(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxxii. N.E. (b)xxxiii. N.W.)
a(1). Parish Church of St. Nicholas,
stands on the W. side of the village, and is
built of rubble, with limestone dressings. The
roofs are tiled, except that of the S. aisle, which
is covered with lead. The 12th-century church
on the site consisted probably of a chancel, and
an aisleless nave, shorter than the present Nave;
this building appears to have been enlarged
four times, during the 13th century, the work
of each period being sufficiently marked to distinguish it from the others. A North Transept
was added to the nave, and the Chancel was
re-built c. 1220; a short and narrow South Aisle
of two bays was added to the E. half of the nave
c. 1230; a North Aisle, probably narrow, with an
arcade of three bays, was built W. of the transept c. 1260, a short length of walling being retained between the transept arch and the first
arch of the arcade; at the same time the S. aisle
was lengthened by two bays towards the W.;
c. 1290 the E. half of the S. aisle was widened
to form a South Chapel. The N. aisle was
widened, probably to the depth of the original
transept which was incorporated with the aisle,
c. 1330, when the W. respond of the transept
arch was converted into a pillar and the first
arch of the 13th-century arcade was re-built
with a wider span; the South Porch is also of
the 14th century. In the 15th century the
West Tower was added, and several windows
were inserted in other parts of the building. In
the second half of the 16th century the N. aisle
was shortened by one bay from the W. The
North Vestry was added, and the church
restored and re-roofed in the 19th century.
The arcades of the nave are especially interesting as showing work of various 13th-century
dates; the S. doorway is also noteworthy.
The Church, Plan
Reproduced by permission of the Victoria County Histories.
Architectural Description — The Chancel
(24½ ft. by 15 ft.) has an E. window of three
lights and tracery in a two-centred head, with
an external label; the inner jambs are of the
14th century; the tracery is modern. In the
N. wall is a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a square head,
and a modern doorway opening into the vestry.
In the S. wall are two windows; the eastern is
of the 15th century, and of two cinque-foiled
ogee lights, with quatrefoil spandrels under
a square head and moulded external label; the
western window is of the 14th century, and of
two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded external label;
apparently the head has been re-tooled outside. The two-centred chancel arch of c. 1220
is of two moulded orders, and has semi-octagonal jambs with moulded bases, probably restored, and simple bell-capitals, with plain
abaci; the moulded label, in the nave, has
return ends carried across the wall on each
side, with a square stop where it meets the
label of the first arch of the N. arcade. The
Nave (49 ft. by 15½ ft.) has a N. arcade of three
bays, formerly four; the first bay, originally
the arch of the N. transept, is probably of c.
1220; the arch is of two chamfered orders with
a moulded label; the E. respond is semi-octagonal, the column octagonal, with
moulded bases and capitals similar to those
of the chancel arch; the E. half of the
column is of c. 1220, the W. half of c. 1260;
the second and third bays are of c. 1260, and
the arches are of two chamfered orders with
shallow hollows; the eastern arch was re-built
c. 1330, with the 13th-century voussoirs, and
has a moulded 14th-century label; the western
arch has a 13th-century label; the second
column is round, and has a moulded base, a
fluted and scalloped capital, and moulded
abacus, probably copied from the first column
of the S. arcade; the W. respond, originally
the third column of the arcade, is partly buried
in the wall; the base resembles that of the
second column, and the capital, somewhat
similar to those of the chancel arch, has a
moulded abacus of c. 1260. The S. arcade is of
four bays; the first two bays, of c. 1230, have
arches similar to those of later date in the N.
arcade, but the hollows are deeper and the
arches narrower and lower; the E. respond is
semi-octagonal, with a modern base and
original moulded capital and abacus; the first
column is circular, with moulded base and scalloped capital; the third and fourth bays, of
c. 1260, have arches similar to the W. arches of
the N. arcade, but they have been thrust forward by the pressure of the W. arch of the S.
chapel; the second and third columns are circular with moulded bases and capitals; the W.
respond is semi-octagonal, with moulded base
and capital of similar section to those of the
E. respond, and is probably of the same date,
moved towards the W. when the aisle was
lengthened. The capitals of both arcades and
of the chancel arch have been re-rubbed. The
North Aisle (36 ft. by 11½ ft.) has an early
14th-century E. window, of three cinque-foiled
pointed lights and tracery in a two-centred
head; the external label is moulded, and the
rear arch is chamfered; the window has sunk
towards the S., distorting the tracery. In the
N. wall are two windows; the eastern of two
lights with modern external stonework, the
jambs inside and the chamfered rear arch are
probably of the 14th century; the western window, probably of the 16th century, is of two four-centred lights, with sunk spandrels under a
splayed square head and lintel; the 14th-century N. doorway has chamfered jambs and a
two-centred drop-arch with a moulded internal
label. The W. wall of the aisle is about 13 ft.
