4. BILLINGSGATE WARD.
Billingsgate Ward consists of the parishes of
St. Mary at Hill, St. Botolph Billingsgate, St.
George Botolph Lane, St. Andrew Hubbard and
St. Leonard Eastcheap, and parts of the parishes
of St. Margaret Pattens and St. Mary Magdalen
(1) Parish Church of St. Margaret Pattens
stands on the E. side of Rood Lane. The walls
are probably of plastered brick, partly faced with
Portland-stone and with dressings of the same
material; the roofs are covered with slates and
lead. The old church was destroyed in the
Great Fire of 1666 and re-built from the designs
of Sir Christopher Wren in 1684–89, at a cost
of £4986 18s. 8d. The church forms a simple
rectangular apartment (77 ft. by 38½ ft.) with
N. aisle (15 ft. wide), N.E. Vestry and N.W.
Tower (13½ ft. square); it probably stands on
mediæval foundations, but the style and detail are
Architectural Description—The E. Elevation is
plastered and painted and finished with a cornice
and parapet; the middle bay projects and has a
pediment with a round window in the tympanum,
a large round-headed E. window with moulded
imposts and key-stone; the side bays have each a
similar but smaller window with a round window
above. The E. wall of the N. aisle has a round-headed window. The vestry has a plain segmental-headed window in both the E. and S. walls.
The N. Elevation has four round-headed windows
with moulded architraves; the easternmost is
blocked, and below the second is a doorway with
moulded architrave and segmental-head; the
wall is finished with a cornice and parapet. The
Tower occupies the N.W. angle of the building
and is of four stages divided by cornices and faced
with Portland stone. The ground-stage has in
the N. wall a square-headed doorway and in the
W. wall a round-headed window and a round
window above it, both with moulded architraves.
The second and third stages have each in the W.
wall a round window, and these together with the
fourth stage have shallow pilasters at the angles.
The bell-chamber has in each wall a square-headed
two-light window with a moulded architrave, a
plain mullion and a grotesque mask in the middle
of the head. The tower is finished with a Doric
entablature over the pilasters with the cornice
continued round, a balustraded parapet above
with pedestals at the angles supporting panelled
obelisks with acanthus enrichments.
Church of St Margaret Pattens.
Rising from the tower is an octagonal lead-covered spire of timber with panelled faces and
three ranges of lunettes in alternate faces; those
in the lowest range are rectangular with small
pediments, but the lunettes of the two upper
ranges are oval; the spire is finished with a ball
The S. Elevation (Plate 62) is finished with a cornice and plain parapet, and the third bay is covered
by a modern building; the other bays, except the
westernmost, have each a round-headed window
with a moulded architrave and a round window
above; the westernmost bay has two round
windows one above the other, and below is the
square-headed S. doorway with moulded architrave, cornice and segmental pediment resting on
The W. Elevation is finished with a moulded
cornice and pediment with a round window in the
tympanum. The middle bay projects slightly
and contains the round-headed W. window with
side pilasters, cherub-head key-stone and carved
swags above; below the window is a round-headed doorway with moulded imposts, archivolt
and key-stone; it is flanked by Doric pilasters
supporting an entablature; the side bays have
each a round-headed and round window similar
to those in the ground-stage of the tower.
Interior—The walls of the body of the church are
divided into bays by Corinthian pilasters on high
pedestals and supporting a continuous architravemoulding; the pilasters are coupled between the
fourth and fifth bays of the side walls; on the N.
side the pilasters are replaced by free columns
where the aisle adjoins the church. The ceiling
is flat, with coves at the sides springing from the
architrave-moulding and groined back over the
round windows of the clearstorey; between the
cove and the flat ceiling is an enriched band and
cornice. The aisle has a plain flat ceiling of plaster.
In the S. wall of the tower is a square-headed
doorway with a moulded architrave.
