Burnham

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1912

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69-79

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'Burnham', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1: South (1912), pp. 69-79. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=121025 Date accessed: 24 November 2014.


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15. BURNHAM.

(O.S. 6 in. (a) xlviii. S.W. (b)lii. N.E. (c)lii. S.E. (d)liii. N.W. (e)liii. S.W. (f)lv. N.E. (g)lvi. N.W.)

Pre-historic

d (1). Enclosure of simple plan, locally known as Seven Ways Plain, at the S. end of Burnham Beeches, stands on level ground about 220 ft. above O.D. and covers slightly over 3 acres. The work is of an irregular oval shape, and consists of a single dry ditch about 3 ft. deep and 38 ft. wide. Much of the E. part has been obliterated by a clay pit, and, in the present state of the work, nothing can be said as to the position of the entrances. The enclosure might be regarded as a small and poor example of a plateau camp.

Condition—Much denuded, only the ditch remains.

Ecclesiastical

c (2). Parish Church of St Peter, stands at the S.W. end of the village. The walls are almost entirely of flint with some clunch; the N. transept has a N. gable built of 17th-century brick, and part of the E. wall is of modern brick. The roofs are tiled, except those of the aisles, which are covered with lead. The South East Tower was built c. 1200, and was probably the first addition to a 12th-century cruciform church. The Chancel, Nave, and North Transept were re-built c. 1220, the nave being widened towards the N. and the chancel lengthened. A North Aisle of two bays was built c. 1230, and a little later a South Aisle was added, the S. transept being re-built and thrown into the aisle. Early in the 14th century the nave was lengthened towards the W., and, probably at the same time, the walls of the aisles and tower were raised; c. 1350 the aisles were lengthened, and an additional bay was added to each arcade, the original W. bays being re-built and widened. In the 15th century the North Porch was built. In the 18th century the top stage of the tower was destroyed by fire and re-erected in wood; in the 19th century it was re-built in flint and stone, a spire and a stair-turret were added, part of the N. arcade of the nave was re-built, the South Porch and North East Vestries were built and the whole church was considerably restored, much of the external stonework being renewed.

