(O.S. 6 in. (a)xiii. S.W. (b)xiii. S.E. (c)xviii. N.W.
a(1). Parish Church of St. Peter and St.
Paul, on Castle Hill, was re-built in the 19th
century on the site of the church built in 1777–81,
N.N.E. of the site of the former building. The
following fittings have been preserved.
Fittings—Books: In nave—at W. end, in
locked case, Bible in Latin, manuscript, said to
be of c. 1320 or earlier; given by John Rudying
to Buckingham in 1471, taken away, and subsequently restored to the parish. Chests: In N.
aisle—(1) with panelled front, ends and lid,
one lock, 17th-century; (2) with front and ends
having bolection-moulded panelling, lid plain,
three locks, inscribed '1690 William Howard,
Edward Snoxell, C.W.' Painting: In vestry—
on board, dated 1685, and recording charities of
1661 (?) and 1679. Seating (see Plate, p. 48): In
S. aisle—at E. end, two desks made up of four
bench-ends, with elaborately traceried panels and
carved poppy-heads, 15th-century; third desk,
made up of bench-end with cinque-foiled panel,
dated 1626, in front a quartered shield of Ingoldsby,
(1) ermine a saltire engrailed, (2) three bars in
chief three rings, (3) a fesse with three martlets (?)
thereon in a border engrailed, (4) ermine a dance;
on the back Ingoldsby impaling a blank. Miscellanea: In vestry—fragments of worked stone,
possibly of reredos or tomb, including part of
moulded capital, carved foliage, with traces of red
and blue paint, 15th-century.
The Churchyard is on the site of the former
castle; the churchyard of the original church
exists S. of the present building.
a(2). Chapel of St. John the Baptist and
St. Thomas of Acon, afterwards used as the
Royal Latin School, stands in a lane 250 yards
N.N.E. of the parish church. The walls are of
limestone rubble, the roofs are tiled. The chapel
was built apparently late in the 12th century, and
retains a doorway of that date, but was entirely
re-built c. 1475. It was converted into a school in
the 16th century, and a dwelling house was built
at the N. end, but was burnt down and re-built in
1690, and subsequently much altered. The chapel
was re-roofed in the 18th century and again restored
in 1857 and 1875.
The chapel is especially interesting on account
of the 12th-century doorway (see Plate, p. 24).
Architectural Description—The Chapel (38 ft.
by 16½ ft.) is rectangular, with the altar originally
at the S. end; over the S. end is a modern bell-cot,
without a bell. The S. window, probably of late
15th-century date, is of four trefoiled lights and
tracery under a four-centred head and a label with
shapeless stops; the tracery is modern. In the
E. wall, high up, are two modern windows. In the
W. wall are four windows; the southernmost is
of late 15th-century date, and of two trefoiled lights
with a sexfoil under a four-centred head, and a
moulded external label; at the N. end of the wall
are two modern windows, one above the other; over
the upper window is a short length of original string-course with dog-tooth ornament, and two shorter
lengths, copies of the other; the late 12th-century
doorway, almost in the middle of the wall, has jambs
of two square orders, with angle-shafts which have
moulded bases, capitals carved with foliage, and
abaci with zig-zag and foliated ornament; the
shafts and bases are modern, the capitals much
worn; the head is semi-circular and of two orders;
the inner order has a shallow fillet ornament in the
shape of pointed horse-shoes, repaired or re-tooled;
the outer order has cheveron moulding, and the
label plain dog-tooth ornament on both edges; over
the doorway is a small modern window. In the
N. wall are two plain square-headed doorways,
now blocked; between them is a modern recess.
The Roof of the chapel is of four bays, constructed
in 1776, partly of 15th-century timbers said to have
been taken from the old parish church; the truss
against the S. wall has a partly moulded tie-beam
and traces of arched braces below it; the truss is
arched below the hollow-chamfered collar-beam;
part of another truss is moulded.
