2 APPLEBY (F.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)IX, S.E., (b)XV, N.E.)
Appleby (Plate 69), the county-town of Westmorland, stands on both banks of the River Eden. The
two parishes of St. Lawrence and St. Michael now
form one civil parish. These churches and the castle
are the principal monuments. The town is grouped
mainly about the long rectangular market-place with
the two columns known as High and Low Cross at
the two ends.
a(1). Parish Church of St. Lawrence (Plate 62)
stands at the N. end of the market-place. The walls are
of sandstone rubble and ashlar, and the roofs are lead-covered. The earliest part of the existing building is
the lower part of the Tower, which dates probably from
the 12th century; the church is said to have been
re-built in 1178 after being burnt four years earlier; it
is possible that the base of the E. wall of the chancel
is of this period, as is one re-used capital in the N.
arcade. Late in the 13th or early in the 14th century
much of the church, including the Chancel, North and
South Chapels, Nave and Aisles, was re-built, with the
South Porch, incorporating an early 13th-century
archway. The church suffered in the Scottish raid
of 1388, and the repairs of the 15th century include the
rebuilding of the upper part of the tower, the addition
of the clearstorey and the lengthening eastwards of
the S. chapel. In 1654–5 Anne Countess of Pembroke
"caus'd a great part of Appleby church to be taken
down and caus'd a vault to be made in the N.E. corner
for her to be bury'd in"; the work seems to have
included the rebuilding of the N. chapel, the arches at
least of the arcades, the buttresses and all the roofs.
The church was restored in 1861–2 and the North-West
Vestry added in 1904–5.
The church is of no great architectural interest,
but the monuments and organ are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (33½ ft. by
19 ft.) has a modern E. window. The N. arcade of
two bays seems to have been largely re-built in the
17th century with old materials of various dates; the
two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders;
the octagonal pier has a late 12th-century square capital
cut back to the octagonal form; the E. respond has a
flattened round shaft with a fillet and moulded capital
perhaps of the 17th century; the W. respond has a
corbel-capital perhaps of the 13th century. In the
S. wall is a 14th-century window-opening altered in the
17th century and with the mullion and tracery removed;
it has a two-centred head; further W. is an arcade of
c. 1300 and of two bays with two-centred arches of
two chamfered orders; the pier is quatre-foiled with
a fillet on the face of each shaft, moulded capital and
base; the responds have each a flattened and filleted
shaft, with a moulded capital. The chancel-arch is
The North Chapel (36½ ft. by 13 ft.) has one window
in the E. and two in the N. wall, all modern. In the
W. wall is a half arch probably re-built in the 17th
century; it is of two chamfered orders springing from
a chamfered N. respond with a moulded impost.
The South Chapel (34 ft. by 13 ft.) has one window in
the E. and two in the S. wall, all modern; the S.
doorway is also modern. At the W. end is a half arch
of two square orders and of uncertain date.
Appleby - Parish Church of St. Lawrence
The Nave (64¼ ft. by 19½ ft.) has N. and S. arcades
of c. 1300 much retooled and perhaps partly re-built
in the 17th century; the arches are two-centred and of
two chamfered orders with a hollow between the orders
and a moulded label on the side towards the nave;
the quatre-foiled piers are similar to those in the chancel
and have moulded capitals; the respond-corbels on
the E. are modern; the W. responds have each an
attached shaft with a moulded capital. The 15th-century clearstorey has three windows on the N. and
four on the S. side, all of three trefoiled lights in an
elliptical head with a moulded label; the parapet
is embattled and pinnacled and on the E. gable are the
weathered remains of a sanctus bell-cote.
The North Aisle (12¼ ft. wide) has five modern
windows in the N. wall and a modern doorway in the
The South Aisle (13 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, five
windows, the four easternmost modern and the fifth
of the 14th century and of two trefoiled ogee lights
in a square head; the early 14th-century S. doorway
has a segmental-pointed arch of two chamfered orders
with a moulded label; the jambs have modern shafts
carrying the outer order; the W. bay of the aisle is
divided from the rest by an early 14th-century half-arch of two chamfered orders; the inner order springs
from attached and filleted shafts with moulded capitals
and bases. In the W. wall of the bay is a 15th-century
window, similar to those in the clearstorey but with
The West Tower (15 ft. by 12¾ ft.) is of three storeys
with an embattled parapet. The ground-stage is
mainly of the 12th century but has an early 14th-century tower arch, two-centred and of two chamfered
orders; the responds have each three grouped shafts
with moulded capitals and bases. In the N. wall is a
12th-century window of one round-headed light.