Architectural Description— The Chancel (45 ft. by 17 ft.) has an E. window of five lights with tracery under a pointed head; all the external stonework is modern, but the internal jambs, rear arch and label are of the 14th century. In the N. wall is a 13th-century lancet window, now blocked and visible only in the vestry, and the remains of three similar lancets, one partly covered by a monument; the three other windows in the N. wall are of the 14th century, but much restored; the easternmost is of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a pointed head, and the others are each of two trefoiled lights and tracery in a pointed head with an external label: the doorway opening into the vestry is modern. In the S. wall the easternmost and westernmost windows are of 14th-century design, and between them is a 13th-century lancet; the easternmost window is of two trefoiled lights with a pierced spandrel under a pointed head; the westernmost is of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil under a pointed head; the external stonework of all these windows is modern: at the W. end of the wall a pointed arch of two square orders opens into the tower; it is probably of c. 1200, but has been re-cut and much restored. The chancel arch, of c. 1220, is two-centred and of two moulded orders, with a label on the W. side; the outer order dies into the wall, except the edge-roll mouldings on the W. side, which are carried down the modern jambs; the inner order rests on modern corbels, and the lowest springing stones are also modern. The South East Tower is of three stages; the third stage, spire and N.E. stair-turret are modern. The ground stage is now filled by the organ: the pointed arch of two square orders opening into the S. aisle is of c. 1200; the E. and S. walls have each a small window with a semi-circular head; only the internal jambs and the rear arches are original. In the second stage the E., W. and S. walls have each a window with a semi-circular head, square abaci and splayed jambs; the N. wall has a similar opening, but with square jambs, formerly a doorway, and a narrow trefoiled light of the 14th century; all the openings are restored externally. The Nave (66 ft. by 23 ft.) has N. and S. arcades of four bays: the N. arcade has circular columns and two-centred arches, with a moulded label on the S. side; the easternmost bay, opening into the transept, was built c. 1220; the arch is of similar detail to that of the chancel arch, but the W. half is modern; the E. respond is semi-circular, with a moulded capital and a modern base; the second arch, of two chamfered orders, is considerably narrower than the easternmost arch; the E. half and the E. column are modern, the W. half and the second column are of c. 1230, the column having a moulded capital of slightly different detail to that of the E. respond; the third arch, re-built, largely with the old material, and widened c. 1350, and the fourth arch, of that date, are lower than the second arch, but are of similar section; the third column, of c. 1350, was inserted on a line with the original W. wall of the aisle; it has a coarsely moulded capital and a modern base; the W. respond is of c. 1230, and was moved to its present position when the additional bay was built; the base is partly or wholly modern. The S. arcade has octagonal columns, with moulded capitals and bases, and two-centred arches of two chamfered orders, with a roll label on the N. side; the E. respond and the first column have re-cut capitals and restored bases; the second column has an original capital and a modern base; the third column is of c. 1350, and the capital and base are rough copies of the 13th-century work; the W. respond was removed from the former westernmost arch when the additional bay was added, and is similar to the E. respond; over the E. respond is a rectangular opening which formerly gave access to the rood-loft. The W. wall is faced inside with small blocks of clunch, and the doorway has old internal jambs, but all the external stonework is modern: the W. window is of three lights with tracery in a pointed head; all the external stonework is modern, but the internal jambs, moulded rear arch and label are of the 14th century; over the window, outside, is a square opening, now blocked. The North Transept (23 ft. by 19½ ft.) has a large N. window of four cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in a pointed head; the jambs and mullions are richly moulded and have small attached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases; the window is of c. 1360, but the tracery has been much restored and the capitals inside are possibly of modern plaster. The E. wall is divided into two bays by arched recesses, but was originally of three bays; the northern arch, considerably wider than the other, is of modern plaster; the N. respond, of early 13th-century date, has an edge-roll with a small moulded capital; the smaller bay has an original arch with an edge-roll, but the label is of modern plaster; the S. respond resembles that on the N., and between the bays is a small square projection with the remains of three grouped shafts under a moulded capital, on which is a head in modern plaster; in the smaller bay is a 16th-century window of two lights under a square head; the moulded jambs, mullion and label are externally of brick and internally of clunch. The W. wall has one bay of a 13th-century arcade similar to that in the E. wall, with a lancet window of the same date, partly restored outside; in the S. angle of the wall is part of an edge-roll which belonged to a former second bay opening into the N. aisle; the present arch is modern. The North Aisle (9 ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, two windows of c. 1310, each of two trefoiled lights with tracery in a pointed head; the eastern window has a plain internal label with carved stops; the western window was moved to its present position from the original W. wall of the aisle; between the windows is a 14th-century doorway with a moulded arch; the label and jambs are partly modern. In the W. wall is an early 14th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a pointed head, and a chamfered rear arch; it was probably originally in the N. wall of the nave before the aisle was lengthened; remains of the buttress at the former W. end of the nave are visible outside on the wall of the aisle. The South Aisle (11½ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, four windows; the easternmost is a narrow trefoiled light, probably of early 14th-century date, but completely restored outside; the second window resembles the N. windows of the N. aisle, but is of the 15th century; the jambs are moulded and have been restored, the external mullion and label are modern; the third window, of late 14th-century date, is of two lights with tracery similar to that of the second window, but the internal jambs and mullion have small attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases, and the rear arch has a moulded label; the westernmost window is similar to that in the N. aisle, and has also been re-set; the S. doorway is of the same date as the S. arcade; the jambs and arch are of two moulded orders with a large edge-roll, and a moulded external label; the external jambs are modern. In the W. wall the window resembles that in the W. wall of the N. aisle, and is also re-set, and outside there are traces of the former S.W. buttress of the nave. The North Porch has an outer entrance with a two-centred moulded arch and double-chamfered jambs of the 15th century, but much restored; the label is modern; in each side-wall is a small 15th-century light with a four-centred head. The Roof of the chancel is almost entirely of old timbers, with arched brackets; the tie-beams have been cased and one replaced by an iron rod. The plain timber roof of the nave is possibly of the 14th century; all the trusses lean towards the W., and to counteract this defect long slanting timbers have been inserted. The flat-pitched roofs of the aisles, both of late 15th-century date, have large principals with arched brackets and moulded purlins.

