Chesham

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1912

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92-101

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'Chesham', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1: South (1912), pp. 92-101. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=121031 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


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21. CHESHAM.

(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxxviii. N.E. (b)xxxviii. S.E. (c)xxxix. N.W. (d)xxxix. S.W. (e)xxxix. S.E. (f)xliii. N.W. (g)xliii. N.E.)

Ecclesiastical

d(1). Parish Church of St. Mary, stands on high ground in Chesham Park. The walls are of flint, with some clunch in those of the chancel and transepts, and some pudding stone in the foundations; all the dressings are of clunch and modern limestone. The roof of the chancel is covered with slate and the other roofs with lead. Of the 12th-century church on the site the only certain evidence is part of a window in the N. transept, and a few detached stones, but probably some of the 12th-century walling remains in the Central Tower and the Transepts. The plan was apparently cruciform, the nave being possibly of the same length as at present; the N. and S. arcades of the Nave, with the North and South Aisles, were added in the 13th century, and probably some re-construction of the transepts and tower was carried out in the same century, the E. arch of the tower being widened probably c. 1270; the N., S. and W. arches of the tower were widened and a window was inserted in the S. transept c. 1330, and a window in the N. transept c. 1340. The Chancel was re-built c. 1350. The S. doorway was inserted in the 14th century and re-set in the 15th century, when the South Aisle was re-built, the South Porch and the top stage of the Tower were added, the clearstorey of the nave was raised, the W. wall of the nave re-built, many windows were inserted and other alterations made. The spire was erected probably in the 18th century, and the church was extensively repaired in 1869.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (35½ ft. by 16½ ft.) has an E. window of three lights, all modern except possibly a few of the inner stones. Two windows in the N. wall and two in the S. wall, are probably of mid 14th-century date, restored; they are each of two trefoiled lights, with tracery in a pointed head, and the external labels have broad mask-stops, some of them being modern; the rear arches are moulded, and have moulded labels with head-stops; under the western window in each wall is a rectangular low-side window, with old stancheons and rebate for shutter, probably inserted at a later date than the other windows; in the S. wall is a small modern doorway. The Tower (14 ft. square) is of two stages above the roof of the nave, with a high embattled parapet and an octagonal leaded spire. It is carried on four pointed arches of three orders, the two outer orders are chamfered and the innermost moulded; on both sides of the E. and W. arches and on the tower side of the other arches are moulded labels; the E. arch, of late 13th-century date, has widely chamfered jambs with attached circular shafts, which have moulded bases and capitals; the abaci are carried round the jambs; the 14th-century N., S., and W. arches have jambs of two chamfered orders, the inner order forming a semi-octagonal shaft, with chamfered base and moulded capital; the abaci of the N. and S. arches are similar to those of the E. arch, but those of the W arch have scroll and bead moulding. The first stage of the tower above the roof of the nave has a late 13th-century trefoiled lancet window in each wall, and a 15th-century doorway in the W. wall opening on to the roof of the nave. On the N. wall, outside, can be seen the outline of the former steep-pitched roof of the N. transept. The bell-chamber has four 15th-century windows, each of two lights with tracery. The North Transept (19 ft. by 15 ft.) has an E. window of two lights with tracery, similar to the N. windows of the chancel, but with external detail of c. 1340. The 15th-century N. window is of three cinque-foiled, four-centred lights, with tracery under a four-centred head, and a moulded external label; E. of the window is a modern doorway. In the S. half of the W. wall, opening into the N. aisle, is a 13th-century arch, with square, chamfered jambs, which have chamfered bases and narrow, moulded abaci; the arch is sharply pointed, of two hollow chamfered orders, with broach stops and a chamfered label; above, and N. of the arch, is a round-headed 12th-century window, with splayed jambs and rear arch, blocked, and partly destroyed by the 13th-century arch; on the W. side the jambs are rebated and were formerly external. The South Transept (19½ ft. by 15 ft.) has a two-centred E. window, of c. 1330, of two trefoiled lights, with a quatrefoil in the head; the jambs and head are moulded externally; the sill, and the stops of the external label are modern. The 15th-century S. window, of three lights under a four-centred head, resembles the N. window in the N. transept, but has detail of a later date. In the W. wall the blocked arch is similar to that in the N. transept, but the detail is of slightly later date, a small modern arch, opening into the S. aisle, has been cut through the blocking; N. of the archway, set askew, is a round-headed doorway with rebated jambs and a modern head, now blocked; it may have served the former stairs to the rood-loft, but is possibly not in situ. The Nave (64½ ft. by 22 ft.) has 13th-century N and S. arcades, of five bays, with octagonal pillars and semi-octagonal responds; the bases are double-chamfered, the abaci narrow; the pointed arches, of two chamfered orders, with broach stops, have chamfered labels, mitred over each pillar and carried down vertically to a point above the abaci, which have been considerably restored. The late 15th-century W. door has wide moulded jambs, and a flat four-centred arch with traceried spandrels in a square head, and a moulded label; externally each jamb has two small engaged shafts, with moulded bases, considerably defaced, and moulded capitals: the W. window, also of the 15th century, though much restored, is of five lights, with tracery in the two-centred head, and an external label. The 15th-century clearstorey has five windows on each side, all of three cinque-foiled lights, much restored, especially on the S. side. The North Aisle (14 ft. wide) has four 15th-century windows in the N. wall, each of two cinque-foiled pointed lights with pierced spandrels in a square head, the moulded external labels have modern headstops, and all the stonework is much restored; in the middle of the wall is a blocked 14th-century doorway, with moulded head and chamfered jambs, much restored; the moulded external label has head-stops, that on the W. is original and much defaced. In the W. wall, at the S. end, is a wide lancet window of the 13th century, partly restored and with an unusually large external rebate; the inner jambs and rear arch are splayed and also have a large rebate on the inner edge. The South Aisle (12 ft. wide) has four 15th-century windows in the S. wall, each of three trefoiled lights in a two-centred head, with tracery and an embattled transom; the external labels have modern head-stops, and the stonework is much restored; the S. doorway, in the middle of the wall, is of the 14th century, but apparently re-set, as the three moulded orders are pressed unusually close together; the middle order is enriched with ball-flower and other ornament; the jambs and two-centred arch are continuously moulded; the stops of the moulded label have been destroyed by the vaulting of the porch; W. of this doorway, opening into the stair-turret of the parvise, is a 15th-century doorway with a four-centred head. In the W. wall is a window of similar detail to the S. windows, and of the same date, but much restored. The South Porch is of two storeys; the two-centred outer archway is of three continuous orders, the innermost moulded, the outer chamfered, with partly restored jambs on modern plinths. The parvise has, in the N.W. corner, a doorway with a four-centred head, opening into the stair-turret from the aisle; in the E. and W. walls are plain rectangular windows, and in the S. wall is a window of two trefoiled ogee lights, with tracery in a three-centred head, chamfered jambs and arch, and a modern external label. The Roof of the N. transept is of late 15th or early 16th-century date, in two bays, with plain timbers; that of the S. transept is of the 15th century, in two bays, with moulded tie-beams and curved braces, moulded principals, purlins and ridge; the moulded stone corbels are of a later date in the same century. The N. and S. aisles have flat lean-to roofs of the 15th century, in five bays, with moulded tie-beams, braced at each end, and the spandrels filled with tracery; the S. aisle has traceried braces only on the N. side; the stone corbels have plain shields. The S. porch has a 15th-century quadripartite stone vault with chamfered ribs, and an intermediate rib in each quarter, supported at each corner by an attached shaft with moulded base and capital; the roof of the parvise is of old plain timbers.

