32 HORNSEY (D.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. aXII, N.W. bXII, S.W.)
Hornsey is a borough and civil parish, including
part of Highgate, adjoining the county of London on
the N. Cromwell House is the principal monument.
a(1) Parish Church of St. Mary, on the N.E.
side of the parish, was demolished, with the exception
of the tower, in 1927. The W. tower was built c.
1500 but the top part is modern. The walls are of
ragstone rubble and brick with freestone dressings.
Architectural Description—The West Tower (13½ ft.
square) is of three external stages (Plate 2) and four
storeys. The two-centred tower-arch is of two moulded
orders, the outer continuous and the inner springing from
attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; above
the arch are marks of the former nave-roof. In the S.
wall is a similar arch formerly opening into the S. aisle;
externally it has been replaced by modern stonework.
In the N. wall is a fireplace with hollow-chamfered
jambs and four-centred head. In the W. wall is a
partly restored window of three cinque-foiled lights
with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a
moulded label; above it are two panels each containing
an angel holding a shield, (a) formerly Thomas Savage,
bishop of London (1496–1501) and archbishop of
York but now defaced, (b) William Warham, bishop
of London (1502–3). The upper half of the second
stage and the whole of the top stage are modern.
Fittings—All, unless otherwise described, in the new
church, to the E. of the old building. Brasses: In
chancel—on E. wall, (1) of John Skevington, c. 1520,
with figure of swaddled infant; (2) to Richard
Ruggenale and Isabel and Alice his wives, c. 1420,
inscription only. On wall next tower-arch, (3) to
Thomas Priestley the elder, 1613 and Thomas Priestly
the younger, 1615, inscription only, palimpsest on back,
parts of figures, c. 1600. Chest: In vestry—of iron,
bound with straps, two staples and engraved lock-plate
inside, 16th or 17th-century. Coffin Plate: In N.E.
porch—of Roger Draper, 1656. Font (Plate 11), now
in St. George's church Priory Road—octagonal bowl
with moulded rim and under edge with pateræ, sides
panelled and cusped and enclosing alternately a rose
and a shield; shield on S. side with fret and that on
the E. side with traces of a device, stem with angle-shafts and panels with trefoiled heads, 16th-century.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N.E. porch
—(1) of Francis Musters, 1680, marble wall-monument
(Plate 13) with kneeling figure, cherubs supporting
crown above, cornice, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms. In nave—on N. wall, (2) to Richard Candish,
erected by Margaret, Countess of Cumberland, 1601,
obelisk and pedestal with crest and achievement-of-arms. In N.W. porch—(3) to Robert Harington,
incumbent, 1610, black and white marble tablet with
achievement-of-arms; (4) to Thomas Lant, B.D.,
incumbent, 1688, tablet with achievement-of-arms. In
churchyard—S. of old nave, (5) to William Smith,
1673–4, headstone; S. of old tower, (6) to Judeth
Suley, 1712, headstone. Floor-slabs: In tower—(1) to
George Rey, incised slab (Plate 144) with figures of man
in civil costume and two wives, simple triple canopy
of Renaissance character, marginal inscription and two
shields with T-crosses, late 16th-century. In churchyard—E. of modern church, (2) to Jane (Basset) wife
of Sir John Musters, 1691, with lozenge-of-arms;
(3) to Francis Musters, 1680, with shield-of-arms; on
site of old nave, (4) to . . . (Trelawny) wife of Sir
Francis Basset, 1682, with achievement-of-arms; (5) to
John Barnes, junior, 1675, with achievement-of-arms.
Plate: includes two flagons of 1641, given by Lady
Musters, cup of 1694 and stand-paten of the same date
and a plate of 1700 given by William Thatcher.
Condition—Of tower, good.
b(2) Chapel of Cholmeley's School, at the junction
of North Road and Southwood Lane and 2 m. W.S.W.
of the parish church, was re-built in the 19th century.
In the crypt and churchyard are the following:—
Fittings—Floor-slabs: In crypt—(1) to Elizabeth
(Hobart), wife of John Lisle, 1655–6, with shield-of-arms. In churchyard—W. of chapel, (2) to . . .
daughter of Sir Henry Hobart Bart., 1632; (3) to
Nicholas Burnwell, ; (4) to Katherine, wife of
Richard Chambers, with shield-of-arms, probably late
17th-century; (5) to Basill Nicolls, 164, Thomas,
his son, 1706 and others later, with three defaced
shields-of-arms; (6) to S.S., 1700. A monument from
this chapel is now in the church of St. Pancras in the
Fields. (See London, ii, p. 88.)
b(3) Cromwell House, on the N.E. side of Highgate
Hill 70 yards N.W. of Cromwell Avenue, is of three
storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It seems to have been built c. 1630 by a
member of the Sprignell family. Late in the 17th
and early in the 18th century, when in possession of the
family of Costa, additions were made on the N.E. and
S.E. sides. In 1865 a fire destroyed the upper part
of the house, after which the first-floor ceilings were
renewed on the lines of the fragments of the old work.
The house is a good example of its period and the
carved oak staircase is highly remarkable.
