The Town Wall.
N.B.—The positions of the various items, numbered consecutively in this section, are shown by the
same numbers prefixed by the letter W on the large map A at the end of the volume.
The structural remains now visible are scheduled on p. xii. All other remains are either
buried or destroyed.
(1). Wardrobe Tower, Tower of London. A length
of about 10½ ft. of wall (Fig. 11) remains standing
to a height of 4¾ ft. at the back of the Wardrobe
Tower. The thickness above the plinth is 6 ft.
11 in., and the external facing above the sandstone
plinth consists of four courses of squared rag, three
courses of brick carried through the wall and two
more courses of rag. On the internal face of the
wall an offset of three courses of brick corresponds
in level to the plinth. The line of this fragment,
which is still exposed, if produced southwards
would strike the modern Lanthorn Tower which
stands some feet to the N. of its predecessor. The
known line of the wall to the N. of the Wardrobe
Tower indicates that at this point there was a slight
angle in the wall itself [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXXVII, 280; XXXVIII, 130]. Excavations
made in 1904 to trace the course of the wall to the
S. of this point showed that all remains of the
Roman structure had been removed [Arch., LX,
(2). Bowyer Tower, Tower of London. Early in
1911 a small excavation in the floor of the Bowyer
Tower revealed the inner face of the Roman wall.
Only a small portion was uncovered, but included
brick bonding-courses. It was carefully preserved
and can be inspected by raising one of the stones of
the modern floor [Arch., LXIII, 259].
(3). Trinity Place, S. A length of about 50 ft.
of the town-wall is still standing here to a height of
about 15 ft. The internal face is open to view and
appears to be entirely of mediæval construction
with the possible exception of the lowest visible
courses of squared rag-stone which may be of
Roman date. An engraving (Plate 22) in Roach
Smith's Illustrations shows the Roman work still
surviving on the external face to a considerable
height. It consists above the plinth of four courses
of squared rag-stone, a triple bonding-course of
brick, six courses of rag, a double bonding-course,
five courses of rag, a second double bonding-course
and seven courses of rag; above this point the face
has gone and the wall is perhaps mediæval.
Between this point and Tower Hill a considerable
stretch of the wall is incorporated in a warehouse and
other buildings. The external face is visible in
places and appears to be of mediæval date.
Projecting on to Tower Hill is a narrow tenement
which, no doubt, stands on the Roman wall.
(4). Trinity Place, N. A length of 73 ft. of
the Roman wall (Plate 25), immediately adjoining
(3) was destroyed for the construction of the
Inner Circle Railway in 1882. Drawings and
photographs of the wall from the Gardiner Collection
are now in the possession of Dr. P. Norman. The
drawing of the wall by H. Hodge shows the external
face with four courses of squared rag above the
plinth followed by three brick courses, six courses
of rag, two of brick, four of rag and two of brick.
(5). Cooper's Row. A length of 110 ft. of the
wall (Plate 23) was uncovered in 1864 on the
rebuilding of Messrs. Barber and Co.'s warehouses.
It was standing to a height of 35 ft. above the
ancient ground-level; the upper part of the
construction was of later date and included two
round-headed embrasures, perhaps of the 12th
century. This section of wall was retained in the
new building and can still be inspected. The triple
course of bricks on the internal face, corresponding
to the external plinth, is 6 in. below the existing
basement floor-level. A portion of the outside
face of the wall is visible in the garden of No. 8
the Crescent, Minories [Arch., XL, 297; LXIII,
(6). Southend (formerly Blackwall) Railway, S.
In the course of demolitions for the Blackwall
Railway in 1841, a portion of the Roman wall was
uncovered 7½ ft. thick and standing to a height of
6 or 7 ft. It had a double course of bricks surmounted by five courses of squared stone, and a
double bonding-course carried through the wall.
The wood-cut shows also two courses of squared
stone below the lower courses of brick and three
above the higher [Knight, London, I, 163].
From Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXXVIII, by permission.
(7). Southend (formerly Blackwall) Railway, N.
In 1881 a further stretch of the wall immediately
adjoining (6) together with bastion No. 3, was
destroyed in a widening of the railway on the N.
side. The stretch was 40 ft. long and 8½ ft. thick
above the plinth. The best record of it (Plate 24)
is a drawing by H. Hodge (Guildhall Library Add.
Prints, p. 98), which shows on the external face three
courses of squared rag-stone below the plinth and
four courses above followed by a triple bondingcourse with a set-back above the second brick; then
six courses of squared rag-stone and a double
bonding-course with a further set-back immediately
above it; finally three courses of squared rag-stone.
On the internal face the offsets are reproduced with
the usual triple levelling-course opposite to the
plinth. The top section of the wall is shown 7½ ft.
thick, and the footings are 9 ft. in width.
Loftus Brock records the composition of the wall
(Fig. 11) at this point somewhat differently. He
states that the width at the base was 8½ ft., and his
section shows no faced masonry below the level of
the plinth. Above the latter the wall was 7½ ft.
thick and stood to a maximum height of about 8 ft.
His section, like that of H. Hodge, shows offsets on
both faces of the wall [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXXVI, 463; and section in XXXVIII, 132].
A. A. Langley who was in charge of the work
confirms Hodge's section, particularly in regard to
the exceptional offsets on the external face, and
to the fact that faced masonry was carried below
the plinth-level. He shows also that the foot of the
faced walling was 18 ft. below the modern surface
and at about this level there was a roughly
rectangular drain of Roman brick carried through
the wall [Antiq., III, 62].
(8). America Square. In 1908 the demolition of
Nos. 15 and 16 America Square, a short distance N.
of the piece last described, revealed a stretch of
about 65 ft. of the wall (Fig. 19), and a further
special excavation was made to determine its
character. Above the plinth it stood to a height of
7 ft. and was 8¼ ft. thick. The base was 16 ft.
below the street-level of America Square. The
external face showed four courses of squared ragstone above the plinth, followed by a triple bondingcourse, six courses of squared rag-stone and a
double bonding-course. The internal face showed
the usual offsets [Arch., LXIII, 261].
(9). Roman Wall House. In 1905, on clearing
the site of Nos. 18–20 Jewry Street and No. 1
Crutched Friars, a length of about 40 ft. of the inner
face of the wall (Plate 26) was uncovered. Its
maximum height was 8–9 ft., the base being 8½ ft.
below the present ground-level. The usual triple
levelling-course of brick was surmounted by four
courses of squared rag-stone and a triple bondingcourse, six courses of squared rag-stone and a
double bonding-course with the usual offsets. A
large portion of this fragment is preserved in the
basement of the modern building [Arch., LX, 191].
(10). The Cass School. About 1900, on rebuilding the Cass School at the corner of Jewry Street
and George Street, the foundations of the wall
were uncovered in the lower part of the site. The
wall itself had been previously destroyed [Arch.,
(11). Jewry Street, N. end. In 1861 a considerable stretch of the wall on the E. side of Jewry
Street, immediately S. of Aldgate, was uncovered
in the rebuilding of the premises of Messrs. Moses.
It lay immediately beneath the frontage of Jewry
Street, and according to Loftus Brock, the foundations rested on massive piles. A drawing of this
stretch of wall is preserved at the Society of
Antiquaries, Red Portfolio, London, I, but contains
obvious inaccuracies [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
163; Gent. Mag., 1861, I, 646].
(12). Duke Street. In 1887 the widening of Duke
Street on the N.E. side exposed a long stretch of the
Roman wall. It lay partly beneath the foot-way
of the old street and partly beneath the frontage
of the demolished houses. Loftus Brock described
the wall as being similar to the normal type of the
structure as in Camomile Street, but no exact
particulars are given [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
(13). Bevis Marks, E. end. In 1880 a stretch of
about 70 ft. of the wall was exposed and removed
in the rebuilding at the back of No. 31 Houndsditch.
It formed the boundary at the back of the houses
in Bevis Marks, and was standing to a height of
11¾ ft. Loftus Brock gives a section of this piece
of the wall (Fig. 11) from which it appears that it
was nearly 8 ft. thick and differed slightly from the
normal section already described. On the outside
face there were two courses of squared rag below
the plinth and four courses above it followed by a
triple bonding-course and one course of rag, above
which the face had been destroyed. On the inside
face, above the triple levelling-course of bricks were
four courses of rag, the triple bonding-course without a set-back, five courses of rag and a second
triple bonding-course [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXXVII, 86; XXXVIII, 132–5, with section].
