26. FAULKBOURNE. (G.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxxiv. S.E. (b)xxxv. S.W. (c)xlv. N.W.)
A small parish 2½ m. N.W. of Witham, with a
detached portion 1 m. N.E. of Witham. The Hall
is of exceptional interest as an elaborate example
of 15th-century brickwork.
a(1). A silver coin of Domitian and Roman bricks
re-used in a later wall may indicate a Roman building here; but they may equally well have come
from the known foundations at Rivenhall, barely
2 miles N.W.
a(2). The Parish Church of St. Germain
stands in the middle of the parish. The walls are of
coursed flint-rubble with Barnack stone dressings;
the roofs are tiled. The Nave and Chancel were
built early in the 12th century, but late in the 13th
century the E. end of the chancel was re-built.
The Bell-turret was added probably in the 16th
century. In the 19th century the South Porch
and Vestry were built and the church was much
restored. The church appears to have been
damaged by fire at some time.
The early 13th-century military effigy is noteworthy.
The Church, Plan
Architectural Description—The Chancel (29 ft.
by 21¼ ft.) has a late 13th-century E. window,
partly restored, of three pointed lights with pierced
spandrels under a two-centred head; both the
internal and the external labels have carved headstops. In the N. wall, in the centre, is an original
round-headed window of one light with widely
splayed jambs, partly restored. In the S. wall are
windows; the eastern, of late 13th-century date, two
considerably restored, is of two pointed lights
under a two-centred head; the western window
is a 'low-side' of the first half of the 14th century,
much restored, and is of one trefoiled and transomed
light under a pointed head; between the windows
is an original 12th-century doorway, now opening
into the vestry; it has a semi-circular arch springing from chamfered abaci, which are carried a short
way along the external face of the wall. There
is no chancel-arch.
The Nave (43 ft. by 23 ft.), has, in the N. wall,
three windows; the easternmost is of c. 1340,
partly restored, and is of two trefoiled lights
surmounted by a quatrefoil under a two-centred
head; the other two windows are original and of
single round-headed lights with widely splayed
jambs; between them is a doorway, now blocked,
with a square head on shouldered jambs, possibly
13th-century. In the S. wall are two windows;
the eastern (Plate p. 271) is of the 16th century
and of brick, partly restored; it is of three
lights with four-centred heads with vertical tracery
in a square head with a moulded label; the
western window is original, but considerably
restored, and is similar to the other original
windows; W. of this is the original S. doorway
set in a gabled projection and with a semi-circular
arch of two orders, the outer roll-moulded and
supported on square shafts with chamfered edges;
the capitals have a rough cross-shaped ornament
and the bases resemble inverted capitals. In the
W. wall are five windows arranged in two tiers;
in the lower tier are two round-headed windows,
apparently entirely modern; above them is a
similar window flanked by two small circular
windows, also modern.
The Bell-turret at the W. end of the nave is
supported on two trusses, of which the western
is carried on the W. wall; the eastern truss is
carried on wall-posts, of which the southern stands
on a frame around the S. doorway; the trusses
support the four angle-posts of the turret, which
is surmounted by a broached shingle spire crowned
by a lead finial.
The Roof of the chancel has 15th-century
moulded wall-plates; at the W. end is a tie-beam
and king-post of the same date. The roof of the
nave is of the trussed-rafter type with a central
king-post truss, and is possibly of the 14th century;
many of the timbers are much charred.
Fittings—Bells: two; said to be, 1st, uninscribed
but ancient; 2nd, by Robert Burford, c. 1400 and
inscribed "Sancta Katerina Ora Pro Nobis."
Brasses: In chancel—(1) in N.E. corner,
partly covered, with indent for inscription
plate, two shields (a) quarterly 1 and 4 a cheveron
vair, 2 and 3 an inverted cheveron (or voided pile),
(b) paly of six a quarter ermine, early 16th-century;
(2) of Henry Fortescue, Esquire of the body to
Queen Elizabeth, 1576, figure in full armour, with
three groups of children below, marginal inscription
and four shields of arms; (3) of Mary, wife successively of Sir Edward Darrell, Philip Maunsell
and Henry Fortescue, 1598, figure of lady with
inscription plate and four shields of arms. Coffin-lid: In chancel—against N. wall, upper part
of slab with chamfered edges and cross in low relief,
13th-century. Door: In doorway of nave, with
pointed head, of battens with joints covered by
vertical mouldings, three strap-hinges, probably
15th-century. Font: Octagonal with concave
side, moulded lower edge and moulded base, 15th-century. Funeral-helm: In chancel—on N. wall,
on wrought-iron bracket, a visored and combed
helm, 16th-century. W. of this is a similar bracket.
