(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxvi. S.E. (b)xxvii. S.W.
(c)xxxi. N.E. (d)xxxii. N.W.)
a(1). Potsherds and Tiles, found on the
road to Muswell Hill, possibly indicate a dwelling-house on the site, but nothing is traceable
on the surface.
b(2). Parish Church of All Saints, stands
in the village, on a hill about 600 ft.
above O.D., and is built of limestone rubble,
with some ashlar work and some brick; the
aisles are covered with rough-cast, and the S.
porch is of timber. The roofs are tiled. The
Chancel and Nave were built c. 1120; the West
Tower was added early in the 15th century,
without destroying the W. wall of the nave.
Windows were inserted at different dates from
c. 1250 up to the 16th century. Early in the
17th century the chancel was re-roofed, and in
1888 it was lengthened about 5½ ft.; at the same
time the North and South Aisles and the South
Porch were built, and a new roof was added to
The 17th-century roof of the chancel is
worthy of note.
Architectural Description—The Chancel
(18 ft. by 15 ft.) has a modern E. window; over
it the former E. window, of late 14th or early
15th-century date, has been re-set in the gable,
and is of two trefoiled pointed lights with sunk
spandrels in a square head; the pointed segmental rear arch is chamfered; all the stone
has been re-worked. In the middle of the N.
wall is a small round-headed window of early
12th-century date, now blocked and visible only
externally; at the W. end of the wall is a single
trefoiled light with soffit-cusps, of c. 1280; it is
chamfered outside, and has widely splayed
inner jambs; the pointed segmental rear arch is
chamfered. In the S. wall is a window of two
lights, modern externally; the inner jambs and
rear arch were originally part of a 13th-century
single-light window; the arch has been widened
and has 16th or 17th-century voussoirs at the
apex: W. of the window is a pointed doorway
of a single chamfered order, probably of the
13th century. The original length of the chancel is marked by the E. truss of the 17th-century
roof and the difference in the walling. The
chancel arch, of c. 1250, is two-centred, and
has a small rebate cut on the E. edge for the
former wood tympanum; the label in the chancel is of the 12th century, re-used; the jambs are
chamfered and have moulded stops at the bases,
except on the N.W.; the N. abacus, of the 12th
century and re-used, is broken and has two
notches in it for the former rood-screen; the S.
abacus, part of the S. jamb, the plinths and
base-stops, except that on the S.E., are modern;
the arch is out of centre with both chancel and
nave. The Nave (58½ ft. by 21½ ft.) has modern
N. and S. arcades and a modern clearstorey. In
the W. wall, over the tower arch, is the semi-circular head of a 12th-century window. The
North Aisle (13½ ft. wide) is modern, but contains the following details, re-set from the walls
of the nave: the E. window, of c. 1270, is of four
pointed lights and tracery, all uncusped, in a
two-centred head; the jambs, mullions and
tracery are rebated for wood frames: the N.
doorway is of c. 1120, much restored; the
jambs, of two square orders, have detached
shafts with cushion capitals in the angles; the
semi-circular arch is of two orders, the outer
order moulded; the label is plain; the rear arch
is also semi-circular. The South Aisle (14 ft.
wide) is modern, but has the following re-used
details: the E. window, probably of early 16th-century date, is of two cinque-foiled lights
under a straight-sided depressed arch with an
external label; the external jambs have a wide
casement moulding: in the S. wall the third
window from the E. is of early 14th-century
date, and of two cinque-foiled lights with a sex-foiled triangular opening in a two-centred
head; the stonework, including the inner jambs
and rear arch, is moulded; five of the windows
in the aisles are modern copies of this window:
the S. doorway, of c. 1120, is similar to the N.
doorway, but has been less restored; the semi-circular rear arch is much higher than the outer
arch, which has a modern timber-framed
tympanum; the W. window is probably of
early 16th-century date, and of three cinque-foiled lights under a flat, depressed head; the
jambs and head are moulded. The South Porch
is modern. The West Tower (11 ft. by 11½ ft.)