In the S. wall is an early 14th-century arch, segmental-pointed and of two chamfered orders; the responds
have each an attached and filleted shaft with a moulded
capital; the W. window is modern. The second
storey has a narrow loop in the N. wall; the bell-chamber has in each wall two 15th-century windows
each of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with
a moulded label, except the W. window on the N., which
has arched heads to the lights.
The South Porch is probably of c. 1300 but has a re-set
outer archway of early 13th-century date; it has a two-centred arch of three moulded orders with a label,
the middle order has dog-tooth ornament, which is
continued down the jambs; these had each two shafts,
now missing except for the moulded capitals.
The Roof of the porch is perhaps of the 17th century
and has three cambered tie-beams and wall-posts
standing on corbels.
Fittings—Books: In nave—Bible of 1617 and a
Common Prayer printed by Charles Bill. In S. aisle—
three chained volumes of Foxe's Book of Martyrs,
1631. Coffin-lids: In chancel—on S. side, (1) tapering
slab with head and shoulders of effigy (Plate 63),
probably of a woman, at top and below a raised and
foliated cross, base missing, early 14th-century. In
porch—(2) two parts of tapering slab with foliated
cross on calvary, rose, rosettes and part of shears at
sides; (3) lower part of slab with trefoiled base of
cross and remains of shears; both 14th-century.
Collecting Trays: In nave—two round wooden trays
with long handles, 18th-century. Communion Table
(Plate 38): In nave—with turned legs and fluted
top-rail, probably late 17th-century. Glass: In N.
chapel—in E. window, two shields-of-arms of Beaumont and Percy, early 15th-century; in N. window,
Old France quartering England, late 14th-century.
Monuments: In N. chapel—(1) of Margarett (Russell)
widow of George Clifford third Earl of Cumberland,
1616, erected by her daughter Anne, 1617, altar-tomb
(Plate 65) and effigy formerly in the chancel, altar-tomb of black marble and alabaster with panelled
sides flanked by emblems of mortality, lozenge-of-arms at E. end and achievement-of-arms at W. end,
enriched cornice and moulded slab; alabaster effigy
(Plate 65) of lady in stomacher, pleated skirt,
widow's hood and metal coronet, head on cushion;
against N. wall—(2) to Anne, Baroness Clifford, wife
successively of Richard Sackvile 3rd Earl of Dorset
and Philip Herbert 4th Earl of Pembroke, 1675–6,
altar-tomb and wall-monument (Plate 64) of black
and white marble, altar-tomb with panelled front,
moulded plinth and slab; wall-piece flanked by Doric
pilasters supporting entablatures and a curved pediment; on back-piece a series of shields-of-arms representing the descent of the house of Clifford. In N.
aisle—on W. wall, (3) to John Webster, 1714, and
four of his children, slate tablet. In S. isle—on N.
wall, (4) to Gabriel Smalwood, A.M., vicar, 1698–9,
tablet. Organ and Organ-case: In N. chapel—formerly in gallery at W. end of church; instrument
formerly in Carlisle cathedral and presented to
Appleby in 1684. Organ possibly incorporates portions of an instrument mentioned in 1571. Case
(Plate 60) probably made early in the 17th century
and of three stages and two main bays with three
towers of pipes; the towers have moulded entablatures, pierced ogee bands below and rest on
projections from the cornice over the key-board
stage and cherub heads; the main bays have round
arched heads at half their height, with pierced
carving and cherub-heads; the bays are finished
with a quadrant arch, enriched with carving, against
the central tower of pipes; the key-board has a
curved pediment and is flanked by bolection-moulded
panelling and fluted pilasters; the woodwork retains
much gilding, including a scrolled design with lions
and putti, and an inscription indicates a repair of 1836.
Piscina: In chancel—recess with trefoiled ogee head
and round drain, cut away in front, early 14th-century.
Plate: includes a cup and cover-paten of c. 1630,
cup and cover-paten of 1694, stand-paten, flagon and
alms-dish all of 1694 and also four flagons, a bowl
and a stand-paten of pewter. Royal Arms: In nave
—on W. wall, Stuart Arms, probably of Charles II,
with painted text below; also four other painted
shields-of-arms of Robson, Lowther, Graham and the
town of Appleby. Scratchings: On N. arcade of
chancel and in numerous other places, masons' marks,
probably mid 17th-century. Screens: In chancel—
in W. bays of N. and S. arcades, two of ten and six
bays respectively, with trefoiled ogee heads and tracery,
moulded muntins and rails, close lower panels, probably c. 1500; in E. bay of S. arcade, of four bays and
a doorway with two bay-heads above; bays with
trefoiled ogee heads and tracery, moulded muntins
and embattled middle rail and door-head, c. 1500.
