Bishopsgate Ward

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1929

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18-25

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'Bishopsgate Ward', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4: The City (1929), pp. 18-25. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=120247 Date accessed: 01 November 2014.


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5. BISHOPSGATE WARD.

(Within and Without).

Bishopsgate Ward includes the parishes of St. Botolph Bishopsgate, St. Ethelburga and St. Helen and parts of the parishes of St. Martin Outwich, All Hallows Lombard Street and St. Peter Cornhill. The churches of St. Helen and St. Ethelburga are the principal monuments.

Ecclesiastical

(1) Parish Church of St. Ethelburga stands on the E. side of Bishopsgate Street Within. The walls are of rag-stone rubble with limestone dressings; the clearstorey and the gables are of brick; the roofs are covered with tiles. The church, consisting of Chancel, Nave, South Aisle and West Annexe, was apparently re-built c. 1390–1400, and there are now no remains of earlier date. The E. and W. windows were probably altered late in the 15th century, and the posts of the West Porch are of the same date. Late in the 16th and early in the 17th century the houses adjoining the W. end were built, the present porch being interposed between them. The clearstorey was added and the bell-turret re-built in the 18th century. The church has been restored in 1861 and 1912; the East Vestry is modern.

Architectural Description—The Chancel and Nave (55¼ ft. by 17 ft.) are structurally undivided. The E. window is of five cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head, but has been completely restored. In the N. wall are four windows with two-centred heads, all blocked except the easternmost; they are probably of c. 1400, but the tracery has been removed. The S. arcade is of about the same period and of four bays with two-centred, moulded arches; the columns have each four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the responds have attached half columns. The clearstorey has no ancient features.

The W. Annexe or vestibule (9 ft. by 17 ft.) forms, structurally, part of the nave, from which it is separated by a two-centred arch with responds similar to the S. arcade of the nave; the arch is of c. 1400 and was built to support the timber bell-turret over. In the W. wall is a doorway of the same date, with moulded jambs and two-centred head; the W. window is probably of late 15th-century date and is of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head: it is partly blocked. The clock above is inserted in the opening of a single-light window of c. 1400. The main timbers of the lower part of the bell-turret are original; the upper part is of mid 18th-century date and has an ogee-shaped capping.

The South Aisle (9 ft. wide average) has in the E. wall a modern round-headed window and below it a modern doorway. In the S. wall are four windows similar to those in the N. wall of the body of the church, but only partly blocked; between the two easternmost windows is a blocked doorway with a four-centred head.


Church of St Ethelburga.

Church of St Ethelburga.

The West Porch (Plate 63) is formed by the two adjoining shops and has a modern outer doorway. Against the W. wall of the church and flanking the inner doorway are two moulded oak uprights of the 15th century, with portions of panelling in two heights each with cinque-foiled heads.

Fittings—Chest: In vestry—of iron with straps, with ornament in middle of front and pierced panel inside lid, 17th-century. Glass: In chancel —in N.E. window, achievement of the city of London (Frontispiece) and arms of the Saddlers' and Vintners' (Plate 15) Companies in ornamented borders, late 17th-century. In S. aisle—in E. window, arms of the Mercers' Company (Plate 14), same date. In easternmost window in S. wall, fragments of 14th-century glass from Ypres Cathedral, made up into medallions. Monument: In chancel—on N. wall, to John Cornelius Linckebeck, 1655, plain marble tablet with architrave, side-pilasters and shield-of-arms. Piscinœ: In chancel—recess with cinque-foiled head and projecting bowl, c. 1400, slab modern. In S. aisle—in S. wall, with two-centred cinque-foiled head, c. 1400. Plate: includes cup and cover-paten, the latter of 1560, cup probably of same date, flagon of 1694, given the same year, late 17th-century paten and spoon of 1714 (?). Weather-vane: On bell-turret—with date and initials, 1671, S.E. Miscellanea: In nave—let into N. wall, fragment of stone panelling forming part of a cusped circle, 15th-century.

Condition—Good.

