12 BROUGH (G.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. XVI, S.E.)
Brough is a parish and village 8 m. S.E. of Appleby.
The Roman station, the church and the castle are the
(1). Fort (Verterae) is situated 150 yards N.W. of
the church on a high bluff overlooking Swindale Beck.
To the N. the ground falls steeply to the beck; to the
E. and W. the slope is slight; to the S.W. and S. the
slope is steep with marsh 100 yards S. of the S. rampart.
The N. half of the fort is occupied by Brough Castle.
The longer axis is N. to S. and the internal dimensions
are about 130 yards by 85 yards, giving an internal
area of nearly 2½ acres. The N. and E. gates are
entirely obscured by mediæval work; a gap in the
W. rampart just S. of the middle marks the probable
site of the W. gate; there is a causeway across the
ditch at this point, but part of it at least is modern
tip; about 20 yards E. of the middle of the S. side a
slight depression in the rampart and a corresponding
interruption of the ditch suggest a possible site for
the S. gate. The rampart is distinguishable on the
W. side and at the S.W. angle; elsewhere it has been
robbed or overlaid by mediæval work. There are
surface indications of a single ditch which has been
partly widened in mediæval times, but near the S.E.
corner and along the S. side it may retain its Roman
profile. No internal buildings are visible. In excavating below the Keep, H.M. Office of Works found
traces of one or possibly two rectangular buildings
of Roman date, presumably barracks.
Brough Castle, Roman & Mediaeval Earthworks
Finds of pottery and stonework of the Roman period
have been made by H.M. Office of Works in repairing
the Castle. Of the pottery, two sherds date from the
Flavian period and a few from the second and third
centuries; the majority, however, belong to the late
fourth century. The stones include fragments of two
uninscribed altars and of two columns and two querns.
In the last century (c. 1855–75) many fibulæ and other
bronze objects were recovered from the bed of the
river; others were found in cutting a watercourse
near the Castle; a large number of lead seals were
found at the same time. There is an inscribed slab
in the church porch and a tombstone from Brough,
with a Greek inscription, in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
The following coins have been found: Republican, 1; Vespasian, 2; Julia Titi, 1; Domitian, 4;
Nerva, 1; Trajan, 4; Hadrian, 4; Faustina II, 1;
Crispina, 1; Gallienus, 2; Claudius II, 2; Victorinus (?), 1; Tetricus I (?), 1; Constantine I,
3; Constans, 1; Theodosius I (?), 1; Uncertain
fourth century, 1; Barbarous and uncertain radiate, 2.
(Now in Brit. Mus.)
Brough Castle, Roman Foundations Under Keep
[See: For inscriptions: C.I.L., vii, 1269 (lead
seals); Eph. Epig., vii, 951–2; Journ. of Rom. Studies,
xiv, 219. Finds; Pottery: C. and W. Trans. N.S.
xxvii, 224; xxx, 81 ff; xxxiv, 217. Small objects:
Proc. Soc. Ant., iii, 222; iv, 129; N.S. iii, 256; vii,
19, 142; C. and W. Trans., viii, 205; N.S., xxx, 81;
Journ. of Rom. Studies, xiv, 219; Lead seals, C. and
W. Trans. N.S., xxxv.]
Condition—Of earthworks, fairly good, probably
much altered in the Middle Ages.
Brough, The Parish Church of St Michael
(2). Parish Church of St. Michael (Plates 9, 82)
stands S.E. of the castle. The walls are of sandstone rubble and ashlar, and the roofs are covered
with lead. The Nave was built about the middle
of the 12th century, but seems then to have extended
only as far as the fifth pier from the W. The
Chancel was built or re-built probably c. 1300, and
late in the 14th century the N. arcade of the nave was
built and a N. aisle added; soon after, the N. arcade
of the chancel was built, and subsequently the two
arcades were joined up by an additional arch. Much
work was done in the church early in the 16th century;
the West Tower is said to have been added in 1513, and
perhaps about the same time the North Aisle and Chapel
were re-built and widened and the S. wall of the nave
extended one bay to the E.; about the same time or
soon after the chancel was remodelled or re-built,
except the N. wall. The church was restored in
1880 and the North Vestry and South Porch are
Architectural Description—The Chancel (33 ft. by
17 ft.) has a 16th-century E. window of three elliptical-headed lights in a square head with a moulded label.