Fittings—All late 17th-century unless otherwise
described. Bells: two, 2nd by Thomas Bartlett,
1624. Chairs: two; in vestry and chancel—with
carved and pierced back, twisted posts, carved
arms and carved and twisted legs, from St. George
Botolph Lane; also stool with carved legs and
rails. Communion Rails: with moulded upper and
lower rails, turned and twisted balusters and
square panelled posts. Cupboards: In vestry—
with panelled doors; also small cupboard of
Jacobean type. Doors: panelled doors to both
vestries, cupboard beneath gallery-stairs, tower,
W. and S. doorways and lobbies of W. and S.
doorways. Lobby of W. doorway panelled with
moulded architrave and panel over door-head
carved with drapery and swags. Inner S. doorway
flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting
entablature with raised panel on frieze. Font
(Plate 9): of marble, with moulded bowl of ovolo
section carved with four cherub-heads and swags
and acanthus ornament, octagonal stem with acanthus ornament. Galleries: N. gallery in N. aisle
has front with moulded cornice and base carried
round columns of arcades and three panels in each
bay, the middle one of oval form; staircase with
twisted balusters, moulded string and moulded
hand-rail ramped over square newels. W. gallery
rests on two fluted Ionic columns and two fluted
pilasters of the same order with a simple entablature; the gallery-front is panelled and has a
moulded capping. Monuments and Floor-slabs.
Monuments: In body of church—on easternmost
pier on N. side, (1) to Giles Vandeput, 1646, Sara
his wife, 1656, Peter his son, 1668, and Jane (Hoste)
wife of Peter, marble cartouche with drapery,
palms, cherub-head and cartouche-of-arms; on S.
wall (2) to Richard Litler, 1674, and Phebe his
wife, 1695, marble tablet with moulded cornice,
segmental pediment and apron carved with
palms. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Thomas
Arundel, 1707, and Priscilla his wife, 1712, with
shield-of-arms; (2) to John Gardner, 1690, and
Mary his wife, 1713, with shield-of-arms; in nave—
(3) to James Donalson, 1684–5, and John his son,
1681, with shield-of-arms; (4) to Judith, wife of
Nicholas Bosquet, 1714–15; in vestibule—(5) to
Edmund Cox, 1722, Elizabeth (Cleveland) his
wife, 1712, and Gerrad their son, 1702, with shield-of-arms. In N. aisle—(6) to Ann Chaplin, 1690–1;
(7) to John Lorimer, 1689, and Gilbert Lorimer,
1688, with shield-of-arms; (8) to Thomas Wright,
1712. Painting: Over vestry door—oil painting
of Christ in the Wilderness, attributed to Carlo
Maratti (1625–1713) and formerly on reredos.
Panelling: round walls of church, vestry and
vestibule, panelled wainscoting with moulded
capping. Paving: In sanctuary and round font—
of black and white marble squares. Plate:
includes flagon of 1708 given the same year and
with shield-of-arms, flagon of 1709 given in 1710
and with shield-of-arms, cup of 1545 and cover-paten of 1600, cup of 1649 and cover-paten with
inscribed date 1639, two stand-patens of 1709,
one with a shield-of-arms, three dishes of 1709,
one with a shield-of-arms. Pulpit: of oak,
hexagonal with inlaid styles, rails and panels,
enriched mouldings to panels, base and cornice,
coved base with octagonal panelled stem having
moulded capital; stairs with cut string and
turned and twisted balusters. Rainwater-heads:
On N. wall—two, of lead, dated 1685. Reredos: In
chancel—of three bays divided by fluted Corinthian
columns supporting an enriched entablature and
segmental pediment over the middle bay, side bays
each with two panels, the lower carved and the
upper with the Lord's Prayer and Creed, space
above richly carved with fruit, foliage, palms,
etc., and finished with a cornice of quadrant form;
the middle bay has a tapestry-picture. At E.
end of N. aisle—reredos formed from former door-head, flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters, cut
down and supporting entablatures and a segmental
pediment; in the pediment are carved scrolls and
a Della Robbia plaque. Royal Arms: On gallery
front—Stuart arms (Plate 16), carved and pierced.