Fittings—Bells: six; 3rd, by Richard Eldridge, 1624, 5th, by Henry Knight, 1671. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel—on N. side, under harmonium, (1) to William Tyldsley, 1563; (2) to Jacomyne, wife of William Tyldsley, 1556; (3) also to Jacomyne, giving her father's name, Robert Littell, in Latin, all on same slab, inscriptions in blackletter, with two shields, one charged three crosslets fitchy between two bends, in chief a crescent for difference for Knatchbull, impaling a cheveron between three leopards' heads for Wentworth; the other charged a cheveron with a crescent thereon for Littell; on S. side, (4) to Anne, daughter of—Wentworth, and wife of —Knatchbull, undated, Latin inscription, see monument (2); (5) on small plate, two lines in Latin, part of another inscription. In nave—on W. wall, (6) on slab of Purbeck marble, figures of a man and a woman (said to be of Edmund Eyre, 1563, and his wife), three sons and two daughters, with part of inscription in black-letter; on same slab, (7) of Thomas 'Eyer', 1581, lord of the manor of Allerds in East Burnham, his three wives, four sons, and three daughters, with two inscriptions, one in black-letter, on separate plate an acrostic on the name Thomas 'Eyer,' in each corner of slab shield with the arms of Eyre. In N. aisle—(8) of Gyles Eyre and Elizabeth, his wife, with inscription, early 16th-century; in same slab, indents of a man and a woman, nine sons, brasses of fifteen daughters and inscription in black-letter to Wyllm. Aldriche and Agnes, his wife, early 16th-century. Indents: In N. aisle—at W. end, (1–2) two slabs with indents of inscriptions, one slab having also marks, possibly indent of figure. Chest: in the chancel, of iron, three locks, two with staples, heavy handles at ends, late 16th or early 17th-century. Glass: in tracery of windows in N. aisle, fragments. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) of George Evelyn, of Huntercombe, 1657, and Dudly, his wife, daughter of William Balls of Catlidge, Suffolk, 1661, of black and white marble, half figures in double-headed niche, with coat of arms; in frieze of base, kneeling figures of two sons; (2) tablet to Paul, son of Sir Nicholas Wentworth, 1593, his mother, Dame Jane Wentworth, his daughter Anne, wife of Norton Knatchbull, and his son Francis, with two shields bearing arms; on S. wall, (3) of John Wright, vicar of the parish, 1561–1594, bust in niche, with Latin inscription, undated, and shield bearing arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (4) tablet to Edmund Eyre, 1650, black and white marble, with shield bearing arms. Floor-slabs: In N. aisle—(1) to John Lidgold, 1697, Elizabeth, his wife, 1689, and Elizabeth, his wife, 1700; (2) to Mary, wife of Thomas Eyre, 1646. Painting: on W. arch of tower, traces of foliated scroll pattern (see also Screen and Miscellanea below). Panelling: in N. transept, carved, 16th and 17th-century, nearly all of foreign workmanship. Piscinæ: in the chancel, with chamfered jambs and trefoiled head, possibly modern, but stone badly decayed: in sill of easternmost window in S. aisle, quatrefoil basin, projection destroyed, 14th-century. Plate: includes cover paten, no date marks. Screen: in N. transept, desk of front seats made up of remains of rood-screen, moulded top rail and stiles with flat buttresses, large batten panels, painted blue, some pierced with small holes, mouldings painted red with small black flowers, late 15th-century. Sedilia: in S. wall of chancel, recess, with flat arch, apparently old, jambs modern. Miscellanea: on sill of a S. window of chancel, fragment of cusping and small vault, probably from canopied niche, richly coloured and gilded, 14th or 15th-century: on pillars of S. arcade, cut inscriptions, 'The Pope is a knave', 'The Pope is a vilin'; others defaced: built into W. wall of S. aisle, outside, a few worked stones, 13th-century, and, apparently, a small sundial.

Condition—Structurally good; some of the old stone badly decayed.

Secular

f(3). Burnham Abbey, remains, now farmbuildings, and Moat are about 1¼ miles S. of the village. The walls are partly of flint and clunch, partly of brick.

The buildings are of peculiar interest as they indicate almost completely the plan of a small Augustinian abbey. The chapter-house doorway is especially noticeable.