E. of the W. wall of the nave, and has a 16th-century window of three ogee lights and tracery
under a four-centred head. The South Chapel
(20½ ft. by 13½ ft.) has a late 13th-century E.
window of three pointed lights and tracery in
a two-centred head; the external and internal
jambs have shafts with moulded bases and
capitals; the labels are moulded; the workmanship is crude, and much distorted, as the window has sunk towards the S. In the S. wall
are two windows, each of two trefoiled ogee
lights and tracery in a square head, having a
moulded external label with head-stops, apparently originally part of a string-course; the
external stonework is of the 15th century; the
splayed inner jambs have remains of late 13th-century shafts with capitals and bases similar
to those in the E. window. In the W. wall,
opening into the S. aisle, is a narrow two-centred arch, of two moulded orders, with a
label on each face, apparently of c. 1290; the
responds have clustered half-round shafts with
moulded bases and capitals; the N. respond is
set awkwardly against the second column of the
S. arcade, and the S. wall of the aisle breaks
forward in front of the S. respond. The South
Aisle (23½ ft. by 5½ ft.) has, at the W. end of
the S. wall, a window of two trefoiled ogee
lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the
internal stonework, with chamfered rear arch,
is probably of the 14th century; the external
stonework and label are modern: the S. doorway (see Plate, p. xxiv.), next to the arch from
the S. chapel, is of c. 1260, and of two moulded
orders, enriched with dog-tooth ornament,
which has small holes between the flowers; the
outer order of the jambs has shallow dog-tooth
ornament, probably cut at a later date than
the other, and detached shafts in the angles,
with moulded bases and bell-capitals under
grooved and chamfered abaci; the inner order is
chamfered. The South Porch has an outer archway of two moulded orders and a moulded label,
all modern, except a few stones, which are probably of the 14th century. The West Tower
(11½ ft. by 10½ ft.) is of three stages, with a
moulded string-course and embattled parapet,
diagonal buttresses at the W. angles, and a
shallow square buttress on the S.E.; at the N.E.
corner is a half-hexagonal stair-turret, rising
above the parapet. The 15th-century tower arch
and jambs are of two chamfered orders with
splayed stops at the base. The W. doorway, also
of the 15th century, has a four-centred head
and moulded jambs on a splayed plinth; the
threshold has been lowered and the jambs therefore lengthened at a later date: the original
W. window is of three cinque-foiled pointed
lights under a four-centred head. The second
stage has a trefoiled single light in the S. and
W. walls, and a loop in the stair-turret on the
N. The third stage has in each wall a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with
a quatrefoil under a four-centred head and a
Fittings—Bracket: in S.E. corner of chancel, moulded, 15th-century. Font: circular
bowl, ornamented with shallow arcade of
pointed arches, moulded circular base, 13th-century. Glass: in the upper lights of E. window of S. chapel, two half-figures of angels,
14th-century. Niche: in gable of S. porch,
three stones of former niche. Piscina: in S.
chapel, with trefoiled head and circular basin,
early 14th-century. Tiles: in the floor of the
tower, mediæval, much worn. Miscellanea: on
N. wall of chancel, carved corbel, bearded head
with quatre-foiled band round the temples,
Condition—Good; some ivy on the N. side
of the tower.
a(2). Tyringham Hall, now a village club,
about 200 ft. N.W. of the church, is a small
house, built of stone, early in the 17th century, probably in 1609, the date carved on the
lintel of the staircase. The plan consists of a
rectangular block, with a W. wing, formerly
projecting towards the N. and S., now only
towards the S., and an E. wing, which has been
extended towards the N.; the E. wing is of one
storey and an attic; the central block, containing the hall, now used as a billiard room, and
the W. wing are of two storeys and an attic;
part of the attic was formerly used as a dovecot. The S. Elevation has a projecting bay
window, carried up to the eaves, and of five
lights in each storey; the lower storey is of
modern stone, but in the upper storey, which is
almost entirely original, the lights have
moulded jambs, mullions and transoms, all
apparently of brick, coated with cement; on
each side of the bay window in each storey is
a two-light window of similar detail, but those
in the lower storey are of modern stone; the
dormer windows and the windows of the E. wing
are of the 18th century; the W. wing is gabled,
and has three original windows with moulded
oak frames and mullions; over the window in
the gable are three holes opening into the
former dovecot. The W. Elevation has two
original windows with moulded oak frames; the
third window is of the 18th century. The N.
