13 ENFIELD (E.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)II, S.W. (b)II, S.E. (c)VII, N.W.
Enfield is an Urban District and large parish in the
N.E. angle of the county. The church, Grammar
School, Forty Hall and the house now the Glasgow Stud
Farm are the principal monuments.
d(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew stands in the
S. part of the parish. The walls are of rag-stone and
flint rubble and brick, with dressings of Reigate and
other freestone; the roofs are slate-covered. The
Chancel, as evidenced by a window in the S. wall, was
re-built in the 13th century and the West Tower is probably of late 14th-century date. The Nave with the
N. and S. arcades was re-built in the 14th century and
at the same period a N. chapel was added; a S. chapel
was added at some uncertain date. Late in the 15th
and early in the 16th century the North and South
Aisles were re-built and widened, the North Chapel re-built
c. 1531 and the clearstorey re-built and heightened. The
church was repaired in 1771 and 1789 and the chancel-arch was widened in 1779 when a painting of the
Doom was removed. The church was again repaired
in 1810 and 1819 and about this time the South Chapel
and South Aisle were re-built and the South Porch added.
The North Vestry and Porch are modern.
The church is of no great architectural interest but
amongst the fittings the brasses and monuments are
noteworthy. There is also a fine organ-case of 1752.
Enfield, the Parish Church of St Andrew.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (35¾ ft. by
20½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall is
a 14th-century arcade of three bays, with two-centred
arches of one moulded and one chamfered order,
springing from a quatre-foiled pier and half-quatre-foiled
responds all with moulded capitals and bases; the
lower part of the E. bay is now filled by the Tiptoft
monument and its responds have been destroyed.
In the S. wall is a similar but much restored arcade of
two bays, further E. is a late 13th-century window of
one trefoiled light. The chancel-arch was widened
in 1779 but the responds and the outer order of the
arch are mostly 14th-century material re-set; adjoining
the N. respond are some jamb-stones, possibly of the
former doorway to the rood-loft.
The Nave (60 ft. by 20 ft.) has 14th-century N. and S.
arcades of five bays, with arches, piers and responds
similar to those of the N. arcade of the chancel; the E.
half of the S.E. arch, with the respond, is modern.
The early 16th-century clearstorey has, on each side,
five completely restored windows, each of three
lights, with three-centred heads on the N. and
four-centred heads on the S., all under segmental main
heads; between the windows are set a number of stones
carved with roses and wings, said to be the badges of
Sir Thomas Lovell, K.G., died 1524; patches of larger
stones below these windows indicate the existence of an
The North Chapel and Aisle (17¼ ft. wide) is of
early 16th-century date and has an E. window,
modern except for the splays and rear-arch. In the
N. wall are six much restored three-light windows;
the easternmost has a square head with a label, the
others have cinque-foiled lights in segmental heads,
with moulded reveals and labels; below the easternmost window is a modern doorway and between the
first two windows is a doorway with moulded jambs
and two-centred head; the rood-loft stair-turret has
a lower doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred
head; the upper doorway is similar; the N. doorway,
between the two western windows, has been removed
and the opening blocked; between the third and
fourth windows is a cross on a calvary formed in flint-work. In the W. wall is a partly restored window of
four cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed head
with a moulded label; below it is a modern doorway.
The South Chapel (17 ft. wide) is modern except the
rubble base of the E. and S. walls. In the N. wall is a
square-headed squint, blocked on the N. face. Above
the S. arcade of the nave are three roof-corbels carved
with half-angels. Re-set in the W. wall of the modern
S. aisle is a stone inscribed A. Domini 1531, formerly
in the E. wall of the N. chapel.
The West Tower (13½ ft. by 12½ ft.) is of three stages
(Plate 2) with an embattled parapet. The 14th-century
tower-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders,
dying on to the side walls. The N. wall of the ground
stage has a late 14th-century window of two trefoiled
lights with a defaced quatrefoil in a two-centred head;
in the S. wall is a modern doorway; the W. window is
modern. The second stage has in the E. wall a blocked
opening. In the N. wall are traces of a blocked
window and in the S. wall is a window all modern
except the splays and rear-arch. The bell-chamber has
in each wall a window, those on the E. and N. renewed
in the 18th century and the other two modern. The
wooden stairs leading to the upper stages of the tower
are of solid triangular balks on rough bearers.