In the N. wall is a 14th-century doorway to an earlier
and also to the modern vestry; it has moulded jambs
and round head; farther E. is a skewed window of
the same date looking into the chancel; it is of one
square-headed light and has a 17th-century wooden
shutter. The N. arcade is described under the nave.
In the S. wall are three 16th-century windows, the
easternmost is similar to the E. window; the other
two windows are similar but of two lights and have
each a shouldered rear-arch; below the middle window
is a doorway of the same date; it has moulded jambs,
round arch and label with disc-stops; the face of the
arch is carved with running foliage. The chancel is
ashlar-faced and has no structural division between it
and the nave.
The Nave (71½ ft. by 23 ft. average) has, with the
chancel, a N. arcade of seven bays with two-centred
arches of two chamfered orders; the two easternmost
bays are of late 14th-century date, the four western
probably slightly earlier and the bay between is an
insertion probably of 15th or early 16th-century date;
the piers are octagonal and have moulded capitals
and bases; the E. respond has an attached half column
and the W. respond has a moulded corbel; the
inserted third arch is of irregular form, and the third
column is slighter than the others and is perhaps re-used
material from elsewhere. In the S. wall are six
windows in the lower range and one in the upper
range; the first window is probably of the 16th century
and is of two ogee lights in a square head with a
moulded label; above it is a window of the same age
and of two elliptical-headed lights in a square head
with a moulded label; the second and fifth lower
windows are of late 14th-century date and of two
trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with a moulded
label; the third window is similar but of three lights;
the early 16th-century fourth window is of one four-centred light with a moulded label, the stops of which
are carved with the initials Ihc and a capital M; the
12th-century sixth window is of one round-headed
light; the mid 12th-century S. doorway (Plate 12)
has a round arch of two moulded orders, the inner with
beak-heads and the outer with cheveron-ornament;
the label is defaced; the jambs have each a restored
shaft with cushion-capital and moulded base; the abaci
of the inner order have lozenge-enrichment.
The North Aisle (16½ ft. wide) has an early 16th-century E. window of two four-centred lights in a
square head with a moulded label. In the N. wall are
five early 16th-century windows, the easternmost
similar to the E. window but of three lights; the second
window is of three and the others of two ogee lights
in square heads with moulded labels; all have been
partly restored; the 16th-century N. doorway has
moulded jambs and round head. In the W. wall is a
window similar to the second window in the N. wall;
below it is a break in the masonry indicating the
extent of the earlier N. aisle.
The West Tower (12¾ ft. square) is of c. 1513 and of
three storeys without external division, ashlar-faced
and finished with an embattled parapet and anglepinnacles. The tower-arch is two-centred and of
three chamfered orders continued down the responds
to a high stop on the E. face. The W. window is of
two rounded lights and one ogee light with uncusped
tracery in a two-centred head, with moulded reveals and
label. The second stage has a plain loop-light in the
W. wall. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, two
windows each of two ogee lights in a square head with
a moulded label.
The Roof of the nave is probably of the 16th century,
considerably repaired; it is flat-pitched and of nine
bays with tie-beams and purlins. The flat pent-roof
of the aisle has chamfered main timbers; there is a
break in the roof opposite the second pier of the arcade;
the work is of 16th or 17th-century date.
Fittings—Altar: In pavement at E. end of nave—
slab with remains of two of the five consecration-crosses, mediæval. Bells: four; 1st dated 1687 with
initials of vicar and churchwardens; 3rd given by
Anne Countess of Pembroke, 1670, but recast in 1887;
4th with a corrupt black-letter inscription, probably
15th-century. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: Loose in
vestry—(1) to [Thomas] Blenkynsop and Katherine
his wife, 174, mutilated inscription only. In tower
—on N. wall, (2) to Joseph Fisher, M.A., vicar of the
parish and Archdeacon of Carlisle, 1704, inscription
only. Indents: In nave—three slabs with indents
of inscription-plates. Chair: In chancel—with turned
front legs, shaped arms and panelled back, late 17th-century. Churchyard Cross: S. of church—square
base and fragment of octagonal shaft, mediæval.
