Halstead Urban

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1916

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149-155

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'Halstead Urban', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1: North West (1916), pp. 149-155. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=122446 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


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38. HALSTEAD URBAN. (E.c.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a) xvi. S.E. (b) xvii. S.W.)

Halstead is a market town about 6 m. N.E. of Braintree. The principal monuments are the Church and the Chantry House.

Ecclesiastical

b (1). Parish Church of St. Andrew stands at the N.E. end of the town. The walls are of flint and pebble rubble, with dressings of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The Chancel, Nave, and North and South Aisles were entirely rebuilt about the middle of the 14th century. In the 15th century the North Vestry, the North Porch with an upper chamber, and the South Porch were added. In the 19th century a W. tower, which stood within the lines of the existing aisles, fell, and the nave was then lengthened by two bays on the site of the former tower, and the present West Tower was built further W.; the Organ Chamber is also modern and the church has been otherwise extensively restored.

Amongst the fittings the early 15th-century brasses and the 14th-century monuments, effigies, and oak shield are noteworthy.


The Church, Plan

The Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (46 ft. by 20 ft.) has the axis deflected towards the N. All the details are modern, except a few re-used stones in the jambs of the second and third windows in the S. wall.

The North Vestry has, in the E. wall, a modern window, with 15th-century jambs and splays. In the N. wall is a 15th-century window of two cinquefoiled lights under a square head; further E. is a modern doorway. In the S. wall is a modern doorway, and further W. is the segmental rear arch of a 15th-century doorway. In the W. wall is a modern passage leading to the organ-chamber.

The Nave (62 ft. by 25½ ft.) has embattled parapets. The N. and S. arcades are each of six bays; on each side the four eastern bays are of the 14th century and the two western bays are modern; the fourth bay is of wider span than the others; the two-centred arches are of two sunk-chamfered orders and spring from piers of quatrefoil plan with keeled rolls between the foils; the capitals and bases are moulded; the responds have attached half-columns, but those at the E. end are modern, except the capitals; those at the W. end have been re-set. The clearstorey has six N. and six S. windows; the four eastern on each side are of the 14th century, much restored; they are each of two trefoiled ogee lights under a segmental-pointed head; the other windows are modern; below the internal sills is a moulded string-course of the same date as the windows.

The North Aisle (10½ ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a modern arch. In the N. wall are three windows, each of three lights, entirely modern, except some of the jamb-stones and the splays; between the two western windows is the N. doorway externally entirely modern, but internally of late 14th-century work, re-tooled; above the doorway is a modern opening to the upper chamber. In the W. wall is a modern window.

The South Aisle (17½ ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a 14th-century window of four trefoiled ogee lights with modern tracery in a segmental-pointed head; the label is moulded and the internal splays have edge-rolls with moulded bases. In the S. wall are three windows, each of three lights and entirely modern, except the jambs, and internal splays, and also the tracery of the second window, which are of the 14th century. Between the two western windows is the 14th-century S. doorway with moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label. In the W. wall is a window of three lights, entirely modern, except the internal splays and segmental rear arch, which are of the 14th century.

The North Porch has, at the outer angles, crocketed pinnacles with carved head-corbels and grotesques. The 15th-century outer entrance has been much restored, and has a moulded four-centred arch of two orders; the outer order is continuous and the inner order springs from attached shafts with moulded bases and capitals. The E. and W. walls have each a window of two lights, completely restored, except the external jambs of the E. window, the S. jamb of the W. window, and the internal jambs of both windows, which are of the 15th century. The upper chamber has, in the N. wall, a 15th-century window, partly restored, and of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a four-centred head: the E. and W. walls have each a window almost entirely modern.

The South Porch has modern details.

The Roof of the chancel is said to be of the 15th century, but is hidden by a modern ceiling. The late 15th-century roof of the nave is of six bays with moulded main timbers, but the western part is probably modern; the tie-beams have curved braces and the wall-posts stand on stone corbels carved with heads, and with figures of angels; the intermediate principals have carved angels at the feet; the pitch of the roof has been altered and the traceried filling above the tiebeams is modern. The N. porch has a late 15th-century ceiling with a moulded beam which has foliated stops; the wall-plates are moulded and embattled.