Fittings—Bells: eight and sanctus; sanctus by
William Wightman, 1680. Brasses and Indent.
Brasses: In N. chapel—on E. wall, (1) inscription recording benefaction of Jesper Nicoles, 1614;
(2) inscription recording benefaction of Robert Rampston, 1585. In S. chapel—on S. wall, (3) four
shields-of-arms found in 1881, (a) Lovell of Barton
with a crescent for difference impaling three lions
couchant, (b) Lovell impaling barry wavy (?) quartering
a cheveron between three beasts, (c) the two last coats
quartered and impaling Pert of Essex, (d) Lovell
quartering the second and third coats of (b) impaled
in the second quarter, the second coat of (a) and Pert;
perhaps from the memorial of Thomas Lovell of Enfield,
1521 (P.C.C.). In S. chapel—on N. wall, (4) to
William Smith, 1592 and Jone his wife, with figures
of man in civil costume and wife. See also Monument
(1). Indent: In chancel—of three figures, marginal
inscription and shields. Bread-shelf: In N. chapel—on
E. wall, shelf (Plate 24) supporting three Tuscan columns
and rusticated responds with an entablature; at back
two panels with brass-inscriptions (1 and 2), early
17th-century. Coffin-plates: In S. chapel—(1) to Sir
Thomas Stringer, Judge of the King's Bench, 1689;
(2) to James Wrothe, 1616; (3) to Col. Thomas
Stringer, 1706; (4) to Reebeckah, widow of Sir Thomas
Stringer, 1714–5. Glass: In N. chapel—in N.E.
window, (a) roundel with the garter enclosing the
initials and date T.R. (for Thomas Manners Lord Roos
and Earl of Rutland) 1530, and a shield-of-arms of
Manners quartering the quartered coats of Roos and
Holland, partly restored; (b) roundel with a wreath
enclosing a shield of the quartered coat of Manners
impaling Paston (for his second wife Eleanor Paston).
In S. aisle—in third window, kneeling figures of
women, the badge of a wing, fragments of inscription,
etc., mostly early 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. side, (1) of
Joyce (Charlton) wife of Sir John Tiptoft, [Lord Tiptoft and Powis], 1446, altar-tomb with brass, and later
canopy (Plate 58); altar-tomb of painted stone with four
diagonal cusped panels on each long side, enclosing
blank or repainted shields-of-arms, on marble slab
brass figure of lady in fur-trimmed gown, necklace,
elaborate head-dress, coronet and heraldic mantle
bearing the arms of Charlton and Holland Earl of
Kent, triple crocketted canopy of brass with six
shields-of-arms on the supports—(a) Charlton,
(b) parted palewise Tiptoft, Holland and Charlton,
(c) Tiptoft, (d) Tiptoft impaling Charlton, (e) Charlton
quartering Holland and (f) Charlton, marginal inscription with evangelistic symbols (three missing) at the
angles and ornamental stops; painted stone canopy
probably erected by Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland c. 1530 and consisting of two moulded responds,
partly covering the brass-inscription, arch and cornice,
responds each with an attached shaft on each face carried
up to the cornice, four-centred moulded arch with cusped
and panelled soffit carried down the responds and
foliated spandrels enclosing shields-of-arms—(a) Lovell
quartering Muswell and impaling Roos of Hamlake
quartering Holland, Tiptoft and Badlesmere, (b) Roos
quartering the same three coats, (c) as (b) and (d) as (a);
moulded cornice with paterae, cresting of Tudor
flowers and a central achievement-of-arms on each face
of Roos quartering Badlesmere; on N. wall, (2) to
Martha (Garrard), wife of James Palmere, 1617, oval
tablet (Plate 17) of black marble and alabaster by Nicholas
Stone, with flanking figures of Faith and Charity with
two children, cartouche-of-arms and swags surmounted
by figure of Hope; on S. wall, (3) to John Watt, 1701,
white marble cartouche (Plate 14) with fruit and flowers.