Coffin-lids: Incorporated in S. porch—two slabs with
crosses and shears and two with ornamental crossheads, probably late 13th-century. Communion Rails:
with turned balusters, top rail with initials and date
I.F. 1704, rails rearranged and adapted. Desk: In
tower—panelled with sloping top and square posts,
fluted rails to front, 17th-century. Door: In second
storey of tower—of plain battens with strap-hinges,
17th-century. Glass: In N. aisle—in second N. window (Plate 42), figure of St. John the Baptist, nimbed
and crowned female head, figure of bishop and attendant
priests, tabernacle work and fragment of inscription,
Crucifixion, shield with emblems of the Passion,
foliage and quarries with the initials Ihc and the monogram M.R., 15th-century. In vicarage—heads of
crowned woman, bishop, angels, roundel with falcon
and a shield-of-arms dated 1638. Monument and
Floor-slab. Monument: In churchyard—on E. wall
of chancel, to Thomas Gabetis, 1694, tablet with
entablature, pediment and scrolled bracket. Floor-slab: In nave—to Gabriell Vincent, steward of Lady
Anne Clifford, 1665–6. Niche: Over N. doorway—
rectangular recess cut in round-headed stone, date
uncertain. Panelling: Incorporated in reredos—a
number of 17th-century arcaded and enriched panels.
Pulpit: of stone (Plate 53), semi-octagonal, with
moulded under edge and plinth, date 1624 carved on
one face, but pulpit probably earlier. Seating: In
vestry—bench with one 17th-century shaped standard.
In N. aisle—two 17th-century stools and forming
lobby to N. doorway, high pew (Plate 60) with close
lower panels, upper part fitted with turned balusters,
head with inscription "Chr. Harison parochus et
rectoriæ firmari' S.S. fieri fecit Deo O.M. gratias in
ætern, 1682." Scratchings: On chancel and parts of
nave, N. aisle and tower, numerous masons' marks.
Miscellanea: In porch—slab with part of a Roman inscription. In vestry—detached gable-cross, mediæval.
(3). Brough Castle, ruins and earthworks, stands
within the N. part of the Roman station, the earthworks of which, deepened and altered, formed part of
its defences. The walls are of local rubble with sandstone dressings and ashlar. At the W. end of the
enclosure remains have been discovered of a tower
of herring-bone masonry apparently at a slight angle
with the existing keep. These remains were found in
1925 in sinking shafts within and without the existing
keep, and the points on the inner and outer faces then
uncovered seem to indicate a rectangular structure
with walls 15–16 ft. thick. A layer of black earth
intervened between these foundations and those of the
Roman building below them. The date of this
structure must remain uncertain, but the use of herringbone work indicates a date not much later than 1100.
The N. curtain-wall incorporates some herring-bone
masonry no doubt of the same period, and the line of
the existing curtains towards the W. indicates that they
were laid out when the earlier keep was still standing.
Other parts of the existing curtain may also belong to
this period though they show no herring-bone work.
The existing Keep dates probably from the last quarter
of the 12th century, after the taking of the castle by
William the Lion in 1174. Repairs are mentioned in
the Pipe Rolls of 1199–1201. The round S.E. tower
is probably an early 13th-century addition, and at the
same period a hall seems to have been built against
the E. curtain; the foundation of its W. wall has been
found under the courtyard; the Gatehouse was perhaps
built about the same time. Parts of the curtain
appear to be also of 13th-century date. The S.E.
range was built in the 14th century, and probably
in the 15th century the gatehouse was reconditioned
and a range added in front of the S.E. range. The
castle fell into ruin after a fire of 1521 and was repaired
by Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Pembroke, in
1660–2. At this date the S.E. tower and the S.W.
angle of the keep were largely re-built, the kitchens
added against the N. wall, the stables against the S.
wall and the range against the earlier S.E. range
largely re-built; the staircase to the great hall was also
re-built. After the death of the countess the castle
fell rapidly into decay; materials were removed from
it in 1695 and c. 1763; in 1792 the S.E. angle of the
keep fell. The S.W. angle of the keep fell in recent
years. The castle is now in the charge of H.M.
Office of Works.