(14). Bevis Marks, E. of Goring Street. In 1923
a stretch of the wall about 120 ft. long and 8½ ft.
thick immediately S.E. of Goring Street was
uncovered and destroyed. The external face was
of the normal type with sandstone plinth and triple
bonding-course. The base of the plinth was 7½ ft.
below the modern ground-level. The wall stood on
5 ft. of brick-earth lying above the gravel. [Journ.
Rom. Studies, XII, 258 and P.N.].
(15). Bevis Marks, W. of Goring Street. A
drawing, probably by H. Hodge, in the possession
of Dr. P. Norman shows a plan and section (Plates
31, 32) of the wall at this point discovered together
with the adjoining bastion in 1884. Though there
is no title to the drawing the mention of Castle
Street (now Goring Street) in the levels is sufficient
to fix its position. The wall rested on a foundation
of flint and puddled clay and consisted on the
external face of two courses of rag-stone, the red
sandstone plinth, four courses of squared rag;
a triple bonding-course of tiles and five courses of
squared rag. On the inside face the usual three
courses of brick lined with the external plinth.
The base of the plinth was about 7¼ ft. below the
modern pavement-level and the wall was 8 ft. 10 in.
thick [Antiq. Journ., VII, 518; Antiq., X, 134].
Fig. 12. Culvert under wall and ditch, W. of All Hallows Church. From Archæologia, LX.
(16). Camomile Street, E. In 1905 a stretch of
the wall was uncovered at the back of Nos. 58 and
60 Houndsditch and also adjoining the churchyard
belonging to the parish of St. Martin Outwich.
The bottom of the plinth lay at a depth of 8 ft. 4 in.
below the street-level, and the total height of the
fragment (which projected above ground) was 14½
ft. above the base of the plinth. The external face
consisted of four courses of squared rag-stone above
the plinth followed by a triple bonding-course of
brick, and two more courses of squared rag-stone.
Above this point only the core of the wall remained,
but it included three double bonding-courses. This
would appear to be the highest fragment of the wall
so far recorded [Arch., LX, 187]. In 1926 a further
portion of this same section of the wall was revealed
(17). Camomile Street, middle. In 1876 a stretch
of the wall 70 ft. long (Fig. 25) was uncovered and
is described by J. E. Price in connection with the
bastion. It was 8 ft. thick and was destroyed above
the plinth J. E. Price, On a Bastion of London
In Woodward's Letter to Wren mention is made
of the destruction of part of the wall near Bishopsgate. It is described as standing 10 ft. high, with
a thickness of 9 ft. and foundations 8 ft. below the
surface. The wall was built of courses of stone with
double courses of bricks at 2 ft. intervals.
(18). London Wall, E. of All Hallows Church.
In 1905 a small portion of the wall was uncovered
at a distance of 45 ft. E. of All Hallows Church.
The plinth and two courses of squared rag-stone
were exposed [Arch., LX, 211, with section].
(19). London Wall, All Hallows Church. In the
same year, during the excavations of the bastion
beneath the vestry, the lower part of the wall was
uncovered. It showed the plinth with four courses
of squared rag-stone and a triple bonding-course
[Arch., LXIII, 271].
(20). London Wall, All Hallows Churchyard.
The city-wall still forms the N. boundary of the
churchyard and the external face was uncovered
in 1905 (Fig. 13). The Roman work remained to a
height of about 12 ft., i.e. to about the present
ground-level. The facing consists, above the plinth
of four courses of squared rag-stone, a triple
bonding-course, five courses of rag, a second triple
bonding-course, six courses of rag, a double
bonding-course, and three more courses of rag.
Below the plinth the foundation was pierced
obliquely by a brick-lined culvert (Fig. 12),
15 in. by 9 in., set in red mortar, in a hollow
depression at a depth of 2 ft. 4 in. below the plinth.
The fall of the drain was from S. to N. "The soil
of this depression had, in the lower part, the
appearance of the filling of a stream, being light
sandy silt and contained Roman pottery, oyster
shells, a human femur and other animal-bones.
. . . On digging further in the lower portion of
the stream-deposit, which continued to a depth of
3½ ft. below the plinth, many pieces of tile were
found and the remains of a human skeleton"
[Arch., LX, 207].
Fig. 13. Elevation of wall, W. of All Hallows Church. From Archæologia, LX, by permission.
(21). London Wall, W. corner of Blomfield Street.
In 1837, "In building the new sewer, at a few feet
eastward of Carpenters' Buildings, an ancient
sewer of Roman workmanship was cut through.
It was embedded in a mass of rubble masonry
12 ft. wide. At 14 ft. southward of London Wall,
it terminated in a mouth cut to the slope of the
ditch into which it had discharged itself. The bank
of the ditch was still covered with large quantities
of moss. On the northern side it had been converted
into a place of sepulchre. The remains of two
human skeletons, with a large dog's skull and part
of the stem of a stag's horn, were found therein,
together with some Roman pottery, a small silver
coin of Antoninus, and a copper coin of Faustina,
and other ancient money. One upright and two
sloping stout iron bars at 12 ft. north of the new
sewer, Moorgate Street to Old Broad Street, closed
the mouth of this tomb, and were in the most perfect
state of preservation, still retaining their grey
colour. At 11½ ft. northward the crown had been
broken in. A coarsely wrought base of a column
was among the rubbish. The bottom is flat
and paved with two layers of large tiles, and
the sides and arch of the sewer are built of small
tiles with thick joints of mortar. The bed of
this ancient work, and that of the new sewer
being nearly coincident, they were connected on
both sides. . . . The substructure of the City
wall is rubble, banded at 3-ft. intervals with two
thicknesses of large tiles" [Kelsey, Descript. of
Fig. 14. Section and elevation of wall, opposite Carpenter's Hall. From Archæologia, LX.
Sir W. Tite's description of the same discovery
adds some further details and is as follows:—
"Eastwards of Carpenters' Hall, a mass of rubble
masonry, of about 12 ft. in thickness, was cut
through; and in the centre was found a culvert,
or Roman sewer, in which were discovered three
iron bars in perfect preservation, enclosing a human
skeleton, the skull of a dog, and the stem of a stag's
horn, together with a silver coin of Antoninus and
a copper coin of Faustina. Beyond this point the
crown of the culvert had been broken in, and a
fragment of a rudely wrought column had fallen
through the breach. As the ancient sewer passed
under houses no further examination could be made
in this direction, but on the south side it was not
only found to be perfect, but even the mouth of it
was discovered under a house at the north-east
corner of Carpenters' Buildings. The sewer was
constructed of small thin tiles, cemented together
by very thick joints of red mortar, made of pounded
tile, and having a large pebble inserted in the centre
of each. From the top of the sewer to the opposite
bank of a ditch into which it discharged itself were
placed several pieces of timber scantling in a sloping
direction, and a considerable quantity of long moss,
undecayed and still retaining a greenish colour, was
taken from between them. The ditch receiving the
contents of the sewer was made on the south side
of the remains of a strong work like part of a
fortification, about the site of Little Moorgate or
the entrance of Bloomfield Street. As the depth
from the present surface to the bottom of the sewer
was 18 ft. 4 in., and the open ditch of the fortress
was still deeper, it is evident that at the time when
they were constructed the adjacent ground was dry
and substantial, for the later accumulation of soil
was so soft that at one part the bricks could scarcely
be laid" [Cat. of Antiq. Roy. Exch., XXXI]. A
City Sewers Plan [I, 124] gives the precise position
of this culvert.
Roach Smith's account of the discovery of a
second "aquaduct" in 1841 is as follows: "In
London Wall, opposite Finsbury Chambers, at the
depth of 19 ft. [to the extrados of the arch] what
appeared to have been a subterranean aquaduct
was laid open. It was found to run towards
Finsbury under the houses of the Circus about 20 ft.