In N. chapel—on N. side, (4) to Sir Nicholas Raynton,
Sheriff and Lord Mayor of London, 1646, and Rebecca,
his wife 1640, also to Nicholas Raynton 1641, and
Rebecca, his wife 1642, large alabaster and marble wall-monument (Plate 57) in three stages with reclining effigy
of man in armour with mayoral cloak and chain, in main
stage, flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an
entablature, curved and broken pediment, centre-piece
with achievement and three other cartouches-of-arms,
in middle stage reclining effigy of wife and in lowest
stage kneeling figures of Nicholas Raynton and his wife
at a prayer-desk with three sons and three daughters;
(5) to Robert Deicrowe, 1586, Joane his mother and
Robert Wheler his master, rectangular tablet (Plate 13)
with side-pilasters and gadrooned arch enclosing figure
in relief of man kneeling at prayer-desk, two shields-of-arms on arch. In S. chapel—on N. wall, (6) to Thomas
Stringer, 1706, veined marble monument consisting of
semi-circular projecting base, flanked by trophies and
supporting bust of a man in armour under a heavy draped
canopy in the form of a tent, set against a back-piece
with entablature, broken pediment and achievement-of-arms; (7) to William Bolton and Elizabeth (Byde) his
wife, also two daughters Dorothy and Mary died 1665,
monument (Plate 14) erected by daughter Elizabeth Bullock, 1674, marble tablet with moulded frame; (8) to
Bridget, wife of John Harrington, 1601, and Anne their
daughter wife of William Fowkes, 1608, stone tablet
(Plate 14) in scrolled frame; on S. wall, (9) to Dorothy
(Fulstone) wife of Robert Middlemore, 1610, alabaster
and black marble wall-monument (Plate 15) with
kneeling figures of man in armour and wife at prayer-desk, with side pilasters, entablature and achievement-of-arms in cartouche; (10) to Francis Evington, alderman of London 1614, marble wall-monument (Plate 60)
with kneeling figure of man at prayer-desk, under an
arch and flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an
entablature, achievement and two shields-of-arms.
In N. aisle—on N. wall, (11) to Elizabeth (Myddleton) wife of John Grene, 1673, black and white
marble framed tablet, with shield-of-arms. In S.
aisle—on W. wall, (12) to Henry Dixon, 1696, and
Barbara his wife, white marble cartouche with cherub-heads. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to John Watt,
1701; (2) probably to [Katherine] (Berkeley), wife of
[Francis Mole], 1674; (3) to William Sheffard, 1646;
(4) to Sir Charles Rich, 1677, with shield-of-arms;
(5) to Edward Shaller, 1708, and Susanna his wife,
1709, with shield-of-arms.
c(2) On Enfield Golf Course, about 1 m. W.S.W. of
a(3) Camlet Moat, about 2½ m. W.N.W. of the
d(4) At Durants, 1¾ m. E. of the church, has been
almost entirely filled in.
b(5) At Plantation Farm, 2¾ m. N.E. of the church;
the S. arm has been filled in.
d(6) House, on the E. side of Gentleman's Row,
300 yards W. of the church, has been practically re-built,
but portions of an early 16th-century door-head or fire-place were discovered in 1916 and are now at the
Victoria and Albert Museum. Re-set in one room of
the house is the panelling, etc., from the house called
Enfield Palace demolished in 1927. It is evident that
these fittings date from after c. 1552 when the manor
was granted to Princess Elizabeth and that the arms are
either those of Edward VI or more probably of
Queen Elizabeth. The main room is lined with
elaborate enriched panelling divided into bays by
slender pilasters and pedestals with strap-ornament;
each bay has two main panels sub-divided by mitred
mouldings into numerous small panels; the doors are
similarly treated; over the N. door are set two carved
stone panels with the Tudor royal arms on cartouches;
the lower bears the motto "Ut ros super herbam
est benevolentia regis" and the upper the inscription
"Altered by T. Callaway in 1791." The stone fireplace
(Plate 59) is flanked by carved Ionic columns supporting an entablature with a carved frieze; the stone overmantel is in three bays divided and flanked by carved
Corinthian columns supporting a second carved entablature; the middle bay has an achievement of the royal
arms with lion and dragon supporters; the side bays
have a crowned rose and portcullis respectively; the
lower part of each bay has a cartouche with the initials
E.R. and the motto "Sola salus servire Deo: sunt
caetera fraudes." The ceiling (Plate 40) belonged to
another room in the original house; it is divided into
geometrical panels by moulded ribs with the various
royal badges in the panels. The lobby S. of this room
has a 16th-century panelled door and the lobby to the
N. is lined with late 16th or early 17th-century panelling.
There is similar panelling in the Dining Room, divided
into bays by Ionic pilasters. In the hall is a late 16th-century stone fireplace with carved Ionic side-pilasters
supporting an entablature with a carved frieze.