The Abbey of St. Mary the Virgin at Burnham was founded in 1266, for Augustinian canonesses; it was apparently built directly after the foundation, except the Infirmary, which is probably of slightly later date, and some additions and restorations were made in brick in the 16th century. The abbey was dissolved in 1539, and the buildings were altered and converted into a dwelling-house; further alterations were made later in the same century. The plan was of the usual type, surrounding a square cloister garth, with the church, consisting of nave and quire, on the S.; the sacristy, chapter-house, parlour and a warming-house on the E.; the frater with screens and buttery on the N.; the guest-house, etc., on the W. The kitchen extended towards the N. from the W. end of the buttery, and there was a chamber for storing fuel at the N. end of the warming-house, which was connected by a covered walk or passage with the infirmary and a gardrobe on the E. Other buildings, of the 16th century, formerly extended E. of the infirmary. An existing drawing of 1730 shows that the N. and E. ranges of the abbey were almost intact at that date, and a water-colour sketch of 1830 shows the N. windows still in existence. The remains now consist of a fragment of the quire, most of the E. range with the fuel-house and the sub-vault of the rere-dorter, part of the frater, a corner of the guest-house, a fragment of the kitchen, and part of the infirmary. The foundations of the E. end of the Church have been discovered, extending beyond the E. range, and showing that it was a plain, rectangular building, about 27 ft. wide, and probably about 108 ft. long; the remaining part of the quire forms the S. wall of the sacristy; at the E. angle of this wall is the moulded W. jamb of a large window, and further W. is a large blocked doorway, which formerly opened into the sacristy, and has a two-centred arch, with a string-course, now flush with the wall, enclosing a gable in which is a circular sex-foiled panel surrounded by three trefoiled panels; the string-course is continued horizonally along the wall, but the mouldings, with those of the jambs of the doorway, are now cut away; low in the wall is a blocked, round headed opening, possibly only used by the builders; higher up, and still further W., is a blocked 15th-century doorway with iron hooks for hinges, which opened on to the screen between the quire and the nave; in the upper part of the wall, near the E. end, is another blocked opening, with splayed inner jambs; the W. end of the wall, projecting beyond the sacristy, is faced with 16th-century and modern brick.

The Cloister originally surrounded a courtyard probably about 72 ft. square; in the N.W. corner are remains of a lavatory with a moulded segmental arch, which was almost entirely destroyed when the 16th-century doorway, opening into the frater, was inserted, and the part that remains is blocked. The height of the roof of the cloister walk is shown by holes for joists, now filled up, in the wall of the E. range.


The Abbey of St. Mary the Virgin, Burnham

The Abbey of St. Mary the Virgin, Burnham

E. Range—The Sacristy (22 ft. by 16 ft.), now a stable with a hayloft in the upper storey, is at the S. end of the E. range, and has on the ground floor, at the N. end of the E. wall, a 16th-century window of two four-centred lights under a square head, all of brick, except the stone mullion: near the window is the rough brick opening of a fireplace inserted in the 16th century, and beyond it is an original lancet window, with chamfered jambs and head: near the S. end is a small blocked doorway with chamfered jambs of clunch, and a four-centred arch of brick: on the first floor at the N. end, is a 16th-century window, with a square head, now blocked; the label has almost disappeared; the outline of a trefoiled head of earlier date is visible inside; S. of this window are the remains of a brick chimney stack, with an opening for the fireplace, which has moulded brick jambs and four-centred head, filled by a modern window; beyond it is an original lancet, with chamfered jambs and head. In the W. wall, on the ground floor, are two doorways; the northern is original, with chamfered jambs, and drop arch with a moulded label; the other has a modern wood frame but retains the original inner jambs and rear arch. On the first floor are remains of three 16th-century windows; two are blocked, and the third, partly blocked, forms the entrance to the hayloft. Interior:— At the W. end is a passage which formerly contained the stairs leading to the dorter and is divided from the rest of the ground floor by a thin wall of clunch. The ceiling is of the 16th century, and has large open joists, resting on a rough beam supported at each end by a curved bracket. The open roof, also of the 16th century, has queen-post trusses, with wind braces, etc. This is the only part of the building of which the upper storey is still in use. The Chapter House (33½ ft. by 20 ft.), now a stable, N. of the sacristy, extends towards the E. beyond the adjoining buildings; it has a large W. doorway, with jambs of two chamfered orders, the moulded capitals of the original detached shafts remain externally; the two-centred arch is of two moulded orders, and has moulded inner and outer labels, the outer with mask stops. The E. wall has three original lancet windows with chamfered jambs and heads; the moulded internal label is continued as a string-course along the wall; all the windows are partly blocked; the sills appear to have been used as the heads of lower openings, now also blocked. In the S. wall is a lancet similar to those in the E. wall, partly blocked; the moulded label is continued towards the W.; the spaces for the original floor-joists are visible, but most of the upper part of the wall has disappeared. The Parlour and the Warming-house, originally separated from each other by a passage leading to the infirmary, are in a ruinous condition; in the W. wall is a small original lancet, set low down, and now blocked; further N. are the jambs and relieving arch of a doorway, with a modern frame, which probably opened into the passage; at the N. end of the wall, opening into the frater, is a 16th-century doorway, now blocked. In the N. wall is an original doorway, with chamfered jambs and two-centred drop arch; the battened door is mediæval, and has ornamental strap-hinges; W. of the doorway is a 16th-century window with a wood frame, and on the E. is an original locker with rebated jambs and a chamfered wood lintel. Fragments of the E. wall remain at the N. end, and retain part of a 16th-century window, and the site of an original fireplace; and at the S. end, adjoining the Chapter House, is some brickwork, probably a fireplace, also of the 16th century. The Dorter extended over the whole of the E. range; in the N. wall a number of blocked 16th-century windows marks the position of the original lancets; and there is also part of a 16th-century window with a wood frame. The L-shaped building at the N. end of the E. range contained the fuel-house on the ground floor and the rere-dorter and a passage on the first floor. In the W. wall are two lancet windows; the southern is probably of slightly later date than the other, as it is built into a doorway of which one jamb and part of the arch remain; at the N. end of the wall is a small 16th-century window with a wood frame and an iron grill, and below it is an arch over the main drain. In the upper part of the E. wall are traces of two lancet windows. The position of the first-floor joists is visible.