(2) Parish Church of St. Helen stands on the N. of "Great St. Helens," to the E. of Bishopsgate Street Within. The walls are of rag-stone with free-stone dressings, the roofs are covered with lead. The Benedictine Nunnery of St. Helen was founded between the years 1204–16 by William, son of William the Goldsmith, on a site adjoining the pre-existing parish church of St. Helen. The S. wall of the parish nave may perhaps be of the 12th century, but the only evidence of this is the easterly position of the S. doorway and the single buttress on this side which probably marks the junction of the earlier and later work. The outer walls of the Nuns' Quire are apparently of the period of the foundation of the priory. About the middle of the 13th century the Parish Nave was altered and perhaps lengthened; probably the Chancel was re-built at the same time and the South Transept added. Early in the 14th century the second arch between the chancel and the Nuns' Quire was built, and shortly after the W. door of the Parish Nave was inserted. In 1374, or shortly before, the two chapels of the Holy Ghost and St. Mary, E. of the S. Transept, were built with the arcade opening into them. The E. arch between the Chancel and the Nuns' Quire was inserted c. 1420, and the arcade between the Nave and Nuns' Quire is probably the work of Sir John Crosby or his executors, c. 1475. The two arches between the Chancel and the S. transept and Holy Ghost Chapel are of the same date. The W. door of the Nuns' Quire and the nightstairs from the Dorter are both late 15th-century insertions, and early in the following century the N. clearstorey of the Nuns' Quire and the three windows on the S. of the parish nave were inserted. The Priory was dissolved in 1538 when the Nuns' Quire was thrown open to the parish church. Early in the 17th century the S. window of the S. transept was inserted, and in 1633 the S. nave doorway was built and the church generally restored. The timber cupola over the W. front was erected early in the 18th century, and in 1799 the E. range of the monastic buildings was removed and the N. wall of the Nuns' Quire made good. The principal modern restorations took place in 1864–66, 1891–93 and in 1910. The two main E. windows and the first four windows of the clearstorey of the Nuns' Quire are entirely modern, as are the mullions and tracery of the other windows together with the external parapets and most of the roof timbering. Modern Vestries have been added to the S.W. of the nave.


Priory & Church of St Helen, Bishopsgate.

Priory & Church of St Helen, Bishopsgate.

The Nuns' Quire is remarkable as a complete example of a church of Benedictine Nuns. Among the fittings the Oteswich, Crosby, Pickering and Gresham monuments and the Jacobean woodwork are all noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Nuns' Quire (119½ ft. by 26½ ft.) has a modern five-light E. window. In the N. wall are nine windows; the first four are modern and placed high in the wall, the next four are somewhat lower but are kept above the roof-level of the former cloister outside; they have three plain pointed lights under segmental-pointed heads of the early 16th century. The last window is at a lower level and is a small early 13th-century lancet with widely splayed jambs much restored. The sills of the three destroyed windows of similar type are to be seen externally. At the E. end of the N. wall is an elaborate squint used also as a monument and Easter Sepulchre (see fittings) and formerly opening into the Sacristy. Immediately to the W. of it is the E. jamb of a blocked doorway, and further W. a second squint formerly opening to the Sacristy; it has two openings divided by a mullion, chamfered jambs and a square head, and bears traces of the mortices for an iron grille. Halfway up the wall below the third window is a small square opening with chamfered reveals and skewed on plan; it must have communicated with a room above the Sacristy. Further W. is an early 13th-century blocked doorway (to the former Sacristy) of two pointed and chamfered orders, and beyond it is a third squint with chamfered jambs and square head and bearing traces of grille-mortices. The last two squints are blocked at the back. Below the fifth window is a small moulded doorway of late 15th-century date, with a four-centred head, opening on to a narrow flight of steps in the thickness of the wall, probably the night-stairs from the Dorter; two iron pins, for hanging the door, remain on the W. jamb. The staircase is blocked above the sixth step. Below the ninth window is a four-centred relieving-arch, marking the position of the W. processionalentrance from the Cloister. In the S. wall are two arches opening into the parish chancel and four into the parish nave. The E. arch is of c. 1420; it is moulded and four-centred; the E. respond has one attached shaft with moulded base and capital carrying the inner member of the arch-mould; the corresponding shaft on the W. has been cut short and now rests on a modern corbel, and the respond has a second attached shaft on the N. face. Above the W. half of this arch are traces of the jambs and segmental-head of an early 15th-century clearstorey window. The second arch is pointed, of two chamfered orders and of early 14th-century date, with moulded labels on both faces; the responds have each a half-octagonal attached shaft with moulded base and capital, the abaci of which are continued round the respond. The four arches (Plate 65) opening into the parish nave are uniform and of c. 1475; they are moulded and two-centred and spring from piers, consisting of four engaged shafts divided by mouldings; the shafts have moulded bases and capitals and stand on tall plinths; the W. respond is of deep projection. In the W. wall (Plate 49) is a late 15th-century doorway, with a four-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and quatre-foiled spandrels; the arch with portions of the jambs are original, but the rest has been restored. Above this doorway is a five-light window of early 16th-century character, with a segmental-pointed head; the stonework is modern but follows the old lines except for the insertion of a transom. The Ritual Arrangement of the Nuns' Quire can be determined by the existing features of the N. wall. The stalls must have occupied the W. half with a screen across masking the W. door. The arcade opening into the parish nave was formerly closed by a partition.