Enfield Grammar School
d(7) Grammar School, 10 yards N.W. of the church,
is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick
with modern stone dressings and the roofs are tiled.
It was built about the middle of the 16th century, but
was refitted in the 18th century and most of the windows
are modern. The E. front has three gabled dormers
each with a partly restored original window of three
four-centred lights with a moulded label all of brick.
On the W. front is a semi-octagonal stair-turret retaining some original windows each of one four-centred
light. The N. end has an attic window of three lights
similar to those on the E. front. The ground floor has
one large school-room 50 ft. by 21 ft. with plastered
ceiling-beams. The stair-turret has a continuous
newel with heavy turned balusters at the top.
To the S.W. of the old building is an early 18th-century building of two storeys. The ground floor
contains a large room with a dado and cornice.
Enfield, Forty Hall, Plan of Ground Floor
b(8) Forty Hall (Plate 61), 1¼ m. N.N.E. of the
church, is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are
of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built
by Sir Nicholas Raynton between the years 1629 and
1632 and the design has been attributed to Inigo Jones.
It passed subsequently to the family of Wolstenholme;
under them in 1700 it was repaired and modernised.
The house was again extensively repaired by Edmond
Armstrong after 1787. The elevations are of brick,
with bands between the storeys, rusticated angles and
architraves to the windows; the hipped roof is
finished with a restored eaves-cornice. The fronts
are symmetrically designed with a central porch
and sash-windows, the form of the latter no doubt
adopted in the alterations of 1700. The porch
on the E. front is of timber with Ionic columns
and pilasters supporting an entablature with a
curved pediment and a cartouche; the soffit of the
porch is domed; the windows above are modern.
The porch on the S. front is of timber with
Doric columns supporting an entablature and a domed
soffit; the window above is flanked by Corinthian
columns supporting an entablature and pediment.
The porch on the N. front has Doric columns and
pilasters supporting an entablature and curved pediment, with a cartouche; there are half-pediments on
the return sides. The chimney-stacks have octagonal,
square or concave-sided shafts, mostly either restored or
renewed. The two-storeyed wings on the W. are
generally similar to the main building and have hipped
roofs. The S.W. angle of the N.W. wing is corbelled
out and nearby is a brick with the cut date 1636. Inside
the building, the Dining Room was the original Hall
and has the original screen (Plate 62) on the W. side; it is
of three bays divided and flanked by terminal pilasters
supporting an enriched entablature over the side bays,
the middle bay has a segmental arch with cherub-heads
in the spandrels and a late 18th-century door and filling;
the side bays have each an arcaded panel below, a
panel with a strapped oval in the middle and a panel
with a large shell-ornament above; the fireplace (Plate 64)
is flanked by wide stone pilasters with strapwork enrichment and supporting the shelf; above this is a central
feature with a cartouche and strapwork supports, the
whole flanked by pierced obelisks; the walls are lined to
some height with plain panelling. The Drawing Room
has an original fireplace (Plate 64) flanked by coupled
Doric columns supporting the shelf; the overmantel,
is of two bays divided and flanked by coupled Doric
columns supporting a heavy entablature with brackets
and jewel-ornament on the frieze, continued along the
walls; the bays of the overmantel have each an enriched oval in a larger square panel; the walls are
lined with original panelling; the geometrical plaster
ceiling (Plate 62) has moulded ribs or bands with rosettes,
conventional foliage and a cartouche with a blank shield.
The room in the S.W. wing is lined with early 18th-century panelling. On the first floor, the room over
the Dining Room has an original plaster ceiling (Plate 63)
of geometrical design with moulded ribs, scroll-ornament and arabesques; the walls are lined with early
18th-century panelling and there is similar panelling in
the small room to the W. The room over the Drawing
Room again has similar panelling; the original plaster
ceiling (Plate 63) is more elaborate than that last described
but is of similar character; one panel bears the date
1629. The middle room facing W. is lined with original
panelling with a cornice; the fireplace is flanked by
coupled Doric columns in wood standing on pedestals
and supporting the shelf; the overmantel has similar
columns dividing and flanking the two panelled bays
and supporting an entablature. Two other rooms
on this floor have early 18th-century panelling. The
S.E. room on the second floor has grotesque masks at
the angles of the plaster cornice. The main staircase
is modern but has an original plaster ceiling, with a
central oval panel surrounded by strapwork and an
entablature with a strapwork frieze. The secondary
staircase is of c. 1700 and has twisted balusters and
To the N.W. of the house is a courtyard with early
17th-century outbuildings on the S. and W. They
are two-storeyed brick buildings and the S. range
retains an original moulded ceiling-beam and a chimney-stack of cruciform diagonal plan. The W. range has
three original windows of two and three lights with
moulded frames and intermediate bars; there is also
an original door with a moulded frame. On the N.