Glass: In nave—in N.E. window, in each
light, spire of canopy with foliated border; in
quatrefoil, shield (Plate, p. xxxvi) a cheveron between
three lions, 14th-century, in situ but with a few
fragments added. Monuments and Floor-slab.
Monuments: In chancel—(1) on N. wall, to
Sir Edward Bullock, 1644, panel of black
marble with white marble architrave, surmounted
by cartouche with arms; against S. wall, (2)
slab of Purbeck marble, with gabled head
and carved figure of a knight with flat-topped
helm, kite-shaped shield and long surcoat,
illegible traces of Lombardic inscription, all much
worn, fracture across middle, early to mid 13th-century. Floor-slab: In chancel—to Elizabeth
Cracherode, 1693–4, with shield of arms. Plate:
Includes silver cup and cover-paten, 1583–4, the
cup with engraved pattern; a silver paten and a
silver flagon, both 1665–6. Stalls: In chancel—
made up with modern work, five bench-ends and
two buttressed fronts, one with linen-fold panels,
three carved popey-heads, early 16th-century.
Weather-vane: On spire—of wrought-iron, dated
a(3). Faulkbourne Hall, S.E. of the church,
is of two storeys with attics. The walls are chiefly
of red brick, and the roofs are tiled. It was built
probably early in the 15th century, and was then
a timber-framed structure. Of this structure a
T-shaped fragment (rooms 1–4 on plan) with the
cross-wing at the E. end, is embodied in the
present house. In 1439 the owner, Sir John
Montgomery, was granted license to crenellate in
stone or brick, (Pat. Roll 18 Hen. VI, pt. 2, m. 33)
and perhaps before his death in 1449 the E. front
of the cross-wing was re-built in brick. The N.
front, including the N.E. tower (rooms 5–8) were
probably added by his son, Sir Thomas, who died
in 1494. About 1637 the manor passed to Sir Edward
Bullock (Morant II, 117), who probably inserted
main staircase. C. 1693, the date on a rain-water
head, the S.E. wing (rooms 9–10) was added to
the S. end of the original cross-wing; at the same
time the S. side of the original main block was
re-faced with brick, the W. front was altered and
perhaps set back some distance, and the semi-octagonal turret (11) was built. The S. front was
then the entrance front, and the greater part of an
avenue leading up to it still exists. About the
same time the oldest part of the E. front, originally
of two storeys only, was heightened to three storeys
and an attic. Early in the 18th century sash-frames
were inserted in many of the windows, especially
on the E. front, the floor of the Library (4) was
lowered to give the room greater height, and a small
annexe or communicating lobby was added between
it and the Tower Library (5). In 1832 the W. front
was again largely re-built to form the main entrance
front, and a central porch-wing was added. Soon
afterwards the S.W. wing was built, followed by
additions between this wing and the S.E. wing,
and by various minor alterations.
The older part of the house is a remarkable
example of 15th-century brickwork, and the
17th-century staircase is notable.
Elevations—The W. Front includes the modern
S.W. wing, and the old but remodelled front of
the main block, this is of symmetrical design,
the main wall being of two bays divided by the
modern porch and flanked by two semi-octagonal
turrets; the N. turret retains its original brickwork
on its northern faces, but the W. and S. faces have
been partly re-built with later brick and have a
moulded string-course; the S. side is also partly of
late 17th-century brick with a moulded plinth. The
S. turret is of similar design, but the brickwork
is in Flemish bond with black headers. The
brickwork of the main wall is modern. The whole
elevation has a brick corbel-table like that of the N.