At the termination were five iron bars fastened
perpendicularly into the masonry. . . . At the
opening of the work towards the city was an arch
(Plate 27) 3½ ft. high from the crown to the
springing-wall, and 3¼ ft. wide, composed of 50 tiles
disposed as shown in the engraving. The spandrels
were filled in with rag-stone to afford strength to
the work." He estimates the total length of the
enclosed as 60 yards [Arch., XXIX, 152]. Finsbury
Chambers was the block on the W. corner of
Blomfield Street, but its entrance would appear to
have been a short distance W. of the junction of
the two streets. The second culvert would thus
have been very near, if not directly below, that
discovered in 1837. The drawing shows that the
channel was 24½ ft. below the present surface, or
5 ft. lower than that of the culvert first discovered.
It is possible, therefore, that the higher culvert
may have been inserted at a later date, when the
lower channel had become blocked.
(22). London Wall, opposite Carpenters' Hall. In
1905 a shaft was sunk on the outside face of the wall
at this point (Fig. 14). The base of the plinth lay at
a depth of 13½ ft. below the street, and rested upon
an unusually substantial foundation of rag-stone
5½ ft. deep and projecting 2 ft. from the face of the
wall. Above the plinth were four courses of squared
rag-stone, a triple bonding-course of brick, five
courses of squared rag-stone, a second triple
bonding-course and three courses of squared ragstone. In the lower portion of the shaft the relics
were exclusively Roman, and lying in the sand overlying the undisturbed ballast were two skulls, one
of which was partly imbedded in the mortar of the
Roman foundations [Arch., LX, 170].
(23). London Wall, between Throgmorton Avenue
and Moorgate Street. The greater part of this long
stretch of wall was standing until 1817, when it
formed the back-enclosure of Bethlehem Hospital.
The destruction of 75 yards of it is recorded at that
date, but without details as to its construction
[Gent. Mag., 1817, I, 196]. The road was then
widened towards the N., and now covers the site of
the wall. A view of this section, dated 1812, is
engraved in J. T. Smith, Ancient Topography of
London, 28. In 1905 telephone-mains were laid,
in the core of the wall, from Moorgate Street for a
considerable distance eastwards. A manhole, sunk
opposite No. 57, was carried down 15¼ ft. through
the wall, the base of which would appear to have
been one foot lower [Arch., LX, 170].
(24). London Wall, Copthall Avenue. A branch
of the Walbrook passed under the wall a little W.
of Little Bell Alley (now Copthall Avenue).
J. E. Price's description of the remains discovered
here is as follows:—"It was at this point adjoining
the Swan's Nest Tavern . . . which yet stands,
that in the year 1835 an interesting discovery of
remains was made. A pit or well was disclosed
which had been carefully planked with boards, and
which was found to contain a store of earthenware
vessels of divers patterns and capacities, together
with a coin of Allectus. Some interesting indications
of a red brick arch for the transit of water have
been observed, but are now entirely gone. This
structure was in Bell Alley, and will doubtless be
observed in other places. In height it measured
nearly 6 ft. and 4 ft. in width. It was supported
on either side by massive piles of elm between which
the river ran. These were firmly driven into the
natural soil and were 6 ft. long, the total depth of the
structure being nearly 18 ft. from the level of the
street. . . . The black soil which marks the
river-bed abounds in bones of animals, including
Bos longifrons, etc. The objects found are deposited
at Leathersellers Hall" [Builder, 1889, II, 236].
Although the actual structure of the wall is not
recorded to have been observed here, the culvert
described would appear to be that which conducted
the water of the W. branch of the Walbrook into
(25). London Wall, immediately W. of Moorgate
Street. In 1882 a stretch of about 43 ft. of the wall
was uncovered on the site of a house said wrongly,
by Loftus Brock, to be No. 55, and was found to
underly the street-frontage. Loftus Brock records
that this section was similar to the general type.
It was 9 ft. 2 in. thick, including 2 ft. of mediæval
thickening on the internal face, and was standing
4 ft. above the surface and extended "quite 8 ft.
below." The re-used material described by Brock
has been thought to indicate the position of a
former bastion, but, in view of the reconstruction
of the adjoining stretch of wall described under
26, it is more likely to have formed a part of
this later work [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
(26). London Wall, E. of Coleman Street. In
1911 excavations on the site of No. 123 revealed
a portion of the wall; the outer face had been cut
away. The wall reached to within 2 ft. of the
pavement-level and extended 10¼ ft. below it
[Arch., LXIII, 270].
Fig. 15. From Archæologia, LXXI.
In 1920 the demolition of No. 122 London Wall,
at the E. angle of Coleman Street, exposed a short
length of the wall (Fig. 15) which presented some
unusual features. The core of the wall was not
built with the usual care and contained numerous
fragments of brick and roofing-tiles; a very
haphazard extra layer of bonding-tiles could be
traced under the third course above the plinth.
This irregularity was thought not due to rebuilding
as the normal double bonding-course was in
position above it, but the whole section had been
altered and the precise amount of rebuilding done
was not easy to determine. The whole face of the
wall was exposed at the W. end of the site, the
base of the plinth being 14 ft. below the modern
ground-level; above the plinth were five courses
of squared rag-stone and a double bonding-course
of brick; above this point the outer face of the
wall had fallen away, and had been made good at
some uncertain date by a battering plinth 6 ft.
deep and resting on a rough foundation about 2 ft.
thick laid against the surviving face of the original
wall. Above the batter, the face of the wall
resumed the vertical, the face being set back about
10 in. from the original face at the base of the
wall. This later vertical face consisted of a double
bonding-course surmounted by four courses of rag.
Near the E. end of the site a human skull was
found half buried, upside down, in the gravel,
2 ft. from the plinth [Arch., LXXI, 73].
(27). Aldermanbury Postern, N.E. side. "In
the spring of last year (1857) excavations for the
foundations of houses on the north-eastern side of
Aldermanbury Postern laid open a portion of the
wall of pecular construction, being composed of a
series of blind arches, as shown in the annexed cut,
prepared from a sketch made on the N. of
London Wall, looking towards the street, the
present level of which is indicated by the horizontal
line below the temporary paling, upon the pavement.
The view shows the wall as it appeared while being
cut through and excavated up to the street. At
first it was supposed there had been openings in
the wall, but as the work advanced it was ascertained that the arches were merely constructional
as they formed, throughout, part of the solid
masonry" [Illus. Rom. Lond., 17]. (Plate 23.)
(28). St. Alphage Churchyard. A stretch of the
city-wall still forms the N. boundary of the churchyard, but the whole of the structure above ground
is of mediæval date. Roach Smith records the
exposure of the N. face of the wall a few years
before 1882, and states that nothing of Roman
workmanship was visible. A further piece, also of
mediæval date, was found adjoining Cripplegate
[Brit. Arch. Assoc, XXXVIII, 426], and a third
portion still adjoins the bastion in Cripplegate
(29). E. of Aldersgate Street. In 1922, during
excavations on the site of the Castle and Falcon
Hotel and its yard in Aldersgate Street, a piece of
the wall was found running E. and W. At the
extreme E. end of the property about 210 ft. E. of
the street was found a part of the angle-bastion and
from this point the wall was traced to Aldersgate
Street. It remained in parts undisturbed from the
modern ground-level down to the foundations, a
depth of about 10 ft., and over its whole length the
outer face had been repaired in later Roman times.
The outer face, for about 20 ft. W. of the bastion,
was badly battered. No trace of a Roman ditch
was found [Journ. Rom. Studies, XI, 220 and F.L.].
At one point a brick-lined drain pierced the wall.
(30). W. of Aldersgate. A section of wall at this
point and running under the roadway was found
in excavating for the French Protestant Church in
1841. Mr. W. D. Saull describes it as consisting of
a foundation of flint and clay 1½ ft. thick and 11½ ft.
below the surface of the ground, above this 4½ ft.
of rubble, a double bonding-course, 2½ ft. of rubble,
a second double bonding-course and more rubble
above. It is not stated which face of the wall is
described and illustrated, but as offsets at the
bonding-courses are implied the internal face is no
doubt intended [Arch., XXX, 522].
Fig. 16. Section showing supposed earthen bank (32). From Archæologia, LXIII.
(31). St. Botolph, Aldersgate, churchyard, S. side.
