, and there are remains of original work at the top of the staircase.

No. 22, 50 yards N. of No. 15, has an original staircase with close moulded strings, square newels, one partly twisted, and balusters, some twisted and some turned.

No. 29, 30 yards N. of Charles Street, has brick bands between the storeys at the back and some flush window-frames, possibly original. Some of the rooms have moulded cornices, probably original.

No. 34, 30 yards N. of 29. Some of the rooms have original panelling, and opening on to the staircase is a round-headed archway with moulded imposts and key-block carved with a lion-mask; the opening is flanked by panelled pilasters, lacking their capitals.

No. 35, adjoining No. 34 on the N. The upper part of the staircase is original and has close strings, square newels and stout turned balusters.

No. 51, 140 yards N. of 35, has a staircase, original from the second to the third floor and similar to that in No. 35; the newels have ballterminals and turned pendants. On the third floor are two original panelled doors.

No. 52, N. of 51, retains some original cornices and an original staircase generally similar to that in No. 51. The staircase wall has a panelled dado.

No. 53, N. of No. 52, retains some original cornices.

No. 83, on the W. side of the road, 60 yards N. of Charles Street, has an original staircase from the second floor and similar to that in No. 51. The lower flights are of early 18th-century date. One room has early 18th-century panelling, and the staircase has a panelled dado.

Condition—Of all houses, good, much altered.

(24). St. Andrew's Schools, at the S. corner of Hatton Garden and Cross Street. The building is of two storeys; the walls are of red brick with stone dressings and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1696. The W. front has rusticated stone angles and a modern parapet and pediment with inscription and date 1696. The middle bay projects slightly and has a doorway surmounted by a segmental pediment on scrolled brackets; above it are painted figures of a boy and girl standing on brackets; the ground-floor windows are squareheaded with keystones and the first-floor windows are round-headed with a roll-moulding to the reveals. The N. front is similar in general character to the W. front; only one ground-floor window is original; there are five windows in the upper range. The E. end has a middle bay of deep projection and a moulded band between the storeys. There are several original rainwater-heads remaining.

Condition—Good.

(25). Sculptured Sign on the Mitre P.H., Mitre Court, on the E. side of Hatton Garden. A triangular-shaped stone let into the S. wall of the building bears a mitre in high relief with the date 1546; the stone is apparently of the 17th century.



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