Elevation (q.v.), but only that on the N. and part
of the W. faces of the N. turret is original. Both
turrets have embattled parapets and octagonal
crocketed spires of brick, possibly 17th-century
date. In the N.W. face of the N. turret are two
of the original windows, each of a small single
light, now blocked, with moulded jambs, square
head and moulded label. Over each turret are
two tall narrow chimney shafts with fluted sides
and moulded caps, probably of the 17th-century.
On the E. side of the modern porch is re-set a
lead rain-water head, inscribed B.E.E. 1666.
The N. Elevation (Plate p. 75) has its main
wall divided by a two-storeyed bay window, and
flanked on the W. by the turret described above,
and on the E. by the great tower. The W. part
of the main wall has a moulded string-course
between the two storeys, partly restored, and the
whole elevation is crowned by an embattled parapet, below is a corbel-table of cinque-foiled arches
with trefoiled spandrels; many of the machicolations have small square holes in the back like
put-log holes. The main wall E. of the N.W. turret
has, in the upper storey, an original late 15th-century oriel window, carried on five tapering and
moulded brick corbels to represent fan-vaulting
with moulded pendants; the window is of four
square-headed lights with brick transoms and
mullions; on either side of it is a blocked window
in the main wall; the other windows in the main
wall are modern restorations. The semi-octagonal
bay window in the middle of the front has, on the
ground floor, in each face an original square-headed
window, the easternmost altered to a doorway, the
others widened by partly cutting away the moulded
jambs; on the first floor are three similar but
unaltered windows, they have transoms and are
under a single label, as are also the three middle
lights below. On the main wall E. of the bay
window is a rain-water head, bearing the date
1637, and a shield of arms of Bullock. The great
N.E. tower (Plate p. 71) is of four storeys including
the basement; at the N.W. and N.E. angles are
diagonal buttresses of two stages which carry
octagonal turrets boldly corbelled out at the level
of the main parapet and have similar parapets
at a higher level. In the outer faces of the turrets
and the upper stages of the buttresses are vertical
rows of small holes resembling put-log holes.
Built against the W. wall of the tower, above the
roof of the main block, is a projecting bay, now
inacessible, but probably intended to contain a
narrow staircase, of the 16th century; it has a
small quatrefoil piercing in its W. face. The
merlons of the parapet on the W. face are pierced
with cross loops. In the middle of the N. side of
the tower is a slightly projecting chimney-stack,
corbelled out from the wall about 7 feet above the
ground and broadening at intervals as it rises;
at the top are stumps of three octagonal shafts.
Under the chimney-stack are traces of a doorway
or window which formerly opened into the basement. The ground floor is lighted by two windows
in the N., two in the E. and one in the W. wall,
and the first floor has one in each wall; these are
all of two lights with transoms and moulded labels
and are original, partly restored. The second floor
has a window in each wall, of one light with a label.
Faulkboune Hall, Plan
The E. Elevation (Plate p. 71) consists of three
divisions—the great tower, the end of the oldest
building, and the 17th-century S.E. wing. At
the S.E. angle of the tower is an octagonal stair-turret which rises above the top of the tower
and has a similar embattled parapet and a corbel-table; it is lighted by square loops, probably all
originally quatre-foiled. The main parapet of the
tower has, in the middle, the stump of a diagonal
pinnacle. The next division, S. of the tower, is of
three storeys and is flanked by two bay windows,
of the full height of the wall. The two lower
storeys are of early 15th-century brickwork;
the bricks are somewhat larger than those of the
N. elevation. The third storey is a late 17th-century addition or rebuilding. The original
first floor level is marked by a moulded string-course.
The northern bay window is semi-hexagonal, and
has, at the angles, small shafts of cut brick with
moulded bases resting on the chamfered plinth
of the bay. In the middle and S.E. faces on the
ground floor are original windows; the S.E.
window is now blocked; the middle window is
of two four-centred lights under a three-centred
head. The second storey of the bay window has,
in each face, a tall early 18th-century window
cutting through the original string-course the third
storey is lighted by late 17th-century casement
windows with high transoms. The space between
the E. main wall and the tower stair turret has
been filled in, and the closing wall has the remains
of a window with a three-centred head, and two
late 17th-century transomed windows. The main
wall between the bay windows has a chamfered
plinth and windows of late 17th and early
18th-century date, like those in the bay window.
