Felstead

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1921

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'Felstead', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 2: Central and South West (1921), pp. 73-84. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=122632 Date accessed: 01 August 2014.


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27. FELSTEAD. (E.a.)


Felstead, The Parish Church of the Holy Cross.

Felstead, The Parish Church of the Holy Cross.

(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxiv. S.E. (b)xxv. S.W. (c)xxxiii. N.E. (d)xxxiv. N.W. (e)xxxiii. S.E.)

Felstead is a large parish and village 5½ m. W. of Braintree. The principal monuments are the Church and Gatehouse Farm. There are 14 mediæval houses in the parish, and in two of these the former Hall still remains open to the roof.

Ecclesiastical

c(1). Parish Church of the Holy Cross stands on the N. side of the village. The walls are mostly of flint-rubble, with some tile and brick, and with stone dressings, but the south chapel is of clunch ashlar; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The West Tower was built c. 1140, and the N.W. angle of the Nave is of the same date. The South Arcade of the nave and the south aisle were added c. 1180–90; and c. 1330 the North Arcade and North Aisle and the clearstorey were built. The Chancel and probably the South Aisle were re-built c. 1350. In the 15th century the North Vestry and South Porch were added, and about the middle of the 16th century the South Chapel was built. The church was restored in 1877, when the outer walls of both aisles were re-faced and an Organ Chamber was built between the S. chapel and the S. aisle. The west tower was restored in 1914.

The 16th-century Rich monument is noteworthy, and the clock dated 1701 is interesting.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (42 ft. by 19½ ft.) has a modern E. window set in a 14th-century opening with original splays, two-centred rear-arch and moulded internal label; the opening has been reduced in height for the modern window. In the N. wall are two mid 14th-century windows, considerably restored, each of two trefoiled lights with leaf-tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded external label. E. of these is a modern doorway to the vestry. In the S. wall is a modern arcade of two bays opening into the S. chapel; and further W. is a modern arch to the organ-chamber. The 14th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders with a moulded label on the W. face; the responds are modern.

The North Vestry has, in the N. wall, two 15th-century windows; the eastern is of two cinque-foiled lights under a square head, and the western is similar but of one light. In the W. wall are two modern doorways.

The South Chapel (29½ ft. by 17¼ ft.), has been much restored. In the E. wall is a modern window; and in the S. wall is a modern window and, further W., a modern doorway. In the W. wall is a modern arch to the organ-chamber.

The Nave (57¾ ft., by 23½ ft.) has a N. arcade of c. 1330 and of four bays; the arches are two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the piers are octagonal with moulded capitals and bases, and the chamfered responds have attached semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the piers are all partly restored and the E. respond is largely modern. The S. arcade is of c. 1180–90 and of four bays; the arches are two-centred and of two square orders; the E. respond is modern; the first pier is circular and has a foliated 'water-leaf' capital with volutes at the angles and a square moulded abacus; the chamfered base has plain spur ornaments and a square chamfered plinth; the second pier is octagonal and has a capital carved with conventional foliage and cheveron ornament, and an octagonal moulded abacus, moulded 'hold-water' base and chamfered octagonal plinth; the third pier is circular with a crudely foliated capital, moulded circular abacus, moulded base and chamfered plinth, both circular; the W. respond is semi-octagonal with a moulded capital. The clearstorey is of the 14th century and has, on each side, three windows each of two lights and modern, except the splays and two-centred, chamfered rear-arches with moulded labels.

The North Aisle (9½ ft. wide) has three carved grotesque gargoyles at the level of the parapet string of the N. wall. In the N. wall are four modern windows, and the wall, except the E. bay, has been re-faced. In the W. wall is a 14th-century window, of one light with chamfered jambs, two-centred head and moulded label.

The South Aisle (9½ ft. wide), has been largely re-faced externally. In the E. wall is a modern arch to the organ-chamber. In the S. wall are three modern windows; between the two western windows is the late 12th-century S. doorway, re-set; it has a two-centred arch of three square orders with a moulded label; the jambs have each two side shafts with carved 'water-leaf' capitals and square moulded abaci; the bases are much weathered. In the W. wall is a mid 14th-century window, partly restored and similar to those in the N. wall of the chancel.

The West Tower (13½ ft. by 13¼ ft.) is of mid 12th-century date and of three stages divided by plain offsets and finished with an embattled parapet. In the S.W. angle is a turret staircase projecting into the interior of the tower and enclosed by a square wall at the base and by a quadrant-shaped wall above; it is lit by original round-headed loops in the S. and W. walls. The original semi-circular tower-arch is of two orders, of which the outer is roll-moulded and the inner of brick and probably of the 16th century. The responds have each a modern detached circular shaft; that on the N. side has an original scalloped capital, and the imposts are chamfered and grooved. The N. and S. walls of the ground stage have each a restored and deeply-splayed 12th-century window of one round-headed light. The N. window is now blocked and repaired externally with brick. The original W. doorway is of three semi-circular orders, the two outer with continuous cheveron ornament; the jambs had each two shafts, of which only the two inner cushion capitals remain on modern shafts; the head is filled with a plain ashlar tympanum. Above the doorway is a round-headed window, much repaired, of two orders, the outer moulded. The original doorway to the turret staircase has a plain semi-circular arch and modern jambs. The second stage has, in the E. wall, a plain round-headed doorway, now opening into the nave. In each of the N., S. and W. walls is a plain round-headed window. The third stage or bell-chamber has, in each wall, a modern window of one light replacing the original two light windows of the 12th century which had been altered in the 18th century. On the top of the tower is an octagonal pyramid finished with an open octagonal cupola of timber with a moulded base and cornice and an ogee capping, probably all of c. 1700.