Fittings—Bells: six, and sanctus, with initials I. S. (John Sturdy, bellfounder of London), 15th-century. Brass: in S. aisle—to John Gawdry, 1670, inscription only. Chest: in N. transept, of oak, with three locks, dated 1624. Communion Table: in N. transept, of oak, 17th-century. Door: in W. doorway, two leaves, externally panelled and traceried, oak, painted, 15th-century. Glass: on N. side of clearstorey—in easternmost window, shield, with an impaled coat, dexter imperfect, sinister, originally azure two bars argent: in second window, part of human figure: in third window, shield charged checky or and azure, a fesse gules fretty argent, for Cheyne, all 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: in chancel—on N. wall, (1) of Richard Wood coke, vicar of the parish, 1623, niche with bust, below it black marble tablet with alabaster frame, below tablet, verse, painted on wall, colour and gilding modern; (2) to Richard Bowle, 1626, black marble tablet in marble frame with carved and painted pilasters, two urns and achievement of arms at the top, two shields bearing arms, below, colour modern In S. transept—on E. side, (3) marble tomb, of John Cavendishe, son of the Earl of Devonshire, 1617, sarcophagus in recess with Corinthian columns on each side, moulded cornice, obelisks and achievement of arms, inscription at back of recess. In the parvise—(4) coffin-lid, with long incised cross, foliated head, flower in middle and at foot, slab chamfered at the sides, broken in three pieces, parts missing, 13th-century; (5) coffin-lid, with cross in relief, foliated head and moulded edge, coped slab, broken in three pieces and part missing, probably 14th-century. Floor-slab: in chancel—to Mary Beale, 1677, inscription, with coat of arms worn away. Niche (see Plate, p. 136): on E. wall of S. porch, semi-circular, with cinque-foiled pointed head, trefoiled spandrels, flanked by pinnacles, crocketed ogee label with tall finial, above finial a small crucifix, probably stoup, late 14th-century, much worn and defaced, no basin. Paintings: on S. wall of S. aisle, near E. end, large representation of St. Christopher, with staff, wading through water, small figures, of man fishing with rod, and of the hermit, all fragmentary, and with two patches of cement: on N.E. and N.W. piers of tower, traces of colour: on E. splay of S. window of S. transept, traces of outline in black of man's head, with red hair and beard, apparently in a niche, with outline of ship above it: on stonework of E. window of S. transept, traces of red colouring. Piscina: in the chancel, with trefoiled ogee head; inner order, shelf at back and part of quatrefoil basin, probably 14th-century, the rest modern. Sedile: the sill of S.E. window of chancel forms a sedile, mid 14th-century. Stoup: see Niche. Miscellanea: on S.W. angle of S. transept, scratched on the quoins, four sundials, 17th-century, fitted with modern copper styles; various other scratches and dates, 1676 and 1682, etc.