Seating: In chancel—two panelled stall-fronts with
trefoiled ogee and traceried heads and two standards
with stepped and embattled tops, early 16th-century.
In nave—two enclosed pews (the Corporation pew
and another) incorporating late 17th-century panelling
with carved grotesque beasts and other designs, including a hart chained to a shield and a shield with traces
of the painted arms of Clifford impaling Brandon;
at W. end of church, two stools with turned legs,
probably late 17th or early 18th-century. Sword-rest:
In nave—on E. respond of N. arcade, scrolled wrought
iron sword and mace rest, with the three leopards of
the arms of the town and a pointed oval plate with
modern painting of a salamander, probably early
18th-century. Miscellanea: Incorporated in W. gateway of churchyard, portion of window-head.
b(2). Parish Church of St. Michael Bongate
stands on the E. side of the river. The walls are
sandstone rubble and ashlar and the roofs are covered
with slates and lead. The re-used 'hog-back' is
evidence of the existence of a church here in
the 10th or 11th century. The earliest surviving
portions of the building are the 12th-century N.
doorway with the adjoining N. and W. walls of the
Nave and a re-set window in the tower. There is little
evidence of the later history of the building, but the
Chancel was perhaps re-built and the South Transept
added some time in the 13th century, and the S. arcade
built and the Aisle added c. 1300; the South Porch
was added rather later. In 1658–9 Anne Countess of
Pembroke "caused Bongate church near Appleby to
be pulled down and new-built at her charge"; it is
difficult to say how complete was this rebuilding,
and in any case much of the old material must have
been re-used. The church was again drastically
restored in 1885–6 when the North Tower was added.
The church is of little architectural interest, but
among the fittings the 'hog-back,' bells, cup and effigy
Church of St Michael, Bongate, Plan
Architectural Description—The Chancel (29 ft. by
20¼ ft.) has a modern E. window. The windows in
the N. and S. walls are also modern except for some
stones in the jambs and splays; the late 13th-century
N. doorway has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and
label and opened into a former vestry; the S. doorway
is modern except for the splays. The chancel-arch
is modern, but S. of it are remains of the splay of a
former squint. High up on the N. wall is a carved
and painted stone cartouche with the initials and date
A.P. 1659, recording the rebuilding by Anne Countess
The Nave (59¾ ft. by 20¼ ft.) has, in the N. wall, a
modern arch to the tower; farther W. are three modern
windows; the 12th-century N. doorway, now blocked,
has a flat lintel formed of a 'hog-back' stone (see
Fittings) and a round rear-arch. The S. arcade,
originally of c. 1300, but now largely modern or retooled, is of five bays, with two-centred arches and
quatre-foiled piers; the W. respond is original and has
an attached and filleted shaft with a moulded capital
The South Transept (20 ft. by 18¾ ft.) has a modern
E. window. The S. window is probably of late
13th-century date with modern mullions and tracery.
In the W. wall is a 13th-century lancet-window,
The South Aisle (7½ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall,
three windows: the easternmost is modern except for
parts of the jambs, head and splays, which are of the
14th century; the second is probably of the 14th
century repaired in the 17th century; it is of two
trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with a moulded
label; the westernmost window is similar to the
W. window in the transept, but is probably of the
17th century; the re-set 13th-century S. doorway has
a two-centred head of two moulded orders, the inner
continued down the jambs and the outer modern and
resting on modern jamb-shafts. In the W. wall is a
window, modern except for part of the splays.
The South Porch has an outer archway, probably of
the 17th century, with chamfered jambs and ogee head.
In the E. wall is a loop-light and in the W. wall is an
early 14th-century window with a trefoiled head.
Fittings—Bells: two; first of long-waisted type
(18 ins. high and 19 ins. across the mouth), probably
13th-century; second inscribed in Lombardic capitals
"Campana Sancti Michaelis," probably by William de
Norwycs (Norwich), c. 1350. Chairs: In chancel—two
(Plate 39); first with turned legs, shaped arms, panelled
and enriched back with initials and date R.E.R. 1675;
second with turned legs, shaped arms, plain panelled
back and cresting with initials and date M.B. (16)93.
Coffin-lids: In S. aisle—(1) tapering slab with foliated
cross on calvary, sword at side, late 13th-century.