Fittings—Gallery: at N. end, modern, incorporating in front six bench-ends, probably from the
old parish church, (1) and (6) evidently of the same
date, each with plain shield in front, (1) inscribed
'Thomas Grove Gent', (6) inscribed 'Anno 1652';
at the back, (1) carved with three hearts, (6) with
a heart and initials 'A.G.'; the other four bench-ends have each a cinque-foiled panel with foliated
cusps, a rose and thistle carved in the spandrel
(except in that of (5)), head with foliated edging,
poppy-head finial, and shield with arms relating to
various members of the family of Ingoldsby of
Lenborough; (2) shield in front, ermine a saltire
engrailed for Ingoldsby, shield at the back, the
same impaling a blank; (3) shield in front, the
same as (2) impaling a fesse in a border gobony (?);
(4) shield in front, the same as (2) impaling a
cheveron between three roundels, possibly intended
for a cheveron engrailed between three crescents,
for Sir Richard Ingoldsby, d. 1635, and his wife,
Elizabeth (Palmer); shield at the back, the same
as (2), impaling a lion rampant for Sir Richard
Ingoldsby, d. 1656, and his wife, Elizabeth (Cromwell); (5) shield in front, the same as (2) impaling
two coats, one above the other, the upper coat
ermine a fesse checky, the lower, party cheveronwise three elephants' heads for Francis Ingoldsby,
d. 1579, and his two wives, Anne (Crispe) and
Dorothy (Saunders); the spandrel above the
tracery of (5) inscribed '1626', evidently the date
of (2–5). Locker: in E. wall, near S. end. plain,
square. Piscina: in W. wall, near S. end, with
trefoiled three-centred head, moulded jambs, no
basin, late 15th-century, much damaged.
Condition—Good, substantially; now the property of the National Trust.
(For account of the bridge between Thornborough
and Buckingham, see Thornborough).
a(3). Castle Hill (Fortified Mount), situated
in the middle of the town, now consists of an
oval hill with a steep scarp on all sides except the
N.; on that side there are faint indications of
a ditch separating it from the town. A bend in
the river Ouse forms a peninsula on the S.W.
During recent building operations in Well Street
traces of masonry were found at the foot of the
Church Street, W. side
a(4). The Market Cross, remains, in the old
churchyard, about 200 yards S. of the church,
consisting of the base and the stump of the shaft,
which is decorated with four-leafed flower ornament; they are, apparently, of late 14th-century
date, and are not in situ.
Buckingham, Plan Shewing Positions of Monuments Described.
a(5). Stone, at Barton's Hospital, about 100
yards S. of the church; the present building is
modern, but re-set in one wall is an old stone
recording that the original almshouses of 1431
were re-built in 1701.
a(6). House, No. 20, 100 yards S. of the church,
is of two storeys and an attic, built of stone,
probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th
century; the front is covered with modern plaster.
The roof is tiled. At the back are three small
gables, each gable having two windows, one above
the other. At the S. end is an original chimney
stack of brick with two square shafts set diagonally,
restored at the top. Interior:—On the ground
floor are some chamfered beams in the ceilings
and an open fireplace, partly blocked. On the
first floor is a 17th-century door of panelled oak.
a(7). The Vicarage, about 130 yards S. of the
church, is a house of two storeys. The original
walls are probably all of stone rubble, but are
partly covered with rough-cast; the other walls are
of modern brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built
probably at the end of the 16th or beginning of the
17th century, but has been much altered and
enlarged. The plan was originally of the H type,
with a small central block, facing approximately
W.; the S. wing contains a drawing room, the
central block a hall and staircase; the N. wing
contains the domestic offices, and has a modern
continuation towards the W.; between the wings,
on the E. side, is a modern addition of two storeys.
The wings are gabled at each end, and the central
block is ridged from N. to S. Interior:—In the
ceiling of the hall is an original moulded beam;
the drawing room has a large mantelpiece of black
marble of late 17th-century date, which has a
projecting cornice or shelf with enriched mouldings
supported on consoles; the opening has an architrave carved with a cherub's head and swags of
flowers and fruit.
Condition—Good; much altered.
a(8). The Manor House, 220 yards S. of the
church, is of two storeys, built probably in the
16th century, and timber-framed, now partly
re-faced or re-built with brick and some stone rubble, and partly covered with rough-cast. The roofs
are tiled. The original plan was apparently L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the
S. and W. The S. end of the S. wing has been
re-built and lengthened towards the E., and there
is a small modern addition on each side of the W.
wing. At the N. end of the S. wing is an original
chimney stack (see Plate, p. 74), with one sharply
twisted shaft; the other shaft is of the 18th century; in the W. wing is also an original stack.