In 1887, in clearing a site for post-office buildings,
a stretch of 131 ft. of the wall was exposed. The
inner face of the wall now forms the N. side of the
basement area. A total height of 14 ft. 4 in. of
Roman work was seen. The face consisted of the
usual triple leveiling-course above the footings,
followed by five courses of squared rag-stone, a
double bonding-course of brick, five courses of rag,
a second double bonding-course, five courses of rag,
a third double bonding-course, two courses of rag
and at the same interval a fourth double bondingcourse visible in the core of the wall. At each
levelling and bonding-course in the usual offset it
was estimated that the original thickness at the
base was 8 ft. [Builder, 1888, I, 315; Arch., LII,
(32). Christ's Hospital site (A). In 1907–9 a
stretch of wall near King Edward Street was
exposed. The total height was 10 ft. 2 in., the
plinth resting at a depth of 13 ft. 8 in. below the
ground-level. Above this point one triple and two
double bonding-courses remained. There were
somewhat indefinite indications of a bank (Fig. 16)
built against the inner face. It extended 16½ ft.
from the wall, and remained to a height of about
5 ft. It was composed of an orange-coloured loam
which was clearly distinguishable from the surrounding made-earth; where it had been covered
by this bank, the face of the wall was remarkably
well preserved [Arch., LXIII, 276].
(33). Christ's Hospital site (B). A portion of the
wall (Fig. 22) at the back of the bastion (17) was
uncovered at the same time. The base of the plinth
was 9½ ft. below the surface, and was surmounted
by four courses of squared rag-stone, a double
bonding-course of brick, five of rag, a second double
bonding-course and two courses of rag. The width
above the plinth was 8½ ft. [Arch., LXIII, 277].
(34). Christ's Hospital site (C). A further long
stretch of wall was uncovered W. of the above. It
was of similar character. At one point just below
the base levelling-course of brick was a flooring of
large Roman tiles laid on a bed of puddle-clay 1 ft.
thick, and extending for a distance of 10 ft. from
the wall [Arch., LXIII, 280].
(35). Christ's Hospital site (D). At the N.W.
corner of the wall, a fragment of the Roman
structure (Plate 37 and Fig. 28) adjoining the
angle-bastion. It was built on the curve, and the
base of the plinth was 12 ft. below the surface.
The substructure was upwards of 6 ft. deep.
The outer face of the wall "bore evident marks of
water having stood against it for a protracted
period." On removing this coating the whole
face was seen to have been pointed with pink
mortar. Above the plinth were five courses of
squared rag-stone, a double bonding-course of
brick, five courses of squared rag, and a second
double bonding-course. The thickness above the
plinth was 7¾ ft. The wall had evidently tilted
outwards at this point and badly cracked before
the addition of the bastion (No. 19) [Arch., LXIII,
286]. This portion of the wall with the anglebastion is preserved in a specially constructed
enclosure and can still be inspected.
(36). Immediately N. of Newgate a portion of the
city-wall was uncovered in 1875 and recorded by
Loftus Brock, though he failed to recognise its
significance. It was 8 ft. thick and retained two
double courses of bonding-tiles [Journ. Brit. Arch.
Assoc., XXXI, 76; XXXII, 385].
(37). Newgate Prison site. On clearing the site
for the New Sessions House in 1903, a considerable
stretch of the wall (Plate 27), 76 ft. in length, was
uncovered together with an isolated fragment
farther S. Above the plinth the thickness was
8 ft. and the external face consisted of five courses
of squared rag-stone, and a double bonding-course
of brick; above this point the face of the wall had
been largely destroyed, but a second double
bonding-course was visible. On the inside the
facing was preserved to above the second bondingcourse. The base of the plinth was 11 ft. below
the pavement-level of Newgate Street [Arch., LIX,
125; LXIII, 295].
(38). Warwick Square, W. side. In 1922, during
alterations of the premises of the Oxford University
Press, the internal side of two pieces of the wall was
uncovered; the northern fragment had been robbed
of its facing, but the face of the southern was largely
intact, showing a double bonding-course with four
courses of squared rag-stone above and below it.
A fragment is preserved in situ [Journ. Rom.
Studies, XII. 258].
A further portion of the wall, near here, was
found, before 1880, under the building of Tylor
and Son, adjoining the Oxford Arms (now pulled
down) [Price, On a Bastion of London Wall, 21n].
(39). Nos. 7–10, Old Bailey. In 1900 a fragment
of the wall was uncovered at the rear of No. 8
Old Bailey. It was 8¼ ft. thick above the foundation
and was standing 8 ft. high, the top being 18 in.
below the pavement-level. Neither the description
nor diagram, published at the time, are clear
[Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., N.S., I, 354].
The remains of the wall behind Nos. 7, 8, 9 and
10, Old Bailey, were uncovered in 1907–8 on the
demolition of the Old Bailey Sessions House, the
original base of the wall continuing throughout the
site. At the S.E. corner of the site the sandstone
plinth was missing and the external face had been
repaired in later times, the thickness at the first
bond being only about 7 ft. [Arch., LXIII, 295].
(40). South of Ludgate. The line of the Roman
wall from Ludgate to the Thames is badly recorded.
Two portions, however, appear on the subjoined
evidence to have continued the line from the Old
(a) In Playhouse Yard. W. Chaffers, Junr.,
records that in sewer operations a portion of "old
London wall " was exposed. From the context it
appears to have run N. and S. in a line with
Ludgate. It was 10 ft. thick and "composed of
large unhewn stones embedded in a sort of grouting
composed of powdered bricks, lime and gravel."
The wall was tunnelled through but not destroyed
[Coll. Antiq., I, 127].
A second account of the discoveries in Playhouse
Yard is contributed by "E. B. P." He states that a
wall 8 to 10 ft. thick was found near the W. end of
Playhouse Yard near the Apothecaries' Hall and
within 100 ft. of it (presumably farther E.) were
two others of the same massive character, all three
running N. and S. Which of these walls was that
seen by Mr. Chaffers is uncertain but E. B. P.'s
identification of the western wall with the town-wall
is obviously wrong [Gent. Mag., 1843, I, 635]. It
is possible that all three walls were part of the
(b) Under the "Times" Office. The position of
a fragment is indicated on a sketch-plan in the
Builder, 1855, 221 and 269, showing the line of
the wall S. of Ludgate in its relationship to the
Times building. Roach Smith describes this
fragment as a very thick wall of three distinct
constructions. "That of the Roman city-wall; a
reparation of considerable solidity, which might be
Norman or Early English work; and, above all,
the remains of a passage or window which probably
belonged to the Blackfriars Monastery." The
section was examined during some alterations to the
Times buildings [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., V, 155].
The fragment has been subsequently destroyed.
(41). Upper Thames Street (A). Roach Smith
records that in 1841 sewer excavations began at
Blackfriars, but until the foot of Lambeth Hill was
reached nothing was encountered; they "were
there checked by a wall of extraordinary strength,
which formed an angle with the hill and Thames
Street; upon this wall the contractor was obliged
to open his course to a depth of about 20 ft. so that
the greater portion of the structure had to be overthrown. ... It extends, as far as I had the
means of observing, from Lambeth Hill to Queenhithe, with occasional breaks; in thickness it
measured from 8 to 10 ft.; the heights from the
bottom of sewer was about 8 ft., in some places
more or less; it reached to about 9 ft. from the
present street, and 3 ft. from that which indicates
the period of the Fire of London. . . . The
foundation was made in the following manner:
oaken piles were first used; upon these was laid a
stratum of chalk and stones and then a course of
hewn sandstones, from 3 to 4 ft. by 2 and 2½ ft.,
firmly cemented with the well-known compound of
quicklime, sand and pounded tile. Upon this solid
substructure was built the wall composed of rag
and flint with layers of red and yellow, plain and
curve-edged tiles. . . . Many of the large
stones, above mentioned, are sculptured and
ornamented with mouldings, which denote their
prior use in a frieze or entablature of an edifice, the
magnitude of which may be conceived from the
fact of the stones weighing in many instances,
upwards of half a ton. ... I observed also
fragments of sculptured marble had been worked
into the wall, and also a stone carved with an
elegant ornament of the trellis-work pattern, the
compartments being filled alternately with leaves
and fruit ...." [Arch., XXIX, 150;
Illus. Rom. Lond., 19]. The fragments of marble
pilasters and the fragment with trellis-pattern
(Plate 51) are now in the British Museum.
