Great Waltham

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1921

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'Great Waltham', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 2: Central and South West (1921), pp. 104-112. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=122640 Date accessed: 22 October 2014.


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35. GREAT WALTHAM. (F.b.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxxiii. N.W. (b)xxxiii. S.W. (c)xxxiii. S.E. (d)xliii. N.E.)

Great Waltham is a large parish with a village and four hamlets, 4½ m. N. of Chelmsford. The principal monuments are the Church, Black Chapel, Langleys, Fitzjohn's Farm and the Green Man Inn, besides which there are an unusually large number of mediaeval houses.

Ecclesiastical

d(1). Parish Church of St. Mary and St. Laurence stands in the village. The walls are of flint and pebble-rubble, with some pieces of puddingstone and freestone in the W. tower; the dressings are partly of limestone and partly of Roman and later brick; the roofs of the nave and chancel are covered with slates, those of the aisles and tower are leaded. The Chancel, Nave and West Tower were built c. 1100. The South Aisle was added probably in the 14th century; early in the 15th century the chancel-arch was probably re-built or widened and a rood-stair added. About 1520–30 the S. arcade was re-built and the clearstorey of the nave raised; at the same time or shortly afterwards the South Porch was added. In the first half or middle of the 17th century the clearstorey of the nave was repaired with brick or possibly re-built, and a clearstorey was added to the chancel. In 1684 the tower is said to have been heightened to enclose an octagonal bell-chamber. In 1798 the S.W. stair-turret of the W. tower is said to have fallen out, In 1863 the S. porch was almost entirely re-built and the whole church restored. The North Aisle was added in 1875, and in 1890 the North Vestry was built possibly on the site of an earlier one. Between 1891 and 1899 further restorations were carried out, including the rebuilding of the chancel arch and the partial rebuilding of the S. porch.

The richly engraved 16th-century paten is of unusual type, and the roofs and seating are noteworthy.


The Church, Plan

The Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (33½ ft. by 27 ft.) has at the S.E. angle quoins partly of limestone with diagonal tooling and partly of Roman bricks, with 16th or 17th-century bricks above; the N.E. angle is apparently similar but is covered with ivy. In the E. wall is a modern window; S. of it is the semi-circular head of a late 11th or 12th-century window, now blocked, of Roman bricks; there are said to be traces of a similar window under the ivy N. of the E. window. In the N. wall is a window, all modern except the moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label with beast-stops, which are probably of late 14th-century date; further E., opening into the N. vestry, is a late 14th or early 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label; the traceried spandrels include a rose in a quatrefoil; on the N. side is an oak lintel. In the S. wall are three windows, all modern except the splays and rear-arches, which are of the 14th or 15th century; under the middle window is a modern doorway. The clearstorey has in each of the N. and S. walls three windows, all modern externally and with plastered splays. The late 14th or early 15th-century chancel-arch was re-built, largely with the old stones, in 1894; it is two-centred and moulded and has splayed jambs each with an attached shaft having a moulded capital and defaced base.

The Nave (69 ft. by 32 ft.) has at the N.W. angle quoins similar to those of the chancel, and there are Roman bricks at the S.E. angle. In the E. wall, N. of the chancel arch, is a slight projection about 6 ft. high with one hook of the hinge of a former doorway to a rood-loft. The N. arcade is modern, the S. arcade is of c. 1530; the arches are segmental-pointed and of two chamfered orders, and the piers have attached shafts with roughly moulded capitals and bases. The clearstorey has on each side four windows; those on the N. are modern, those on the S. are probably of early 16th-century date, much restored, and are each of two cinque-foiled lights under a square head with a moulded label.

The North Aisle is a modern addition.

The South Aisle (14 ft. wide) has a window both in the E. and the W. walls, and three windows in the S. wall; they are all modern except for the segmental-pointed rear-arches and some stones in the splays, which are probably of the 14th century. W. of the windows in the S. wall is the S. doorway, probably of late 14th-century date, with moulded jambs and two-centred arch and a moulded label with defaced head-stops.