N. Range—The Frater (96 ft. by 18½ ft.) was on the ground floor, without cellarage; the W. wall and almost the whole of the N. wall have disappeared; the only remaining detail in the N. wall is part of a jamb of the easternmost window. At the E. end of the S. wall (visible on both sides) is a blocked 16th-century opening, apparently a doorway; near the W. jamb, on the N. (interior) side of the wall, is a fragment of 16th-century brick partition-wall; further W., on the same side, are two blocked doorways, the first with moulded brick jambs and four-centred head, the other with plain jambs and a wood lintel; W. of these doorways is a large fireplace, with moulded jambs and segmental arch of stone, inserted in the 16th century; the base of a large chimney stack projects on the S. side of the wall; above the fireplace is a fragment of the relieving arch of the original entrance from the cloisters to the frater; in the upper part of the wall is a 16th-century fireplace with moulded brick jambs and four-centred arch with sunk spandrels under a square head. A fragment of the original stone hearth remains; in the masonry blocking the fireplace is a moulded stone from a window. There are traces of 16th-century painting on the E. wall, and at the E. end of the S. wall.

W. Range—Of the Guest-house, which occupied part of the western range, only a fragment of the N.E. corner remains, and some masonry further N. is probably a fragment of the N.E. corner of the kitchen.

The Infirmary (originally 43½ ft. from N. to S. and 23 ft. from E. to W.) N.E. of the other buildings, and now a cowshed, was divided into two storeys in the 16th century; it is connected with the E. wall of the warming-house by a brick wall, in which are remains of two windows and a modern doorway. In the W. wall are two lancet windows, similar to those in the Chapter House (see above) but of slightly later date, wider, and without labels; at the S. end of the wall is a small square 16th-century opening, now blocked, with chamfered stone jambs, and a head and sill of wood. At the W. end of the N. wall is an original doorway, also blocked, which led to the gardrobe of the infirmary; it has moulded jambs and a two-centred drop arch: E. of the doorway, inside, is a small square locker, rebated for a shutter; further E. is a 16th-century window, of three four-centred lights, with moulded brick jambs, a square head and a chamfered brick label; it is now blocked, and in the blocking is part of the carved vault of a canopied niche: in the upper storey is a similar window of three lights, also blocked. In the remaining part of the E. wall is the rough brick opening of a fireplace, with part of a flue; a slight projection of brickwork from the chimney stack indicates the position of a former 16th-century addition: N. of the fireplace is another rough opening with a semi-circular splayed head, now blocked; some of the stones built into it are moulded. Of the Gardrobe, N.W. of the infirmary, only the E. wall remains, with a small square recess for a lamp, and jambs of either a door or a window; the wall is continued, in 16th-century brick, and it joins the boundary wall of the precincts; in it is a brick doorway which has moulded jambs, a four-centred arch, with sunk spandrels, and a moulded square label. S. of the abbey, but within the precincts, is a square Dovecot, built in the 16th century, of 2¼-in. bricks; the roof is thatched and hipped on all sides. In the S. wall is a modern doorway, and under the eaves in the E. wall is a small window with a three-centred head. The buttresses are modern. The walls inside have tiers of small recesses.

The Barn adjoining the S. end of the E. range is probably of the 17th century, and is weather-boarded, the roof has queen-post trusses supported by curved brackets. E. and N.E. of the buildings the wall of the precincts is very thick; it is built of a mixture of materials, and is roofed with tiles. The boundary wall N. of the frater, etc., is of 16th-century brick, and has, in the S. face, a series of small recesses with triangular heads.