A piece of this wall (Fig. 17) was re-opened in
October, 1924, in the construction of a sewer under
Brooks Yard from Upper Thames Street, when the
S. wall of the city was tunnelled through. The
foundation was laid between two rows of contiguous
piles the tops of which were 14 ft. below the roadway in Thames Street; the total depth of the tunnel
being 16 ft. The wall is of a concrete of Kentish
rag-stone with a course of bricks a few inches below
the tops of the piles. A second course of bricks was
found 2 ft. above that just described. Fifteen feet
to the N. of the main wall, and parallel to it was a
second wall 5 ft. thick, and with the foundation also
between two rows of piles, but set apart. A thick
bonding-course occurred just above the heads of
the piles, and above this the wall was battered or
coped back on both sides and finished with a flat
top 2 ft. wide. On the S. face of this wall was a
mass of puddled clay [Q. W. and Times, June
(42). Upper Thames Street (B). J. T. Smith
records that "In June, 1839, the labourers engaged
in deepening a sewer in Thames Street, opposite
Vintners' Hall, in the middle of the street, at a
depth of 10 ft. from the surface, discovered the
perfect remains of an old Roman wall, running
parallel with the line of the river. The wall was
formed of alternate layers of flint, chalk and flat
tiles " [Streets of London, 380].
(43). Upper Thames Street (C). Crossing Queen
Street, Roach Smith saw a fragment of wall
"precisely similar in character" to the length
described under No. 41 [Arch., XXIX, 150;
Illus. Rom. Lond., 19].
(44). Upper Thames Street (D). Under Cannon
Street Station a wall 200 ft. long was discovered in
1868. It may have formed part of the city-wall,
but the position and direction are not definitely
recorded [see Inventory, p. 113].
(45). Upper Thames Street (E). In 1927, between the ends of Bush Lane and Little Bush Lane,
a foundation of chalk blocks was encountered and
an indeterminate edge on the S. side seemed to trend
more N. of E. than the line of the trench. This
foundation may represent either the foundation of
the river-wall or the debris fallen outwards.
(46). Upper Thames Street (F). In 1863, at or
near the S.E. angle of Suffolk Lane, a wall was
found which was regarded as part of the river-wall,
as described by Roach Smith and Tite [Arch.,
Fig. 18. Elevation of River-wall, under
125 Lower Thames Street.
From Archæologia, LXIII.
(47). Lower Thames Street (A). Under the
frontage-line of No. 125 Lower Thames Street and
the adjoining pavement, a portion of the wall
(Fig. 18) was exposed in 1911. The wall rested on
the ballast at a depth of 24 ft. below the present
surface. "Large roughly-squared timbers, 12 ft.
long and about 8 in. square, were first laid on the
top of the ballast, across the thickness of the wall,
these being held in position by pointed piles driven
in at intervals. . . . On these timbers were laid
large irregular sandstones and rag-stones bedded in
clay and flints. Three layers of these stones
showed on the face above which was a bond of two
(the drawing shows three) rows of yellow tiles.
Some chalk with other stone formed the core, the
whole being cemented with red mortar. The total
height of the masonry remaining was 3 ft. and its
width 10 ft. Some of the stones were apparently
re-used though no moulded stone appeared in the
small piece uncovered " [Arch., LXIII, 309].
(48). Lower Thames Street (B). Under the roadway immediately S. of the Coal Exchange a
wall about 7 ft. thick, which may have been part
of the city wall, was encountered in 1859. It was
built of rag-stone but no other details of its construction are recorded [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
(N.B.—The positions of the items, numbered consecutively in this section, are shown by the same numbers,
prefixed by the letter D on the large Plan A at the end of the volume.)
(1). America Square. In 1908 excavations on
the site of Nos. 15 and 16 America Square revealed
in two places the section of the Roman city-ditch
cut in the gravel (Figs. 19 and 20). The inner edge
was 12 ft. in advance of the face of the wall, and the
ditch was about 10 ft. wide and 5 ft. deep. It was
of the usual V-shaped section, the lower portion
being filled with a clear clayey deposit containing
fragments of Roman tiles and pottery, including
one piece of "Samian." Above this layer was a
black band in which was a tightly packed mass of
minute snail-shells. Apparently overlaying the
ditch was about a foot of disturbed gravel; above
this again was about 6 ft. of clean light loam,
containing plentiful remains of the Roman period
but nothing later. The description here
summarized does not precisely tally with the
section which accompanies it. The second section
made at the N. end of the same site showed how
rapidly the original surface rose towards the N.,
there being a difference in level of 3¼ ft. in a distance
of 45 ft. [Arch., LXIII, 262].
(2). New Broad Street, W. A considerable
stretch of the Roman city-ditch was examined in
1906 to the S. of this street. Eight sections in all
were made showing that the ditch (Fig. 21) was of
uniform character, 16 ft. wide, 4½ ft. to 5 ft. deep,
the inner edge being 15 ft. in advance of the face of
the wall. The form was V-shaped and the filling
was a light sandy soil, containing a fairly abundant
quantity of "Samian" and other Roman pottery,
and no relics of a later age. This was held also
to prove that the marsh-conditions which subsequently obtained in this district were not present
when the ditch was filled up [Arch., LX, 212].
The footings of the bastion under the vestry of All
Hallows Church oversailed the inner edge of this
ditch (Fig. 27), the filling beneath being composed
of black mud, chalk-rubble and rubbish in which
oyster-shells, Roman pottery and tile frequently
occurred [Arch., LXIII, 272]. Slight traces of a
second and later ditch seem to have been discovered
at the extreme W. end of the site; they corresponded with the remains of the second ditch
described under Item 4 [Arch., LXIII, 279].
(3). Aldersgate Street. The ditch to the W. of the
street was examined and recorded in 1888 by
G. E. Fox. The inner edge was at a distance of
10¼ ft. from the wall. "The total width of the
ditch across the top was 74½ ft., the flat bottom
35 ft., and the total depth 14 ft. 1 in. The sides
sloped at an obtuse angle. Both sides and bottom
had a clay-puddling 6 in. thick. Another section of
the ditch was obtained close to Aldersgate Street.
This revealed a curious feature. In the bottom of
the ditch appeared a slightly raised mound of
unknown length, as it ran under the street and could
therefore only be traced for a short distance. It
was 2¾ ft. high and 7 ft. 2 in. broad at the top and
11 ft. 10 in. at the base, and was traceable for a
length of about 10 ft. The surface was puddled
like the rest of the ditch. It was not placed in the
middle of the ditch, but was nearer the outer than
the inner margin." It was supposed to have formed
the base to a wooden trestle-work forming a support
to a bridge. The ditch was dug through a stratum
of clay, and penetrated 2¾ ft. into the gravel
beneath [Arch., LII, 615]. Though accepted as the
Roman ditch by more than one recent authority,
the unusual dimensions throw grave doubt upon
Fig. 19. Section of City-wall and ditch in America Square. From Archæologia, LXIII.
Fig. 20. Plan of ditch in America Square. From Archæologia, LXIII.
Fig. 21. Section of ditch. New Broad Street. From Archæologia, LX.
(4). Christ's Hospital site. During the excavations of 1907–9, two sections of the first Roman
ditch were uncovered to the E. and W. of the first
bastion W. of King Edward Street. The first
section (Fig. 22) was of the usual V-shaped form
12 ft. wide, 6½ ft. deep and about 11 ft. from the
external face of the town-wall. The foundations
of the bastion were carried down through the inner
half of this ditch, the outer edge of which had been
destroyed. The ditch was dug in the brick-earth,
and was filled with black earth. The second
section (Fig. 23) uncovered disclosed the remains
of a second and later ditch also of V-shape, about
25 ft. wide, 14 ft. deep and 11¼ ft. in advance of the
town-wall. This ditch had entirely destroyed the
earlier ditch with the exception of a narrow sector
on the inner side which showed that at this point
the earlier ditch approached to within 10¼ ft. of the
town-wall [Arch., LXIII, 276].
(5). Newgate Prison site. Very doubtful indications of a ditch about 25 ft. wide and some 55 ft.
from the external face of the wall are recorded to
have been found on this site in 1903–4 [Arch., LIX,
137]. A subsequent account, however, states that
no regular ditch had been cut here, and that the
surface of the gravel lay unevenly all over the site
at depths varying from 17 ft. to 23 ft. [Arch.,
Fig. 22. Section of wall and ditch, Christ's Hospital.