The West Tower (17 ft. square) is of four stages with modern parapet and E. buttresses and a modern facing, containing some old worked stones on the lower stages of the W. wall. The tower-arch is probably of late 12th or early 13th-century date; it is plain and two-centred with restored chamfered imposts and diagonal tooling on the voussoirs. In both the N. and S. walls is an early 12th-century round-headed window; internally across the S.W. angle is a 12th-century round-headed doorway to the stair-turret; it has chamfered jambs and imposts. The W. window is modern except for the semi-circular rear-arch and parts of the splays, which are probably of the 12th century; below it is the modern W. doorway. The second stage has a modern window in the S. wall. The fourth stage or bell-chamber has in each wall a window, all modern except for some old stones re-used in the splays.

The Roof of the nave is of early 16th-century date and is of four bays divided by moulded tiebeams of which the easternmost is also embattled; each bay is sub-divided by a hammer-beam truss carved with an angel; the curved braces which support the hammer and tie-beams have their spandrels carved with faces, foliage, Tudor roses, etc., and two of them are carried on angel-corbels of wood; the curved principals of the bays and sub-bays form a four-centred arch under a collar-beam ceiling with chamfered purlins; the wall-plates are moulded. The flat and lean-to roof of the S. aisle is of early 16th-century date and of five bays with purlin, wall-plates, principal and intermediate rafters chamfered or moulded; some of them have bosses carved with grotesque faces and repainted shields of arms, a bend engrailed between six roses, and a fesse dancetty. The flat roof of the S. porch is probably of early 16th-century date and has moulded joists, principal rafter and purlin.

Fittings—Bells and Bell-frame. Bells: eight; 4th by John Waldegrave, early 15th-century, with inscription, "Nomen Magdalene Terit Campana Melodie"; 5th by Roberte Mot, 1581; 6th inscribed in capitals with "Hoc signum serva Xp~e Maria Thoma", probably by Peter de Weston or William Revel, mid 14th-century; 8th by John Hodson, 1663. Bell-frame: In W. tower—carried up from the ground-floor pavement, probably 17th-century. Book: In case by pulpit, reprint of Elizabethan Book of Homilies, 1683. Brasses: In nave—(1) of Richard Everard, 1617, and Clemence, his wife, 1611, the figures of man and wife engraved on plates, with inscription and five shields of arms. In N. aisle—(2) of Thomas Wyseman, c. 1580, in civil dress with figure of one wife and indent of another, now lost, together with an inscription plate and the figures of male children; mutilated brass of three female children, and a shield of arms; (3) of a man in civil dress, late 16th-century, inscription missing; (4) to Dorothie, wife of Thomas Wyseman, 1589, inscription only. Chair: In chancel—moulded head and legs and curved arm-rests, all of the 17th century, with a back panel, probably of early 16th-century date, elaborately carved with a helmeted head within a wreath. Door: In chancel —in doorway to N. vestry, with vertical overlapping battens, square studs, carved strap-hinges, enriched handle with traceried circular plate, all of the 15th century re-set. Glass: In N. aisle —in lights at back of Everard monument, two shields with enriched borders, one shield modern, the other with the Everard arms, early 17th-century. In S. aisle—in W. window, seven shields of arms of late 14th-century date, partly restored, said to have come from Pleshey: (a), (b) and (c) Bohun, of Northampton, (d) France ancient and England quarterly (Plate p. xxxvi.), (f) See of Ely, (g) gules, three bezants, a label of five points, azure. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle —against N. wall (1) of Sir Anthony Everard, 1614, and Anne (Barnardiston), 1609, his wife (Plate p. 102); alabaster figures of man in armour and, at a lower level, on a panelled pedestal, his wife, both reclining with their right elbows on enriched cushions; the figures are in a round-headed recess with a coffered soffit and carved spandrels and jambs, each with a shield of arms; round the face of the arch are fourteen shields of arms; at the back of the recess are two round-headed windows enriched with carved flowers, a crowned skull, etc.; on the moulded cornice over the arch is an achievement of arms flanked by two shields of arms; on a bracket above is a carved cartouche of arms; there are extensive remains of colouring; on floor in front, two small pedestals with recumbent figures of naked boys (Plate p. 102). In S. aisle—on S. wall, (2) to Hugh Everard, 1703, marble tablet with achievement of arms and bas-relief of a sinking ship. In the churchyard— (3) to a man and his wife, 1671, name undecipherable. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Mary, wife of John Sorell, 1652, and to her son John, 1674, with achievement of arms. In S. aisle— (2) to Sir Hugh Everard, Bart., 1705–6, and to his father, Sir Richard Everard, Bart., 1694, with achievement of arms; (3) to Hugh Everard and Mary, his wife, 1637. Panelling: In N. vestry, sixteen panels said to have come from the former pulpit, late 16th or early 17th-century. Piscina: In S. aisle—with octofoiled basin, cinque-foiled ogee head and chamfered jambs, 14th-century, label modern. Plate: includes silver-gilt paten of 1521 (Plate p. xxxix), engraved with an irradiated head of Christ, marginal black-letter inscription "Benedicamus Patrem et Filium cum Sancto Spiritu;" two cups of 1632, and a cover-paten of the same date. Screen: In chancel—incorporated in reading-desk, two traceried heads, probably from former screen, 15th-century. Seating: In nave and aisles—on S. side, about thirty oak seats of mid 15th-century date with moulded back rail and traceried panels at each end; one seat has at the back thirteen traceried panels separated by narrow moulded pilaster-strips, some partly restored. Stoup: In S. porch—E. of S. doorway, circular basin and cinque-foiled head, late 14th-century.