Elevation has, on the first floor, three original
windows with moulded oak frames, mullions
and transoms, and at the W. end, in the
lower part of the wall, the bonding for the
former projection is visible; the two projecting
stone chimney stacks have rectangular shafts of
brick; the western stack is not carried down to
the ground, but rests on stone corbels. The
lower part of a chimney over the E. wing is of
stone, and the upper part of thin bricks.
Interior:—The hall, and the sitting-room in
the E. wing, have each a wide fireplace, and
the sitting-room retains a little original panelling; the doorway at the W. end of the hall and
another which opened into the former N.W.
projection have original moulded oak frames
and battened doors; one room has an original
panelled door, and lying loose in another room
is a similar door with a carved frieze and ornamental scroll-hinges. On the first floor the room
above the hall has a wide, open fireplace, and
one door retains the original scroll-hinges. A
room in the attic has an original fireplace with
plastered jambs and four-centred head, and
part of the walls are arranged with tiers of
brick recesses for doves. The main staircase
has original steps, and on a lintel over the foot
of the staircase is carved the date 1609 between
the initials T.R. The stairs to the cellar have
octagonal newels with finials and a moulded
handrail. The stairs to the attic are original,
but much restored.
Condition—Good, except the attic, which is
a(3). House, now two tenements, on the N.
side of Lower Church Street, 60 yards N. of the
church, is of two storeys, with a cellar and an
attic. It was built probably in the first half
of the 17th century on a rectangular plan;
towards the end of the same century the S. end
was re-built and the W. wing added,
making the plan L-shaped. The S. front
and the N. side of the W. wing are
of brick, with plain projecting pilasters and a
horizontal string-course; the W. end of the
wing is of stone with a brick gable; the other
walls are timber-framed with plaster filling.
The roofs are partly thatched and partly tiled.
The windows on the S. front are original, and
have plain frames, mullions and transoms; on
the E. side is an original dormer window with
moulded wood frame and mullions. One chimney stack is original and has square shafts
built of thin bricks, and another stack is of late
17th-century brick. A cellar door and a partition on the first floor are of 17th-century
Lower Green, S. side
a (4). House, now two tenements, is a small
two-storeyed building of late 17th-century date,
but much restored. In front one tenement
is timber-framed with plaster filling, the other
is re-faced with modern brick; at the back the
walls are of stone, timber and brick. The roof
is partly thatched and partly tiled. In each
tenement is a wide, open fireplace and some of
the ceilings have old beams.
a (5–8). Cottages, a range of four, are of
two storeys, built of wichert, probably late in
the 17th century, and restored with modern
brick. The roofs are tiled. Some of the rooms
have wide, open fireplaces and there are old
beams in the ceilings.
a (9). House, now three tenements, is of two
storeys, timber-framed with brick filling,
except the lower part of the E. wall, which is of
stone; the roofs are partly tiled and partly
covered with slate. It was built early in the
17th century and has a modern addition at the
W. end; much of the brick filling is modern.
On the N. side is a large projecting chimney
stack of stone, with two square shafts of brick,
set diagonally; another stack has a rectangular
shaft of brick, restored at the top. Inside the
house some timbers in the S. wall possibly indicate a blocked doorway with a four-centred
head. Some of the rooms have wide, open
fireplaces and chamfered ceiling-beams; there
are two panelled oak doors and a little
panelling of early 17th-century date.
a (10). Holyman's Farm, 250 yards N. of the
church, is a small two-storeyed house of stone
and wichert, almost entirely covered with
plaster; the roofs are thatched. The plan is
L-shaped. It was built in the 17th century,
probably in 1698, the date carved on a fireplace.
One window, apparently original, has moulded
oak mullions, transom and frame. A square
chimney is of 17th-century brick. In the
parlour is an open fireplace, now partly filled
in, and built into one of the jambs is a stone
inscribed WVI 1698. Two barns near the house
are probably of the 17th century, and are built
of wichert; the roofs are thatched.
Frog Lane, S. side
a (11). Cottage, of two storeys, built in the
17th century, and restored in the 19th century.