From Archæologia, LXIII.
Fig. 23. Section of two ditches, Christ's Hospital.
From Archæologia, LXIII.
(N.B.—The positions of the gates, numbered consecutively in this section, are shown by the same numbers,
prefixed by the letter G on the large Plan A at the end of the volume.)
(1). Tower Postern is said by Stow to have been
formerly on the main line of communication from
E. to W. of the city. It was undermined by the
digging of the tower-ditch, c. 1190, and partly fell
down in 1440 [Stow, Survey (ed. Kingsford), I, 28].
There is no evidence of the original date of this
(2). Aldgate. This gate is first mentioned temp,
Canute [Cal. of Letter Books, C, 217]. The plan of
the mediæval gate, perhaps that re-built from the
foundations by Norman, Prior of Holy Trinity
1108–47 [Guildhall MS., 122, fol. 13, cited in Stow's
Survey (ed. Kingsford), II, 274], is partly preserved
in the Elizabethan plan of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, at
Hatfield House [Home Counties Mag., II, 46]. It
was of rectangular form with two semi-circular
towers projecting on the external face. This gate
was pulled down in 1606 and re-built in 1610 when
"two heads done after antique models" were
found [Soc. Antiq. MS. Min. VIII, 25a]. In 1907,
in driving a sewage-tunnel under the roadway on
the S. side of Aldgate High Street, some solid
masonry was encountered at a depth of 16½ ft.
below the surface. It consisted of work of two
periods, one built against the other, and had to be
tunnelled for a distance of 16 ft. The portion
directly under the houses was comparatively
modern and contained mediæval material; the
other portion was of rag-stone very solidly built with
hard white mortar, and containing fragments of
Roman tile. At 10 ft. from the house-fronts, under
the roadway, a built face of dressed stones, varying
from 9 in. to 2½ ft. in length was found running
diagonally in a south-easterly direction, but was not
uncovered for a length of more than 2 ft. to 3 ft.
It seems probable that this may have formed part
of the base of a flanking tower [Arch., LXIII, 266].
The style of building appeared to be similar to
that employed in the base of the bastions of the
wall, and it is possible that the remains were those
of the late Roman gate [V. C. H. London, I, 53].
(3). Bishopsgate. This gate is first mentioned in
Domesday Book. The fact that it is approximately
on the line of the Ermine Street seems to imply its
Roman origin. In 1905, in connection with
operations for laying telephone-mains, a manhole
was formed near the N. angle of Wormwood Street
and Bishopsgate Street, near the site of the gate.
Here at a depth of 5 ft. a mass of rubble masonry
was encountered extending 2 ft. into the ballast
which here lay at a depth of 8 ft. On its S. side
were indications of a carefully built face. The
materials were rag-stone rubble with some portions
of Roman tile, and below the whole mass was a
puddling of flint and clay. Cutting into this mass
of masonry and resting on it was a culvert of
rag-stone, 2½ ft. wide and 1¾ ft. high; the floor
was slightly hollowed, and the covering was of
single slabs of stone. The presence of thin tiles
in this structure indicated its mediæval date.
From this fact and the presence of the puddling,
it seems fairly certain that the mass of masonry was
of Roman date and formed part of the S. face of a
gate projecting some 20 ft. within the inner face of
the town-wall [Arch., LX, 185]. A fragment of
walling which may also have formed part of the
gate was found in 1921 on the N. side of No. 108
Bishopsgate Street, i.e. on the E. side of the internal
projection of the gate. Here was found at a depth
of 3 ft. "Roman work 3 ft. thick and 4 ft. wide,
with large hard stones and well-rammed clay 3 ft.
lower." It appeared to be part of a wall about
5 ft. thick, and was apparently at right angles to
the town-wall, though the published description is
not easily intelligible. The wall contained red
bricks and the stones were apparently squared
[Trans. Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc, N.S., IV, 332].
(4). Moorgate. This gate was an enlargement,
made in 1415, of an earlier postern of uncertain
date [Stow, Survey (ed. Kingsford), I, 32; II 274].
A cutting made by the Metropolitan Water Board
in 1925 encountered a mass of concrete some 10 ft.
in advance of the town-wall at this point, and
composed of broken bricks (mostly 1½ in. thick)
and tiles, rag-stone and septaria. It stood upon
a timber raft, 3 in. thick, resting on 9 in. of rammed
chalk; the total depth was 14¼ ft. below the pavement. It would appear probable that this was
some portion of the mediæval gate.
(5). Aldermanbury Postern is said to have been
formed in 1655, but the existence of something of
the same sort in Roman times has been conjectured
owing to the proximity of the curious wall-arches
recorded by Roach Smith in 1857 [V.C.H. London,
I, 62]. There seems to be little basis for this
(6). Crippiegate. This is one of the three gates
mentioned in the Laws of Ethelred, c. 1000 [Thorpe,
Ancient Laws and Institutes, 127], and it may
consequently go back to Roman times. No remains
of this age have, however, been recorded.
Fig. 24. Plan of Roman Newgate, with mediæval reconstructions.
From Archæologia, LXIII, by permission.
(7). Aldersgate. This gate is mentioned as
Ealdredesgate in the laws of Ethelred, c. 1000. In
the excavations of 1887 (see Town-Wall No. 31)
Mr. Fox recorded the existence in the middle of
what he assumed to be the Roman ditch, close to
Aldersgate, of a raised mound (p. 94), which was
thought to have formed the support for a wooden
trestle-bridge. If this evidence be accepted, it of
course implies the existence of a Roman gate at this
point. In 1924, a shaft was sunk for a new sewer
on the line of the city wall in Aldersgate Street;
concrete was found at a depth of 11 ft., and below
this was a foundation 7 ft. thick composed of
lumps of chalk and below this again were piles
8 or 9 in. in diameter [Q.W.].
Excavations on the E. side of the street in 1922–3
revealed the existence of what was probably a
mediæval barbican with a polygonal turret at the
N.E. angle, and a tunnel extending under the road,
immediately to the W. of it. The barbican projected some 36 or 37 ft. in advance of the city-wall,
but contained no work of a date recognizably
anterior to the 15th century [A.C.].
(8). Newgate is almost certainly to be identified
with the Westgetum of a charter of 857 [Stow,
Survey (ed. Kingsford), II, 276]. Remains of the
Roman gate (Fig. 24) at this point have from time
to time come to light, providing sufficient evidence
to reconstruct the general plan of the building.
The discoveries made in 1875 were recorded but
misunderstood by Loftus Brock; they consisted of
portions of all four walls of the northern guardroom
which measured 32 ft. by 30 ft. externally, and
22 ft. by 15 ft. internally. The walls at the N.W.
angle still retained a double bonding-course of tiles.
These remains were incorporated with the masonry
of the mediæval gate which projected considerably
farther on the outside of the town-wall [Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc, XXXI, 76; XXXII, 385;
Arch. Journ., XXXII, 477]. The remains found
in 1903 and recorded by Dr. P. Norman consisted
of a portion of the E. wall and plinth of the S.
guardroom, including the S.E. angle. The base of
the plinth was 6½ ft. below the pavement-level, and
the plinth itself was composed of an oolitic stone
closely resembling Barnack. Under the plinth was
1 ft. 10 in. of rag-stone walling resting on a foundation of puddled clay with fragments of rag-stone,
nearly 5 ft. deep [Arch., LIX, 130]. In 1909, a
portion of the plinth of the W. wall of the N.
guardroom was uncovered and recorded by Messrs.
Norman and Reader; it was similar in depth to
the portion found in 1903 [Arch., LXIII, 294].
The results of these various discoveries are sufficient
for the reconstruction of the plan of the gate which
follows a normal Roman type with square flanking
guardrooms. A double entrance is indicated by
the distance, 35 ft., between the guardrooms. The
N. guardroom projected 16 ft. within the town
wall as compared to the 20 ft. at Bishopsgate, but
the S. guardroom projected only some 8 ft. There
can be no doubt that this gate was of Roman date,
but that it was considerably later than the Roman
town-wall is indicated by the difference in level of
the respective plinths, that of the town-wall being
4½ ft. below the plinth of the gateway.