The Churchyard has N. and W. walls of 17th-century brick.

Condition—Good.

Secular

b(2). Homestead Moat, at Little Pednor Farm, Chartridge (see also (24) and (28–38) below) stirrup-shaped; N. part has been filled in.

d(3). The Post Office, on the W. side of the High Street, is partly of two and partly of three storeys; the walls are of brick; the roofs are tiled. The house was built c. 1625, and was probably of the central chimney type; about the middle of the 17th century a wing, containing a staircase and small additional room, was added on the W., and the S. part of the building was heightened; at the N. end of the house a second, longer wing, which projects towards the W., is either modern or completely re-built. The room, used as the post-office, at the S. end of the building, was probably the original parlour.

The original chimney stack and the overmantel in the post-office are worthy of note.

The front has been completely re-faced; at the N. end the upper storey projects, and there are two gables; the S. end, now of three storeys, is covered with plaster, and has a plain parapet. The back, much patched, is mainly of brick. The large chimney stack is square and has four detached octagonal shafts with moulded caps. The 17th-century overmantel in the post-office is of carved oak, now painted, carried on Ionic pilasters; the upper part is divided into three enriched panels by small Doric columns; the frieze has foliate and arabesque designs under a small cornice. The staircase has a moulded handrail and turned balusters.

Condition—Good, but much altered.

d(4). House, now two tenements, stands back from the High Street, opposite Church Street. It is of two storeys and was built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber. The roof is tiled. The massive central chimney stack is of thin bricks. The front has two gables. Inside the house are some original ceiling-beams, and a large open fireplace.

Condition—Fairly good.

Church Street, N. side

d(5). House, now three small shops, Nos. 9, 10 and 11, is of one storey and an attic; built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber, partly covered with modern plaster, and considerably restored. The roof is tiled. The attic has dormer windows.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(6). House, now three dwellings, Nos. 65, 67 and 69, is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber, now considerably restored. The roof is tiled. The attic is lighted by dormer windows.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(7). The Golden Ball Inn, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber; the original walls remain at the back, but the front is modern, and the whole building has been altered and repaired. One of the chimney stacks is original. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

S. side

d(8). House, now two tenements, No. 54 (a shop), and No. 56, is of two storeys, built in the 14th century, and timber-framed, with wattle and daub filling; in the 17th century the house was enlarged and restored with brick. The roofs are tiled.

The house is of great interest as an example of a 14th-century domestic building; the remains of the fine wooden tracery of the windows are especially worthy of note.

The original plan was L-shaped, the longer wing, which probably contained the hall, extending towards the W., and the shorter or solar wing, towards the S.; in the 17th century the space between the wings was filled in. N. Elevation:—The projecting upper storey of the solar is gabled and retains the original timber-framing; above the modern window is the square head of an original window of three trefoiled ogee lights with elaborately moulded tracery, of wood; in the W. return of the projection is a blocked window, also of the 14th century, of one trefoiled ogee light with trefoiled spandrels, under a square head, all of wood. The rest of the elevation is covered with modern plaster. The S. Elevation has some 17th-century timber-framing, with brick filling, partly modern. The E. Elevation, facing the gateway and courtyard of the adjoining building, has a few old timbers, but is otherwise of modern brick. Two chimney stacks are of early 17th-century brick.