The South Porch was built probably in the 15th century. It has a modern outer archway. In both the E. and W. walls is a window of one light and all modern, except perhaps the jambs and splays.

The Roof of the chancel is of mid 14th-century date, of the trussed-rafter type with richly moulded wall-plates and three moulded tie-beams. The roof of the nave is of similar type with moulded wall-plates and five tie-beams; it is possibly of the 14th century, but much restored. The high-pitched pent roof of the vestry has curved brackets at the feet of the principals, and is of the 15th century, much restored. The 17th- or 18th-century roof of the south chapel is of the trussed-rafter type, but of poor construction. The floor over the ground-stage of the tower is probably of the 17th century, and is of timbers framed round a central bell-way and supported on posts in the angles of the tower with curved struts. The roof of the south porch has a few old rafters, re-used.

Fittings—Bells: eight and clock-bell; clock-bell by Stephen Tonne, 1546, bell-frame, old. Brasses and Indent. Brasses: In chancel—(1) of Christine, wife of John Bray, 1420, with good half-figure of lady in veiled head-dress and high-waisted gown; (2) of man in plate armour, with a small part of a marginal inscription and indents of four shields, c. 1415–20. (3) In S. chapel—to Thomas Ryche, son of Robert Ryche, knight, 1564, inscription with indent of swaddled infant. Indent: In chancel—of floriated cross with half-figure, probably of priest, in head, stem resting on beast, marginal inscription in Lombardic letters, early 14th-century, much defaced. Doors: (1) In S. chapel doorway—modern door with old four-centred head, carved, and dated 1607. (2) In tower stair-turret doorway—plain, with nail heads and strap-hinge, possibly 16th-century, partly restored. Easter Sepulchre: In chancel (Plate p. 85)—in N. wall, probably re-fixed W. of the original position, recess with two-centred ogee moulded arch, having a cinque-foiled soffit, sub-cusped in the middle cusp on each side; moulded and richly crocketed label with elaborate finial. The arch springs from side shafts with moulded and carved capitals and moulded bases; flanking them are projecting buttresses finished with gabled and crocketed pinnacles with carved finials; mid 14th-century, very much restored. Font: Circular bowl with square upper member; below the angle are attached moulded capitals, and above them, supporting the angles of the upper member, are carved human heads of limestone, much weathered, probably early 14th-century, central stem and side shafts modern. Monuments and Floor-slabs—Monuments: (1) (Plate p. 74) In S. chapel— in S.E. angle, of [Richard, first Lord Rich, 1566, and probably of Robert, second Lord, his son, 1581], alabaster and marble monument, consisting of altar-tomb and effigy, canopy and kneeling effigy at W. end; altar-tomb standing on a high step and divided on the N. side into bays by pilasters of black and green veined marble (one only left in situ); in each of the two bays is a black panel incised with a figure subject (a) Lord Rich on horseback with mace-bearer and other attendants; and (b) Lord Rich's funeral hearse with effigy or body under elaborate canopy; reclining on left arm on the altar-tomb, an effigy of Lord Rich in flat cap and furred robe, book in right hand, face bearded; traces of gilding; above the tomb a flat classical canopy supported by two black marble Corinthian columns with strap-work pedestals, capitals and bases, all of alabaster; on front of canopy, above the cornice, a low pediment flanked by vases, and on W. side a similar pediment; on top, against E. wall, a figure of Fame with trumpet; soffit of canopy coffered; wall at back of three bays with panels carved in relief; central bay with achievement of the arms of Rich above a blank tablet; E. bay with figure of Lord Rich accompanied by Fortitude and Justice; W. bay with Lord Rich as Lord Chancellor, accompanied by Hope and Charity; on E. wall similarpanel with Lord Rich holding long Tau-cross and sealed document, accompanied by female with mirror and serpent (probably Truth and Wisdom); at W. end of altar-tomb a small reading desk, at which kneels an alabaster effigy in half plate armour, left arm broken; at back a carved panel of arms, etc.; the figure and panel probably added to the original monument. In S. aisle— on S. wall, (2) to Ann, wife of Thomas Walker, 1712, white marble tablet with lozenge of arms. In churchyard—head-stones carved with skull and cross-bones, and foot-stones, N. of nave, to (3) Henry Bigg, 1687; (4) Wignoll Bigg, 1679; (5) E.B., 1676; (6) John Bigg, 1664; the head-stone of (5) has been removed and fragments of it lie in the church tower. Floor-slabs: In organ-chamber, (1) to Thomas Boteler, 1688, with arms; (2) to Thomas Woodrooffe, pastor of the parish, 1712, with arms; (3) name covered by screen, 1679; (4) to Sidney, wife of Thomas Boteler, 1696, with arms. Piscina: In vestry—in S. wall, with moulded jambs and cinque-foiled arch in square head, shelf and circular drain, damaged, 15th-century. Plate: Includes a large silver-gilt cup of 1641, with the Rich arms; stand-paten (gilt) of 1641, with same arms; stand-paten (gilt) of 1700. Poor Box: On bracket—on second pier of S. arcade of nave, nail-studded and iron-bound box with three locks and money-box, possibly late 16th-century. Screen: Between organ-chamber and S. aisle, modern, incorporating some old woodwork, probably 16th-century. Stoup: In S. porch—in E. wall, recess with chamfered jambs and four-centred head, probably stoup, still modern, 15th-century. Miscellanea: Incorporated in modern altar-table, seven traceried panels; similar panels, one on pulpit, and one on lectern as book-rests, 15th-century. In second stage of tower, clockworks, inscribed "Johannes Fordham De Dunmow Magna Fecit Anno 1701 Nūm 126."