The southern bay window is semi-octagonal and
of greater projection than the northern window;
at the outer angles it has low buttresses, apparently
original; in each of the three outer faces on the
ground floor is an original window, the middle
window of two four-centred lights, restored, under
a three-centred head, and the side windows of a
single three-centred light; the two upper storeys
have late 17th-century transomed windows, the
lower ones set in original openings. The late
17th-century S.E. wing is of three storeys divided
by moulded string-courses, and has, on this elevation, two gables. The first and third storeys have
late 17th-century casement window, and the second
storey has five 18th-century sash-windows. There
are three rain-water heads, two with the letters
and date EBM 1693. On the elevation are three
chimney-stacks with octagonal shafts, all probably
of the 17th century and restored.
S. Elevation. The end of the S.E. wing is of
red and black bricks and has a crow-stepped
gable; there are two similar gables and like brickwork on the W. side of the wing. Some of the
original late 17th-century windows are retained, and
on the W. side of the wing is a late 17th-century
wood-framed doorway with a plain battened door.
Above the modern additions on the S. side of the
main block appears the wall of the staircase
faced with late 17th-century red and black bricks,
and surmounted by an embattled parapet. Rehung in the wall of one of the modern additions
is a mid 17th-century door with the original
iron plate and knocker between the eared and
moulded panels enclosing small lozenge-shaped
Interior—The main entrance-lobby has a pavement of black and white marble squares, probably
of late 17th-century date, re-used. The ceiling
of the Dining Room (7) has three original late
15th-century moulded beams; a passage has been
cut off from the E. end of the room by a
partition, above which is another original
moulded ceiling-beam; the E. side of the partition
is lined with early 17th-century oak panelling,
and the opposite wall of the passage is lined with
late 16th-century panelling. The passage ends
in the N. bay window, which has an elaborate
vault with brick ribs and liernes, and with stone
or plaster shields at the intersections (Plate p. 70).
The floor is similar to that of the entrance hall.
A passage running E. from the passage to the
basement of the great tower has some pieces of
early 17th-century panelling. The Tower Library
(5) forming the ground floor of the tower is lined
partly with similar panelling re used from other
parts of the house. The stair-turret at the S.E.
corner of the tower (Plate p. 70) has brick winding
steps and central newel; in the outer wall are
sunk moulded hand-rails; the steps rise from the
basement, where they are entered by a four-centred doorway. The Kitchen (3) retains the
original early 15th-century timber-framed W.
wall and part of the similar S. wall; the W. wall
is of three bays divided by moulded wall-posts,
and has, at the S. end, an original doorway with a
moulded frame and a heavy six-panelled door with
deep styles, muntins and rails. Over this is a 16th-century window of five lights with moulded oak
jambs and mullions and intermediate iron stanchions.
In the W. end of the S. wall of the room is another
16th-century window of three lights, and under
it a recess, possibly a former doorway; near the
N. end of the W. wall is an old serving-door of
feathered battens, which retains an old strap-hinge and iron knocker. The ceiling has a moulded
beam across the mouth of the bay window. In
the window is a 16th-century quarry with a bird.
The S.E. wing has chamfered ceiling-beams, and
retains in one doorway an old battened door.
The main staircase (Plate p. 70), of c. 1640, is
of the well type, and has square panelled newels
with modern caps, heavy turned and square
balusters, and moulded close string. The stairs
N. of the main staircase are of the 17th century,
re-fixed, and have turned balusters and plain
Glass, Quarry with Belt and Cords
On the first floor the oriel window in the W. bay
of the N. elevation has, re-set in the two middle
lights, some diamond quarries of white and yellow
glass, probably of early 16th-century date;
thirteen bear the badge, a black belt with yellow
lining, combined with a cord or leash; other
quarries bear the initial E, a cock holding in
its beak a sprig of foliage, etc. The upper
storey of the bay window in the middle of the
N. elevation has a vaulted ceiling similar to that
on the ground floor, and is entered through an
18th-century partition closing the original brick
archway which has a four-centred head. Several
of the rooms in the upper and attic storeys have
old battened doors. The roof over the oldest
part of the house (1–4) has hollow-chamfered
purlins, probably of the 15th-century, re-used,
showing below the collar-beam ceilings. In the
vaulted cellar of the great tower, in the W. wall,
is a four-centred archway and recess, which
possibly opened into a former staircase. In the S.
wall is a pointed recess, possibly a former doorway.