Interior:—On the ground floor, a room N. of
the entrance hall has a carved mantelpiece of late
17th-century date, now painted, and a floor paved
with stone. Part of the first floor is carried on
heavy chamfered beams; at the top of the back
staircase in the W. wing are some late 17th-century
turned balusters, not in situ; some of the doors
in the W. wing are of 17th-century moulded battens,
but are probably not in their original position.
Condition—Fairly good; much altered.
a(9). Cottages, two, at the corner of the street,
S.E. of the Mitre Inn, are each of two storeys,
built probably late in the 17th century, at right
angles to each other, forming an L-shaped block.
The walls are timber-framed and covered with
plaster in front; the original wattle and daub
filling is visible at the back. One chimney stack
a(10). The Mitre Inn, 500 yards S.S.W. of the
church, is of two storeys and an attic, built
probably late in the 17th century, subsequently
altered and enlarged. The front of the house
is faced with stone and covered with plaster;
the back is of timber and brick with some stone;
some of the windows have original casements
and old glass; the porch is of oak, and the entrance
has a four-centred head with twisted half-balusters
at the sides, under a square frame. One chimney
stack is original. Interior:—In the ceilings are
some stop-chamfered beams, and there is one wide
fireplace, partly blocked.
a(11). Wellhouse of St. Rumbold's Well,
about 600 yards W.S.W. of the church, is a small
one-storeyed building of stone rubble; a stone
in the gable of the E. wall is carved with the
initials and date 'WLM1623' under a small arch with
pilasters. In the N. wall is a doorway with a
four-centred arch and sunk spandrels in a square
a(12). House, now several tenements, on the
E. side of Rumbold's Lane (see Plate, p. 112).
It was built apparently early in the 15th century,
but a chimney stack is dated 1709, and the walls
have been re-faced with modern brick; only
a little timber-framing remains in the middle
of the building, and at the N. end is an early 15th-century angle-post, of oak, carved with three
quatrefoils; the projecting edge is also carved, but
the design is almost obliterated; at the back is
a post of similar shape, without carving.
Well Street, E. side
b(13). The Woolpack Inn, 100 yards E. of the
church, is of three storeys, the upper storey
partly in the roof. It was built probably early in
the 17th century, but has been enlarged and almost
entirely re-faced with modern brick, and partly
covered with plaster. The roofs are tiled. The
central chimney stack is of thin bricks, with one
square shaft set diagonally. Interior:—The ceilings have chamfered beams, and there is an open
fireplace, partly blocked.
b(14). House, now a shop, at the N. end of the
street, 150 yards N.E. of the church. It is probably
of late 16th or early 17th-century date; the walls
are entirely covered with cement; in front the
upper storey projects. Interior:—On the ground
floor the ceilings have chamfered encased
beams; on the first floor is visible a shaped
post, part of the original timber-framing. The
fireplaces are partly blocked, and two old battened doors remain.
These buildings are almost all of the 17th
century, and of two storeys; the walls are timber-framed, with brick or plaster filling, considerably
restored, and many of them whitewashed. Almost
all the buildings have original chimney stacks.
The roofs are thatched or tiled.
b(15). House, now a shop, in the middle of
the square, 350 yards N.E. of the church. It
is of two storeys and an attic. The walls are
entirely covered with cement. Two window
frames on the first floor, and one in a dormer
are of wood, with iron casements, probably original.
b(16). House, now a shop, in an alley at the
N.W. corner of the square, 300 yards N.N.E. of the
church. It is of two storeys and an attic. The
front is covered with cement. A covered passage
on the W. side of the building has original timber-framing in the walls, and a stop-chamfered beam
across the roof.
b(17). Cottage, adjoining (16) on the N. side.
It has a central chimney stack.
b(18). Cottage, adjoining (17) on the N. side.
Part of the walling is of stone rubble. The front
has been re-faced with timber and brick, probably
of the 18th century.
b(19). Cottage, adjoining (18), on the N. side.
Interior:—Two rooms have exposed joists and
beams in the ceilings.