The Parish Chancel (42½ ft. by 22½ ft.) is structurally undivided from the nave. The E. window of seven lights is quite modern. In the S. wall are two arches opening into the Holy Ghost Chapel and the S. transept respectively; they are both four-centred and of similar character to the nave-arcade.

The Parish Nave (77 ft. by 22½ ft.) has at the E. end of the S. wall a blocked lancet-window of the middle of the 13th century and now largely concealed by the pulpit. Further W. are three early 16th-century windows, with segmental-pointed heads and moulded internal reveals; they have each three plain pointed lights, and the sill of the middle one has a later sill, raised to avoid the 17th-century S. doorway below it. The S. doorway (Plate 66) is of Renaissance character, with a round arch resting on square jambs with moulded imposts and bases and having three key-stones inscribed REP 1633. The whole is enclosed within an eared architrave supporting a frieze, cornice and pediment. In the centre of the frieze is a raised panel surmounted by a cherub-head and inscribed LAUS DEO S HELENA; the ears of the architrave rest on rusticated pilasters with moulded capitals and bases. To the E. of this doorway, traces of the E. jamb and arch of an earlier doorway are visible externally Below the last window in this wall is a modern doorway to the vestry. In the W. wall is a 14th-century pointed doorway with a moulded arch and jamb-shafts with moulded capitals and bases; only a few stones of the jambs are original. Above it is a five-light window of early 16th-century character, with segmental-pointed head and plain pointed lights all restored on the old lines.

The South Transept (26½ ft. by 22 ft.) has a late 14th-century eastern arcade of two bays opening into the chapels of the Holy Ghost and St. Mary, the arches are two-centred and deeply moulded and spring from a pier consisting of four engaged shafts with moulded capitals and bases, divided by hollow chamfers; the responds have attached half-piers. Above the arcade is a modern timber clearstorey. In the S. wall is a Jacobean Gothic window, incorporating older material and of three cinque-foiled lights under a two-centred head. The upper part of the wall is set back and in it is a small restored window, partly concealed by the modern roof-boarding. Adjoining the S. respond of the chapel-arcade is a small pointed doorway with chamfered reveals, of uncertain date, opening into a circular stairway enclosed in a semi-octagonal turret and leading to the leads. In the W. wall are two tall blocked lancet-windows of mid 13th-century date; the internal splays of the northern are exposed, but the other is entirely blocked.

The Chapel Aisle (16¾ ft. wide) E. of the S. Transept had an altar of the Holy Ghost in the northern half and probably one to St. Mary the Virgin in the southern. In the E. wall are two pointed, three-light, traceried windows of late 14th-century character but almost entirely modern restoration. Two windows, blocked, except in the head, pierce the S. wall; they are of similar character much restored and are enclosed under a wall-arcade of two pointed and moulded arches, resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases, standing on a stone bench and all much restored.

The Roofs throughout are of tie-beam construction and are partly ancient, including several of the principals and purlins of the Nuns' Quire, which are of the 15th century; the tiebeams are moulded and rest on curved and chamfered supports at either end. The roofs were repaired in 1920.