Condition—Good, much restored, except W. tower and W. wall of N. aisle, which have serious cracks and are badly decayed; tower being repaired, 1914.

c(2). Congregational Chapel, formerly a Friends' Meeting House, stands on the W. side of Bannister Green, about 1 mile E. of the church. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably at the end of the 17th century, and is a plain rectangular building with an annexe on the W. side. The windows and doorways are all of the 18th century or modern. The roof is plastered but two tiebeams are exposed.

Fittings—Door: In doorway of annexe—with six moulded panels late 17th-century.

Panelling: In chapel—as dado, with moulded styles, 17th-century.

Condition—Fairly good.

Secular

b(3). Homestead Moat, 750 yards S. by E. of Rayne Railway Station.

c(4). Whelpstone's Farm, barn and moat, nearly 2 m. E. of the church. The Barn is timber-framed and weather-boarded; it was built probably in the 17th century and is of four bays with a porch on the S.W., and an extension on the S.E.

The Moat, N.W. of the farm, has one arm obliterated.

Condition—Of barn, good; of moat, incomplete.

c(5). Potash Farm, house and moat, ¾ m. S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 15th or early 16th century, with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N.E. and S.W. ends. The Hall has been divided into two storeys, the roof of the S.W. wing altered, and an outhouse added to the S. of it. Inside the building the ground-floor rooms have exposed ceiling-beams and joists.

The Moat is fragmentary.

Condition—Of house, bad, partly ruinous.

c(6). Chaffix, house, outbuilding and moat, on the N. side of the road, 1,100 yards E.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built about the middle of the 16th century on a half H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. The main roof is hipped at the ends, and the original central chimney-stack has the moulded bases of four octagonal shafts with a modern top. At the back are two small windows with original moulded frames, one being now blocked. Inside the building the N.E. wing has chamfered ceiling-beams, and on the first floor are two king-post trusses with curved braces and struts; in the N. part of the wing is a reconstructed king-post truss. The middle room on the first floor has an original brick fireplace with chamfered jambs and three-centred arch in a square head with foliated plaster spandrels; above it is a moulded cornice.

The Outbuilding, E. of the house, is of the 16th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. Inside the building the ground storey has a heavy chamfered ceiling-beam, and at the N. end is a staircase of solid oak treads.

The Moat is fragmentary.

Condition—Of house and outbuilding, good.

a(7). Cottage, now two tenements, and moat, on S. side of lane, 1½ m. N.E. of the church. The Cottage is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century. Inside the building the ground-floor rooms have open timbered ceilings.

The Moat is of irregular form and is incomplete.

Condition—Of house, good.

a(8). Greenfield's Farm, house and moat, 150 yards N. of (7). The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and partly plastered and partly weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, with a central block and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The roof of the N. wing has been altered. On the E. front the gable of the S. wing has old barge-boards. The 16th-century central chimney-stack has a moulded base and three panels, filled with a circle, a fleur-delis and a diamond in brick. Inside the building the ground floor has open timbered ceilings. In the upper storey of the main block is a king-post truss with a cambered and chamfered tie-beam.

The Moat is fragmentary.

Condition—Of house, poor.

a(9). Gatehouse Farm (Plate p. 114), house, now two tenements, and barn, 650 yards N. of (8). The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 14th century with a central Hall and Solar and Buttery wings at the N. and S. ends respectively. Probably late in the 16th century the Hall was divided into two storeys and the chimney-stack inserted.

The house is a complete example of late 14th-century date, and the roof-truss in the Hall is of most unusual character.

Elevations—The wings are gabled and project slightly on the E. front. At the back, at the S. end of the main block, is a 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and depressed four-centred head. All the walls are covered with modern weather-boarding.

Interior—The Hall (23 ft. by 20 ft.) is of two bays; the floor, inserted in the 16th century, has mostly fallen in, but the large longitudinal ceiling-beam remains. The original roof-truss has a moulded and steeply cambered tie-beam, only about 6 ft. above the existing floor and supported by curved braces springing from the floor level, and having the mouldings of the tie-beam mitred and continued down them; immediately above the upper ends of these braces are two octagonal queen-posts with moulded capitals and bases, and continued up as square posts to support the purlins and an upper tie-beam or collar all with curved braces; there is a small collar near the ridge, and the purlins are supported by wavy struts standing on the main tie-beam; the common rafters are broken above the purlins, involving a slight alteration of the pitch of the roof. The E. and W. walls of the Hall have each remains of an original window of eight lights, with mortices for the diamond-shaped mullions. In the S. wall is an original doorway at the back of the former 'screens'; it has chamfered jambs and a four-centred head. The roofs of the Solar and Kitchen wings have been plastered in.

The Barn, N.E. of the house, is timber-framed and weather-boarded; the roof is thatched. The barn was built in the 15th century and is of six bays with a porch on the N. side. The roof has king-post trusses.

Condition—Of house, bad, one tenement disused; of barn, poor.

(House restored since survey.)

a(10). Grandcourts, house, about 2 m. E.N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The middle part of the house was built probably late in the 16th century on a Z-shaped plan with the E. wing extending S., and W. wing extending N. Early in the 17th century an L-shaped addition, with the wings extending towards the N. and W., was built to the W. of the W. wing. Later in the same century a wing was added in the angle of the early 17th-century addition, and a cross-wing built at the S. end of the original S. wing. The house is now of most irregular form, and all the wings and additions are gabled. The gable at the S. end of the original W. wing has old barge-boards. At the W. end of the house is some 17th-century pargeting with rosettes and other designs. Inside the building many of the rooms have exposed ceiling-beams and joists, and some shaped wall-posts are visible. There are two original fireplaces.