Interior:—The solar wing, No. 54, retains one complete truss of the original roof, with a large arched chamfered tie-beam having curved wall-brackets, and king-post with moulded cap and four-way braces; the wall-posts of a second truss also remain; on the ground floor, in the shop, is a cupboard door of early 17th-century carved panelling and in the room at the back is an open fireplace. At the W. end of the house (No. 56) the timber construction is visible. On the ground floor is a wide fireplace and on the first floor is a cupboard door of 16th-century linen panelling, with contemporary scrollhinges.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(9). House, now Nos. 38 and 40, is of two storeys and an attic, built probably in the 16th century, and timber-framed. The N. front is covered with rough-cast, but the original timbers show in the lower storey of No. 38, and large brackets support the overhanging upper storey; the E. end is also covered with rough-cast; at the back the lower storey is almost entirely modern, and the filling of the upper storey is of 18th and 19th-century brick. Many of the windows have original casements with ornamental fastenings. The large central chimney stack has square shafts of unusually thin bricks.

Interior:—The timber construction is visible in the walls and ceilings throughout the building; on the ground floor are four large open fireplaces, two being partly blocked. On the first floor are two original fireplaces, each with a three-centred arch and moulded shelf, of stone; one is blocked, and the other partly filled in; a third fireplace is similar, but without an arch. The roof of the middle part of the house has trusses with large tie-beams, curved brackets, etc.

Condition—Of No. 38, good; of No. 40, poor.

d(10). Houses, Nos. 4, 6, 8, and the Seven Stars Inn, No. 10, form one range, of two storeys and an attic, built of brick and timber probably early in the 17th century; at the back there are 18th-century additions. In front the lower storey has been re-built with modern brick and the upper storey covered with plaster. The roofs are tiled. In the middle of the range is a chimney stack of thin bricks. Interior:— Each house has a large open fireplace, two of them being filled in; the original timbers are visible in the ceilings and walls.

Condition—Poor.

Germain Street

d(11–13). Houses, Nos. 60, 66–68, 70, are of two storeys, built of brick and timber late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, now partly covered with plaster and much restored. The roofs are tiled. No. 60 retains a few original timbers in the walls. Nos. 66–68, formerly one house, show the original timber construction in the upper storey. No. 70, at the N. end of No. 68, has, in the upper storey, original timber-framing, with plaster filling. At the back all the houses have been re-built or re-faced with brick.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(14). House, opposite the school, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber, now considerably restored. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(15). Barn, at Great Germains: part of the N. wall is timber-framed, with brick filling of late 16th or early 17th-century date; the rest of the building is modern.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(16). Cottage, in New Footpath, is of two storeys, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and timber-framed, with brick filling, partly covered with plaster. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

Blucher Street, S. side

d(17). House, now the Star Inn, and a dwelling house, No. 4, is of two storeys and an attic, built early in the 17th century, of brick and timber, and much enlarged in the 19th century. The roof is tiled. The front is modern, except the barge-board of the gable of the Star Inn, which is original and carved with a voluted strap pattern. The large central chimney stack has square shafts, with oversailing courses of thin bricks. Interior:—Much of the original timber-framing is visible, and on the ground floor of the inn is a ceiling-beam with sunk ornament on the soffit, and chamfered edges with dentil ornament. No. 4 has a plain chamfered beam in the ceiling. There is a large open fireplace in each tenement.

Condition—Of the inn, good, much re-built; of No. 4, poor.

d(18). House, now three tenements, Nos. 20, 22 and 24, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber, covered with modern plaster and rough-cast. The roof is tiled. The plan was originally of the central chimney type, but has been much altered. In front the upper storey is original, and has a gable at the E. end, the lower storey is re-faced with modern brick. A few original casements remain in the windows. The central chimney stack is of 17th-century brick.

Condition—Good, much altered.

d(19). King Street consists of a number of two-storeyed cottages, built apparently in the 17th century, probably of timber and wattle, now patched with stone, flint and brick; the fronts are of brick and timber, covered with modern plaster and rough-cast. They are roughly constructed, with plain gables and dormer windows. The roofs are tiled. Most of the cottages have only one room on the ground floor. A few original metal casements remain in the windows.

Condition—Poor.

d(20). House, now several dwellings, Nos 2, 4, 6 and 10, Pednormead End, is of one storey and an attic, built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber. The roof is tiled. The plan is L-shaped, and the N.W. elevation has three gables; some of the windows are original, and one chimney stack is of old thin bricks. Opposite the house is a barn, with 17th-century brick and timber remaining at one end.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(21). House, now divided into several tenements, Nos. 10 and 12, Missenden Road, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber; the roof is tiled. One of the chimneys is of original brick.