The Monastic Buildings lay on the N. of the Nuns' Quire and followed the usual disposition. They have been completely destroyed. The Cloister (about 70 ft. square) was conterminous with the church at the W. end and the weathering course of its pent roof is visible for the whole of its length, on the exterior of the Nuns' Quire. To the east and adjoining the church was the Sacristy. The demolition of the adjoining building in 1922 revealed remains of this building, which had a western division of two bays and an eastern of one bay, both of early 13th-century date. The western division has the springers of a ribbed vault, resting on moulded corbels. Between the two divisions is the S. respond of an arch with two attached shafts on the E. side; in the S. wall of this bay is a broad recess with a two-centred arch. Remains of the walls of the Chapter House were also found and are indicated on the plan.

Fittings—Altar: in St. Mary's chapel, slab of dark marble, repolished, with modern consecration crosses, found under floor. See also Monument (11). Brasses: In Nuns' Quire—at E. end, (1) of John Leventhorp, 1510, armed figure with foot-inscription; at W. end, (2) to Elizabeth, wife of John Robinson, 1600, inscription and shield; in S. transept and chapel-aisle—(3) small figure of priest in academical robes, c. 1500, inscription lost (formerly in St. Martin Outwich); (4) of Nicholas Wotton, 1482, rector of St. Martin Outwich, small figure of priest in academical robes and foot-inscription (formerly in St. Martin Outwich); (5) of lady, c. 1535, in heraldic cloak, bearing a lion wounded in the shoulder, inscription lost; (6) of Thomas Wylliams, 1495, and wife, Margaret, figures in civil dress and foot-inscription; (7) of Robert Rochester, 1514, figure in armour with SS collar, and foot-inscription; (8) to Robert Cotesbrook, 1393, inscription only; (9) to Thomas Wight, 1633, inscription and shield; (10) of civilian and wife, c. 1465. See also Monument (9). Coffin: In Nuns' Quire—at W. end, of stone, probably 13th-century. Communion Table: In Holy Ghost Chapel, with twisted legs and inlaid top, early 18th-century (from St. Martin Outwich). Doors: In parish nave, S. doorway—oak doors (Plate 66) in two folds with raised panels having round-headed sinking, in perspective, in each; impost moulding continued across leaves; middle style with raised 'jewel' ornament and ribs; round head with terminal pilaster in middle and scrolls at sides; door-case or lobby within (Plate 67), with arch bearing angels with shields in spandrels and square-headed doorway under with bold shell-ornament in tympanum and flanked by Ionic pilasters, supporting a cornice and broken, scrolled pediment; on it two gilt angels holding an escutcheon of the royal (Stuart) arms, c. 1633; to W. doorway—oak outer doors and door-case of lobby, similar to last, lobby-doorway, square-headed and surmounted by carved escutcheon with foliage-festoons and amorini as supporters, at each side a fluted Corinthian column supporting a cornice and broken, scrolled pediment; doors, two folds, upper panels carved with perspective arches, c. 1633. Easter Sepulchre: In Nuns' Quire, E. end of N. wall, in form of an altar-tomb (Plate 69) with marble slab, moulded round edge, in front of base, six openings with cinque-foiled heads forming a stone grille and at back, flush with face of wall, a further series of five square-headed openings divided by moulded mullions, all openings skewed and forming a squint to the former Sacristy; above the slab a recessed and panelled wall-canopy with side shafts, a horizontal foliated cornice and a cresting of Tudor flowers. On the outside of the wall a blocked segmental-pointed arch, formerly the northern opening of the squint; this structure formed also the monument of Joan Alfrey, 1525. Font and Font-cover (Plate 11): Font, marble baluster-type with red shaft, cream-coloured necking and base and black pedestal and bowl, possibly that purchased in 1632. Font-cover, oak, octagonal, with panelled sides, dentilled cornice and ribbed ogee capping, same date. Funeral-helm: In Nuns' Quire—at E. end, late 16th-century piece, made up. Glass: In Nuns' Quire—N. clearstorey, fifth window—angel holding a shield-of-arms, 17th-century; seventh window, shields of the City, Leathersellers' Company and Raynton (?), 17th-century, with other fragments, 15th and early 16th-century. In S. transept—E. clearstorey, eleven shields much renewed, late 17th-century. In Holy Ghost Chapel—E. window, seven shields, much restored, of (a) the City, (b) sable a cheveron ermine between three rams passant argent, for Crosby (Plate 