Felsted, Gate House Farm

Felsted, Gate House Farm

Condition—Fairly good, but much ivy on walls.

c(11). Leighs Lodge, house, barn and outbuilding, 2 m. E.S.E. of the church. The House is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The third storey was added to the W. wing in the 18th century, and there are small modern additions. Inside the building, several rooms have chamfered ceiling-beams.

The Barn, W. of the house, is one of the largest in the county. It is timber-framed, partly plastered and partly weather-boarded; the roof is covered with corrugated iron. The barn was built in the 16th century, and is 159 ft. long externally, and of eleven bays with an aisle and three porches on the W. side. In the aisle are three original windows, now blocked.

The Outbuilding, N.W. of the house, is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It is probably of the 16th century; the ground floor has eight open bays for carts.

Condition—Of house, etc., good, much altered.

c(12). Felstead Bury, house, 100 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys with attics and cellar; the walls are timber-framed and plastered and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 16th century on an H-shaped plan, with the cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. There are three 18th-century or modern additions on the E. side. The upper storey projects on exposed joists on the S. side of the N. wing. Inside the building, some rooms have exposed ceiling-beams and joists.

Condition—Good, much altered.

c(13). The Old School House (Plate p. 81), now a parish room, on the S. side of the church-yard, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roof is tiled. The school was founded by the first Lord Rich in 1564 (Morant II. 420), but the building is probably earlier. The second bay from the W. end forms, on the ground floor, a lych-gate to the churchyard; the two entrances have lintels with curved brackets and the ceiling-beams are exposed; in the E. wall is an original doorway and opening, both now blocked; both doorway and opening have a four-centred head; in the W. wall are two similar openings, but fitted with original oak shutters with iron hinges (Plate p. 80). The upper storey projects on the N. and S. sides on plain curved brackets; the N. side has been partly under-built. Inside the building, some timber-framing and ceiling-beams are exposed. The old School Room occupies four bays of the first floor, and has three original king-post trusses; the cambered and chamfered tie-beams have curved braces forming four-centred arches; the rebated king-posts have curved four-way struts.

Condition—Good.

c(14). House (Plate p. 81), formerly the Schoolmaster's House, adjoining (13) on the E., is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably c. 1500 and has a modern addition at the E. end. The upper storey projects on plain brackets on the N. and S. sides. Inside the building, the ceiling-beams are exposed in the ground storey, and on the first floor are heavy tie-beams with curved braces. One king-post truss is visible in the roof.

Condition—Fairly good.

c(15). Boote's House (Plates pp. 80, 81), now three tenements, at the corner of the Dunmow and Chelmsford Roads, 50 yards S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The walls are timber-framed and plastered and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1596 on a modified H-shaped plan with the cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The N. wing was extended towards the E. in the 17th century; there are small modern additions on the E. and W. sides, and at the S. end.

The house has interesting carved woodwork of the period.

The upper storey of the N. wing projects on the N. side and at the E. end; on the N. side it has a moulded bressumer carved with rosettes and foliated dragons and rests on carved foliated brackets; on the W. front the bressumer has the carved inscription—"George Boote made this house 1596"; supporting the angle of the overhang is carved a nude female figure (Plate p. 80) with cloven hoofs and in a crouching position; at the S. W. angle is a foliated bracket; the gable at the W. end of the wing projects and has a foliated bressumer with three moulded pendants. In the angle between the main block and the N. wing is a small projection with a moulded eaves-cornice. The upper storey of the S. wing projects at the W. end, and under it are two original windows with moulded frames and now blocked.

Interior—The ground-floor rooms have heavy exposed ceiling-beams; those in the main block are moulded and the joists are hollow-chamfered. The walls of the N. room of the main block are lined with panelling, and one panel is carved with the name "Richard How." Three other rooms are lined with original panelling, and in the upper storey of the S. wing are four original windows, now blocked. The roof of this wing has two original queen-post trusses. The original E. gable of the N. wing is visible in the attics and in it is an original window with moulded mullions and some plaster dated 1596.

Condition—Good.

Monuments (16–108).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many have original chimneystacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.

Condition—When not specially noted, good or fairly good.

Main Street, S. side

c(16). The Vicarage, 40 yards E. of (15), was originally of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and S. There are modern additions at the back.

c(17). House and shop, 20 yards E. of (16), is of two storeys, with cellar and attics. It was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and S., and a staircase in the angle between the wings. There are modern additions on the S. of the W. wing and on the E. of the house. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the W. room has an early 18th-century fireplace, with an enriched architrave and mantelshelf. The original staircase has turned newels and balusters and a panelled dado. One room on the first floor is lined with original panelling, partly re-set.

c(18). House, now two tenements, 40 yards E. of (17), was built late in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the E. end. In the first half of the 17th century a wing was added E. of the cross-wing and there are small late 17th or early 18th-century additions to this wing and in the S.W. angle of the original house. On the N. front the doorway has an original panelled and nail-studded door. The original central chimney-stack has four octagonal shafts with moulded capitals and bases. Inside the building the original staircase has good symmetrically turned balusters.

c(19). The Folly, house, now two tenements, 230 yards E. of (18), is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the second half of the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and S. There is a modern addition in the angle between the wings. In front the upper storey projects at the W. end and has two gables, and further E. are two gabled dormers, probably original. Inside the building are two bolection-moulded doors of c. 1700 and the central staircase has twisted balusters, turned newel and moulded rails of the same date. Visible on the first floor is a cambered tie-beam on shaped wall-posts.

c(20). House, now three tenements, 270 yards E. of (19), was built c. 1600 on a plain rectangular plan. Late in the 17th century it was extended towards the W., and an addition made at the W. end of the S. side. In front the upper storey projects and is gabled at the E. end, and there is another gable at the back in a corresponding position. The original central chimney-stack has square grouped shafts, partly re-built. Inside the building is a fireplace with a bolection-moulded architrave of late 17th-century date.