Fittings—Bells: eight; 4th by Miles Graye, 1633; 5th by Richard Bowler, 1589; 6th probably by John Bird, with three shields charged with a cheveron between three laver-pots, late 14th or early 15th-century, inscribed 'Dulcis Sisto Melis Campana Vocor Gabrielis'; 7th by Henry Pleasant, 1700; 8th with initials W. L. and T. D., probably for the foremen of Stephen Tonne, c. 1575. Brasses and Indents: (see also Monument (2)). In S. aisle—at E. end, of [Bartholomew, Lord Bourchier, 1409, and Margaret (Sutton) and Idonia (Lovey) his wives]; figure of man in plate armour, head on indent of helm with crest and banner, figure of first wife with veil head-dress, dog at feet; figure of second wife in widow's dress, dog at feet, one shield at head with three cheverons, for Sutton, indents of four shields and inscription plate; brass engraved c. 1420. Doors: In S. doorway, modern, incorporating old framing. Font: (see Plate, p. xxix) octagonal bowl with cusped sides, enclosing alternately shields and flowers, shields bearing —(a) a cross engrailed between four water-bougets, for Bourchier; (b) a cheveron, for Stafford quartering Bourchier; (c) and (d) a cross engrailed with a molet in the quarter, for Peyton, 15th-century; stem and base, modern. Monuments: In N. aisle —on N. wall, (1) to Sir Samuel Tryon, baronet, 1626, also to Sir Samuel Tryon, baronet, 1720 (inscription added), slate and marble tablet with column at each side, and shields and cartouches of arms. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (2) of Elizabeth (Coggeshall), wife of John Watson, 1604, plain marble tablet with brass plate engraved with kneeling figures of woman, two sons, three daughters, and swaddled infant; against S. wall, (3) probably of John Bourchier and Helen, (Colchester) his wife (see Plate, p. 150), on altar tomb, effigy of man in mail armour with surcoat and prick spurs, legs crossed, at feet a dog and two male 'religious' in habits; effigy of woman in low head-dress with fillet across forehead, at feet a dog between two nuns; heads of effigies much defaced, woman's hands missing; over each figure canopy with cusped ogee head, having carved crockets and small figures of angels, canopy supported by round shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases, late 13th or early 14th-century; tomb, probably of later date, and possibly to Robert Lord Bourchier, 1349, and Margaret (Prayers) his wife, tomb made up of pieces, two in front and returning at E. and W. ends, with cusped panels, each with a 'weeper' or a shield—(a) defaced; (b) barry of eight, for Montchesney (c) Bourchier; (d) a fesse between two gemel bars, for Prayers; standing loose, W. of tomb, similar piece with two 'weepers' and a shield of Mont-chesney; at back of tomb, three pieces of diapered stonework probably from soffit of canopy; (4) of [John, Lord Bourchier, K.G. 1400, and Elizabeth (Coggeshall) his wife,] (see Plate, p. 150), on altar tomb effigy of man in mixed mail and plate armour, with camail, head on helm with crest of a Saracen's head, effigy of woman in close coif and square head-dress, sideless dress, head on cushions supported by angels, hands missing, two dogs at feet; tomb with moulded plinth and embattled cornice, cusped panels enclosing defaced shields, and at E. end trefoiled panel with an angel and cockle-shell; canopy supported on buttressed angle-shafts and on N. side cusped four-centred arch, under square head with moulded cornice, foliated cresting and traceried spandrels; at E. and W. ends, cinquefoiled three-centred arch with cusped panel above it, enclosing shield of the Bourchier arms with supporters; above cresting, panelled attic with quatrefoiled frieze, both having blank shields, late 14th or early 15th-century; at back of recess, oak shield with the Bourchier arms (wrongly coloured) probably belonging to monument (3) (see Plate, p. xxxiii.); (5) to Edmunde Kinge, 1624, marble tablet recording legacy. Piscina: In S. aisle—in S. wall, with cinquefoiled head and cinquefoiled drain, late 14th-century. Screen: In front of gallery formed by room over the N. porch, not in situ, one bay of former screen, with cinquefoiled ogee head and tracery, 15th-century; loose in church, fragment with crocketed finial, 15th-century. Stoup: In S. porch—with four-centred head and broken basin, 15th-century. Miscellanea: In tower—bell-ringers' pot or cruse, of earthenware with two handles, and date, August 23, 1658, initials and rhyming inscription.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Secular

b (2). House, with shop, originally a College or Chantry House, on the N.W. side of the High Street, about 100 yards S.W. of the Town Hall. It is of two storeys; the walls are of plastered timberframing; the roofs are tiled. The College is said to have been founded under the will of Bartholomew Lord Bourchier, in 1411, but of the original building only a rectangular fragment remains, which apparently extended further towards the W. It was enlarged on the N. side, probably in the 16th-century. On the S.E. front is a modern addition.