15), (c) Crosby's Merchant's Mark (Plate 15), (d) Grocers' Company (Plate 15), (e) azure a fesse cotised argent, for Crosby's first wife, Agnes, (f) barry wavy argent and azure a chief gules with three bezants therein, for Astry (Plate 15), (g) Crosby impaling (e), late 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Nuns' Quire—E. end, (1) to Sir Thomas Gresham, 1579, altar-tomb (Plate 19), marble, with plain dark slab and fluted sides, having a carved achievement in the centre of each; (2) to Julius Cæsar Adelmare, 1636, Judge of the Court of Admiralty, altar-tomb with plain sides and black marble slab (Plate 127), with inscription on alabaster, let into the surface and in the form of a deed with a large seal attached, monument by Nicholas Stone; on the E. wall, (3) of Sir Andrew Judd, 1558, founder of Tonbridge school, small tablet with kneeling figures of man and wife, four sons and one daughter, with Corinthian columns, entablature and shield-of-arms; on N. wall, (4) to William Finch, 1672, and Esther Finch, 1673, marble tablet with Ionic side-columns, entablature, broken pediment and two shields-of-arms; (5) of William Bond, 1576, alderman, marble wall-monument with kneeling figures of man and wife, six sons and one daughter in two bays divided and flanked by Corinthian columns with entablature, pediment and three shields-of-arms; (6) of Martin Bond, 1643, marble wall-monument with figure represented seated in a tent flanked by Composite columns with entablature, segmental pediment and shield-of-arms; (7) to Valentine Mortoft, 1641, plain marble tablet with Corinthian side columns, entablature, segmental pediment and shields-of-arms; (8) to Henry White, 1702–3, marble cartouche with cherub-heads and shield-of-arms; (9) to [Hugh Pemberton, 1500, merchant taylor and alderman] altar-tomb (Plate 19) of dark marble with panelled front and ends, slab with moulded edge and marble canopy resting on buttressed shafts at the outer angles and engaged shafts at the back, in front three cusped segmental arches, with moulded pendants and crocketed ogee labels, a similar arch at each end, faces of canopy above panelled and finished with a moulded cornice and cresting of Tudor flower, soffit with panelled vaulting in three bays, on wall at back, a slab with brass indents of two groups of kneeling figures, seven sons of one group remain with one scroll and two shields bearing the arms—a cheveron between three buckets, for Pemberton, impaling checky three martlets on a fesse and the ancient arms of the Merchant Taylors' Company, other parts of brass missing (formerly in St. Martin Outwich); (10) to John Robinson, 1599, alderman, marble wall-monument (Plate 22) with kneeling figures of man and wife with nine sons and seven daughters under a double arch with Corinthian side columns and four shields-of-arms; (11) plain altar-tomb against wall with marble slab chamfered on the lower edge, possibly an altar-slab, uncertain date. Under E. arch of arcade between Nuns' Quire and Chancel, (12) to [Sir William Pickering, 1574], marble altar-tomb or sarcophagus (Plates 72–74) with recumbent effigy in Elizabethan armour, on a rush mattress; over it a double-arched canopy resting on three pairs of Corinthian columns supporting entablature, arches and semi-circular barrel-vaults with coffered soffits, cornice and pierced cresting above; resting on centre of canopy, a moulded pedestal supporting a carved achievement of the Pickering arms and facing both ways; round the monument a wrought-iron rail, with buttressed standards having twisted and ball-topped pinnacles; under the third arch of arcade between Nuns' Quire and parish nave, (13) to William Kirwin, 1594, and Magdalen his wife, 1597, small altar-tomb with panelled sides bearing three shields-of-arms; round the tomb a plain wrought-iron rail. In the parish nave—on first pier, N. side, (14) to Sir William Pickering, 1542, and Sir William Pickering, his son, 1574, enriched marble tablet; under first arch on S. side, (15) to [Sir John Crosby, 1476, and Agnes his first wife] altar-tomb (Plates 70–72) of Sussex marble, with moulded slab and panelled sides and ends, each main panel richly cusped and having a shield-of-arms much defaced—E. end, the Staple of Calais, N. and S. sides a fesse cotised, Crosby, and Crosby impaling a fesse cotised, W. end, the Grocers' Company, on the slab two recumbent effigies in alabaster, man in armour with Yorkist collar of suns and roses and feet on griffon, lady with "butterfly" head-dress, elaborate necklace, and feet on two dogs. In parish nave—on S. wall (16) to Richard Staper, 1608, alderman, marble