Of the Moat only fragments remain.

Condition—Of buildings, ruinous, suffering from present usage and urgently in need of preservation; many of the walls have fallen down recently.

d(4). Moated Site, with Ramparts, known as Harlequin's, or Hardicanute's Moat, is situated in Burnham Beeches on level ground, about 270 ft. above O.D. The work is quadrilateral in shape, with one right angle, and covers about two acres. It consists of a single rampart and ditch, now nearly dry, with a slight bank upon the counter-scarp. The rampart is 8 ft. high and 20 ft. wide, and the ditch is 7 ft. deep and 26 ft. wide. There are traces of two transverse banks, 3 ft. high, running from N. to S., and of another bank running from E. to W. On the E. side is an entrance with a causeway across the ditch, and on the N.W. and S.W. sides there are modern breaks.

Condition—Fairly good.

g(5). Homestead Moat, S.E. of Cippenham, said to be the site of a former palace. The enclosed area shows traces of irregularity, such as would be caused by foundations of buildings. There is an entrance through the N. arm.

Condition—Good; but the ditch is nearly dry.

(See also Burnham Abbey above and Cippenham Place below.)

Church Street, N. side

c(6). The Market Hall and two Cottages on the E. were probably originally one house; they are of two storeys, the hall higher than the cottages, and the walls are timber-framed with brick filling; the roofs are tiled. Over the entrance of the hall are the dates 1271–1539 in modern figures; probably the later date is that of the existing building. The Hall has a large gateway of oak with chamfered jambs and flat four-centred arch; in front the gabled upper storey projects, and the timber-framing is painted; the back is also gabled. E. of the ridge of the roof is a square chimney stack of early 17th-century thin bricks. In front the lower storey of the two Cottages is of modern brick, the timbers of the upper storey are much out of the horizontal, and the filling is of plaster; there is one dormer window. At the back the filling is of 17th-century brick, and the chimney stack at the E. end is built of thin bricks.

Condition—Of hall, fairly good; of cottages, poor.

c(7). Cottages, four, W. of the Market Hall, are each of two storeys. They were built of timber and brick, probably early in the 17th century, and about a century later were refronted with brick; in the 19th century the westernmost cottage was encased almost entirely with brick, but it has old timber-framing with the original brick filling in the gable of the W. wall. At the back the easternmost cottage is gabled and projects beyond the others, making the plan of the group L-shaped.

Condition—Poor.

S. side


Burnham (Village), Plan Shewing Monuments

Burnham (Village), Plan Shewing Monuments

c(8–10). Cottages, three, detached, are each of two storeys, built chiefly of brick and timber; the roofs are tiled. The westernmost cottage, at the N.E. corner of the churchyard, is probably of late 16th or early 17th-century date, but is much restored with modern brick; in front and at the W. side the upper storey retains old timbers, now painted; the E. side is also timber-framed, and the filling is covered with plaster. The second cottage, now a shop, opposite the Market Hall, is of the 16th or 17th century, but has a modern front; the W. end, now partly enclosed by a covered gateway, is gabled and shows some of the original timber-framing, and the remains of a bracket under the upper storey, which formerly projected, but is now under-built with brick. The third cottage, at the end of a row, W. of the Fire Station, is probably of the 16th century, and is gabled in front; the upper storey formerly projected, but has been under-built with modern brick; the W. side faces an alley, and has original plaster filling in the upper storey. Some old beams remain in the wattle and daub ceilings.

Condition—Of the third cottage, poor; of the others, good.

High Street, E. side, from N. to S.

c(11). House, now divided into three cottages (see Plate, p. 12), N. of the Swan Inn, is of two storeys, and is timber-framed, with filling partly of brick and partly of plaster. The roofs are tiled. The middle block was built probably in the 16th century, the extensions on the N. and S. were added early in the 17th century. The plan was originally rectangular, running back from the street; the extension on the N. side is a block of about the same size as the original building, with modern additions beyond it; the S. extension is built on to the W. half of the original building and has a low modern addition at the back. The front of the 16th-century block has modern brick filling in the lower storey, the upper storey projects, and is supported on a moulded bressumer; the timbers are painted and the filling is of plaster; the back is original and is gabled. The lower storey of the S. extension has filling of thin bricks, the upper storey projects, and the timbers are further apart than in the 16th-century walls. On the S. side the gable is of modern brick, and there is an original chimney stack in the E. half of the wall. The N. extension is gabled, and has a modern brick front. In the 16th-century part of the house are open timber ceilings. The N. extension has stop-chamfered beams in the ceilings; the S. extension has, on the ground floor, a wide fireplace, partly filled in, with cupboards enclosing chimney-corners, and original beams in the ceilings; and in the floor of the upper storey are broad oak boards.