Condition—Poor.

c(21). House, now three tenements, E. of (20), is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and S. Late in the 17th or early in the 18th century the S. wing was extended, and there are small modern additions at the back. At the E. end of the front is a gable. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

Condition—Bad.

N. side

c(22). Garnetts, house, 650 yards E. of the church and N. of (20), is of two storeys with attics. It was built probably in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and N., and a staircase-wing at the back of the main block. There are modern additions, including a porch in front, at the back, and at both ends. The main block is roofed at two levels, and in front the upper storey projects, also at two levels, the W. part in each case being the higher of the two. Inside the building the W. room on the ground floor has an original moulded ceiling-beam, and on the first floor is an original panelled door.

c(23). House, four tenements, standing back from the road, and 300 yards E. of the church. It was built early in the 16th century with a central Hall and Solar and Buttery wings at the E. and W. ends respectively. The roof of the W. wing now continues that of the Hall, and there are small 17th-century additions on the N. and E. In front the upper storey of the E. wing projects and is gabled. Inside the building the former Hall has richly moulded ceiling-beams and joists, and in the W. wall of the former 'screens' is an original doorway with a four-centred head and now blocked. The roof of the E. wing has an original king-post truss, and on the first floor of the main block a heavy cambered tie-beam is visible.

Condition—Bad.

c(24). Table, etc., at Rich's Almshouses, 50 yards W. of (23). The buildings are modern, but the Communion table in the chapel is of late 16th-century date with hinged flaps and a base made up of old panelled framing.

c(25). The Bury Cottage, N.E. of (12), was built in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and E. There is an 18th-century addition between the wings. Inside the building, on the ground floor, are heavy shaped wall-posts.

c(26). Barn at the Bury Farm, 80 yards W. of (25), is weather-boarded. It was built in the 16th century and is of ten bays with aisles and two porches on the S. side; the roof is of the queenpost type.

The Little Dunmow Road, S. side

c(27). House, 120 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys with cellar and attics. It was built about the middle of the 16th century on an H-shaped plan, with the cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. There are modern additions at the back, and the front has been re-faced with brick and rendered in cement. At the back of the E. wing are two gables.

c(28). House, formerly the Bell Inn, and now two tenements, 70 yards E. of (27), is of two storeys with attics. There are modern additions at the back.

c(29). Argyle House, 30 yards E. of (28), was built about the middle of the 16th century on a half H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. Adjoining it on the S. is a late 17th-century cottage, which now forms part of the house. There are small modern additions on the W. and S. At each end of the E. front is a gable.

The Chelmsford Road, W. side

c(30). The Swan Inn, at the corner of the Little Dunmow Road, 50 yards E. of (29), is of two storeys with cellars. It was built in the 16th century, probably on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and W. Later in the same century the W. wing was extended, and another wing added, making the plan half-H-shaped. There is a 17th-century addition at the S. end of the main block. There are two gables at the S. end of the E. front, and the upper storey of the 17th-century addition projects. The upper storey of the N. wing originally projected at the N. end, but has been under-built. Inside the building, above a fireplace in the S.W. wing, is an original moulded lintel, possibly not in situ.

c(31). House, now two tenements, S. of (30), is of two storeys with cellar and attics. It was originally of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and E., but late in the 17th century an addition was made in the angle between the wings, making the plan rectangular. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts with an ornamental capping. Inside the building the N.E. room on the ground floor is lined with early 18th-century panelling.

c(32). Felstead House, 50 yards S. of (31), has a roof partly covered with slate. The front block was built probably in the 15th century, and in the 17th century a wing was added at the N. end at the back. In the 18th century the front wall was raised, and there are 18th-century or modern additions at the back. Inside the building the roof of the front block has an original central purlin and a rough king-post with one curved strut.

E. side

c(33). Felstead Place, house, 200 yards S.S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. It was originally of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and E. The Kitchen block is also of the 17th century, and perhaps formed a detached building S.E. of the E. wing. The house was remodelled c. 1720, when the two blocks were joined up and the eaves-cornice added to the main block. There is a small modern addition on the N.E. Inside the building is a little original panelling re-used, and one room has an original moulded ceiling-beam. In an alcove, S. of the present hall, is a moulded and dentilled fascia, originally external and possibly in situ. In the cellar is a circular well of brick.

c(34). House, two tenements and shop, with outbuilding, 100 yards N. of (33).

The Outbuilding, formerly a cottage, stands E. of the house.

c(35). Cottage, now private house, in a lane 750 yards S.E. of the church, with modern additions on the N. and E. Inside the building, in a passage at the back, is a chamfered post and half a two-centred arch, probably of a doorway.

c(36). Jolly Boys, house, 130 yards S.E. of (35), with 18th-century and modern additions on the N.E. side. The S.W. front has two windows with solid frames, possibly original.

c(37). House, range of three tenements, at Cobler's Green, 1,450 yards S.E. of the church.