High Street, N.W. side
b(20). House, now two tenements, Nos. 36
and 37, 100 yards S.W. of (18). It was built
probably in the middle of the 16th century, but
has been much altered and enlarged. In front
the wall is covered with cement and the upper
storey projects; on the S.W. side is a covered
passage with a partition of old timber-framing.
At the back, part of the wall is of stone, and the
projecting chimney stack is of stone with a square
shaft of very thin bricks. Interior:—On the
ground floor the ceilings have moulded crossway
beams dividing the whole length and breadth
of the building; one fireplace is original and
has a four-centred head, apparently of stone,
now painted. On the first floor the ceilings
have plain joists.
b(21). Cottages, a range of four, Nos. 27–30,
500 yards N.E. of the church. In front the upper
storey projects slightly, the ends of the joists being
visible. At the back the wall is covered by modern
additions. Interior:—Some of the rooms have
chamfered ceiling-beams, and there are a few old
b(22). House, now a shop and dwelling house,
about ¼ mile N.E. of the church. It is of two
storeys and an attic. In front the wall is covered
with cement, and there are two small original
dormer windows. At the back the wall is hidden
by modern additions. The chimney stack at
the N.E. end has two square shafts set diagonally;
that at the back also has two square shafts.
b(23). House, at the E. corner of Meadow
Row. The block facing the High Street
was built probably early in the 16th century,
and in front is covered with cement; the
wing facing Meadow Row was added in the 17th
century; it has been re-fronted with modern brick,
and other modern additions and alterations have
been made. Interior:—On the ground floor of
the original block, the room in front, now divided,
has two large intersecting moulded beams in the
ceiling, moulded wall-plates and joists with stops,
all now varnished; in the same room is an original
wide fireplace, but the stop-chamfered lintel is
possibly modern. The two rooms in the wing at
the back have remains of early 17th-century
panelling, now painted, and one room has a cupboard door of similar panelling, and a wide open
b(24). Stone, at Christ's Hospital, about 350
yards N.E. of the church. The almshouse was
founded in 1597 and was possibly on the site of a
hospital founded in 1312; it was re-built in 1897,
but re-set in one wall is an old stone inscribed,
Market Hill, S.E. side
b(25). House, now two shops, Nos. 1–2, 100 yards
N.E. of the church, is partly of two storeys and an
attic, partly of two storeys. The plan is L-shaped,
the internal angle facing E.; the main block,
facing the street, was built c.1500, and possibly
formed several tenements; the ground floor is
pierced by an archway; the wing at the back was
added c. 1625, when a chimney stack and staircase
were inserted in the main block, which was subsequently much altered. The street front has been
re-faced with brick; the original entrance of the
archway is of heavy moulded timbers; the outer
member of the lintel is square, the inner forms two
very flat and canted four-centred arches springing
in the middle of the lintel from a pendant with a
carved rosette on the soffit; the spandrels are
traceried. An original chimney stack N.E. of
the archway has two shafts set diagonally on a
square plinth; the 17th-century stack is of brick
and has strip-pilasters. The 17th-century wing
has a lower storey of stone rubble and an upper
storey of timber and brick.
Interior:—Three rooms have panelling of early
17th-century date; on the ground floor the room
S.W. of the archway, now a shop and parlour,
has elaborate panelling of c.1625, divided into
bays by Ionic pilasters, and the frieze has arches
carved in the panels; a room in the wing at the
back has panelling, apparently re-set; the third
panelled room is on the first floor over the archway,
and has also an original fireplace with moulded
jambs and four-centred head of stone. The early
17th-century staircase in the original block has
a moulded handrail and turned balusters and
Condition—Good; much altered.
b(26). Cottage, now three tenements, on the
N.E. side of Meadow Row. Interior:—The ceilings
have chamfered beams and open rafters; the
fireplaces are partly blocked.
North End Square
b(27). Cottage, on the E. side of the square,
at the S. end, about 600 yards N.E. of the church.
The original chimney stack in front is partly of
stone; that at the N.W. end is of old thin bricks.
Interior:—On the ground floor the open timber
ceiling has a heavy chamfered beam, and there is
a large open fireplace with corner seats.
b(28). Cottage, now two tenements, N. of (27).