wall-monument (Plate 22) with small kneeling figures of man and wife, five sons and four daughters and three shields-of-arms (formerly in St. Martin Outwich); (17) to Sir John Spencer, 1609, and his wife Alice (Bromfield), altar-tomb (Plates 73, 75), by Nicholas Johnson, against wall with panelled front and recumbent effigies of man in armour with long cloak and ruff, and of lady, at their feet figure of a daughter at a prayer-desk; at each end of tomb a large obelisk and, behind, a wall-canopy of two arches with cherub-head key-stones and five shields-of-arms, finished with an entablature supporting an achievement of the Spencer arms; (18) to Abigail [wife of Sir John] Lawrence, 1682, plain marble altar-tomb supporting a tablet with urn. In S. transept—on S. wall, (19) to Thomas Langham, 1700, marble tablet with Corinthian pilasters and two shields-of-arms; on W. wall, (20) to Gervash Reresby, 1704, marble cartouche with drapery, cherub-heads and achievement-of-arms; (21) to Rachel (Lawrence) wife of Charles Chambrelan, 1687, large marble tablet (Plate 25) with cherubs, urn and shield-of-arms. In Holy Ghost Chapel—(22) said to be of John de Oteswich and wife, late 14th-century, modern altar-tomb with two recumbent effigies (Plate 71) in alabaster, man in cloak with long baselard at left side, woman with buttoned sleeves and veiled head-dress (formerly in St. Martin Outwich). In churchyard—(23) to Joseph Lem, 1686, altar-tomb with shield-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In Nuns' Quire, (1) to William Finch [1672] with shield-of-arms; (2) to James Stanier, 1663, with shield-of-arms; (3) to George Finch, 1710, with shield-of-arms; (4) to Edward Berkeley, 1669, with shield-of-arms; (5) to William Drax, 1669, with shield-of-arms; (6) to [Sir Martin] Lumley [1634]; (7) to Henry Raper, 1674–5, with shield-of-arms; (8) to George Briggs, 1663–4, with shield-of-arms; (9) to . . . Edwards and Jane his wife, with shield-of-arms, early 18th-century; (10) to Sarah Tryon, 1686, with shield-of-arms; (11) to [Thomas] Chamberlin, 16–4; (12) to George Kellum, 1672, with shield-of-arms. In parish nave—(13) to Mary, second wife of Edward Backwell, 1670; (14) to Joane, wife of Frederick Debousy, 1649; (15) to John Jourdain, 1706 (?); (16) to Maj. Gen. George Kellum. In Holy Ghost Chapel —(17) to Regina and Lucie, daughters of John Woolfe, 1691–2; (18) to John Tufnell, with shield-of-arms, late 17th-century; (19) to . . . and Hester his wife and four sons, 1640. Niches: In St. Mary's Chapel—E. wall, six, four in two tiers to N. of E. window and two on S., all with ogee heads much restored, late 14th-century. Piscinæ: In parish nave—E. end S. wall immediately W. of rood-screen, plain pointed head, bowl destroyed, 13th-century; in chapel-aisle, S. transept—in E. wall, two with square cinque-foiled heads and shelves, one drain, much restored, late 14th-century. In sacristy—in S. wall, with chamfered jambs, shouldered head and round drain, 13th-century. Plate: includes a cup and cover-paten of 1570, silver gilt, inscribed "St. Helens 1570"; a paten of 1620, silver-gilt; a pair of flagons of 1632 with the Lumley arms; a cup and cover-paten of 1634, silver gilt; a large pate nof 1638 and a large bowl of 1647. Poor-box: In parish nave —at W. end, of oak, late 18th-century, resting on Jacobean terminal figure, c. 1620. Pulpit (Plate 79): oak panelled, hexagonal, ornamented with strap-work, cherub-heads and the "Agnus Dei," early 17th-century; sounding-board over, with panelled soffit and bay-leaf foliage, possibly rather later. Rainwater-heads: one at E. end. one on S. side, two at W. end, lead, late 17th-century. Stalls (Plate 42): now in parish chancel, formerly those of the nuns, seven on the N. and six on the S., of oak with arm-rests carved with grotesques, 15th-century, the stall-fronts with pierced carving and enriched ends, early 17th-century. Sword-rest: In parish chancel, S. side (Plate 44), oak with two Corinthian wreathed columns and arms of the City, Lawrence, and the royal (Stuart) arms with date 1665. Tiles: In Holy Ghost Chapel —a few slip-tiles with geometric patterns, fleur-delis, etc. Miscellanea: In S. transept—incorporated in organ-case, two carved brackets at the back having cherubs with trumpets, late 17th-century. Fragments: In Nuns' Quire at W. end, two cases filled with various fragments, moulded stone, tiles, pottery, etc. In St. Mary's Chapel—small alabaster seated female figure, holding a book; in S. transept on S. wall, marble fragment from the Clitheroe monument and piece of Moorish ornament found under the Bernard monument, probably 15th-century.