is of two stages, the upper stage of two storeys;
it is very low in comparison with the nave, of
which the ridge is on a level with the parapet of
the tower; below the parapet is an original
moulded string-course with gargoyles; at the
W. angles are diagonal buttresses, and on the
N. and S. walls, against the W. wall of the nave,
are low, shallow buttresses. The 15th-century
tower arch is two-centred and of two chamfered
orders, the inner order resting on pointed
corbels, the outer dying into the jambs, which
are of one chamfered order, with stops at the
base. The W. window is of two cinque-foiled
lights with a sexfoil in a two-centred head,
and a moulded external label. In the N.
wall of the ground stage are traces of a former
doorway, now blocked with brick; it had a wood
lintel, but no stone jambs are visible, and it
is probably an 18th-century entrance to a
gallery. The walls above the ground stage are
set back a few inches. The ringing-chamber
has an 18th-century or modern window on the
S. side. The bell-chamber has four 15th-century windows, each of two cinque-foiled lights
with a sexfoil in a two-centred head; the mullion and heads of the lights in the W. window
are modern copies of the others, in oak. The
Roof of the chancel is of early 17th-century
date; the E. truss is at some distance from the
present E. wall (see Chancel), and has a cambered tie-beam, ornamented on the W. face,
and two curved struts from the tie-beam to the
purlins; the central truss is similar, but more
elaborate; in the middle is a semi-circular wood
arch, filled with five pierced tapering posts
which meet in the centre on a square carved
boss with a moulded pendant; on each side of
the arch, standing on a beam at the springing is
a similar pierced post; of the W. truss only the
two ends of the former tie-beam remain, with
two pointed brackets painted white; all the tie-beams are stop-chamfered, the cornices are
moulded; the collar-beam ceiling is plastered.
Fittings—Bells: five, modern, and sanctus,
by James Keene, 1624, inscribed round the lip
PE NEWMAN IER SERGEANT; bell-frame old.
Brass: In chancel—on S. wall, to John Hoode
and Mawde, his wife, inscription only, undated, early 16th-century. Communion Table:
in chancel, with turned legs and plain rails,
17th-century. Font: heptagonal bowl with a
quatrefoil and a flower or a shield on each side,
octagonal stem with trefoiled panel in each
side, moulded octagonal base, continued
towards the W. to form a platform, probably
late 14th-century. Glass: in head of third
window in S. aisle, old white glass, probably
14th-century. Painting: on soffit of the chancel
arch, on N. side, figure of St. Peter with tonsured head, red robe, holding key and book,
on S. side figure of St. Paul, holding book and
sword, 14th-century. Piscinæ: at E. end of S.
aisle, moulded head of pillar piscina in one
piece, with sill of recess, 15th-century, modern
octagonal shaft: further W. in S. aisle, in
recess (see below), W. jamb and moulded sill,
15th-century. E. jamb and round arch,
modern. Plate: includes cup and cover paten
of 1569; initial and date, B. 1570 on paten;
large cup and cover paten of 1689, inscribed
'Ex dono Roberti Hart armigeri de Brill in
comitatu Bucks, 1685', with arms above inscription. Recess: in S. aisle, high, shallow,
6 ft. wide, round arch, apparently 13th-century, re-set (see Piscinæ). Seats: in nave,
four, plain oak, possibly 14th-century: in
chancel, two, small, partly of similar old oak.
Miscellanea: at top of ladder to ringing-chamber in tower, balustrade, with ten turned
balusters and plain rail, c. 1630.
Condition—Good; windows of the bell-chamber and the upper part of tower, somewhat decayed; wheels and woodwork of bell-frame, poor.
b(3). The Manor House, about 300 yards
S.W. of the church, is of two storeys and an
attic, which is now disused and unlighted. The
walls are chiefly of brick, with stone dressings; the roofs are tiled. The plan of the E. or
front part of the house is E-shaped; the back
is peculiarly irregular, and advances in four
planes from S. to N., except on the ground
floor, where a modern addition makes the S.