Screens: At W. end of stalls, panelled screens with
carved and pierced frieze-panels and enriched cornices. Under W. gallery-front—middle portion with
square-headed doorway flanked by panelled pilasters
supporting enriched cornice. Seating: In N.E.
angle of church—rectangular pew with panelled
enclosure and carved and pierced frieze-panels
with enriched cornice. Quire-stalls made up of
old work of similar type; on one panel is scratched
D.H. 1709. Pews in nave incorporate some old
panelling. Churchwardens' pews (Plate 68) at W.
end, two with panelled enclosures, carved and pierced
frieze-panels, flat canopies resting on slender
metal columns and with carved brackets, carved
and moulded cornice; panelled backs each with five
oval openings; on panelled soffit of S. canopy,
inlaid monograms and date 1686; on ends carved
lion and unicorn with cartouches. Miscellanea:
In nave—metal cross, gilt, from steeple. In
vestry—fragment of mediæval MSS. from registers
of St. Gabriel. In nave—Litany-desk, made up
of old twisted balusters, rails, etc.
(2) Parish Church of St. Mary at Hill
stands between the street of that name and Love
Lane. It is a Renaissance building, the internal
plan being in the form of a Greek cross, with a
dome at the intersection. The E. wall is faced
with Portland stone, partly plastered, but the S.
wall is rendered in cement. The body of the
church was re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in
1670–1676, after the Great Fire, at a cost of
£3980 12s. 3d., but some mediæval work may
possibly remain in the side walls. The Tower,
Vestibules and N. and S. windows are modern
and the church has been otherwise restored.
The carved wood-work of the church is noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The church forms a
slightly irregular square (70 ft. by 59½ ft.) with a
tower flanked by vestibules at the W. end and a
projecting vestry at the E. end of the S. wall.
The E. Elevation is divided into three bays,
with rusticated angles, the centre bay projecting
slightly and having a blocked window of three
divisions separated by pseudo-classical pilasters.
These support an entablature arched over the
central portion. The middle division is of three
lights with a transom at the springing, and the side
ones have each two lights and a transom. The
middle bay is finished with a cornice and pediment,
both broken to admit a blocked semi-circular
window; the cornice is carried across the side
bays. The side bays of the E. wall are pierced
by round-headed windows, with moulded architraves and plain key-stones. The wall stands on a
The N. and S. Elevations have each a modern
window in the second and third bays. Adjoining
the first bay on the S. is a two-storeyed vestry
forming an integral part of the adjoining building.
Church of St Mary at Hill
The W. Elevation is entirely modern.
Interior—In the first bay of the S. wall is a
door to the vestry, and in the two side bays of
the W. end are round arches with cherub-head
key-stones opening into the modern vestibules.
Within the church an inner square is formed by
four pseudo-classical fluted columns supporting
a deep architrave with panelled soffit, following
the arms of the Greek Cross, and resting on corresponding pilasters against the walls. The arms of
the cross are roofed with plaster barrel-vaults,
enriched with coffered bands and ornamental
borders, largely modern; above the intersection
rises a coffered and ornamented plaster dome
resting on pendentives with modelled foliage.
On each side of the eastern arm are two round-headed clearstorey windows groined into the vault.
The small angle-bays of the church have flat
Fittings—All of late 17th-century date unless
otherwise described, but much of the wood-work
was altered and added to in 1848–9 by the woodcarver W. Gibbs Rogers, whose work is so like
its original as to render the age of many of the
fittings, in whole or in part, doubtful. Chairs:
two, partly repaired, with carved and pierced
backs, enriched arms, carved legs, shaped stretchers,
and twisted front posts. Clock-case: projecting
from S.E. angle of church, square case with
carved spandrels, moulded cornice and pediment,
carved supporting beam with carved truss below.