Condition—Good.

(3) Parish Church of St. Botolph, on the W. side of Bishopsgate Street Without, was re-built in 1725–29 on the site of the original church. It contains, from the former building, the following:—

Fittings—Monuments: In sanctuary—on N. wall, (1) to Andrew Willaw, 1700, marble cartouche with drapery, flowers, cherub-heads and shield-of-arms; on S. wall, (2) to John Tutchin, 1658, marble draped tablet with skeleton, cherubs and shield-of-arms. On N. Gallery-staircase, (3) to Sir Paul Pindar, 1650, large marble tablet, with pilasters, entablature, pediment and urn.

Secular

(4) House and Shops, No. 74, on the E. side of Bishopsgate Street Within and flanking the porch of St. Ethelburga, are of two storeys and of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are lead-covered. They were built, according to the parish books, in 1577 and 1615 respectively but have no ancient features. The house extends over the church porch.

(5) Leathersellers Hall, on the N.E. of St. Helen's Place, is a modern building but contains two small lead cisterns, one dated 1671.

(6) House, No. 19, on the W. side of Gracechurch Street, 25 yards N. of Lombard Street, in the parish of All Hallows Lombard Street, is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick. It was built late in the 17th century, but has been much altered. Inside the building the staircase from the first to the second floor is original and has heavy turned balusters, square newels, moulded hand-rail and string. The N. room on the second floor has original panelling and a moulded architrave and cornice to the fireplace; above it is a bolection-moulded panel flanked by festoons of fruit and flowers.

Condition—Good.

(7) Sign on house, No. 4, on W. side of Corbet Court, Gracechurch Street, 40 yards S.S.W. of St. Peter's Church. The sign is of stone and consists of a round-headed niche with a half-figure of a Virgin, for the Mercers' Company, and the date 1669.

(8) Chimney-piece in the Bank of Scotland, No. 30, on the S.E. side of Bishopsgate Street Within. The chimney-piece (Plate 76) was re-set in its present position on the demolition of a house standing on part of the site. The fireplaceopening is flanked by diminishing pilasters of stone with Ionic capitals, supporting an entablature. In the frieze, above the pilasters, are black marble insets and above the opening is a cartouche flanked by carving. The oak overmantel is divided into three bays by Doric columns with enriched pedestals and supporting an entablature; the main bay has a central panel with subsidiary panels and a boss in the middle bearing the initials and date C.B. 1633; the side bays have each an arch in perspective.

(9) House, No. 282, on the E. side of Bishopsgate Street Without, 420 yards N.N.E. of St. Botolph's church, is of four storeys with cellars. The walls are timber-framed and plastered and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century, but has been much altered and a shop-front inserted. On the W. front the upper storeys project, and between the two top storeys is a moulded cornice. There is a bay-window, fitted with modern sashes, projecting from the first and second-floor rooms.

Condition—Fairly good.



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Billingsgate Ward