wing level with the main block. The main block
contains the hall and smoking room; a small
wing at the back contains the main staircase;
in the S. wing is the drawing-room and a
second staircase; the N. wing contains the
dining room, kitchen and domestic offices. The
irregularity of plan seems to have been caused
by a building which existed on the N. part
of the site, and was of 16th-century or earlier
date; a few of the original timbers remain, but
the building was apparently re-modelled late in
the 16th century, the timber-framed walls
being encased almost completely in brick;
the S. wing seems to have been built after the
main block was completed. At some subsequent
period, probably in the 17th century, the roofs
were heightened, at least over the main block,
part of the shafts of the chimney stacks being
hidden by the tiles. Domestic offices were built
on the N.W., and many of the stone windows
altered, probably about 1757, the date on a
rain-water head at the S. end of the main block.
In the 19th century, in addition to the extension at the end of the S. wing, a bay window
was added to the drawing-room, a wide bay to
the dining-room, and the domestic offices were
Elevations—On the E. front nearly all the
original stone windows remain; many have been
blocked, and others partly altered for 18th-century and modern sash frames: in the middle
is a gabled porch of two storeys; the outer doorway, of late 16th-century date, has moulded
stone jambs, four-centred arch, and square
label. The N. side, towards the E. end, is
partly timber-framed; the filling is of late 16th-century brick; the original angle-post is covered
by the bricks which re-face the E. end of the
N. wing, showing that the post is of earlier
date than the bricks; on the first floor is an
original oak window frame; the rest of the
N. side is modern. On the S. side the S.
wing covers about half the S. end of the
main block, which is gabled, and has a projecting chimney stack of late 16th-century
brick; the gable has been heightened and has
a plain stone coping; on the first floor is a
blocked stone window. At the back the main
block has modern windows; the staircase wing
has, on the ground floor, a blocked stone
window, with a modern window above it, and
a stone coping. The W. end of the N. wing
is gabled; on the ground floor are two stone
windows with moulded square labels; one
window is of three lights, the other a single
light; on the first floor is a stone window
of two lights and a modern window, and in
the gable is a blocked window similar to the
others; the junction of the wing with the 18th-century extension is marked by a straight joint.
The chimney stack at the S. end of the main
block has two square shafts; over the N. end
is a single square shaft; two stacks, over the
E. and W. ends of the N. wing, have each three
square shafts; all are of brick, and apparently
of late 16th-century date.
Interior:—The hall and smoking room in the
main block have each a fireplace of coarse limestone, with moulded jambs, flat four-centred
arch, and moulded mantelshelf; in the ceilings
are chamfered beams and the smoking room has
oak panelling of c. 1630. The dining room also
has a stone fireplace, a 16th-century moulded
ceiling-beam, and is lined with late 16th-century oak panelling. On the first floor the
room over the hall is lined partly with late
16th-century and partly with 18th-century
panelling; the room over the smoking room has
a stone fireplace, the room over the kitchen has
a late 16th-century stone fireplace, the panelling and two doors are of the same date, one
has original plain hinges; a room on the E.
is lined with panelling of c. 1630, and has an
old door with a cock's head hinge; the room
over the dining room has a stone fireplace, late
16th-century panelling, a moulded oak cornice,
and an original door opening into the room at
the E. end of the N. wing, which has a dado
of late 16th-century panelling, and a stone fireplace with the original head and modern jambs.
The staircase wing has some original timber-framing visible in the upper part of the N.
wall. A 17th-century staircase from the first
floor to the attic has square turned balusters
and newel, and a moulded handrail.
b(4). The Manor Farm, ¼ mile S.W. of the
church, is of two storeys and an attic. It was
built in the first half of the 17th century, on
a rectangular plan, facing S.E.; in the 18th
century a wing was added at the back, making
the plan T-shaped; in the 19th century the
main block was extended towards the S.W.,
and the exterior was much altered. The original
walls are of limestone rubble with plinths and
flat pilasters of brick, but the original design of
the elevations is somewhat uncertain; gables
have been added, or altered to a curvilinear form,
and much of the house is hidden by creepers.
The roofs are tiled. The only old chimney stack,
on the N.W. side, is square with raked offsets,
and has square shafts set diagonally. The stone
gate-posts are original, and have moulded entablatures, small Tuscan pilasters, and pierced
finials on which are the remains apparently of
iron lamps or cressets.