Condition—Fairly good.

d(22). Lords Mill, and the adjoining House at Waterside, ¾ mile S.E. of Chesham Church, are both of two storeys, built in the 17th century, and much restored in the 19th century. The roofs are tiled. The Mill, at the E. end of the house, is a rectangular building; the S. and E. walls are covered with cement; the S. end of the W. wall projects beyond the house, and is of old thin bricks; the N. wall is partly of original thin bricks and has three timber-framed gables. The small chimney stack at the W. end is original. The House is of L-shaped plan; the S. front has a gable in the middle, with a gabled dormer window on each side; the lower storey, and the gables of the dormers are of 17th-century brick; the upper storey is covered with tile-hanging, and the middle gable is hidden by ivy. The back of the house is covered with cement. The large central chimney stack has square shafts, and is much restored. Interior:—Some of the ceilings have old chamfered beams, and there is one wide fireplace, partly blocked.

Condition—Of mill and house, fairly good.

d(23). House, ¾ mile N. of the church, is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century; some original timbers remain in the upper storey on the S.W. front, but the other walls have been entirely re-faced with 18th-century and modern brick. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Poor.

b(24). Great Hundridge Farm and Chapel, at Chartridge (see also (2) above and (28–38) below), 1¾ miles W. of the town. The House was built probably in 1696, the date on a rainwater head, and is of two storeys, with attic and cellar; the walls are of red and blue bricks; the roofs are tiled. The Chapel, E. of the house, was built in the 13th century. The original walls are of flint, but the N. and W. walls have been re-built with modern brick, and the S. wall is roughly plastered; the W. angle-buttresses are apparently of the 15th century. The roof is tiled. In the 17th century, probably when the house was built, the W. part of the chapel was converted into a dwelling, and the E. part into a brew-house.

The house is a good example of a late 17th-century domestic building. The chapel, with remains of 13th-century windows, is of interest.

The plan of the house is of half-H shape, facing W., the wings extending towards the E.; the central hall has two rooms on each side, and there are two staircases. The W. front has a projecting string-course between the storeys, and a large moulded dentil cornice, of wood; all the other walls of the house are similar to the W. wall, but at the back and sides the string-course is plain, the wood cornice is of simple character, and there are dormer windows in the roof. Most of the windows have original wood frames, moulded inside, with mullions and transoms, square leaded panes, and on the ground floor elaborate casement fastenings; the upper windows have plainer fastenings. The two large square chimney stacks are of original brick and have moulded caps. A lead rainwater head at the back bears the initials I.E. and the date 1696.

Interior:—On the ground floor the two front rooms are lined with original bolection-moulded panelling, painted and grained; in the N.W. room the framing is painted with birds, etc., and the fireplace is surrounded by a large moulding, with a fluted pilaster on each side; the S.W. room has a wide fireplace, partly blocked. One room at the back has a stop-moulded beam in the ceiling, and the other a chamfered beam; both rooms have wide fireplaces, partly blocked. All the doors are probably original, and have six panels with bolection moulding. On the first floor the rooms in front have original large panels, moulding round the fireplaces, and moulded wood cornices, all painted to represent marble; the rooms at the back have ceiling-beams similar to those in the rooms below, and fireplaces surrounded by large mouldings, with moulded mantelshelves. Three doors on the landing are probably original and have moulded architraves and large over-doors. The attic has old oak boards in the floor. The back staircase is original and has square newels, a moulded handrail, and turned balusters; part of the handrail and one newel are in the cellar.

The plan of the chapel is rectangular. The E. window, of late 15th-century date, is of three cinque-foiled lights under a depressed head; in the N. wall a small 13th-century lancet has been re-set, and in the S. wall are two 13th-century lancets, now blocked. In the W. wall, on the first floor of the dwelling, is a late 17th or early 18th-century window. Interior:— At the E. end of the building there is one rough truss in the roof, and the ceiling is plastered; in the ceiling of the lower room in the dwelling is a moulded beam.

The wall of the garden in front of the house is partly of thin bricks.

Condition—Of house, good; of chapel, bad, suffering from present usage.

d(25). Holly Bush Farm, at Latimer, about 1 mile N.E. of the church. The House, now two tenements, is of two storeys and an attic, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed; the filling is covered with modern plaster. The roofs are tiled. The house is of the central chimney type, with a Barn forming a wing at the N. end; the N. wall of the barn is of 17th-century thin bricks; the E. and W walls are timber-framed and weather-boarded. Interior:—The timber construction is visible throughout, and the roof has large timber trusses with curved wind-braces. On the ground floor are large ceiling-beams and wide fireplaces, that at the S. end of the house has the original oven. The barn also shows the massive timber construction in the walls, and large trusses in the roof.

Condition—Of house, poor; of barn, bad.

d(26). Codmore Farm (see Plate, p. xxx.), house, barns and stables, about ¼ mile N.W. of (25). The House is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, built in the 15th century, altered and enlarged in the 17th century, now much restored. The walls are of timber and brick; the roofs are tiled.

The building is of interest, notwithstanding alterations, as an example of 15th-century domestic architecture; the trusses of the roof are especially worthy of note.