The castle is an interesting example of one of the
smaller border fortresses, and retains much of its
The Keep (97½ ft. by 81 ft. externally), called the
Roman Tower in the 17th century, is a rectangular
structure (Plate 83) with clasping angle buttresses.
It is of three stages, the lowest of c. 1170 and the other
two of slightly later date. The N. wall stands over a
fragment of a structure probably part of the earlier
keep; the wall above it has been refaced; this wall has
a loop-light divided internally by a wedge-shaped block
of masonry perhaps inserted in the 17th century to
take the end of a partition; farther E. is a round-headed doorway, formerly giving access to a staircase
in the thickness of the N. wall, but now broken
through to the outside. Against the E. wall are
remains of the external staircase to the keep-entrance
at the first-floor level. The S. wall retains the jambs
of an inserted 17th-century fireplace, and in the W. wall
are remains of a 17th-century window. The second
stage has in the N. and S. walls original windows
altered externally in the 17th century and having square
heads; the mullion of the N. window has gone. In
the E. wall there are little or no traces of the main
doorway, which is represented by a gap in the wall.
In the W. wall is a 17th-century window with remains
of the original window to the N. of it. The third
stage is approached by a staircase in the E. wall; in this
wall are traces of a window; in the N. wall is a partly
original window of two round-headed lights in a square
outer order. The window in the S. wall is perhaps
also original; it is of two square-headed lights with
semi-circular outer orders or arches springing in the
middle from a pier with attached shafts and a plain
capital. There are remains of an original window in
the W. wall. The top stage was originally occupied
by the gabled roof of the tower which ran E. and W.
with the ridge just below the parapet; the marks of
this roof remain on the E. and W. walls. The stage
was later formed into a fourth storey with a flat roof;
there are remains of windows in both the E. and W.
walls. The S.W. angle of the keep, re-built in the 17th
century, has almost completely fallen; the S.E. angle
has been mostly reconstructed with the old materials
and there is a broad gap in the adjoining E. wall, from
top to bottom. Remains survive of three of the small
The Curtain-wall between the keep and the gatehouse survives in part and against it on the inside was
a range of building probably the stables built by Lady
Anne Clifford in 1662; the walls are standing up to
about 2½ ft. high. The Gatehouse is standing in part
some 35 ft. high and was of three storeys. It is a
13th-century structure with a pair of 15th-century
buttresses on the outward face brought to a V-shaped
end. Both the outer and inner arches of the gatehouse have been destroyed, but the W. springing of
the inner arch remains, with the springing of three
ribs of a barrel-vault. The E. wall encloses a staircase
which apparently superseded an earlier staircase, which
was filled in when the later stairs were built. There
is a 16th or 17th-century fireplace in the W. wall of
the top floor. The abutments of the former drawbridge over the moat have been found but are not now
visible. The curtain-wall, E. of the gatehouse, forms
part of the 14th-century S.E. range which contained
the great hall and a range of cellars beneath it. The
three cellars had barrel-vaults of which only that over
the W. chamber remains complete; the two western
chambers have each a garde-robe in the curtain wall
and an angle-fireplace of 17th-century date; the E.
chamber has a loop in the S. wall and a wall-staircase
entered by a doorway in the N. wall; the adjoining
14th-century doorway retains the shouldered corbels
of its former lintel. The E. wall of this chamber is
presumably earlier than the rest of the range as it
retains parts of a plinth on the W. face. The Great
Hall above this range of cellars retains only its S. wall
with two 14th-century windows each of two trefoiled
ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with
a moulded label; the mullions and parts of the tracery
are missing; near the E. end of the wall is a single-light square-headed window and remains of a garderobe. Above the hall was a third storey which
retains the openings of two windows; Buck's view
shows these to have been of two foiled and transomed
lights in square heads; at the E. end of the wall are
remains of a garde-robe over the one in the floor below.
The S.E. Tower or Clifford's Tower (Plate 84) is of
semi-circular form with a three-stage plinth. It is perhaps of the 13th century largely reconstructed by the
Countess Anne. The ground stage is entered by a
doorway altered in the 17th century; there is an
original loop towards the S.W., but the three other windows are all of the 17th century, formerly of two lights
with square heads and moulded labels; all the mullions
are missing and the head of the middle window with
the whole of the walling above it. On the N. side are
remains of a fireplace. The second and third stages
each retain a 17th-century window similar to those
below and the second stage has remains of an original
loop towards the S.W., destroyed by a 17th-century
window, and traces of a second loop towards the N.E.