Re-set in N. and W. walls of tower, outside—(2) various
fragments of slabs with cross-heads and base, one with
pair of shears and another with lower part of sword,
late 13th or early 14th-century. In front wall of cottage
on S. side of Brough road—(3) tapering slab with
enriched cross and sword, early 14th-century. Hogback: Re-used as lintel (Plate 8) on N. doorway of
nave—hog-backed stone with band of three interlacing
strands and traces of further ornament at top; ornament
on outer face now defaced, 10th or 11th-century.
Locker: In chancel—in S. wall, recess with rebated
reveals, mediæval. Monument: In nave—in S. wall,
recess and effigy said to have been found in N. wall
on site of tower-arch, recess with double hollow-chamfered jambs and modern arch, effigy (Plate 63) of
woman in high relief with cloak, hanging sleeves, flat
head-dress and side hair, head on cushion, with remains
of supporting figure, dog at feet, on shoulder of cloak
a water-bouget and on cushion by shoulder shield-of-arms of Vipont, c. 1400, repaired in cement. Piscina:
In chancel—recess with ogee head and round drain
with leaf-ornament, 14th-century. In S. transept—
in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head, remains of octofoiled drain in moulded bracket now cut back, late
13th-century. Plate: includes cup (Plate 55) of 1612,
said to have been presented by Bishop Nicolson of
Carlisle, cup with engraved and repoussé ornament,
baluster-stem with brackets, enriched steeple-cover with
pinnacle resting on scrolled brackets, cup of secular
origin. Scratchings: On W. respond of S. arcade,
various masons' marks. Sedile: In S. transept—
W. of piscina, recess with modern trefoiled head,
late 13th-century. Miscellanea: Re-set in tower—
head of 12th-century window. In wall of vicaragegarden—numerous fragments of carved and worked
stone including parts of a tomb-canopy with a shield
of Vipont impaling Roos, early 15th-century, also
various moulded stones, a recess perhaps for a stoup,
a late 13th-century shaft and capital and a 17th-century
carving of Noah's ark and the dove.
Condition—Good, much restored.
Appleby Castle, The Keep
b(3). Appleby Castle, earthworks and outbuildings
stand about 600 yards S.S.E. of St. Lawrence's church.
The walls generally are of sandstone rubble and ashlar;
the house is roofed with slates and lead. The castle
passed by marriage from the Viponts to the Cliffords
late in the 13th century, and remained in the hands of
that family till the death of Lady Anne Clifford in 1676.
From her it passed again by marriage to the Earls of
Thanet and to the present owner, Lord Hothfield. The
main earthworks, probably then consisting of a mound
and bailey, date from the 12th century, and on the
mound the keep was erected, probably in the second
half of the century. The castle was taken by William
the Lion in 1174, and perhaps after this the keep was
heightened, and the general line of the curtain is
perhaps of the same age, the ground round the keep
being raised. Repairs are noted in the Pipe Rolls
of 1198–1201. A certain amount of late 12th-century
work, including a gateway, remains in the E. wall
of the house. The N. wall and the W. part of the N.
wing of the house with the round tower date from the
13th century, and at the end of the century the existing
parapet of the keep was added. The main part of the
castle towards the E. is said to have been re-built by
Thomas 8th Lord Clifford in 1454; this included the
hall-block, the chapel and the N.E. and S.E. towers,
represented by the main block of the existing house
and of which much of the external walling and some
internal walls still remain. The castle was partly
dismantled by the parliamentary army in 1648, but
Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Pembroke, restored
it in 1651–3; her chief work was the restoration of
the keep (then called Cæsar's Tower) and the building
of the cross-wall within it. The existing house was
largely re-built by Thomas 4th Earl of Thanet in 1686–8
with stone brought from Brougham Castle, and stones
were brought from Brough Castle for repairs in 1695,
when the N.W. wing was possibly added. The
house was restored and windows altered to take sashes
in the 19th century. The great gatehouse mentioned
in 1422 probably occupied the site of the present
entrance on the N. side of the courtyard, but has been
removed except perhaps for the large block of masonry
on the W. side of that feature.
The castle retains many features of interest, including
the noteworthy 12th-century keep, the 13th-century
tower and the earthworks.