(9). Ludgate. There is no very early reference
to this gate, which must, however, have been one
of the seven double gates mentioned by Fitzstephen,
temp. Henry II. That it was of Roman origin
is indicated by the presence of burials in the
neighbourhood of Fleet Street. No structural
remains of this age have been found, but the
discovery of the Roman sepulchral stone (Inscriptions No. 15) in the immediate neighbourhood may
indicate a late building or rebuilding of the gate.
The Bastions of the Town-Wall.
(N.B.—The position of the bastions, numbered consecutively in this section, are shown by the same numbers,
prefixed by the letter B on the large Map A at the end of the volume.)
(1). Wardrobe Tower in the Tower of London.
The mediæval tower incorporates the base of a
Roman tower (Fig. 11) of semi-circular plan and
apparently hollow. This base consists of a mass of
rubble masonry 5 ft. high, consisting of stone and
broken Roman brick, with brown and red mortar,
quite distinct from the white mortar of the
mediæval reconstruction [Loftus Brock, Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXXVIII, 130].
(2). E. of Tower Hill. In 1852, during excavations on the eastern or outer side of Trinity Place,
was found what was described as a quarry of 125
stones or a mediæval buttress, resting against the
Roman wall which was in remarkably good condition. Roach Smith states that the buttress was
in a great measure composed of stones which had
belonged to Roman buildings of importance and to
sepulchral monuments. Pink mortar is said to
have been found on the face of the wall. From
sketches in the Builder, it appears that the stones
included cornices, column-drums and the monumental inscription, No. 6, p. 171. Although
Roach Smith called the structure mediæval, its
composition and situation leave little doubt that
it was one of the usual semi-circular bastions added
to the wall. An engraving (Plate 22) by Fairholt
in Roach Smith's Illustrations shows the remains of
the bastion still in situ against the face of the wall.
This bastion is not shown on Ogilby and Morgan's
survey [Builder, 1852, 562; Journ. Brit. Arch.
Assoc., VIII, 241; Roach Smith, Illus. Rom.
Lond., 15]. What was probably a surviving portion of this bastion was destroyed in the excavations for the Inner Circle Railway, 1882–5; it contained sculptured stones [Antiquary (1885), XI, 33].
(3). America Square, W. side. On the widening
of the London and Blackwall Railway in 1880, a
bastion in this position was destroyed. It is shown
on Ogilby and Morgan's survey, but the only record
of its form and situation is an unpublished drawing
(Plate 29) by Henry Hodge, 1881, now in the
Guildhall Library [Add. Prints, p. 98]. From this
drawing it appears that the bastion, which was
preserved to a height of 1½ ft. above the excavationlevel, was of slightly horseshoe-form, 21¾ ft. in
diameter, and projected 14¾ ft. from the face of the
wall. It was "built with rag, flint, chalk, brick,
etc., grouted with grey gravelly mortar like Thames
ballast. The facing was of rag, flint and limestone
—all very smooth stone and random work. The
core or main structure was also of small material,"
and contained two fragments of shaped coping in
oolite. On each side of the bastion, 1 ft. from the
ground-level of the excavation, was a patch of pink
mortar extending about 2 ft. into the structure.
(4). N. of John Street. The bastion here is
known only from Ogilby and Morgan's survey.
(5). Jewry Street. A bastion immediately N. of
the present site of the Cass School is indicated on
Ogilby and Morgan's survey. It is, no doubt, also
that described by Maitland [Hist. of London, 1756,
31] as the basis of a "Roman tower about 8 ft.
high which supports a new building," at the lower
end of a street called the Vineyard. He adds that
a tablet on the building stated that when the upper
part of the tower, three storeys high, fell down no
one was hurt. This part of the street is now called
Little George Street.
(6). Duke's Place, E. This bastion is shown on
the Elizabethan survey of Holy Trinity, and also on
Ogilby and Morgan's Plan as of semi-circular form.
It is described by Maitland as being 21 ft. high and
of similar construction to No. 7, that is to say, with
brick bonding-courses, "the bricks being as sound
as newly laid," though the stonework was in bad
condition. The foundations of this bastion were
probably those seen by Loftus Brock in 1887, but
his account of the position is complicated by an
apparently wrong reference to the Jewish Synagogue
in Bevis Marks. He describes the bastion as "built
of large blocks of freestone worked to smooth
surfaces, some being so well rounded as to warrant
the belief that they were shafts of columns [W.
Maitland, History of London (1756), I, 31; Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc., XLIII, 203; Arch., LXIII,
(7). Duke's Place, W. This bastion also is shown
semi-circular in the two plans mentioned under
No. 6. It is described by Woodward in 1707 as
follows:—"Tis composed of stone with layers of
brick interposed, after the Roman manner ....
being about 26 foot in height." The position of
Woodward's bastion is fixed by Maitland, who says
it was almost opposite the end of Gravel Lane, and
that the back fronted a passage into Duke's Place.
An etching of this tower by E. F. is preserved with
a copy by Gough, dated 1763, in the Gough MSS.
(Plate 28), and was engraved long subsequently
by Fairholt. The etching shows a semi-circular
tower of stone with triple bonding-courses of brick
(four in all) at approximately regular intervals.
The top part of the tower is shown polygonal in
form, and was evidently of later date. The
entirely misleading reproduction of Fairholt has led
to the mistaken supposition that the tower was
rectangular [Woodward's Letter to Hearne; Maitland, History of London (1756), I, 31; Roach
Smith, Illus. Rom. Lond., 16; Gough MSS.,
Bodleian Lib. Gen. Top. 62, 16 and 16a and Map
(8). Bevis Marks, near E. end. During the
rebuilding of No. 31 Houndsditch in 1880, the base
of a bastion was found at "the N.E. of these
excavations" (the compass-point should probably
be S.E.), and it is described as "of later date
[than the wall] and rougher but still probably of
Roman work." It projected 18½ ft. from the outer
face of the city wall. The width is said to have
been 40 ft., but this is obviously an error. Its face
was "a flat segment of a circle." Built up into it
were some fragments of Roman architectural work,
including the base of a circular column, a shaft,
9 in. in diameter, with trellis ornament in relief,
and an inscribed stone (see p. 174, No. 23). Red
mortar "was observable in some part of the bastion,
as if used sparingly, and not as if it had adhered to
the stones on their removal from some other
building." A massive channel of solid stone, 1½ ft.
broad and 1¼ ft. deep, led from the centre of the
bastion to the ditch, and "traces of a raised earthen
bank like an external vallum to the ditch" were
found [see Loftus Brock, Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXXVII, 86; XXXVIII, 132–5].
(9). Castle Street (now Goring Street). The base
of a bastion on the W. side of Castle Street was
uncovered in 1884. The only record of it is a
careful survey (Plates 31 and 32) probably by
Henry Hodge, in the possession of Dr. Philip
Norman. The foundation consisted of flint and
puddled clay surmounted by a bed of chalk. The
bastion itself was 26 ft. wide and projected 15½ ft.;
it was standing nearly 11 ft. above this foundation
which was 5 ft. below the base of the plinth of the
adjoining town-wall. The facing of the bastion
consisted apparently of coursed rag-stone battering
outwards towards the base, and standing on a
projecting footing-course. At a height of 8½ ft.
above the foundation was a double course of bricks
not carried through the wall. The bastion, as far
as it was standing, was solid, the filling containing
numerous lengths of shaped stone coping, a cornice
and other moulded stones, a fragment of an inscription and a fragment of frieze carved with
swags and running hares (Plate 21). The inscription (see Inscriptions No. 21), the frieze and
probably also the cornice are now in the Guildhal
Museum [Antiq. Journ., VII, 518; Antiq., X,
Fig. 25. From On a Bastion of London Wall, J. E. Price.
Fig. 26. Plan of Camomile Street Bastion. From On a Bastion of London Wall, J. E. Price.