side of the courtyard is an embattled wall with a gate-way and two small lodges; the gateway (Plate 46) has
rusticated piers with cornices and ball-terminals and a
round central arch surmounted by a curvilinear gable
and a small pediment; flanking the main arch are
small round-headed archways.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys;
the walls are of brick and the roofs are tile or slate-covered.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
b(9) Dower House, 130 yards S. of (8), is of two
storeys with cellars and attics. It has been largely
altered in the 18th century and enlarged. Inside the
building is a late 17th or early 18th-century fireplace
with a moulded surround and some panelling and doors
of the same period.
b(10) Worcester Lodge (Plate 32), 220 yards S.E. of (8), is
of two storeys with attics and was built early in the 18th
century. The N.W. front is symmetrically designed
and has a modillioned eaves-cornice; the doorway
has an eared architrave, entablature and pediment;
the door has fielded panels. Inside the building the
original staircase has turned balusters and close strings.
b(11) The Hermitage (Plate 32), house 350 yards S.S.W.
of (8), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. It was
built early in the 18th century. The S.E. front is
nearly symmetrically designed and has a modillioned
eaves-cornice; the doorway has rusticated Doric
pilasters supporting an entablature. On the N.E. end
is a brick with the cut initials and date "E.B. 1704.
Iy 14." Inside the building the rooms have original
panelling with dado-rails and cornices. The main
staircase has thin turned balusters and close strings;
the secondary staircase is similar but with thicker
b(12) Rose and Crown Inn, on the N. side of the road
at Clayhill 1¼ m. N. of the church, was built probably
early in the 18th century but has been extensively
b(13) King James and the Tinker Inn (Plate 26), on the
S. side of the road at Whitewebbs ¾ m. N.N.E. of (12),
has been refitted and altered in the 18th century.
a(14) Glasgow Stud Farm, house 2¼ m. N.N.W. of the
church, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The
front doorway has an early 17th-century panelled door,
with a four-centred head. Inside the building are a
staircase and fireplace of the same period. The staircase (Plate 37) has pierced balusters in the form of
pilasters, heavy moulded rails of grip-type and square
newels with moulded pendants and terminals. The
stone fireplace (Plate 36) in the S.W. room on the first
floor is flanked by terminal pilasters with Ionic capitals,
supporting an enriched frieze with amorini and a
d(15) Vicarage, 70 yards E.N.E. of the church, is
largely modern but incorporates two wings on the E.
and W. which date perhaps from the 16th century
and seem to have been timber-framed; some of this
close-set framing is exposed inside both portions.
The E. wing retains some early 17th-century windows
with solid frames and the roof is partly original, with
tie-beams and curved wind-braces. Some wind-braces also remain in the roof of the W. wing. In one
of the front windows are two quarries of 16th-century
painted glass with a rose and portcullis.
d(16) Clarendon Cottage, in Gentleman's Row 100
yards N. of (6), has been altered and remodelled in the
18th century. It retains an original chimney-stack
with two diagonal shafts.
c(17) Old Park Farm, house ¾ m. W.S.W. of the
church, has been extensively altered and enlarged.
The windows on the N. side are mostly original and
have moulded frames and mullions; one window is
Old Park, Enfield
d(18) Earthwork (called Camp on O.S.), at Old
Park, on the edge of the parish 1,250 yards S.S.W. of
the church, is of roughly circular form with a strong
rampart and external ditch. It is about 380 ft. in
internal diameter and has been largely obliterated on
the E. side. On the N. and W. sides the defences
remain, the rampart rising about 8 ft. above the
bottom of the ditch. On the S. side the ditch and much
of the rampart have been levelled, but a pond on the
S.E. probably represents an enlargement of the ditch.
Condition—Fairly good, in parts.