The triangular room at the back of this tower has a
loop-light in the S. wall. The room against the E.
curtain to the N. has a 13th-century W. wall and remains of a fireplace in the E. wall; the N. wall is
probably of the 15th century and forms part of the
range restored by the Countess Anne on the inner face
of the S.E. or hall-block. This range has remains of
a plinth probably of the 15th century; it is standing
to no great height and the openings are much ruined;
in the third chamber from the W. is the lower part
of the 17th-century staircase leading up to the hall.
Part of the E. curtain, adjoining the S.E. tower,
stands to a considerable height and is much reddened
as though by the action of fire. The N. curtain stands
from 8–10 ft. high, but has been stripped of much of
its external facing. In the core of the eastern part
is a considerable stretch of masonry set herring-bone
fashion; this is probably of earlier date than the
rest of the walling, and if so must have been ruined
before the later facing was added. The various projections for buttresses and garde-robes are sufficiently
indicated on the plan. The curtain N.W. of the keep
retains remains of a staircase. The Kitchen, bake and
brew houses, built by the Countess Anne against the
N. curtain, now stand little above the foundations.
The kitchen on the E. had a large fireplace in the E.
wall and a fireplace or furnace in the W. wall with an
oven at the back. The Courtyard is unevenly paved
with rough sandstone, set out in large squares and
rectangles bounded by straight bands of stone.
The Earthworks are an adaptation of the defences
of the Roman station (q.v.), probably deepened and
widened. The actual castle has been further defended
by a ditch cut across the enclosure immediately S.
of the S. wall and having an irregular outer bank. To
the E. of the castle is a roughly triangular enclosure
with a ditch on the E. and S. and a square sinking in
the middle. To the W. of the castle are two enclosures
formed by banks and ditches carried across the crest
of the spur on which the castle stands.
Condition—In charge of H.M. Office of Works and
(4). Market Cross, on the S. side of Upper Market
Street about 150 yards E. of the Kirkby Stephen road,
consists of a mediæval octagonal to square stone base
on three steps and an 18th-century shaft, capping and
ball-finial. The shaft has the initials and date B.M.C.
1331, also of the 18th century.
(5). Old Hall, on the S. side of Market Street,
150 yards W. of the Kirkby Stephen road, is of two
storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are
slate-covered. It was built probably early in the
17th century and retains some original stone windows.
The doorway has moulded jambs and square head
with a drip-stone. Inside the building is a fireplace
with a moulded cornice or shelf. The outbuilding W.
of the house is probably also of the 17th century.
(6). House, 25 yards E.S.E. of (5), is practically
modern but incorporates a doorway with cusped
shoulders to the lintel and a carved wreath above with
the initials and date I.P. 1675. Inside the building
is an enriched 17th-century panel, probably of plaster.
(7). House, 50 yards E.S.E. of (6), is modern but
incorporates a panel with the initials and date I. and
(8). Cottage, formerly the Grapes Inn, on the W.
side of Kirkby Stephen road, just S. of the main
street, is probably modern, but incorporates an enriched
door-head (Plate 30) with two arched panels and the
initials and date G.M. 1687.
(9). Rumney House, in Upper Market Street, 30
yards S.E. of the bridge, is modern, but incorporated
in an outbuilding are two stones, (a) carved with two
much weathered shields, probably Clifford quartering
Vipont and Blenkinsop quartering Salkeld, Vaux and
Hellbeck, with defaced letters below; the stone was
formerly on the Court House and dates probably from
the 16th century; (b) a door-lintel with the initials and
date I.K. 1676 A.K.
(10). Cottage, formerly the Bridge Inn, 250 yards
N.N.E. of the church, is probably modern, but incor
porated in an outbuilding is a doorway with the
initials and date R.W. 1691 (9 reversed) on the lintel.
(11). Lynchets, E. of the Hillbeck road and 1,000
yards N. of the church, are four in number and extend
for about 235 yards along a S. slope.