The Keep (Plate 66) (44½ ft. square without the
buttresses), called Cæsar's Tower in the 17th century,
was originally and is now again of four stages. The
three lower stages were built c. 1170 and the upper stage
added probably before the end of the century. The
parapet was raised and the turrets added or re-built in the
13th century. The keep was roofless in the 17th century,
but was restored in 1651–3 by Lady Anne Clifford,
who inserted the main cross-wall. The 12th-century
walling is of small squared ashlar, rather more finely
jointed in the upper part; the angles have clasping
buttresses continued up to the angle-turrets. The
ground-level appears to have been raised round the
base of the building and no plinth is now exposed above
ground. The ground stage had two original looplights in the N. and S. walls, but the western loop on
the N. has been altered to form a doorway. There is
another loop in the E. wall with the opening enlarged;
the doorway in the E. wall is original, and has a round
arch of two plain orders, the inner cut away to heighten
the opening. The 17th-century cross-wall has a
segmental-headed doorway at the E. end, and on the
S. face is an ornamental cartouche formerly enclosing
a small metal inscription. The ceiling has 17th-century
chamfered beams. The second stage may originally
have been approached by an external staircase of the
usual type against the E. wall; this has been replaced
by a modern staircase to the doorway on this side;
the doorway has original jambs and a modern head,
but the line of the older and higher head is still visible
above the arch. This wall has one and the three other
walls two original windows, each of two square-headed lights and set in a round-headed external wallrecess or outer order; the S. windows are now
blocked. The 17th-century cross-wall has two fireplaces with heavy chamfered lintels and on the S. face
are two cartouches of the arms of Clifford and Vipont.
The ceiling retains some chamfered beams. The
third stage has, in each wall, two windows similar to
those in the stage below; those on the S. are blocked,
and between the heads, internally, is a 12th-century
mask-corbel. In the 17th-century cross-wall are two
fireplaces on each face, similar to those below, and the
ceiling has exposed beams. The fourth stage was
divided into two storeys, probably in the 17th century,
but the intermediate floor has been removed. The
lower parts of the E. and W. walls retain the weatherings
of the original roof before the later 12th-century
heightening; it was formed of two pents with a central
valley; the N. and S. walls have a row of internal corbels
at the level of the first parapet and corresponding to a
regular course of upright stones on the external face.
Above the former valley in both the E. and W. walls
are two square-headed windows probably of the
17th century. The 17th-century cross-wall has one
fireplace in each face with stone curbs, and at the E. end
of the wall is a doorway with a flat arch in a square
head. The upper part of the stage is unlit, but was
formerly floored, as some beams remain in the N.
chamber, and there are two fireplaces in the cross-wall.
The existing roof is perhaps of the 18th century, but
below it are the corbels of an earlier roof which may
equate with the remains of an earlier crenellation
below the existing parapet and visible externally.
The tower contains a number of 17th-century panelled
doors and the two S. angles contain spiral staircases,
continued up to the roof, where the newels terminate
in 13th-century shafts with moulded capitals and
bases and supporting round or pointed arches; the
turret-doorways have shouldered heads; the two
other turrets, much restored, have steps leading up to
the lanterns with capitals and bases to the newels;
the lanterns themselves are probably of 1784, the date
on the vanes. The parapets are embattled and have
loops in the merlons.
The House forms an L-shaped block at the E. end
of the enclosure. It is mainly of two storeys with
basement and attics. The late 17th-century W. front
(Plate 68) is ashlar-faced with a cornice between the
storeys and below the plain parapet, which is pierced
for balusters over the door-bay. The windows were
formerly each fitted with a stone mullion and transom,
now removed and replaced by sash-windows; between
the side windows are narrow pilasters. The central
doorway has a moulded architrave, flanking pilasters
supporting carved consoles and a broken and scrolled
pediment. The windows in the basement are probably of c. 1651–3 re-set, as many of the stones bear
assembly-numbers; they have beaded edges and
moulded labels continued as a string-course. The
dormer-windows of the attics have straight or curved
pediments. The canted end of the S. wing has been
much altered and is now largely modern; it contains a doorway, on the angle, probably of mediæval
date and with moulded jambs and triangular head;
there is also a window with a pointed head and panelled
spandrels bearing the initials and date A.P. 1671.
The N.W. wing was built probably c. 1695 and has a
cornice between the storeys and below the plain parapet.
The windows of the basement have been altered for
sashes and have moulded labels continued as a string-course. The ground-floor windows appear to have
been replaced in modern times, but the upper windows
are similar to those on the main W. front; they have
beaded edges and architraves. All these ranges are
built against the outer wall of the castle, which is of
earlier date. At the S. end the outer walls and probably the thick internal wall on the N. formed parts
of a 15th-century tower; the outer walls have a
moulded plinth and the original ashlar face extends up
to the top of the ground floor; above this the walling
is later. On the S. front is a projecting garde-robe
with a loop-light and finished with corbelling at the
first floor level as though for a parapet. The second
storey on the E. has a square-headed 15th or 16th-century window with moulded reveals and the line of
a round arch above. The adjoining walling to the
N. of the tower is probably partly a late 17th-century
re-construction and contains two windows similar
to the lower windows on the W. front of the same block.