An original carved hammer-beam truss in the roof is interesting.

On the S.W. elevation the upper storey of the 16th-century addition projects, and is supported by two curved brackets. Interior—On the ground floor are moulded ceiling-beams of the 16th century. On the first floor of the original block, and in the roof, parts of original hammer-beam truss are visible; the hammer-beams are stop-chamfered, and one of them terminates in a carved angel holding a shield; below the hammer-beams are curved and chamfered braces springing from semi-octagonal shafts with embattled and moulded capitals; the cambered collar-beam also has curved braces, and there are fragments of the original moulded and embattled cornice with one traceried panel. The purlins and common rafters are stop-chamfered.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b (3). Bois Hall, house and garden-wall, nearly ½ m. N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of plastered timber-framing and brick; the roofs are covered with tiles and slate. It was built in the first half of the 16th century, but the front part of the house has been completely rebuilt. The N.W. and S.E. elevations have each two gables. The foundations of an earlier house are said to have been discovered on the site.

Interior—On the ground floor, in a room facing S.W. are two original moulded ceiling-beams; one of them rests on a shaped wall-post. Some of the rooms contain 16th-century panelling, re-set, and there are two 17th-century doors. On the first floor are chamfered ceiling-beams.

The Garden-wall enclosing the house and grounds on the N., S. and E. sides, is of the 16th century.

Condition—Of house, good.

Monuments (4–46).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Some of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams, wide fireplaces and original chimney-stacks.

Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.

High Street, N.W. side

b (4). House, with shop, S. of the Town Hall, is of two storeys with attics and cellars. It was built probably in the second half of the 16th century, but has modern additions at the back and modern shop-fronts. On the front and on part of the N.W. elevation the timber-framing is exposed.

Inside the building, in the ceiling of the shop, are original moulded beams and joists. On the first floor is a door of 17th-century panelling. In the attics, queen-post roof-trusses are visible.


Halstead, Plan Shewing Position of Monuments.

Halstead, Plan Shewing Position of Monuments.

b (5). House and outbuilding, about 200 yards S.W. of (4). The House was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W., and has modern additions at the back. At the S.W. end of the S.E. front the upper storey projects and is gabled. At the back is a small gabled staircase wing.

The Outbuilding, which forms a continuation of the N.W. wing, was built probably in the 15th century. Inside the building, in the upper storey, which is of two bays, are three original king-post roof-trusses.

b (6). House, with shops, now two tenements, 60 yards S.W. of (5), is of two storeys with attics. It has modern additions at the back.

b(7). House, with shop, 40 yards S.W. of (6). The front rooms are of the second half of the 16th century, and originally formed part of a larger building. At the back are modern additions. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are some original moulded ceiling-beams, and part of an old stop-chamfered wall-plate.

b (8). House, two tenements, 30 yards S. of (7). At the back are modern additions, and the front has been rebuilt with modern brick.

S.E. side

b (9). House, two tenements with shops, about 250 yards W.S.W. of the church, is of three storeys. It has a small original wing and modern additions at the back. At the N.E. end the timber-framing is exposed.

b (10). House and shop, N.E. of (9), is of two storeys with attics. An 18th-century wing, which extends towards the S.E., makes the present plan L-shaped. Inside the building, in the added wing, are two 17th-century battened doors.

b (11). House and shop, N.E. of (10), is of two storeys with attics. It was built apparently on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E., and has modern additions at the back. At the N.E. end of the front is an open passage through the house under the first floor.

b (12). House, N.E. of (11), is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the second half of the 16th century on a rectangular plan; in the 17th century a wing was added at the W. end, on the S.E. side. At the end of the wing is a modern addition. Inside the building, in the original block, are some moulded ceiling-beams and joists.

b (13). House and shop, N.E. of (12). It has modern additions on the N.E. side and at the back, and has been partly rebuilt with modern brick.

b (14). House, now three tenements, with shop, N.E. of (13). The two tenements at the back are a 16th-century building, to which the front tenement was added late in the 17th century. The N.W. front has been heightened. On the N.E. elevation the timber-framing of the original block is exposed, and there are remains of two original windows, now blocked. The central chimney-stack has two attached square shafts, partly rebuilt. Inside the building, on the first floor, in the front room set in the wall, is a strip of 15th-century carved woodwork which came possibly from the Chantry House (2) on the opposite side of the road.