The S.E. stair-turret is entered by a doorway with a
four-centred arch. The third floor of the tower
is entered only from this stair-turret by a doorway
with a four-centred arch; on this floor in the N.
wall is a four-centred fireplace of brick.
Condition—Good, except for a number of cracks
in the brickwork of the Tower and the E. Front.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century and of two
storeys; the walls are of plastered timber-framing
and the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of
the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams, wide
fireplaces, and one or more original chimneystacks.
Condition—Unless otherwise stated, good, or
a(4). Home Farm, house, now two tenements,
800 yards W.S.W. of the church, was built in the
second half of the 16th century on an L-shaped
plan, with the wings extending towards the N.
and W. It was much altered late in the 17th
century, when a block was added between the
wings, and this addition has a modern extension
on the W. side. On the E. front are two gables.
The late 17th-century central chimney-stack has
pilasters on two sides and at one angle, and the
W. chimney-stack, of late 17th or early 18th-century date, is of cross-shaped plan. Inside the
building, on the ground floor of the N. wing, is
a moulded wall-post, apparently re-used. On
the first floor, in the E. wall of the N. wing, are
visible five small original windows, now blocked.
In the same wing are the shaped wall-posts of a
former heavy roof-truss.
a(5). Little Troys, house and barn, 600 yards
N.W. of (4). The House was built about the
middle of the 16th century, but has been largely
re-built. At the back are modern additions.
Inside the building, some of the ceiling-beams are
supported by curved brackets, and in the N.W.
room on the ground floor are three moulded
joists, possibly re-used.
The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of three bays
with a central porch; it may be of mediæval
origin, but seems to have been re-built.
a(6). Hill Farm, house, 700 yards N. by W.
of the church, on the W. side of the road, is of
two storeys with attics. It was built on a T-shaped
plan, with the cross-wing at the S. end. On the
E. front the upper storey projects and is gabled
in the middle of the main block.
Condition—Very much altered.
a(7). Cottage, now two tenements, on the E.
side of the road, 60 yards N.N.E. of (6).
a(8). Cottage (Plate p. 97), N. of (7); of one
a(9). Cottage (Plate p. 97), N. of (8); of one
a(10). Cottage (Plate p. 97), now the Post Office,
N. of (9), with modern addition at the W. end.
Visible internally at the E. end is an original
window, now blocked, with diamond-shaped
a(11). Oak Farm, house, now two tenements,
and barn, 280 yards N.W. of (10). The House
was built on an L-shaped plan, with the wings
extending towards the N. and W. On the E. side
are modern additions.
The Barn, N. of the house, is weather-boarded
and of three bays with a central porch; at the
S. end is a modern extension.
a(12). The Grove, cottage, two tenements, 700
yards N. by E. of the church, with modern
additions at the back and ends.
a(13). Hole Farm, house, now two tenements,
550 yards N.E. of (12), was built early in the
17th century, and was extended or re-built at the E.
end later in the same century. On the N. side
are modern additions.
b(14). Coleman's Farm, house and barn, about
2½ m. E.S.E. of the church, in the detached portion
of the parish. The House was built probably in
the 15th century, but the N.W. end has possibly
been re-built, and the roof has been altered. The
16th-century chimney has the stumps of four
octagonal shafts on a square base with a moulded
capping. Inside the building some of the ceiling-beams are carried on shaped wall-posts. The
16th-century staircase in the S.W. part of the building has flat-shaped balusters and a moulded handrail. On the first floor are tie-beams with curved
c(15). Cottage, 160 yards S.W. of (14), was
built early in the 16th century on a modified
L-shaped plan, with the main block extending
towards the E. and a wing of slight projection
towards the S. Inside the building, in the N.W.
end of the house, is a 16th-century door and
blocked window with moulded stop-chamfered
frame. On the first floor is a similar window,
also blocked; some of the ceiling-beams are
carried on shaped wall-posts. The roof has
cambered tie-beams with curved braces.