There are three windows in the upper floors similar
to those below and two blocked windows. Further
N. is a late 12th-century doorway set in a splayed
projection; it has a round arch and a portcullis-groove
with a recessed round-headed arch above, probably
of two orders. The lower walling to the N. as far as
the former N.E. tower is probably of late 12th-century
date except for a length of 10 ft. in the middle which
is of later ashlar; the windows are similar to those
to the S. of the doorway. The former 15th-century
N.E. tower is ashlar-faced in the two lower storeys
and of later walling above; it has a moulded plinth
which is stepped up over the earlier walling at the S.
end. On the E. front is a mediæval loop-light and on
the N. front are two loops contrived in the blocked
opening of an earlier and probably 16th-century
window; other windows are similar to those on the
E. front. A straight joint indicates the former extent
of this tower towards the W., and near it is a grotesque
gargoyle or corbel. The walling (Plate 67) between
the N.E. tower and the round tower is of uncertain date,
but perhaps of the 13th century in the lower part, with a
late 17th-century heightening above. The windows
are similar to those on the other side of the range.
The 13th-century Round Tower is ashlar faced and has
a battering plinth; the upper part is a later mediæval
heightening, and the parapet is probably of the 18th
century; the weather-vane on the roof is dated 1779.
The lower windows are probably 17th-century insertions, but on the top floor is a 16th or 17th-century
window of four lights with a moulded label; this same
floor has also a mediæval garde-robe projection.
Appleby Castle, Basement Plan of the Main Building and North West Wing
Interior—The Basement of the main block has a
doorway between the main room and the kitchen
with a late 17th or early 18th-century architrave and
panelled door. The scullery in the S.E. tower retains
the mediæval shouldered lintels of the two E. windows.
The three rooms to the W. have segmental vaults
probably not earlier than the 17th century. The
cross-wall at the E. end of the N.W. wing contains
a 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and
hollow-chamfered three-centred head; farther N.
in the same line is a 16th or 17th-century doorway
with chamfered jambs and square head; the position
of the rebates of these doorways indicates that the
earlier N.W. range was only half the width of the
existing one. Below the room in the N.E. tower is
a cellar with a segmental vault. The parlour in the
N.W. wing has a dado of mid 17th-century panelling,
and the kitchen has a large late 17th-century fireplace
with rusticated stone jambs and three-centred arch.
The late 17th-century main staircase (Plate 56), rising
from the basement to the first floor, has twisted
balusters, square newels with turned pendants and
moulded rails and strings; against the walls is a
bolection-moulded dado. The Ground Floor contains
the Great Hall in the main block. This rises into the
top storey, the upper windows being dummies. The
walls are lined with bolection-moulded panelling with
dado and cornice; the coved ceiling is probably
modern. On the inside of the modern entrancedoor is an old oak lock. The corridor leading to the
Baron's Chamber has some enriched panelling dated
1622. The room N. of the hall is said to have been
the Chapel; in the S. wall is a 15th-century niche or
recess with a trefoiled head. The adjoining corridor
has a dado of re-used late 17th or early 18th-century
panelling. The Dining Room, in the N.E. tower, is
lined with panelling similar to that in the hall; the
passage-way in the S.W. angle has some re-used early
17th-century panelling. The doorways in the N.W.
wing have moulded architraves and panelled doors.
On the first floor, the Evidence Room has an overmantel, perhaps of the 17th century, with a panel carved
with a humorous subject. The State Bedroom is
lined with 17th-century tapestry. There are also
several late 17th-century doors and some panelling of
the same period. In a lumber-room is an iron fire-back
with the Stuart arms and the initials C.R. The upper
part of the Round Tower has a staircase in the thickness
of the wall and a garde-robe.
The Curtain Wall, W. of the N.W. wing, is of rubble
and re-used material, and is perhaps of the 17th century.
The existing gateway no doubt occupies the site of the
former gatehouse, and the solid block of masonry on
the W. side may be part of that structure; it retains
part of the plinth on the N. face. Adjoining it on the
W. is a 17th-century building probably built by Lady
Anne Clifford as a Brewhouse; the upper storey is
probably an addition. The original doorway has a
triangular arch in a square head, and there is a window,
probably of the same age, in the N. wall. From the
end of this building the curtain runs westwards to
encircle the keep. The portion forming part of the
adjoining late 18th-century building is a reconstruction
with the old materials and within the original line.