(10). Camomile Street. In 1876 building opera
tions revealed the remains of a semi-circular bastion
(Figs. 25 and 26) 20 ft. in diameter and projecting
14 ft. 9 in. from the face of the Roman town-wall,
below the plinth of which its base was carried about
4 ft. "It rested upon the natural soil of London
clay, which had been simply levelled by compressing
together masses of chalk into the clay, for a thickness which varied from two to three inches. With
the exception of huge blocks of oolite and green
sandstone, which formed the nucleus of the
structure, the stone employed in building was the
familiar Kentish rag-stone rubble, with a facing in
random courses of the same material. The size of
the blocks of which this facing was composed varied
from three to eight and a half inches thick and from
five to fourteen inches long. . . . Though shown
to be of later date than the erection of the [Roman]
wall, and separated from it in places by an intervening space filled in with rubble, there were yet
signs that the masonry of the bastion had been
toothed or chased into the wall for the purpose of
acquiring solidity and strength." To its surviving
height of 10 ft. the tower was solid. It had a
projecting stone footing of about 8 in., and its
structure included large blocks of re-used pink
cement and masonry (Fig. 26)—fluted pilasters,
shafts of half-columns, portions of canopies,
cornices, door-jambs, etc.—together with the
sculptured figures of a soldier and a lion, and a
human head of colossal size, all now in the Guildhall
Museum (Plates 7, 11, 15, 16 and 17).
Fig. 27. Plan of Bastion at All Hallows, London Wall. From Archæologia, LXIII.
J. E. Price thought that the tower was mediæval
on the ground that the handle of a pitcher of
green-glazed ware was found "beneath the lowest
bed of stone, and near to the centre of the
structure." But even if this observation was
accurate, the sherd may well have been Roman.
No bastion is shown here on Ogilby and Morgan's
survey [J. E. Price, On a Bastion of London Wall,
(11). All Hallows Vestry. In 1905 the original
masonry of the bastion (Plate 30 and Fig. 27)
was found by excavation beneath the structure of
the vestry, and subsequently the whole of the
external face of the bastion was uncovered. Its
diameter was 19 ft., and its projection 15 ft. The
main structure survived to a maximum height of
rather more than 8 ft., of which 3 ft. extended
below the top of the chamfered plinth of the Roman
town-wall. It was of random rubble with white
mortar, and rested upon a plinth of re-used ashlar
of larger size, which in turn rested upon a rectangular
platform set in, and in places covered by, pink
mortar. The platform also consisted of re-used
ashlar, mostly of thin stones laid flat; and it
oversailed the original Roman ditch, which had
been filled for the purpose with chalk, flint and
broken stones. The re-used masonry included an
angle-pilaster with a moulded cap (Plate 38), several
blocks with a marginal fillet, and many with
sockets known as lewis-holes. Very few relics
were found in the soil from just above the surface
of the platform, "but it did not appear to have
been disturbed since it was laid down. There
were some portions of roofing tiles and a few
fragments of Roman pottery, including some
Samian, also oyster shells and bones. Similar
relics were found in the ditch. Under the layer of
chalk and flint, the ditch-filling was black mud,
containing snail-shells and remains of rushes.
There was also a horse's skull and a human femur."
Beyond the extent of the platform the ditch had
not been filled with chalk and stones; "it has
clearly remained open for some time after the
building of the bastion, accumulating mud and
rubbish against the obstruction of the bastion
footings." This bastion is not shown on Ogilby
and Morgan's survey [Norman and Reader, Arch.,
LX, 200; LXIII, 271].
(12). St. Giles's Churchyard. This bastion, situated at the angle of the wall, is hollow and has
an external diameter of about 37 ft. Excavation
about 1900, showed that the base of the tower
(Plate 33), the upper part of which is still visible
here, extended to a depth of 18 ft. below the
present surface, giving a total height of 31 ft. to
the structure. "The foundations (which are on
ballast) and, indeed, the lower portions of the wall
to a height of about 4 ft., are in a good state of
preservation, and judging by the appearance of
the materials used, particularly the mortar, this
portion is probably Roman work. Above this
height the work was of a different character,
intermixed with pieces of Roman tiles and flints,
and in some instances the stones had been wedged
up with several layers of oyster shells, the mortar
being of an inferior quality to that found at a lower
level, and there is not the slightest indication of
this portion of the bastion being the work of the
Romans, although full of their materials" [J. Terry,
Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., (N.S.), I, 356].
(13). Between Well Street and Monkwell Street.
An entry in the records of the Barber Surgeons'
Company states: "5th February, 1607. This day
it is ordered that a courthouse be erected upon the
Bulwarke behind the Hall of this Company for the
Mrs. or Governors to kepe the Courte at the charge
of the Company." This building was destroyed
in 1864, and the site is now covered by a rounded
warehouse. A view of the bastion, dated 1800,
is included in Smith's Antiquities of London, but
the external face was then, apparently, rendered
(14). Windsor Court, Monkwell Street. No. 2a,
known as "Bastion House," occupies the site of a
bastion found in 1865. It is described as a semi-circular tower, about 40 ft. high. "The materials
are rough flint and Kentish rag-stone, but ....
high up in the elevation, as shown in the engraving
(Plate 33), is a bonding-course of tiles resembling
Romas bricks, upon which is a floor of modern
rooms. In the face of the tower were appertures
which have been filled up with brickwork" [Illus.
Lond. News, Aug. 19th, 1865].
(15). East of Aldersgate. In 1922 the base of
the bastion shown by Ogilby and Morgan in the
re-entrant angle of the town-wall here was uncovered, but there is no detailed record of its
structure [Journ. Rom. Studies, XI, 220]. Mr. F.
Lambert states definitely that it was hollow and
that only about two-thirds of the curve were
uncovered, the rest turning under a modern wall
on the edge of the site; it was not explored to its
base. Dr. P. Norman states that the W. face of
the bastion was flattened, indicating that the
building was of horse-shoe form.
(16). Near King Edward Street, beneath the
houses on the E. side of the street were discovered
in 1887, the foundations of a hollow semi-circular
tower. They were 5¼ ft. wide, and composed of
Kentish rag with some chalk and a few fragments
of old building-material. The internal measurements were 17¼ ft. by 16 ft. "Some pieces of
worked stone discovered [in the foundations]
showed traces of Norman mouldings and of foliage
of the Early English Period." The staircaseprojection forming part of the existing post-office
building marks the site. This tower is not shown
on Ogilby and Morgan's survey [G. E. Fox, Arch.,
LII, p. 610].
(17). Site of Christ's Hospital, E. end. In
1908–9, part of the base of a solid bastion of slightly
horseshoe plan was found here. It was about 26 ft.
in diameter, projected 16 ft., and was built of
random rubble, consisting of rag-stone, flints,
fragments of Roman tile, etc. The foundations
were carried down 7 ft. below the base of the plinth
of the town-wall, and rested on undisturbed ground
[Arch., LXIII, 276].
(18). Site of Christ's Hospital, middle part. The
same excavation (1908–9) uncovered the remains
of a second bastion (Plates 34 and 35), hollow and
of horseshoe plan. Its wall was 5½ ft. thick, and
the internal diameter was 13 ft. The base of the
structure lay at a depth of nearly 10 ft. below the
level of that of the Roman town-wall and was
without footings [Arch., LXIII, 281].
Fig. 28. From Archæologia, LXIII, by permission.
(19). Site of Christ's Hospital, angle bastion
(Plates 34, 36 and 37, and Fig. 28), now preserved
below the courtyard of the G.P.O. It is of
horseshoe plan with a projection of 26 ft., and
is hollow, with walls 7 ft. thick at the base which is
irregular (conforming to pre-existing hollows in the
ground), and reaches a maximum depth of 7 ft.
below the base of the plinth of the Roman townwall. The masonry of the tower was rag-stone set
in good white mortar; no re-used stones were found.
The external face was carefully pointed and
smoothed, whilst the internal face was irregular
and unpointed. The filling of the bastion below
a level of 10 ft. from the present surface, with the
exception of an easily distinguished sump-hole of
the 16th or 17th centuries, contained only Roman
objects. The upper part, which was apparently
the artificial filling of the bastion, included masses
of opus signinum flooring, fragments of rag-stone
with mortar adhering, roofing-tiles, much Roman
pottery, etc. The lower part had apparently not
been disturbed by the building of the bastion, and
represented surface-deposits antedating it. It
contained a few fragments of Roman pottery. This
bastion is shown on Ogilby and Morgan's survey
[Norman and Reader, Arch., p. 286].
(20) and (21). Between Newgate and Ludgate,
two bastions are shown on the map by John Leake,
etc., engraved by Hollar in 1666. The more
northern of the two was opposite Fleet Lane.