b (15). House and shop, N.E. of (14), was built late in the 16th century, apparently on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and S.E. In the angle between the wings is an 18th-century addition, and there is a modern addition at the end of the S.E. wing. Under the first floor of the S.W. wing is an archway, probably of later date than the house, with heavy bressumers supported by curved brackets. Inside the building, on the ground floor, is an original moulded ceiling-beam.

b (16). The White Hart Inn, 140 yards N.E. of (15), is of two storeys with cellars. It was built in the 15th century, with a central Hall flanked by Solar and Buttery wings; the Buttery or S.W. wing is prolonged at the back. Probably in the 16th century the Hall was divided into two storeys, and the roof was heightened. On the N.W. front the upper storey of the cross-wing projects, and is gabled; on the N.E. elevation of the S.W. wing the upper storey also projects, and the timberframing is exposed. The roof of the S.W. wing has original king-post trusses.

b (17). House, now seven shops, N.E. of (16). It has been much altered. Inside the building, on the ground floor, at the N.E. end, is part of an original moulded ceiling-beam.

Parsonage Street, E. side

b (18). Cottage, now two tenements, 320 yards S.S.E. of the church, with a modern addition at the back. Through the middle of the main block, under the first floor, is a wide passage.

b (19). House, 40 yards S.S.W. of (18), was built probably late in the 15th century, on an irregular L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W. On the N.E. side of the N.W. wing is a small modern addition; on the same side of the wing there is a gable. Inside the building, some of the ceiling-beams of the N.W. wing are carried by shaped wall-posts, and in the upper storey part of an original king-post truss is visible.

Condition—Poor.

b (20). The Griffin Inn, 70 yards S.S.W. of (19), with modern additions at the back.

W. side

b (21). House, now two tenements, 25 yards S.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys with a basement. The building has been shortened at the N.W. end. The basement and staircases are of the 18th century.

b (22). House and shop, 10 yards S.E. of (21), is of two storeys with a basement. It was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E. and S.W., but at the back of the S.E. wing is an 18th-century addition, and the front has been rebuilt with modern brick; the S.W. wing has been shortened. Inside the building, in the S.W. wing, are two original doors.

Condition—Of S.W. wing, poor.

b (23). Cottage, now two tenements, 220 yards S.E. of (22), is of two storeys with attics. At the W. end the upper storey and the gable both project, and are supported by moulded brackets; one old window has diamond quarry glazing.

b (24). Cottage, now three tenements, 100 yards S. of (23), with modern additions at the back.

b (25). Cottage, now three tenements, 30 yards S.S.W. of (24), with modern additions at the back, and a passage cut through the central chimney-stack.

Condition—Bad.

b (26). Cottage, said to have been the parsonage, 180 yards S.W. of (25), with a later addition at the W. end, and an E. wall partly re-faced with modern brick.

Head Street, N.W. side

b (27). House and shop, 60 yards N.N.W. of the church, has been so much altered that the original plan cannot be distinguished. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

b (28). House, 100 yards N.E. of (27), much altered in the 18th and 19th centuries.

b (29). House, now two tenements, 30 yards N.E. of (28), is of three storeys.

b (30). House, set back from the road, 70 yards N.W. of (29), is of two storeys with cellars. It was built probably c. 1600 on a rectangular plan, but in the 18th century an adjoining cottage, probably also of c. 1600, was incorporated with it, and additions were made at the back and at the N.E. end. On the S.E. elevation is a doorway now blocked, but possibly original. The original central chimney-stack has six octagonal shafts, rebuilt at the top. Inside the building, in the upper storey, are shaped wall-posts, and a 17th-century panelled door.

b (31). House, three tenements, 70 yards N.E. of (29), is of two storeys with attics. The S.E. wall has been partly rebuilt with modern brick. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are shaped wallposts.

b (32). House, two tenements, 100 yards N.N.E. of (31). Inside the building, on the first floor, are shaped wall-posts.

b (33). House, now two tenements, 50 yards N.E. of (32), is of two storeys with attics.

b (34). House, now two tenements with shop, N.E. of (33), was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W. The N.W. wing is enclosed by modern additions, and the upper storey has been raised. Inside the building, in the S.E. wing, is a moulded ceiling-beam.