Communion Table: with five legs carved and
twisted at the top, curved stretchers and moulded
and enriched top. Communion Rails: with carved
and twisted balusters and flat carved standards,
quadrant-shaped angles and carved top rail.
Doors: In centre of vestibule under gallery,
panelled door to screen. In vestry—two panelled
doors. A carved bas-relief in stone of the Resurrection, formerly over the gateway in Love Lane,
is now in the N.W. vestibule. Font: octagonal
white marble bowl with reeded enrichment,
baluster-stem with acanthus-enrichment, black
marble base. Carved oak cover with cherub-heads and swags, ogee-shaped upper part with
enriched angles and terminal. Gallery: Organgallery at W. end approached by a staircase from
the N. vestibule, with turned and twisted balusters.
The panels of the front have modern carving. It
is brought forward in the centre for organist's
seat. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments:
On N. wall, (1) to John Woods, 1658, Anne
(Burnet) his first wife, 1645, and John his son,
1670, marble tablet with Corinthian side columns,
entablature, broken segmental pediment with
cherubs supporting cartouche-of-arms. On S.
wall, (2) to John Harvey, 1700, marble cartouche
(Plate 26) with drapery, shield-of-arms and cherub
head; (3) to Thomas Dovall and Anna (Potts) his
wife, 1700, marble wall-monument (Plate 25) with
Composite side-pilasters, draped segmental pediment, achievement-of-arms, etc.; (4) to Charles
Vickars 1712–3, marble draped cartouche with
cherub-heads and shield-of-arms. In N. vestibule
—on N. wall, (5) to Isaac Milner, 1713, marble tablet
with Composite side-columns, entablature, segmental pediment with urn and achievement-of-arms.
In S. vestibule—on S. wall, formerly in St. George
Botolph Lane, (6) to Daniel Wigfall, 1698–9,
marble cartouche with drapery, cherub-head and
shield-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In middle aisle—
(1) to John Knapp, 1708, and Mary (Brownrigg)
his wife, 1711, with shield-of-arms. In vestibule—
(2) to Samuel Leadbeater, 1710. Panelling:
panelled wainscot all round church, three panels
high, with some modern work. The vestry has
panelling two panels high and a moulded architrave
and cornice to the fireplace. Plate: includes two
cups and cover-patens, one of 1576 and inscribed
Thomas Lorimar, the other of 1587, two tankards
of 1637, a paten and dish both of 1684, and a sealhead spoon of the same date. Reredos: of three
bays, middle bay flanked by Corinthian columns
supporting an enriched cornice and round arch
and enclosing two enriched round-headed panels,
painted cherubs above heads of panels, and below
panels a third panel carved with foliage, fruit,
flowers and a crown; above arch, a segmental
pediment with cherub-heads and a book in the
tympanum; side bays each with enriched panels,
the lower one carved with swag and crown, frieze
carved with swags and wreath. Royal Arms:
Stuart (Plate 16), in centre of gallery front, a second
of same date at W. end, from St. George Botolph
Lane. Screens: Under gallery, in middle of vestibule—with Corinthian pilasters flanking doorway
and supporting an enriched entablature with
cherub-heads on the frieze; E. side panelled and
finished with a coved and enriched cornice. Under
gallery, at N. and S. ends—panelled, that on N.
with names of churchwardens, Thomas Beckford
and Henry Loades and date 1672. Seating: Under
gallery—churchwardens' pews have four posts,
with old carving in front, supporting the gallery.
(3) Watermen's Hall, standing on the W. side
of St. Mary at Hill, is a modern building. In the
Hall is a wood-carving of the royal Stuart arms,
from the old hall.
(4) Sign on Nos. 6 and 7 on S. side of Lower
Thames Street. The building is modern, but on
the N. front is a sculptured stone sign of a chained
bear in high relief; in a semi-circular panel above
are the date 1670 and the initials M.E.