The plan is T-shaped; the central wing extends towards the E., and contained originally the hall with an open timber roof, the screens, kitchen, etc., being probably at the E. end; the floor dividing the hall into two storeys, and the central chimney stack were inserted in the 17th century; the cross wing or solar was enlarged towards the W. in the 17th century. The N. front has been entirely restored, except the large projecting chimney stack of 17th-century brick, with two diagonal shafts, restored at the top. The back retains the original timber-framing, partly restored; the filling is almost entirely of modern brick, a few of the panels being plastered; the gable of the solar is covered with tile-hanging; two windows, now blocked, have original wooden mullions. At the E. end the timbers are original and the filling is of 17th-century brick; in the gable is a window similar to those on the S., also blocked. The large central chimney stack has square shafts of 17th-century brick.

Interior:—On the ground floor is a very large open fireplace, with a chamfered oak lintel. On the first floor is a fireplace with a stone mantelpiece, carved with a band of ornament, much obliterated by successive coats of colourwash; near the fireplace is a cupboard which has a door of one wide board, divided horizontally, with an old hinge. The three original roof-trusses of the hall remain; they have large cambered and richly moulded tie-beams, with the moulding returned along the walls at the level of the wall-plates, hollow-chamfered, curved wall-brackets and wind-braces, vertical struts, collar-beams and principal rafters. Two original trusses, one near the E. end of the house, the other across the middle of the solar, are similar to those of the hall, but less elaborate.

The Barns and Stables in front of the house are probably of the 17th century; much of the original timber-framing remains, covered with modern weather-boarding. The roofs are tiled.

Condition—Good.

d(27). Brockhurst Farm, at Latimer, about 1½ miles N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, of timber and brick, now partly covered with rough-cast. The roofs are tiled. On the N.W. side are two gabled dormer windows. Inside the house one of the rooms has a large open fireplace and there is some 17th-century panelling, now covered with wall-paper.

Condition—Good.

Chartridge (see also (2) and (24) above)

a(28). Asheridge Farm, about 2½ miles W.N.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic, built probably late in the 16th century, restored and altered in the 18th and 19th centuries. The plan was originally T-shaped, but considerable modern additions have been made. The gables retain the original timber-framing and brick filling; the S.E. side has been re-faced with brick, probably early in the 18th century; the other walls are of modern brick. The roof is tiled. On the N.W. side is a projecting chimney stack with a base of 17th-century thin bricks; the upper part is of early 18th-century bricks, and the top is modern. Interior:—In the ceilings are large chamfered beams, and the timbers of the roof, with curved wind-braces, are visible. There is one large open fireplace with corner seats.

Condition—Good.

a(29). Bellingdon End Farm, about 3 miles N.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic, built probably in the 17th century. Some of the original timber-framing remains in the E. front and in the gable on the N. side; the brick filling and the other walls are modern. The roof is tiled. The plan was originally L-shaped, but modern additions have been built between the wings and at the S. end of the house. The central chimney stack is original, and has square shafts; one shaft is modern. Interior:—Some original beams remain in the ceilings, and the timbers of the roof, with curved braces, are visible.

Condition—Good.

c(30). Bellingdon Farm, about 2¼ miles N.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic, built in the 17th century. The E. wing has original timber and brick in parts of the N. wall, and the overhanging upper storey is supported on projecting joists; the S. wall is of late 17th-century brick; the other walls have been re-faced with 18th and 19th-century brick and flint; the roofs are tiled. Interior:—The timber construction is visible in the walls and ceilings.

Condition—Good.

c(31). Bloomfield Farm, ⅓ mile S.E. of (30), is a two-storeyed house, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed, with brick filling, considerably restored and covered with plaster; the central chimney stack is of 17th-century thin bricks. The roof is tiled. Interior:—The timber construction is visible in the walls and ceilings.

Condition—Good.

c(32). Huge Farm, about 100 yards S.E. of (31), is a house of two storeys, built in the 17th century, now much altered; the N.E. and N.W. walls retain part of the original timber-framing; the rest of the walling is of 18th and 19th century brick. In front there are four moulded wooden brackets under the eaves. The roof is tiled. Interior:—The old beams remain in the ceilings, and there are two large open fireplaces, partly blocked.

Condition—Good.

c(33). Farmhouse, about ¾ mile N. of (34), is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century. The upper storey in front and at the ends retains the original timber-framing and filling of thin bricks, the lower storey and the back of the house are modern, a few old bricks having been re-used. The roof is tiled. The central chimney stack is original and has square shafts of thin bricks.