Interior:—The ceilings have chamfered beams
and open rafters.
b(29). Cottage, now two tenements, on the N.
side of the square. The roof is partly of corrugated iron.
a(30). Castle House, in West Street, 250
yards N. of the church, is of two storeys and an
attic. The walls are partly of brick, and partly
covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled.
The building is of especial interest as it
incorporates the remains of a large house of
The present house consists of the S. and W.
ranges of a building of four ranges surrounding
a courtyard; the W. range was built probably
c. 1500, and contains the greater part, if not the
whole, of the original hall, which appears to have
been on the first floor; c. 1620 the ground floor
was made into the Great Parlour, and a ceiling
was inserted in the hall. The S. range is probably
on the site of the solar range, but was re-built early
in the 18th century; c.1835 the N. and E. ranges
were destroyed, and towards the end of the 19th
century the house was restored and altered.
Elevations:—The S. Range, facing the street,
is of the 18th century, with a modern addition
at the back. The W. Range, is covered with
modern plaster, and has a modern lean-to addition
on the E. side. In the W. wall are two windows
of late 15th or early 16th-century date, and each
of two transomed cinque-foiled lights with tracery
under a square head; the jambs, mullions and
head are moulded outside and rebated for shutters
inside. At the N. end of the range is a modern
bay window, in which is inserted a stone inscribed
with the initials and date 'WLM1623' set in a circle.
Interior:—On the Ground Floor the Great Parlour
is of three bays; at the S. end is a fireplace of oak
dated 1619; the overmantel rests on twisted
Corinthian columns and is of two stages; the lower
stage is divided by square baluster pilasters into
three bays of carved panels; the upper stage is
divided into two bays by pairs of Doric half-columns ornamented with arabesques; the panels
have each two round arches, all richly carved:
near the N. end of the E. wall is a late 15th or early
16th-century doorway with jambs and two-centred
head, continuously moulded on the E. side. The
ceiling is partly of c.1500 and partly modern; the
wall-plates and beams are chamfered; the cross-beams have angle-bracketing with tracery in the
spandrels, and moulded corbels. On the First Floor
a room in the W. range is lined with plain panelling
of early 17th-century date, and has a panelled frieze
carved with arabesques. A room in the S. range
has early 17th-century panelling re-set. In the
Attic are visible the remains of three trusses of the
roof of the hall, much defaced and cut for a passage
through the attic; they are of queen-post type, with
cambered and moulded beams, purlins, etc., curved
wind-braces and angle-bracketing; the collar-beams
have curved and cusped struts.
The E. wall of the garden is of stone rubble and
in it is a stone similar to that in the bay window,
inscribed 'WLM1623', (for William and Mary Lambard).
c(31). House, 300 yards E. of the Church of the
Holy Trinity, is of two storeys, and of central
chimney type, built probably early in the 17th
century, of brick, with a moulded brick string-course between the storeys. The roof is covered
with slate. Two of the windows have old metal
casements. The central chimney stack has two
square shafts on a brick base. Interior:—On the
ground floor there is a wide open fireplace.
c(32). Barn, 100 yards W. of Gawcott Church,
is of the 17th century, and timber-framed with
brick filling; the ends are weather-boarded. The
roof is thatched.
c(33). Cottages, two, 100 yards N.W. of Gawcott
Church, are each of two storeys, built probably late
in the 17th century, and timber-framed with brick
filling, partly re-faced with modern brick. The
roofs are thatched. Some of the windows have
old metal casements.
d (34). Manor Farm, at Lenborough, about 1
mile E. of Gawcott Church, is a house of two
storeys, built of stone with some brick, in the 17th
century. The roofs are tiled. The plan is of
half-H shape, the main block facing S., the wings
projecting towards the N.; on the ground floor the
narrow space between the wings is filled by a
covered passage. The S. front has a moulded
plinth; at the back the gabled ends of the wings
are built of thin bricks, and there are two gabled
dormer windows. The chimney stacks are original.
d(35). Lenborough Farm, about 1 mile S.E.
of (34), is a house of two storeys, built of stone,
probably late in the 17th century; the walls have
been heightened with brick. The roof is covered
with slate. The plan was originally L-shaped,
the wings projecting towards the N. and E., but
is now rectangular, a modern addition having been
built in the angle between the wings. One chimney
stack is of 17th-century brick.