Beyond this the wall is probably of the 15th century,
and is of rough ashlar with a plinth extending round
the first buttress. Farther on the wall is built in a
series of short lengths and is of rough ashlar below,
probably of late 12th-century date, and later work
above; the next buttress is probably of the 17th or
18th century. Between this and the next buttress,
which is modern, the wall is of rough late 12th-century
ashlar built in short lengths, and in the short length
to the fourth buttress is a joint in the masonry, the
facing beyond being rubble; this rubble work is
continued to within 15 ft. of the re-entrant angle S.E.
of the keep, where the ashlar-faced late 12th-century
walling begins again; it seems probable that this rubble
work is 17th-century repair. The rest of the curtain
contains much ashlar-faced work, but has been repaired
or re-built in the E. part in rubble. Two semi-circular
towers are shown projecting from it in a plan of 1754;
both have now gone, but their positions are indicated by
the two existing doorways through the wall; traces of
the circular internal face of the western tower are still
visible, but as the more easterly doorway is not earlier
than the 17th or 18th century, the existence of a tower
here is doubtful. The length of wall adjoining the
house has a chamfered plinth and a hollow-chamfered
cornice; there was formerly a two-storeyed building,
against the inner face, of which the floor-corbels
remain; there is a tall square-headed window in this
wall and low down a series of recesses on the inside
The Earthworks of the castle itself consist of a deep
ditch enclosing both the keep platform and the bailey,
the E. end of which, however, is protected only by
the steep slope to the river. The ditch on the S. side
is 29 ft. below the base of the curtain. The interior
has been levelled and altered at various times, but it
appears probable that the original work was of the
motte and bailey type, the ditch of the motte being
continued round its E. side. If so, this part of the
ditch has been completely filled in and the motte has
probably been lowered in height. A causeway now
gives access to the gateway. To the N.W. of the keep
was an outer bailey of which the enclosing rampart
and ditch (13 ft. deep below the top of the inner
rampart) remain on the N.W. and S.W. sides. To the
N. of the gateway are two parallel banks with an
intervening ditch which extend to the scarp above the
river; their purpose is uncertain, but the plan of 1754
shows that the ditch formerly forked at the S.W. end.
On the S.W. side of the castle and the outer bailey
a long line of bank forms a narrow outer enclosure
and returns on the E. towards the house with an outer
ditch. Beyond it to the E. is a garden plot, probably
of later formation.
The Stables, standing in the outer bailey, were built
in 1652–3 by Lady Anne Clifford. They form a
quadrangle partly of one and partly of two storeys,
with entrances on the E. and W. sides; the walls are
of rubble. The openings have mostly been altered,
but a blocked archway on the N. front may be original.
Lady Anne's Bee-house is a small square building of
rubble with a pyramidal roof standing at the S.E. angle
of the plantation N. of the house. It is of two storeys
and appears to retain an original doorway and window.
b(4). St. Anne's Hospital, almshouse, on the E.
side of Boroughgate, 250 yards S.S.E. of St. Lawrence's
church, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and
the roofs are slate-covered. It was founded in
1652–3 by Lady Anne Clifford for a superior and twelve
'sisters.' It has been much altered, and the upper
storey, as such, is modern. One tenement on the E.
side has been removed and another has been re-built.
The building forms a quadrangle entered on the W.
side and with a chapel in the N.E. angle. The larger
tenement in the S.E. angle was probably built as
a common Hall. The W. front (Plate 72) has a
central archway with chamfered jambs and segmental
head; above it is a panel with a brass inscription
and two shields of the arms of Clifford impaling
Vipont and Clifford impaling Russell; the inscription runs: "This Almes House was founded and
begun to be built in the year 1651 and was finished
and endowed with . . . for the yearly mayntenance
of a mother a reader and twelve sisters for ever
in 1653 by Anne Baronesse Clifford Cumberland
and Vescy Lady of the hon' of Skipton in Craven
and Countesse Dowager of Pembroke, Dorsett and
Montgomery." The windows are modern, but some
retain the jamb-stones of the earlier and lower windows.
Towards the courtyard (Plate 72) the nine original
doorways have chamfered jambs and flat four-centred
arches in square heads. The four small windows in the
W. range are probably original, and above the inner
archway are two shields similar to those over the outer
archway. A number of shields in panels are set in
the wall-faces as follows: (a) Sackville impaling
Clifford, (b) Herbert impaling the same, (c) Vipont
impaling Bewley, (d) Vipont impaling Ferris, (e) Vipont
impaling Fitz Piers, (f) Clifford impaling Bromfleet,
(g) Clifford impaling St. John, and (h) Clifford impaling Dacre. Inside the building, the Chapel has a
segmental plaster ceiling and two round-headed windows in the E. wall. It retains the following fittings:
a framed chest with straps, locks and drop-handles;
on the lid in nail-heads is the inscription "A chest for
the Countesse of Pembrookes almeshouse at Appleby
1655"; five panels painted with the Creed, Lord's
Prayer and texts; a pulpit enclosed by two sides of
17th-century panelling and old desks with shaped
b(5). Market Crosses, standing at the S. and N.
ends of Boroughgate, are both of the same form.