Condition—Fairly good.

c(34). Vale Farm, 1¼ miles N. of the church, is of two storeys. It consists of an L-shaped building, the wings extending towards the S. and W., of late 16th or early 17th-century date, with an 18th-century addition on the N. side and a modern addition in the angle between the original wings. The walls are almost entirely of 18th-century or modern brick; the E. wall of the original building is timber-framed; the filling is partly of 17th-century brick, and partly covered with rough-cast; the roofs are tiled. The large central chimney stack is of thin bricks, and has four diagonal shafts on a square base.

Condition—Good.

c(35). Mount Nugent Farm, about ¾ mile W. of (34), is a house of two storeys, and consists of a rectangular block built early in the 17th century, with 18th-century additions on the N. and S. The 17th-century part of the house has timber-framing in the upper storey, with filling of thin bricks; the lower storey is of 18th-century brick. The roof is tiled. At the E. end of the S. wall is an original window of three lights with diamond-shaped panes. The central chimney stack, with square shafts, is original, except one shaft, which is of the 18th century; of the chimney stack on the N. side one shaft is original, the others are of later date. Interior:—The timber construction is visible in the walls, and there are large ceiling-beams, and one wide open fireplace with corner seats. The 17th-century staircase has a moulded handrail and turned balusters.

One of the barns is dated 1622.

Condition—Poor.

c(36). Hazeldean Farm, ¼ mile S.W. of (No. 35), is a house of two storeys, formerly larger than it is at present, built probably early in the 17th century, and almost entirely refaced with modern brick. At the W. end is a little of the original timber-framing, with wattle and daub filling. The roof is tiled. The large central chimney stack has square shafts of 17th-century thin bricks. Interior:—The timber construction is visible, and the ceilings have chamfered beams and joists. There is one large open fireplace, now blocked.

Condition—Good.

c(37–38). Houses, two, S. of Hazeldean Farm, are each of two storeys, built of timber early in the 17th century, now much altered; only a little of the original timber-framing remains, the walls having been almost entirely re-faced with 18th-century and modern brick. The roofs are tiled.

Condition—Good.

Cowcroft (Latimer, see also (25), (27) above and (41–52) below)

d(39). House, now three tenements, about 100 yards W. of St. George's Church, is of two storeys and an attic, originally timber-framed with brick filling, now much restored with brick; the roofs are tiled. It consists of a 16th-century rectangular building, with a 17th-century addition at the E. end, and an early 18th-century wing on the N. front. At the W. end the lower storey of the original house is of thin bricks, re-used, the upper storey is re-faced with modern tile-hanging; at the back the upper storey projects, and is supported on exposed joists with curved brackets. The 17th-century addition has, at the E. end, a large projecting chimney stack of thin bricks, partly covered by a low modern extension; on the ground floor at this end there are old ceiling-beams and a wide open fireplace.

Condition—Poor.

d(40). Cottage, 100 yards W. of St. George's Church, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber, partly restored and enlarged in the 19th century. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Good.

Leyhill Common (Latimer, see also (25), (27) and (39–40) above and (46–52) below)

d(41). House, E. of the Baptist Chapel, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, partly timber-framed with brick filling, partly of brick. Some of the walls have been re-faced, and the building has been otherwise restored. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

e(42). Arbour Cottages, Nos. 55 and 56, are of one storey and an attic, built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber, now partly restored. The roofs are tiled. The front has three gables and dormer windows. In one cottage is an original open fireplace.

Condition—Good.

e(43). Cottage, No. 58, W. of Ashridge Farm, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th century, now re-faced almost entirely with modern brick, and having modern additions on the S. and E. The roof is tiled. The E. wall retains some original timbers, and in the lower part of the projecting chimney stack are some 17th-century bricks. Inside the house, on the ground floor, are a few original ceiling-beams, and a wide fireplace, now blocked.

Condition—Fairly good.

e(44). Cottage, N. of Ashridge Farm, is of one storey and an attic, built of brick and timber probably in the 17th century, but almost entirely re-faced with modern brick. The attic is lighted by two dormer windows. One or two windows on the ground floor are original.

Condition—Fairly good.

e(45). 'The Cottage,' Mount Pleasant, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th century, now much enlarged and altered. The roof is tiled. The plan is rectangular; the gable at the S. end has original timbers and projecting joists, probably transferred to their present position when the house was altered. Part of the central chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. Inside the house, on the ground floor, are some original ceiling-beams and a large open fireplace.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Latimer (see also (25), (27), and (39–45) above)

e(46). Little White End Farm, W. of Pinner Green, S. of Leyhill Common, is a two-storeyed house, now three cottages, built of brick and timber, probably in the 16th century, enlarged and much restored with modern brick. The roof is tiled. The plan is L-shaped, the wings projecting towards the S. and E., with a modern addition at the E. end of the E. wing. On the S. elevation the upper storey projects; the chimney stack is of narrow bricks. Inside the house is a large open fireplace.