Condition—Good, except for cracks in the E. wall of the chancel; much restored.

a(2). Black Chapel (Plate p. 186) stands at North End, about 3½ m. N.W. of the parish church of Great Waltham and 1½ m. N.N.W. of Ford End Church. The walls are of timber-framing and rough-cast; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 15th century with a Chancel, Nave, and a House, probably for a chaplain, at the W. end with a wing extending towards the N.; the North Aisle and Vestry and the North West Wing of the house are modern.

The building is interesting on account of its construction and as one of the few old chapels remaining in Essex.


Black Chapel, Plan

Black Chapel, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (14 ft. by 13 ft.) is of two bays divided by a highly cambered tie-beam with curved brackets, all chamfered. In each of the E., N., and S. walls is a window with a modern wood-frame.

The Nave (40 ft. by 17 ft.) is divided into four unequal bays by roof-trusses which are carried on shaped and chamfered wall-posts; the former tie-beams have been cut short and serve as hammerbeams with curved braces. In the S. wall are three modern windows. Over the W. end is a weather-boarded bell-cote, with a window in each side, and a pyramidal roof covered with lead.

The roof of the nave retains its original central purlin, which has mortices for the former king-posts, etc.

Fittings of Chapel—Bell: one, inaccessible. Chest: In nave—of oak, possibly of the 17th century. Communion Table: with turned legs, and carved consoles under the moulded top rails, mid or late 17th-century. Communion Rails: with turned balusters, probably early 18th-century. Panelling: In nave—embodied in pew partition, and another piece loose near pulpit, with moulded rails and styles, early 17th-century. Royal Arms: On wall above chancel screen, of Queen Anne, painted on canvas in wood frame, with date 1714. Screen: Between nave and chancel, of oak and of late 15th or early 16th-century date; doorway with traceried ogee head, flanked on the N. by three and on the S. by four bays with smaller heads but with similar tracery; the doorposts and N. wall post are original and moulded; the middle rail is moulded on the W. face, and below it are closed panels, of which one has a traceried head with a rose carved in the spandrels; the muntins are moulded and have buttresses with moulded offsets; the moulded cornice is embattled. Seating: In nave—twelve benches of late 15th or early 16th-century date, with panelled standards having chamfered or moulded styles, and moulded buttresses, top-rails, and seat-backs; some have book-boards. Some of the 18th or early 19th-century box-pews include fragments of similar work re-used.

The House has exposed ceiling-beams, a wide fireplace, and, in the E. wall of the N. wing, an original window, now blocked, of two lights with hollow-chamfered mullion and frame; in the W. wall is a similar blocked window of three lights. In the roof is an original window, now blocked, of two lights with hollow-chamfered mullion and frame; in the W. wall is a similar blocked window of three lights. In the roof is an original king-post truss.

Condition—Good, exterior much altered.

Secular

d(3). Homestead Moat, at Israel's Farm, about 1 m. W. of the church.

d(4). Humphrie's Farm, house and moat, 1,500 yards W.S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S. Early in the 17th century the S. wing was extended in brick. On the N. front the upper storey projects and has an eaves-cornice. The 17th-century extension has original brick windows. Inside the building, one room has an early 17th-century overmantel with arcaded panels and fluted pilasters. The chamfered ceiling-beams are original, and on the first floor are two re-used moulded and cambered tie-beams of the 15th century.