The Sudbury Road, S.E. side

b (35). Boishall Farm, house, 200 yards N.E. of (34), is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the first half of the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.W. and S.E., but the front and S.W. end of the S.W. wing have been rebuilt, and there are modern additions on the S.W. side of the S.E. wing. Inside the building, on the ground floor, two rooms in the S.E. wing have original ceiling-beams, carved with a running foliage ornament, and supported by shaped wall-posts.

Condition—Good, except roof.

North Street, E. side

b (36). House, now five tenements, 180 yards N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. At the back are 18th-century or modern additions.

b (37). Wash Farm, house, 650 yards N.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was built about the middle of the 16th century, on a rectangular plan; in the first half of the 17th century a wing was added at the N.W. end of the N.E. side. On the S.W. front the upper storey projects, and the main entrance has an original door with a four-centred head. Some of the timberframing of the N.E. wing is exposed. The original central chimney-stack has grouped shafts on a square base, and the 17th-century stack of the N.E. wing has grouped octagonal shafts, modern at the top. Inside the building, both storeys of the original block have contemporary moulded ceilingbeams and wall-posts; and on the ground floor is a 17th-century door. The beams of the N.E. wing rest on shaped wall-posts.

In the garden-wall, E. of the house, is a 16th-century battened door with strap-hinges.

W. side

b (38). House, now two tenements, on the N. side of Boxmill Lane, 200 yards W.S.W. of (37), was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. There is a modern addition on the N. side of the W. wing, and the roof has been altered. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal pilasters.

a (39). Box Mill, house and mill, about ¼ m. W.S.W. of (38). The Mill is of three storeys and is weather-boarded; it was built at the beginning of the 17th century. The House is of two storeys with attics, and is built of brick. The N.E. corner was built early in the 18th century, but the rest is of later date. The N. end of the E. front has an original wood cornice with modillions; it formerly returned along the S. wall, but is now covered by the later additions; the original sashwindows have flush frames. Inside the building, in the older part of the house, is the original staircase with moulded handrail and turned balusters.

a (40). Sloughhouse Farm, house, now two tenements, ¼ m. S.S.W. of (39), has modern additions on the N. side and at the E. end, and has been partly re-faced with modern brick. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

Chapel Hill, E. side

a (41). Cottage, now two tenements, 220 yards S.W. of (40), with modern additions on the N. side and at the E. end.

S. side

a (42). House, now four tenements, 350 yards S.E. of (41), was built, probably in the 15th century, with a central Hall, and cross-wings at the N.W. and S.E. ends, the N.W. wing being longer than the other. In the 16th or early in the 17th century a wing was added on the N.W. side, and there are modern additions at the back and at the S.E. end of the front. On the N.E. front the upper storey of the original N.W. wing projects, and is supported by two curved brackets. Inserted in the Hall is a late 16th or early 17th-century chimney-stack with grouped diagonal shafts.

Inside the building, on the ground floor of the original block, is an old door of moulded battens. In the upper storey original king-post roof-trusses are visible; the truss over the Hall has an octagonal king-post with roughly shaped capital and base.

Trinity Street, N. side

a (43). House, 200 yards N.E. of (42), opposite the junction of New Street, was built on an Lshaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.W. It has modern additions at the back, and has been re-fronted. The original chimney-stack in the S.W. wing has four octagonal shafts with moulded tops. Inside the building, in the S.W. wing, are two moulded ceiling-beams and in the N.W. wing some of the ceiling-beams are carried on shaped wall-posts.

Bridge Street, S.W. side

a (44). The Bull Hotel, ¼ m. W.S.W. of the church was built late in the 16th century, but the original plan cannot be distinguished; the present plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W. The S.W. wing is probably a late 17th-century addition. Inside the building, in the N.W. wing, are original moulded ceilingbeams and joists, and one room contains some original panelling. In the S.W. wing is a 16th-century battened door.

Mount Hill, E. side

a (45). The Three Pigeons Inn, about ¼ m. S. of (42), was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E. On the S.E. side of the N.E. wing is a modern addition.

a (46). Blamster's Farm, house, 220 yards W. of (45), is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the 15th century, apparently with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N.W. and S.E. ends. There are modern additions at the S.E. end and at the back. The upper storey of the original S.E. wing projects in front and at the back. Inside the building, the roof of the original block is of three bays and has a truss with an octagonal king-post which has a capital and base, four-way struts, and a chamfered central purlin with moulded stops.

Hedingham, see Castle Hedingham and Sible Hedingham.



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