Condition—Fairly good.

c(12). The Swan Inn is of two storeys, built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but much altered; the front part is entirely modern. A room at the back retains the original open timber ceiling of rough oak.

Condition—Good.

c(13). House, now a baker's shop, nearly opposite Church Street, was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and retains some old timber-framing at the back. The front has been re-faced with modern brick; the upper storey formerly projected, as shown by the notches in the open timber ceiling of the shop. Other rooms have old ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good.

c(14). House, now a shop, in front of Baldwin's Brass Foundry, was built probably in the 17th century, but has been re-faced with modern brick; the old timber-framing remains in the side walls of a large covered gateway. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

W. side, from N. to S.

c(15). House, now a shop, opposite the Swan Inn, is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, of brick and timber; the brick filling is of later date than the timbers, which are cemented. The roof is tiled. The upper storey is gabled at the S. end of the front.

Condition—Good.

c(16). House, now a butcher's shop, almost opposite the Post-office, is of two storeys, with walls of brick and timber. The roof is tiled. The N. part of the house was built early in the 16th century; the S. part was probably added early in the 17th century, the middle block was also of that date, but has been re-built. The original house was probably at the corner of the market square, and the 17th-century extension the first of the buildings which now fill up the site of the market place. In front the 16th-century part is gabled, and has a covered gateway; the upper storey is original, and formerly projected, but the lower storey has been built out flush with it under the bressumer; the back is also original. The front of the southern extension has been refaced, the back is of 17th-century brick and timber, and is gabled. In the original house the open timber ceiling of the ground floor is divided from E. to W. into three bays by heavy beams; in the S. wall, below the westernmost beam, is a blocked doorway, probably of early 16th-century date, and formerly the entrance to the house; it has chamfered jambs and a flat four-centred arch of oak. The heavy timbers of the roof are visible. The southern extension contains some 17th-century chamfered beams and roof timbers.

Condition—Good.

c(17). House, now three cottages, S. of Church Street, and almost opposite Baldwin's Brass Foundry, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century. The timbers are painted. and the brick filling covered with plaster. There are three dormer windows. Inside the house some old ceiling-beams are visible.

Condition—Poor.

c(18). The Garibaldi Inn, at the S. end of the street, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber; the roof is tiled. In front the brick filling is modern. The S. end is gabled.

Condition—Good.

e(19). Cottage, N.W. of East Burnham Park, 1½ miles N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the first half of the 17th century. It is gabled at each end, and the upper floor is lighted by dormer windows. The plain square chimneys are original.

Condition—Fairly good.

e(20). Barn at Allards Farm, N.E. of East Burnham Park, was built probably in the first half of the 17th century; it is of one storey, with walls of brick and timber; the timbers have been tarred; the roof is tiled. The plan is L-shaped, and the sides facing the farmyard are open.

Condition—Fairly good.

b(21). Houses, two, at Brook-end, two miles N. of the church, one on each side of the road to Beaconsfield. They are each of two storeys, built early in the 17th century, but re-faced with modern or 18th-century brick. A little original timber-framing remains. The roofs are tiled.

Condition—Good; much re-built.

Egypt, N.E. corner of Burnham Beeches

d(22). Cottages, two, on the E. side of the road, are each of two storeys, built in the first half of the 17th century. In front the eastern cottage is of late 17th-century brick, and has two gables; at the back the upper storey is of original brick and timber, the lower storey is faced with brick of later date. A Shed at the E. end is partly of original brick and timber, partly weather-boarded. The second cottage is of original brick and timber, restored with modern brick. The roofs are tiled.

Condition—Very dilapidated.

d(23). House, formerly cottages, opposite (22), is of two storeys, and has been entirely re-faced with modern brick, except at the back, where a little 17th-century brick and timber remains.

Condition—Good.

a(24). Pennlands Farm, at the N. end of the parish, about 3 miles N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, and timber-framed, with brick filling, which is partly modern. The roof is tiled. The plan is rectangular, with modern additions on the N. and E., and the central chimney stack is of thin bricks. The kitchen retains some old chamfered beams in the ceiling, and a wide fireplace with chimney corners, partly filled in.