The S. cross was erected probably late in the 17th
century, but the N. cross appears to be a later copy
of the 18th century. The S. cross consists of a pedestal
with cornice and base, standing on four steps and a
Doric column surmounted by a sundial block and
weather-vane. The pedestal has the later inscription
"Retain your Loyalty. Preserve your Rights." The
gnomons of the sundial are of fish-tail form, and on the
N. face of the block are painted the arms of the town.
The vane is dated 1836.
a(6). The Moot Hall, in Boroughgate, 90 yards
S.S.E. of St. Lawrence's church, is of two storeys.
The walls are probably of rubble and the roofs are
slate-covered. It may have been built late in the
16th century, though there is no evidence of this apart
from a stone with the date 1596 found in an adjoining
outbuilding now destroyed. The windows are all
of the 18th century and there is a bell-cote on the S.
gable. The re-set S. doorway has chamfered jambs and
a flat four-centred head; above it is the stone with the
date 1596 and the initials R.A.W. Inside the building
is some re-set panelling of c. 1600 and some later panelling said to have come from Kirkby Stephen.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys;
the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
a(7). House and shop (Plate 72), on the E. side of
Boroughgate opposite (6), is of three storeys. It was
built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but
the top storey with the two gables was added late in the
17th century. The front is ashlar-faced and has moulded
string-courses between the storeys terminating in ornamental stops. The original doorway has moulded
jambs and enriched imposts; the windows were
originally of stone, but all have been altered, except
those on the top floor which form graduated triplets
with arched heads to the lights and short labels. Some
original stone windows remain at the back. Inside the
building, the roof has three trusses, with tie-beams,
curved principals and collar-beams. A fireplace in the
N. wall has stone jambs and an elliptical arch.
Appleby, Map Showing Castle Earthworks & Town
b(8). House, on the W. side of Boroughgate,
200 yards S. of St. Lawrence's church, is of three
storeys. It has been much altered, but retains an
original window and a doorway with moulded jambs,
carried up to form an embattled enrichment on the
face of the lintel. Inside the building are some original
a(9). Post Office, 80 yards N. of (8), is modern, but
re-set on the front is a panel with the date and initials
1673 W. and I.W.
a(10). Slapestone House, on the W. side of Battlebarrow, 220 yards N.N.E. of St. Lawrence's church,
has been much altered, but retains a two-storeyed porch
with a low gable; the outer archway has moulded
jambs, round arch and enriched imposts; it is flanked
by enriched and fluted columns supporting an enriched
a(11). Cottage, 50 yards N. of (10), retains a doorway
with moulded jambs and flat four-centred arch in a
square head (Plate 30) with the initials and date I.E.L.
a(12). The Friary, 100 yards N. of (11), is modern,
but stands on the site of a house of White Friars founded
in 1281. Set in the S. end of a barn is part of the head
of a 14th-century window.
a(13). Appleby Grammar School, 630 yards N.N.W.
of St. Lawrence's church, is modern but incorporates
a doorway from the old building in the town, now
destroyed. The school was founded in 1574. The
doorway has moulded jambs and segmental arch,
with two arched sinkings on the face of the lintel; it
is flanked by enriched pilasters supporting a cornice
above which is an inscribed panel and pediment.
The inscription runs "In perpetuum usum archididascali impensis Tho. Smith, S.T.P." and on the lintel the
words "et Ran. Sanderson A.M. 1671."
Nearby are preserved a number of pseudo-Roman
inscriptions, collected by Reginald Bainbridge c. 1602
and largely his own work. Others of the same series
are built into a wall in Chapel Street.
a(14). Castle Bank, house, 220 yards S. of the castle,
is of two storeys with attics. It has been largely re-built
and enlarged, but incorporates a 17th-century building
at the N.W. end.
a(15). Stables, on the E. side of The Sands, 250 yards
S.E. of St. Lawrence's church, are modern but incorporate two stones with the initials and date T. and M.L.
a(16). Cottage, formerly Queen's Inn, 50 yards S.E. of
(15), has a window with the date 1692.