In front the wall is timber-framed, on a stone
base; the filling is partly of plaster, partly of
modern brick; at the back the lower part of the
wall is of modern brick and stone, and the
upper part is covered with plaster. The roof is
a (12). Cottage, at the corner of Frog Lane
and Spicketts Lane, is of two storeys, built of
wichert in the 17th century; the roof is
thatched. In front, on the first floor, are two
original windows with plain chamfered frames
and mullions; one window is now blocked. A
rectangular chimney stack is of 17th-century
brick. Two rooms have wide, open fireplaces.
a (13). House, at the E. end of the lane, is a
long rectangular building of two storeys and of
late 17th-century date. The walls are of
wichert on a stone base, and at each end is a
brick gable. The roof is thatched. Three
doorways have original beaded oak frames and
most of the windows have old frames and mullions. Two rectangular chimney stacks of
brick are also original.
a (14). Farmhouse, now several tenements,
in a road between Spicketts Lane and Holly
Tree Lane, is of two storeys, built of brick and
timber, on stone foundations, in the 17th century; the roof is tiled. Two chimney stacks
are of 17th-century brick and some of the windows are old. Inside the house are two large,
open fireplaces and some chamfered ceiling-beams.
a (15). The Swan Inn, is a two-storeyed house
of central chimney type. It was built of
wichert in the 17th century, but the walls have
been almost entirely re-faced with modern brick.
The roof is tiled. There is an old brick chimney stack, and under it is a wide, open fireplace
with the original corner seat and oven. Some
of the ceilings have chamfered beams.
Condition—Good, much restored.
Spurt Street, S. side
a (16). House, at the E. end of the street, is a
rectangular building of two storeys and an
attic, probably of early 17th-century date. The
walls are of stone; the roof is tiled. The windows and chimney stacks are old. On the first
floor is a cupboard with early 17th-century
panelling, and a room and one staircase are
lined with 17th-century moulded battens. The
second staircase retains the original newel and
a few carved flat balusters.
a (17). Cottage, E. of the Crown Inn, is of two
storeys, built of timber and wichert, on stone
foundations, probably early in the 17th century. The roof is thatched. One room on the
ground floor has a richly moulded ceiling-beam.
a (18). The Crown Inn, is of two storeys,
built probably in the 17th century, but much
restored and altered. The walls are of wichert,
partly re-faced with modern brick. The roof
is thatched. One old chimney stack remains,
and under it is a wide, open fireplace, partly
blocked. Some of the ceilings have stop-chamfered beams.
a (19–20). Cottages, two, at the corner of the
Haddenham and Aylesbury roads, are each of
two storeys, built of wichert in the 17th century; the western cottage has been partly refaced with modern brick. The roofs are tiled.
One chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. In
the eastern cottage one room has, over the fireplace, fragment of plasterwork, evidently part
of an overmantel, representing a greyhound,
a thistle, a fleur-de-lis, etc.
Upper Church Street, E. side
a (21). House, at the S. end of the street, was
built probably late in the 17th century, but has
been much restored and altered. It is of two
storeys, with walls of brick and stone; the roof
is tiled. Some of the ceilings have chamfered
beams, and in one room is a wide, open fireplace.
a (22). House, now the Post Office, is a rectangular building of two storeys. A panel in
the gable at the N. end bears the date 1687 and
the initials I.R. The walls are covered with
rough-cast; the roof is tiled.
Condition—Good, much restored.
a (23). Cottage, at the N. end of the street,
is of two storeys, built in the 17th century.
The walls are partly of wichert, partly timber-framed, with brick filling; some of the filling
is modern. The roof is thatched. One chimney stack and some of the windows are old.
Inside the house is a wide, open fireplace with
the original oven, and in one ceiling is a stop-chamfered beam.
a (24). Cottage, opposite the church, is of two
storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th
century; the roof is tiled. The building is of
modified central chimney type; an outhouse has
been added at one end, making the plan
L-shaped. The front is covered with plaster,
but in the gables the timber-framing is exposed.
Some of the windows have old iron casements.
b (25). Cowley Farm, about 1 mile N.E. of
the church, is a small 17th-century building of
two storeys, with stone walls; the roofs are
tiled. The plan is L-shaped. Some of the
windows have old iron casements. A large
chimney stack has three square shafts, of 17th-century brick, set diagonally on a stone base.
Inside the house are some stop-chamfered beams
and a wide, open fireplace.
b (26). The Bottle and Glass Inn, is of two
storeys, built of wichert in the 17th century
and covered with modern plaster. The roof is
thatched. One chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. Inside the house are old chamfered beams and a wide, open fireplace with the
Condition—Good, much restored.
b (27–28). Cottages, two, at the back of the
Bottle and Glass Inn, are of two storeys, and of
central chimney type, built in the 17th century.
The walls are covered with plaster; the roofs
are thatched. Some of the rooms have open
fireplaces and chamfered beams.