Condition—Poor.

c(38). Cottage, 250 yards E.S.E. of (37), on the N. side of the road. The original central chimney-stack has two attached diagonal shafts.

Condition—Poor.

c(39). Causeway End, house and shop, on the W. side of the road, 1,100 yards S. of the church, was built in the 15th or early in the 16th century, with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The Hall has been divided into two storeys and a large gable built on to it in front; there is a modern addition at the back. Inside the building the fireplace of the former Hall has an original moulded lintel. On the first floor is a 17th-century panelled door. The roof of the N. wing has an original king-post truss.

c(40). Causeway End Farm, house, on the E. side of the road, 100 yards S.E. of (39), was built late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and S. There are modern additions on the S. of the E. wing. The upper storey projects on curved brackets at the S. end of the S. wing. Inside the building the room on the ground floor of the S. wing has shaped wall-posts and an original fireplace of brick with a four-centred arch. In the upper storey of this wing two cambered and chamfered tie-beams are exposed.

c(41). Glandfields Farm, house, on the W. side of the road, about ¾ m. S. by E. of the church, was built probably in the 15th century with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The Hall was divided into two storeys and a gable was added in front, probably in the 17th century, and there are small modern additions on the W. and N. The upper storey projects at the E. ends of the cross-wings. The early 17th-century central chimney-stack has three octagonal shafts.

c(42). Millbank's Farm, house, 100 yards S.S.E. of (41), was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century on a half H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. The upper storey projects and is gabled at the E. end of the S. front, and under it is an original foliated bracket. At the E. end is a 16th-century chimney-stack with a plinth, offset and two diagonal shafts with modern tops. Inside the building the E. room on the ground floor has a late 16th-century moulded ceiling-beam, and in a passage at the back is a panelled dado of the same date.

e(43). Camsix Farm, house and barn, about 1¾ m. S. of the church. The House was built probably early in the 17th century, but has been re-faced with modern brick, and the original plan is indistinguishable. On the W. side is an original chimney-stack with a plinth and two offsets.

In the garden are two 15th-century stones, one with a quatre-foiled panel and one the base of a gable, probably part of a chapel which is said to have stood in an adjoining field.

The Barn, E. of the house, is weather-boarded and of five bays with an aisle and transept.

e(44). House, now three tenements, on the W. side of the road at Harford End, 650 yards E.S.E. of (43). The upper storey projects and is gabled at the S. end of the front.

c(45). Cottage, two tenements, on the road to Leighs Priory, 1½ m. S.S.E. of the church, was built in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan, with the cross-wings at the W. end. There are modern additions on the E. side. The main block is carried through to the front and has a hipped roof. At the N. end is an original chimney-stack with offsets.

c(46). Cottage, on the N. side of the River Ter, and 1½ m. S.E. of the church, with a modern addition on the S. The eaves have a moulded cove.

c(47). Pond Park Farm, house, 380 yards W.N.W. of (46), is of two storeys with attics and of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending W. and N. Probably late in the 17th century the N. wing was extended, and there are modern additions on the N. and E. Inside the building, is one door made up of original panelling, and in the N. wing is a re-used truss with a cambered tie-beam and the mortice for a king-post.

Cock Green

c(48). Cottage, two tenements, 180 yards N.W. of (47).

c(49). Taylor's Farm, cottage, 50 yards N. of (48), with a modern addition at the N. end.

c(50). Cottage, 220 yards N.E. of (49).

c(51). Cottage, 30 yards N. of (50), with modern additions on the N.W. At the E. end of the S. front is a gable, and at the back is an original window with diamond glazing.

c(52). The New Mill House, 120 yards N.E. of (51), is of T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the N. end. There are modern additions on the W. side. Inside the building, in the cross-wing, one tie-beam with a curved brace is visible.

c(53). Cottage, 120 yards N.N.W. of (52).

Bannister Green, W. side

c(54). Cottage, 450 yards N. of (53) and 1¼ m. E. of the church.

c(55). Oxney's Farm, house, 350 yards N.N.W. of (54), is weather-boarded. It was built in the 15th century with a central Hall and Solar and Buttery wings at the N. and S. ends respectively. In the 16th or 17th century the Hall was divided into two storeys, two gables added in front, and the former gable of the S. wing removed. There are modern additions at the back.

The upper storey projects at the E. end of the N. wing on two curved brackets. At the back of the former Hall is the original doorway to the 'screens' with double hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch in a square head. Inside the building the former Hall has, on the W. side, a fireplace, probably original, with a moulded oak lintel; in the S. wall behind the former 'screens' is an original doorway with hollow-chamfered jambs and a four-centred head. In the inserted floor is a moulded beam. The roof of the Hall is of two bays with chamfered wall-plates and a truss with a cambered tie-beam and one hollow-chamfered brace.

c(56). House, two tenements and shop, 150 yards N.N.E. of (55), was built in the 15th century with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. In the 16th or 17th century the Hall was divided into two storeys, and the chimney-stack inserted. There are modern additions on the N. and W. Inside the building the former Hall was of two bays and has an original roof-truss with a cambered tie-beam and curved braces forming a four-centred arch; the king-post has gone, but the mortice remains. The N. wing has an original king-post truss with a chamfered king-post with two-way struts, and a cambered tie-beam with one curved brace. There is a little late 16th-century panelling re-used in this wing. In the S. wing is a rough king-post truss.

c(57). Cottage, 100 yards N. of (56); the walls are partly weather-boarded.