Condition—Good; much altered.
b(5). Cottage, 150 yards E. of the church,
is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in
the roof. It was built probably in the 17th
century, and a small wing was added at the
back in the 18th century; the walls are of
brick, partly modern; the roof is tiled. The
central chimney stack is of old thin bricks.
b(6). Cottage, now three tenements, nearly
opposite the E. end of the church, is a 17th-century building of two storeys. The walls are
of brick, and have been almost completely refaced; the roof is tiled. The chimney stack is
of old bricks. Some of the ceilings have old
beams, and in one room is a wide fireplace,
b(7). The Swan Inn, opposite the church, is
of two storeys, built of brick on stone foundations late in the 17th century; the roof is tiled.
One chimney stack is of old thin bricks, and
under it is a wide, open fireplace with a
chimney-corner seat; in the bar parlour is some
late 17th-century panelling.
b(8). Sheds, two, in the grounds of Brill
House, 200 yards S.E. of the church, were built
early in the 17th century, and restored later in
the same century. The walls are of brick, and
one shed has an open timber roof. Part of the
saddle-room is also of 17th-century brick.
b(9–10). Cottages, two, adjoining, about 70
yards S.W. of the church, are of two storeys,
built of brick with some stone in the 17th century, and restored with modern brick; the roof
is tiled. The lower part of the chimney stack
is original. In one room is a wide, open fireplace, partly blocked, and some of the ceilings
have chamfered beams.
b(11–13). The Red Lion Inn, and two adjoining Cottages at the back of the inn, about 100
yards S.W. of the church, are of two storeys;
the walls are of brick; the roofs are tiled.
They were built in the 17th century; the inn
was re-fronted in the 18th century, and all
the buildings were restored in the 19th century. A chimney stack over the cottages is
b(14–15). Cottages, two, S.W. of the church,
are each of two storeys, the upper storey partly
in the roof. The first cottage, about 300 yards
from the church, was built of brick in the
17th century; the frame of the entrance doorway is original, and one of the chimneys is of
old thin bricks. The second cottage, now three
tenements, about 250 yards from the church,
was built in the middle of the 17th century,
and has a modern addition at the back; the
walls are of brick, restored and partly re-faced.
Both cottages have tiled roofs.
b(16). Cottage, now two tenements, at the
corner of the road about 120 yards S.W. of
the church, is of two storeys, the upper storey
partly in the roof. It was built probably in
the 17th century; the walls are of brick and
timber, that at the back having been re-faced;
the roof is tiled. There are two old chimneys,
each with an open fireplace.
b(17). Cottage, about 100 yards S.W. of the
church, is a 17th-century building of two
storeys and of central chimney type. The walls
are of brick, and have been partly re-faced; the
roof is tiled.
Main Street, W. side
b(18). House, 200 yards W. of the church, is
of two storeys, built of brick probably in the
17th century, and much restored in the 19th
century. The roof is tiled. The chimney
stack is of old thin bricks.
b(19). House, now two tenements, N.E. of
(18), is a two-storeyed building, probably of mid
17th-century date. The walls are of brick and
have been restored; the roof is tiled. The plan
is of the central chimney type. Some of the
windows are old.
b(20). House, N. of (19), is of two storeys,
built in the 17th century, but completely refaced with 18th-century brick; the roof is tiled.
The chimneys are of old thin bricks. Inside
the house is some 17th-century furniture, including a chair dated 1657, and a cupboard
Condition—Good, much restored.
b(21). Cottage, on the N.E. side of the road
to Muswell Hill, about 300 yards N.W. of the
church, is of two storeys. It has been almost
completely re-built with brick and the plan
much altered, but one timber-framed gable and
the central chimney stack, with two square
shafts set diagonally, are of c. 1600. The roof
b(22). Windmill, about 3/8 mile N.W. of the
church, is of late 17th-century date. The
'round-house' is built of red brick, and has a
tiled roof. The mill is constructed of heavy
timbers, and is completely covered with weather-boarding. The plan is rectangular. The two
end walls are curved to a slightly ogeed point;
the side walls follow this outline and are carried up to form the roof. Only the heavier
timbers of the sails are old. On a beam in the
lower part of the mill is carved; 'r c e (?) 68
(?) I C'. The first and last figures of the date
have been destroyed, but the lettering is of late
The windmill is interesting as one of the few
remaining 17th-century examples of that class
of building, and is still in full operation.