Condition—Good.

f(25). Huntercombe Manor House, 1 mile S.E. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic; it was probably originally of timber construction, but is now faced with brick and covered with plaster. The roof is tiled. The original house was built in the 14th century, and then consisted of the present hall, with the screens and a kitchen wing at the W. end, and a solar wing at the E. end. The W. end has been considerably altered, though the kitchen, now a morning room, with the buttery and a passage, still remain; the solar wing was re-built and extended towards the N. at the end of the 17th century. The staircase, N.E. of the hall, was added probably c. 1650; the whole building was much altered and enlarged in the 19th century.

The remains of the mediæval structure are especially interesting.

The E. Elevation is possibly of late 17th date, much altered: the S. Elevation retains some traces of the original arrangement, now covered with modern plaster; at the E. end the re-built wing is higher than the rest of the house; at the W. end the kitchen wing is gabled, and was probably always of two storeys; the hall, between the wings, remains of one storey, but has been altered externally; the old roof, running E. and W., is visible behind the modern coping. The other elevations are modern. Interior:—The hall is of two bays and retains an original roof-truss with a cambered collar-beam, which has curved braces forming an obtuse two-centred arch of two chamfered orders, finishing on broach stops a few feet above the floor; the doorways, with the doors, are of late 17th-century date, and have moulded over-doors of classical design; on the walls is some early 17th-century panelling, re-set. The buttery, W. of the hall, is lined with early 17th-century panelling. The dining-room, in the E. wing, has large bolection-moulded panels, and doorways with overdoors similar to those in the hall, all of late 17th-century date. A room opening out of the dining-room has similar panelling and doorways, and a plaster ceiling modelled in high relief, with a large circular panel painted by Verrio. The staircase has an open well and a closed outer string, plain newels, a heavy moulded handrail, without ramps, and twisted, turned balusters; the balustrade is continued round the open well at the top, and the ceiling has enriched mouldings and a painted central medallion. On the first floor a bedroom over the drawing-room in the E. wing has panelling similar to that in the dining-room. In the W. wing a bedroom over the former kitchen has a rough open timber roof, ceiled on the collar-beams, and possibly original; the trusses have curved angle-bracketing.

Condition—Good; much altered.

Cippenham

g(26). Cippenham Place, house and moat, about 1¾ miles S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys and an attic, built in the middle of the 16th century, of brick and timber, altered and enlarged in the 19th century; the roof is tiled. The plan of the original building is L-shaped, facing N., with the short wing on the S.W.; at the W. end, between the wings, are modern additions. In front some of the brick filling is modern, and the timbers are partly restored, the upper storey projects, and the beams supporting it are moulded; on the ground floor are two original windows, with wood mullions, and on the first floor is an original window, now blocked. The E. end of the house is partly restored, and at the back is some old brickwork in modern timber-framing. Interior:—On the ground floor, the hall, the older part of the kitchen, and a small store-room were originally one room, with a staircase lobby and another room on the E.; some of the rooms have original beams and exposed joists in the ceilings, and there is one wide fireplace partly blocked. On the first floor the walls show their timber construction, and in the attic the timbers of the roof, with a moulded purlin, are visible. Some of the doors are old, and have strap-hinges.

Of the Moat, three sides remain.

Condition—Of house, good; of moat, poor.

g(27). Stable and Barns at Cippenham Court, about 17/8 miles S.E. of the church, are of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The Stable, E. of the house, is of two storeys, the lower storey of original thin bricks, the upper storey of vertical timbers with old brick filling; the S. side was re-faced late in the 17th century, and there are modern additions at each end. The roof is tiled. The Barn, E. of the stable, has 17th-century timber and brick at the E. end, and a weather-boarded gable. The plan of the second Barn, S. of the stable, is L-shaped; it is of 17th-century timber and brick, and the upper part of the S. side is weather-boarded. Both barns are open to the roof, and have queen-posts, and arched brackets to the tie-beams; the roof of one wing of the second barn is covered with slate, the other roofs are tiled.

Condition—Good.

g(28). House, now two cottages, formerly the 'Jolly Gardeners' Inn', about 15/8 miles S.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, and restored later in the same century. The plan is rectangular, facing N.E. In front the brick filling is of late 17th-century date, the upper storey projects at the N.W. end, and is gabled; at the S.E. end is a dormer window, with a plastered gable on which is the date 1699. The N.W. side house is covered with lath and plaster, and has a projecting chimney stack of late 17th-century brick. The roof is tiled. Some old beams remain in the ceilings.

Condition—Poor.

Unclassified

b(29). Root Mound at Dropmore, possibly a bell barrow.

Condition—Much altered.



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