E. side

c(58). Cottage, two tenements, 120 yards E. of (56), with a modern addition at the back. The original central chimney-stack has two square shafts and three oversailing courses at the top.

c(59). The Three Horse Shoes Inn, 150 yards S. of (58), with modern additions at the back and S.W. end.

c(60). Wood's Farm, house, 200 yards E.N.E. of (59), is of two storeys with attics. It was built late in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the S. end. In the 17th century a wing was added on the S. of the cross-wing, and there are small modern additions on the N. of the same wing. The upper storey projects at the end of the N. wing and at the W. end of the cross-wing, and has original foliated bressumers and carved brackets. The original N. chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, one fireplace has original moulded jambs and four-centred arch of brick. The room in the cross-wing has moulded wall-plates. There is one door of nail-studded battens, possibly original.

c(61). Cottage, two tenements, on N.E. side of lane, 220 yards E.N.E. of (60), with a modern addition at the back. The middle part of the house has fallen in.

Conditon—Ruined.

c(62). Barn at Steven's Farm, 120 yards N.W. of (61), is weather-boarded and of eight bays with two porches on the E. side.

c(63). Cottage, three tenements, 200 yards W. of (62).

c(64). Cottage, 130 yards N.W. of (63), with modern addition at the W. end.

c(65). The Watch House, 1 m. E.N.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N.W. and N.E. There is an 18th-century addition on the E. side of the N.E. wing. On the N.W. side of the N.E. wing is an original gabled dormer with dentilled bargeboards. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters. Inside the building, in a passage on the ground floor, is a small cupboard with an original arcaded and enriched door; in the cupboard is a similar panel.

c(66). House, three tenements, on the S. side of the road opposite (6) and 1,100 yards E. by N. of the church, is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.W. In the middle of the S.E. elevation is a gabled projection. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters.

c(67). Old Workhouse Cottages, four tenements, 750 yards N.E. of the church.

Condition—Bad.

a(68). Brook Cottages (Plate p. 97), two tenements, ¾ m. N. of the church, with a modern addition on the N. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters.

a(69). Brook Farm, house, 250 yards N.E. of (68), is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W. There are 18th-century additions on the W. side. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

a(70). Cottage, two tenements, 120 yards N. of (69), with a modern addition of the W. side.

a(71). House (Plate p. 128), 480 yards N. of (70), was built late in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the S. end. There is a small 17th-century addition on the S., and 18th-century additions on the W. and N. The cross-wing is now roofed transversely. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, one room on the ground floor has original moulded ceiling-beams.

a(72). Greenfields, house, formerly three tenements, on the S. side of Stane Street, 1½ m. N. by E. of the church, is partly weather-boarded. Inside the building, in the E. wall, is a tie-beam with curved braces.

a(73). Horstages, house and barn, 500 yards S. by W. of (72). The House has 18th-century or modern additions on the N. side.

The Barn, S. of the house, is weather-boarded and has a porch on the N.E. side.

a(74). Prince's Halfyards, house and barn, 200 yards S.S.E. of (73). The House was built c. 1600. In the 17th century a wing was added on the S.W. side, making the plan L-shaped; this wing was extended in the 18th century. On the S.W. elevation is an original window of three lights with moulded mullions.

The Barn, N. of the house, is of six bays with two porches.

a(75). Moor's Farm, house, about 1 m. N.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and N.

a(76). Richard's Farm, house, three tenements, 250 yards E. of (75), with modern additions on the N. side.

a(77). Cottage, on the W. side of a lane, 600 yards N. by E. of (76), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.

Condition—Poor.

a(78). Sparling's Farm, house, on the E. side of the road, 700 yards N.N.E. of (77), is partly weather-boarded. It was built in the 15th century with a central Hall and Solar and Buttery wings at the W. and E. ends respectively. In the 16th century a wing was added at the W. end, making the plan L-shaped. The gables of the Solar wing and the whole of the Buttery wing have been removed, and a low building occupies the site of the Buttery. The Hall still remains open to the roof. The upper storey projects on the W. side of the 16th-century wing on three curved brackets. Inside the building, the former Hall is of two bays and has a king-post truss with a chamfered and cambered tie-beam with curved braces and a chamfered king-post with two-way struts. The ground floor of the 16th-century wing has a moulded ceiling-beam.

a(79). Fenton's Farm, house, 1,250 yards W. by S. of Rayne Railway Station, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The house has been largely reconstructed.

b(80). Gatewood Farm, house, 700 yards E. of (79), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. The original central chimney-stack of the N. wing has a cross-shaped shaft set diagonally on a square base with a moulded capping.

b(81). House, range of three tenements on the S. side of Stane Street, 300 yards N. by W. of (80), with a modern addition at the W. end.

b(82). Cottage, W. of the Gore in Rayne village, and 1,050 yards E. of (81), adjoins the modern police station on the W. The original E. chimney-stack has two grouped diagonal shafts. There is a small gable at the E. end of the N. front.

b(83). Cottage, two tenements, 50 yards S.E. of (82), with modern additions on the W. side.

b(84). Cottage, 40 yards S. of (83), with modern additions on the W. and S.

b(85). Fairy Hall, house, ¼ m. S.S.W. of (84), with 18th-century and modern additions on the S.W. and S.E. There is a gable at the S.E. end of the N.E. front. Inside the building is a door of old moulded battens.

b(86). Cottage, 570 yards S. by W. of (85), with an 18th-century addition on the N.W. and a modern addition at the E. end.