The S.W. Front (Plate 150) is symmetrically designed
and of two storeys with basement and attics; there
are bold cornices at the floor-levels, the upper one
surmounted by a parapet; the windows have eared
architraves of brick, those in the middle bay having
pulvinated friezes below the main cornices and the others
plain friezes; the sashes are later or modern; the middle
bay projects slightly and has rusticated angles; the doorway is probably of the 18th century and has a round
arch set in rusticated masonry with Doric side-columns
supporting an entablature; the window above has
scrolled supports at the sides of the architrave; the
attic storey has a range of modern dormers. The
back is of three storeys with a moulded band at the
first and a cornice at the second-floor level; these are
broken by the staircase windows; the staircase is
carried up above the main wall and is finished with an
18th-century wood cornice; one window on the
second floor has a solid frame and casements and below
one of the staircase-windows is an 18th-century stone
panel with swags, etc. The doorway has an 18th-century hood on brackets. The N. wing has an 18th-century doorway with Doric pilasters and entablature.
Hornsey, Cromwell House, Plan of Ground Floor
Interior—The S. room on the ground-floor has an
original plaster ceiling divided into geometrical panels
by moulded ribs; the walls are lined with original
panelling finished with an entablature; the frieze is
divided into bays by small pedestals and has strapwork
ornament; the fireplace (Plate 56) has a moulded surround and an entablature with trophies of arms and a
scrolled central panel on the frieze; the overmantel is
flanked by Ionic pilasters with cherub-heads below and
cartouches painted with later arms above. In a cupboard in this room is an original window now blocked;
it has a solid frame and transom. The E. or Matron's
room is lined with original panelling finished with a cornice; the fireplace is flanked by enriched pilasters supporting the bracketed shelf; the overmantel has similar
but taller pilasters, with re-set or modern panelling
between them. The Staircase (Plate 151) is original and
of well-type with moulded hand-rails and strings and
elaborate pierced strapwork panels in place of balusters;
most of these have carved trophies of arms in addition;
the square newels have enriched pendants and are surmounted by tall carved pedestals with Ionic capitals;
on these pedestals is a series of carved standing figures
(Plate 154) of soldiers representing (a) man playing a
fife (b) man with musket, (c) drummer, (d) targetteer,
(e) officer of pikemen, (f) officer of musketeers, (g) pikeman, (h) targetteer and (i) musketeer. Seven doorways
(Plate 152) on the staircase are original, the four lower
ones have eared architraves with enriched Ionic pilasters
below the ears, frieze with central panel or cartouche,
cornice and broken pediment with a central pedestal; the
doors are panelled and the upper panels are eared. The
three doorways on the top floor have eared architraves.
Two rooms on the first floor have modern restorations
of the original plaster ceilings. One of these (Plate 149)
has trabeations with guilloche ornament, strapwork and
an achievement-of-arms of Sprignell; the other has
an elaborately enriched design (Plate 149) of geometrical
character with rosettes, fleurs-de-lis, conventional
flowers, etc. A room at the back has an original modelled
plaster frieze of amorini and vases. In the basement is
an original doorway with a moulded frame. In the
early 18th-century wing is a marble fireplace with the
da Costa monogram on the key-stone.
The area in front has an early 18th-century gate with
rusticated piers finished with moulded cappings and
ball-terminals; the gates themselves are of wood
ramped at the top and having the upper panels filled
with pierced carving.
b(4) Lyndale House, a few yards W.N.W. of (3) was
largely re-built c. 1730. It retains however a late 17th-century plaster ceiling with an oval wreath of bay-leaves and four spandrel-panels each enclosing a
cherub-head. There is also a panelled door of the
b(5) House (Plate 34), Nos. 128 and 130 Highgate
Hill, 160 yards W.N.W. of (3), is of three storeys with
cellars and attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs
are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century but
was partly refitted in the 18th century. The front has
sash-windows with flush frames, a moulded cornice at
the second-floor level and a heavy modillioned eaves-cornice. The back has brick bands between the
storeys and a simpler modillioned eaves-cornice.
Some of the windows retain their solid frames with
mullion and transom. Inside the building most of the
fittings are of the 18th century. The upper part of
the staircase (Plate 37) in No. 130 is original and has
heavy turned balusters, close strings and square newels
b(6) House, No. 2 High Street, immediately adjoining
(5) on the W. is of three storeys with cellars and attics;
the walls are of plastered brick and the roofs are tiled.
It was built early in the 18th century. The back has a
moulded eaves-cornice and an original panelled door.
Inside the building, most of the panelling seems to
be of mid 18th-century date. There are some original
doors in the attics and a fireplace with an eared architrave and a cornice. The staircase is original and has
twisted balusters, close moulded strings and square
b(7) House, No. 10 High Street 20 yards W.N.W.
of (6), is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the
walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built
probably early in the 18th century but has been altered
later in the same century. The front is plastered but
the back retains its wooden eaves-cornice. Inside the
building some of the rooms are lined with 18th-century
panelling. The original staircase (Plate 38) has twisted
balusters and close moulded strings.
a(8) Eagle Cottage, 100 yards N. of the old church
tower, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of
brick and the roofs are tiled. The N. part of the
house was built probably early in the 18th century
and the S. part is a rather later addition. Inside the
building is a certain amount of refixed early 17th-century panelling.