Condition—Poor.

e(47). Hockley Farm, about ½ mile E. of (46), is a two-storeyed house of central chimney type, now two tenements, built of brick and timber, probably in the 17th century, enlarged and restored with modern brick; the timbers are painted, and the bricks whitewashed. The roof is tiled. Inside the house are some original ceiling-beams, and some wide fireplaces, now partly blocked.

Condition—Good.

g(48). House, now two tenements, Nos. 34–35, is of two storeys, built probably in the 16th century, and timber-framed, with wattle and daub filling, now restored with modern brick and covered with plaster. The roof is tiled. The plan is L-shaped, the wings extending towards the N. and E. The large central chimney stack is original and has square shafts; the projecting chimney stack at the N. end of the house has some 17th-century brick in the lower part, but has been restored. Some of the original casements and glazing remain. Interior:—The timber construction is visible throughout the house; the rooms on the ground floor have moulded or chamfered ceiling-beams, and two wide fireplaces, now partly blocked, have projecting hoods or canopies. Three of the doors are of wide battens, and have original strap-hinges and other ironwork. At the top of the staircase are a few 17th-century turned balusters. On the first floor an open 16th-century fireplace has chamfered jambs and three-centred arch, of stone, with moulded stops and a moulded mantelshelf; some wide oak boards remain in the floor.

Condition—Good, much altered outside.

g(49). House, now two cottages, Nos. 36 and 37, is of one storey and an attic, built of brick and timber, probably in the 17th century, but almost entirely re-faced with modern brick. The roof is tiled. The attic is lighted by dormer windows. Inside the house there are some large chamfered beams in the ceilings.

Condition—Good, much altered and restored.

g(50). House, No. 38 (see Plate, p. 12), on the N. side of the main street, is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. It was built probably in the 16th century, and has a small 17th-century addition at the E. end; the walls are timber-framed, with brick and plaster filling, partly re-faced with modern brick. The roof is tiled. The plan is rectangular. On the S. front the upper storey is of closely set vertical timbers, with plaster filling, the timbers of the lower storey are set further apart, with brick filling. The windows are old and the two semi-dormers are gabled. On the ground floor a chamfered beam with moulded stops runs across the ceiling of both rooms, and in one room is some late 17th-century panelling; the wide fireplace has been blocked. The large trusses of the roof are visible.

Condition—Good.

g(51). House, N. of Home Farm, is of two storeys, built probably in the middle of the 17th century, of brick and timber, now whitewashed; the back is re-faced with modern brick. All the windows are old, except two oriel windows on the ground floor.

Condition—Good.

g(52). Blackwell Hall Farm, 2 miles S.E. of Chesham Church, is a two-storeyed house, built of timber and plaster in the 15th century, altered in the 16th century, and the plaster filling re-placed by brick in the 17th century, when a small one-storeyed projection was added at the back of the house. The roof is tiled.

The house is an interesting example of a domestic building of the 15th century; the remains of the original hall with the moulded trusses of the roof are especially worthy of note.

The plan is rectangular, facing W., with a small projecting wing at the back; there was probably originally a S.E. wing, making the plan L-shaped, but it appears to have been destroyed in the 17th century. In the main block the central hall was originally open to the roof, and had a solar at each end, but an upper floor was inserted in the 16th century, and there are various modern internal partitions. The W. Elevation has closely spaced vertical timbers, with brick filling, now much hidden by ivy, and at each end the upper storey projects and is gabled; the doorway is original, and has moulded jambs and four-centred head with sunk spandrels; the two windows on the ground floor have 16th-century frames and mullions, moulded inside, and all the windows have iron casements and diamond-shaped leaded panes. The N. and S. ends of the house have large vertical timbers and late 17th-century brick filling. The E. Elevation has, at the N. end, an original timber-framed gable; at the S. end the wall is of late 17th-century brick, indicating the probable existence of a former S.E. wing; the low projection in the middle of the elevation is also of late 17th-century brick.

Interior:—On the ground floor the walls show the original timber construction, and the ceilings have large exposed joists and beams; in the hall the wide 16th-century fireplace is partly blocked. On the first floor part of the original roof of the hall is visible, with moulded purlins and wall-plates and curved wind-braces with chamfered edges; only one of the original main trusses remains, and has large double tie-beams, cambered at the top and bottom; the upper beam is moulded and the lower chamfered, with curved wall-brackets; over the tie-beam at the S. end is part of the original timber and plaster partition, dividing the hall from the adjoining room. The rooms at each end also show the original timber construction of the walls, and have roof trusses similar to that of the hall, but plainer. Several doorways have original oak frames with four-centred heads and sunk spandrels.

Condition—Good, but with a considerable amount of ivy on the N. and W. walls.



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