Condition—Bad.

d(87). Blackley's Farm, house and two barns about 1¼ m. S. by W. of Rayne Railway Station. The House was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. Late in the 16th or early in the 17th century the Hall was divided into two storeys, and subsequently the N. wing was destroyed. There is a modern addition on the E. side. The chimney-stack on the E. side of the Hall is possibly original, and has two sloping offsets and an embattled offset on the E. face. Inside the building, the former Hall has an original roof-truss dividing it into two bays; the cambered tie-beam has been cut through and the rough king-post and central purlin are papered over.

The Barns N.E. of the house have each a porch.

Condition—Of chimney-stack and barns, bad.

d(88). Abraham's Farm, house, 200 yards W. of (87), was built late in the 15th century with a central Hall and Solar and Buttery wings at the W. and E. ends respectively. Probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century the Hall was divided into two storeys. Late in the 17th century a large block was added on the N. side and the Buttery wing was perhaps pulled down at the same time. There is a modern addition at the W. end. Inside the building the former Hall was of two bays and has an original king-post truss with a cambered tie-beam with curved braces and a rebated king-post with four-way struts; the wall-plates are double chamfered. In the S. wall, at the E. end, is the original doorway with a four-centred arch opening into the former 'screens'; it is now blocked. The upper storey of the Solar wing has a cambered tie-beam with curved braces forming a four-centred arch.

The walls of the front garden incorporate blocks of clunch and limestone ashlar.

d(89). Milch-hill Farm, house, 250 yards S. of (88), is modern, except for the cottage forming its E. end.

Willows Green

d(90). Willows Farm, house, 500 yards S. of (89), was built c 1580, but has modern additions on the S. side and at the E. end. The upper storey projects on curved brackets on the N. front. The 17th-century chimney-shaft is of T-shaped plan with one diagonal pilaster. Inside the building the two western rooms have original moulded ceiling-beams. In the upper storey is a cambered tie-beam with one curved brace.

d(91). Lower Ray Farm, two tenements and shop, 220 yards W. of (90), with a modern addition on the W. side.

d(92). Cottage, ¼ m. S.S.E. of (91), with modern additions on the E. and S. The door on the N. front is original and of moulded battens.

d(93). Peeche's Farm, 200 yards S.S.E. of (92), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. There is a modern wing on the N. side.

c(94). Howlett's Farm, house, ½ m. W. of (93), with a modern addition at the E. end. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building one fireplace has an old iron rack and hook.

Molehill Green, S. side

c(95). Cottage, two tenements, 770 yards N. of (94), is largely weather-boarded.

N. side

c(96). Cottage, two tenements, 100 yards N.E. of (95).

c(97). Cottage, 40 yards W. of (96).

c(98). Hatley's Farm (Plate p. 97), house, 240 yards W.N.W. of (97), was built probably in the 16th century. The upper storey projects and is gabled at the W. end of the S. front. Inside the building, on the first floor, one curved brace is exposed.

Condition—Poor, serious settlement.

Pye's Green

c(99). Cottage, two tenements, 220 yards N.W. of (98), with a modern addition at the E. end.

c(100). Pye's Bridge Farm, cottage, 200 yards N. of (99), with an 18th-century or modern addition on the N. side.

c(101). Pye's Bridge Tavern, 350 yards E. of (100), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. There is a modern addition in the angle between the wings.

c(102). Peckshall, cottage, 280 yards N. of (101), is of one storey.

Condition—Poor.

Frenches Green

c(103). Thorpe's Farm, cottage, nearly 2 m. E. of the church.

Condition—Thatch bad.

c(104). Cottage, two tenements, 150 yards N.W. of (103), with a modern addition on the N. side.

c(105). Cottage, 180 yards N.N.W. of (104).


Mill Ponds at Leighs Priory

Mill Ponds at Leighs Priory

c(106). Nunn's Farm, house, two tenements and barn, 2 m. E.S.E. of the church. The House is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wings at the W. end, and small modern additions on the N. and S. sides. The original central chimney-stack has a cross-shaped shaft, set diagonally.

The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of late 16th or early 17th-century date, and is of eight bays with two porches.

c(107). House, range of four tenements at Thistley Green, 350 yards W.S.W. of (106), with modern additions at the back.

c(108). Bridgehouse Farm, house and barn, 280 yards N.W. of (107). The House was built in the 15th century with a central Hall and Solar and Buttery wings at the E. and W. ends respectively. Late in the 16th century the Solar wing was extended to the N., S. and E. At some subsequent date the Buttery wing was pulled down and a low storehouse occupies its site. The Hall is remarkable as still remaining open to the roof. The upper storey of the Solar wing projects at the N. and S. ends on curved brackets. Inside the building, the former Hall is of two bays with a king-post truss, having a cambered tie-beam with one curved brace and a stop-chamfered king-post with two-way struts. In the N. wall is an original window of six lights with diamond-shaped mullions and a rough transom; it is now blocked. In the Solar wing the extent of the original building on towards the S. is indicated by a cross-beam resting on two shaped wall-posts.

The Barn, N.W. of the house, is weather-boarded and of five bays with a porch.

Unclassified

c(109). Mound, probably site of windmill, at Bannister Green, immediately N. of (54). It is about 100 ft. in diameter at the base and 12 ft. high.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(110). Embankment, probably dam for mill, near the railway, and ¾ m. N. of the church. It is 100 yards long and about 10 ft. high.

Condition—Fairly good.

c(111). Mill Basins, on the right bank of the River Ter, N.W. of Leighs Priory. A succession of basins extending about 1½ m. along the right bank of the river and terminating immediately N.W. of the house. All except the lowest basin are now dry.

Condition—Fairly good.

Fryerning, see Ingatestone and Fryerning.



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