b(23). Cottages, on the Ludgershall road,
1½ furlongs N. of the church. One cottage, on
the E. side of the road, was built of timber and
brick c. 1600; the roof is tiled. It has been considerably altered, but a gable facing the road
retains some old framing. On the W. side is
an irregular range of brick cottages, almost
completely re-built; two of the cottages retain
the stumps of chimneys of c. 1600. The roofs
Condition—Fairly good; much re-built.
b(24). Temple Farm, about 1½ furlongs N. of
the church, is a 17th-century building of two
storeys. The walls are of brick and timber; the
roof is tiled. The plan is rectangular, with a
small, low wing on the N.W. and a lean-to
addition on the N.E. The upper storey retains
much of the original timber-framing, but has
been under-built with brick. The front is
gabled. Two of the chimney stacks have square
shafts set diagonally.
(25). Coldharbour Farm, about 1 mile N.E.
of the church, is a house of two storeys; the walls
are of brick with a little timber; the roof is
tiled. It was built in the 17th century, on an
L-shaped plan, but has been altered and
enlarged. Some of the ceilings have chamfered
d(26). Farmhouse (see Plate, p. xxx), about
1 mile S. of the church, is of two storeys; the
walls are of brick, with some stone; the roofs
are tiled. It was built about the middle of the
17th century, partly re-faced and enlarged in
the 18th and 19th centuries. The plan is of
modified H-shape, with the wings projecting
towards the E. and W. At the S.W. corner
a large barn has been built, and there are
modern outbuildings at the back. The N. or
main front is of 17th and 18th-century brick;
in the middle is a two-storeyed porch with
shallow pilasters at the sides and a semi-circular gable; towards the E. end is a projecting
bay with a pointed gable, and towards the W.
end is a gabled dormer window. The E. and W.
walls are almost entirely of 18th-century and
modern brick; on the E. side is a projecting bay
similar to that on the N. front, and on the E.
and W. sides the roof of the main block is
carried down to within a few feet of the ground.
The lower part of the S. wall is of stone, the
upper part of 18th-century brick. Some of the
windows are old, and one chimney stack is of
17th-century brick. On the ground floor some
of the rooms have chamfered beams in the
ceilings, and there is a wide fireplace, partly
Condition—Bad; now unoccupied and falling
c(27). Cottage, adjoining a modern tenement, 300 yards S.E. of Oakley Church, is a
small building of mid 17th-century date,
timber-framed, with brick filling; the roof
c(28). Little London Farm, 300 yards E. of
Oakley Church, is of two storeys, the upper
storey partly in the roof. It was built in the
17th century, but the walls have been re-faced
with modern brick; the roof is tiled. There is
an original chimney stack, restored, and under
it is an open fireplace, with an oven, partly
Condition—Good, much restored.
c(29). Cottage, a few yards N.W. of Little
London Farm, is of two storeys, the upper
storey partly in the roof, built in the 17th
century. The lower part of the walling is of
brick, the upper part is timber-framed, with
brick filling; in front are two gabled dormer
windows; the roof is tiled.
c(30). Cottage, now two tenements, on the
S.W. side of Little London Green, is of one
storey and an attic, built of timber and brick,
probably early in the 17th century; the roof
is thatched. Inside the cottage are two open
fireplaces, one partly blocked.
c(31). Cottage, N.W. of (30), is of two
storeys, built of brick in the 17th century, and
partly re-faced with modern brick; the roof is
c(32). Line of Entrenchment, N. of the
church, consists of a strong rampart and ditch,
and forms part of defensive earthworks probably
constructed at the time of the Civil war. Some
distance towards the N., further down the hill,
are traces of a second line.