10 BOLTON (E.b)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)VIII, N.E., (b)IX, S.W.)
Bolton is a parish and small village 4 m. N.W. of
Appleby. The church and Bewley Castle are the
b(1). Parish Church of All Saints (Plate 10),
formerly a chapel of Morland, stands on the N.E. side
of the parish. The walls are of rubble with sandstone
dressings and the roofs are slate-covered. The Nave
and the former W. tower were built in the second half
of the 12th century, the tower being rather later than
the nave. The Chancel was lengthened and probably
re-built at the end of the 12th century. At some
uncertain period the E. wall of the former tower was
removed and the roof of the nave continued over the
lower part of the tower. The existing bell-turret
was perhaps built in the 17th century when the chancel
walls were raised; there is record of a small sum spent
on the church in 1678. The South Porch was added
probably in the 18th century and the church was
restored in 1848.
Bolton - Parish Church of All Saints
The church retains 12th-century doorways of some
interest and among the fittings the carved panel and the
font are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (26 ft. by
12 ft.) has a three-light E. window, largely modern
except for the 14th-century moulded label; N. of it are
one jamb and the round head of a single-light window
of the 12th century. The gable has a 17th-century
finial. In the N. wall is a late 12th-century window
of one round-headed light. In the S. wall are four
windows; the first is similar to that in the N. wall;
the second and third windows are each of one pointed
light and probably of the 13th century; the fourth
window is a 'low-side,' square and with double-chamfered reveals; it is of the 14th or 15th century;
under the second window is a square-headed doorway,
probably of the 17th century. The chancel-arch is
semi-circular and of one plain order; it is of uncertain
date, but perhaps of the 17th century. The gable above
has a 17th-century finial.
The Nave (46 ft. by 17¾ ft. and 15¼ ft. in the W. part)
has, in the N. wall, a mid to late 12th-century doorway
(Plate 12) with a round arch of two orders, the inner
plain and continuous and the outer moulded and springing from enriched cushion-capitals with moulded and
diapered abaci; the shafts are missing but the bases
remain; the moulded label has billet-ornament; the
doorway is partly blocked and now forms a window.
In the S. wall are three round-headed windows all
probably of the 18th century, but the middle one incorporating earlier material; the S. doorway is of the same
date as, and generally similar to, the N. doorway; it
retains one of its shafts, the label has a rosette enrichment, and flanking the capitals are low relief carvings
of a man with two axes and a winged figure; the E.
capital has mouldings cut at a later date. In the W. wall
are two 14th-century windows, each of one trefoiled
light in a square head with a type of dog-tooth enrichment on the outer edge of the lintel. The square
bell-turret is gabled to the E. and W.; each face has
a square-headed opening, those on the S. and W. of
two lights; the turret rests on a plain round arch
within the W. end of the nave.
Fittings—Bells: two, both by W. Scott of Wigan,
1693. Chest: In nave—framed chest with plain sides
and cambered lid, three hinges, probably 16th-century.
Font: hemispherical bowl (Plate 44) on square pedestal
with chamfered capping and base. Conical wooden
cover with moulded ribs forming panels and turned
finial; on lower part, initials and date T.G., W.H.
1687. Glass: In chancel—in second S. window,
shield-of-arms probably of Derwentwater, 15th-century.
Monument: In churchyard—on S. wall of nave, externally, stone effigy (Plate 63) probably of woman, in
long cloak with head on cushion, 14th-century, much
defaced. Panelling: At W. end of church—refixed
17th-century panelling, also newels of staircase of same
period. Plate: Includes tankard, flagon and plate, all
of pewter and probably of the 18th century. Poor-Box:
In nave—small box cut from top of balk of wood
inscribed "The pour man's box and church wardens'
seat I.L., R.C. 1634." Sundials: In churchyard—sundial
of 1746–7 on a splayed stone base, perhaps that of a
former cross. On S.W. angle of nave—small scratchdial. Miscellanea: In nave—on N. wall, framed wood
tablet with inscription recording bequest of William
Bowness, 1709–10. Over N. doorway—12th-century
panel (Plate 5) carved with two armed and mounted
men with kite-shields and lances charging one another,
also a much decayed slab with remains of an inscription of same period, apparently commemorating a
certain Lurren (Laurence ?) de Weredun. In church—
octagonal bowl with drain, date and purpose uncertain.
b(2). Bewley Castle (Plate 80), ruin on the S. edge
of the parish, 1½ m. S.S.E. of the church, was formerly
of three storeys; the walls are of rubble and ashlar.
The castle was formerly a residence of the bishops of
Carlisle and the surviving remains seem to date very
largely from the 14th century. The house, including
the chapel and Lord's chamber, was restored by Bishop
Strickland in 1402. The house subsequently passed to
the families of Machell and Musgrave. The remains
consist of the lower part of one range with a tower at
its S.W. angle and still standing to the lower part of
the third storey. There are traces of adjoining buildings on the N. and N.W. of the surviving range. The
N. end of the range was cut off by a cross-wall and had
a barrel-vault, the springing of which remains on the
N. wall; there are remains of single-light windows
in the N. and E. walls of this apartment. Immediately
to the S. there appears to have been a large recess or
window in the E. wall and against the S. splay is a doorjamb in a second cross-wall, now removed. Near
the S. end of the wall is a single-light window with a
depressed rear-arch. In the S. end of the range is a
square-headed window, formerly of two lights, and
above it is a window of two trefoiled lights with
window-seats; both have lost their mullions; at the
S.W. angle are the remains of a garde-robe turret.
The S.E. tower has a barrel-vaulted ground storey
with a loop in the E. wall and a garde-robe turret on
the S.E. The room is entered by a doorway with a
four-centred head. The second storey has a 14th-century window in the E. wall, of two trefoiled lights
with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded
label and in the S. wall is a square-headed window.
The top storey is largely destroyed but has remains
of two door-jambs on the S. wall. At the N. end of
the range an adjoining building on the W. had a
barrel-vault, of which the springing remains on the
wall of the range.
Bewley Castle, Bolton
Condition—Ruined and roofless.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys;
the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered.
Some of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
b(3). Cottage, on the W. side of the road 630 yards
S. of the church, retains some original windows.
b(4). Fell View, cottage, 220 yards N.N.W. of (3),
has a re-set lintel with the initials and date I.F. 1689.
The stone staircase is set in a semi-circular projection.
b(5). House, 20 yards N.W. of (4), has been
heightened. The lintel of the doorway has the initials
and date H.W. 1666 and the same date and initials
are cut on the lintel of the stable doorway. Inside
the building is a two-stage cupboard of the local type
with projecting top, pendants and the initials and date
b(6). House, 100 yards S. of the cross-roads in the
b(7). Elm house, 140 yards N.N.W. of (6), retains a
door with ornamental strap-hinges.
b(8). House, two tenements, on the E. side of the
road, 300 yards W. of the church, has an original
doorway with the initials and date T.O.B. 1692 on the
b(9). Cottage, 100 yards N.N.W. of (8).
b(10). House, 40 yards N.N.W. of (9), has an original
doorway with the initials and date R. and A.I. 1678
and rosettes on the lintel.
a(11). Peatgate, house, about 1¼ m. W.N.W. of the
church, was re-built in the 18th century but incorporates a lintel with the initials and date I.S. 1607 or