The Moat partly surrounds the house.

Condition—Of house, good.

d(5). Hedgehall, house and moat, about ¾ m. S.S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century and has an original chimney-stack with flat pilasters.

The Moat is W. of the house.

Condition—Of house, good.

c(6). Hyde Hall, house, barn and moat, about 1½ m. N.E. of the church. The House (Plate p. 111) is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1600. In front the upper storey projects and is gabled; it has carved and moulded bressumers, partly restored. The original chimney-stacks have flat pilasters. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam, two panelled doors, and some original panelling; one room has also an early 18th-century fireplace with a hunting scene painted on the panel above it. The staircases have both some original flat pierced balusters and the main staircase has newels with turned heads.

The Barn, W. of the house, is perhaps of the 15th century and is of six bays with king-post roof-trusses; the walls are weather-boarded and the roof is thatched.

The Moat is fragmentary.

Condition—Of house, good.

a(7). Absolpark Farm, house, barn and moat, nearly 1 m. N. of Black Chapel. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century on a Z-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and S. Inside the building several rooms have open timbered ceilings, and in the hall is an original cupboard with Doric pilasters.

The Barn, N. of the house, is of the 17th century and of eleven bays with three porches; the walls are weather-boarded and the roof is thatched.

The Moat N.E. of the house is well preserved.

Condition—Of house, good.

d(8). Langleys, house and outbuildings, 440 yards E.N.E. of the church. The House is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was almost entirely re-built in 1719 except the W. end of the N. cross-wing, which is of early 17th-century date, refaced.

The ceilings and fireplaces are rich examples of early 17th-century work.

Interior—The ground-floor room (Plate p. 106) in the N. wing has a rich ceiling with flat ribs dividing it in numerous multiform panels; the ribs have running ornament of fruit and flowers and the panels have strap-work, foliage enrichments and some shields with modern painted arms. The stone fireplace in the N. wall has a carved surround, flanked by terminal figures with Ionic capitals supporting the carved shelf; the overmantel is divided into two panels by terminal figures, each panel having a large seated figure probably representing Peace and Plenty. The room above, on the first floor, has a ceiling (Plate p. 107) similar to that below, but of segmental waggon form and with four moulded pendants down the middle; the tympana at the ends of the room have a seated figure of Doctrina and the arms of Tufnell respectively, both probably of early 18th-century date. The fireplace is similar in general character to that below, but the overmantel forms one large panel with a cartouche in the middle carved with a figure-subject, probably Tobias and the Fish; round the cartouche are grouped five female figures with various attributes.

The Stables and Cow House, N.E. of the house, are both of early 17th-century date; the walls are of red brick and the roofs are tiled. The stable has two original gabled dormers and the cow house has many original windows with plain brick labels. In the rockery, S.E. of the house, are a number of worked stones, some from the church, and including a bowl perhaps a stoup. There is also an octagonal font bowl, probably of the 15th century, which may have come from Pleshey Church.

Condition—Of house, good.

Monuments (9–85).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.

d(9). Wallops, house, 160 yards E. of the church, has been almost completely altered, but incorporates an early 16th-century building with original open-timbered ceilings with moulded beams and joists. A former projecting upper storey has been under-built.

d(10). House and shop (Plate p. 129), 20 yards E. of the church, was built c. 1580 on a half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. The space between them is now filled by a modern addition.

The house is interesting as a complete Elizabethan building, with good chimney-stacks.

The E. front has brick walls to the ends of the wings, and from each gable rises an original chimney-stack, each with two shafts having moulded caps and bases; each stack has an ornamental plaster panel. At the S. end of the main block is a similar chimney-stack. On the W. side there are two old panelled doors. Inside the building a room in the main block has above the fireplace a quartered shield of arms in plaster and a rhinoceros. On the first floor, one room has an original fireplace with chamfered jambs and three-centred head above which is an ornamental plaster panel between two garbs. In the N. wall is a blocked original window of two lights with a moulded mullion.

d(11). Range of three tenements on S. of church-yard (Plate p. 110). The middle part with the cross-wing at the W. end were built probably early in the 16th century; the site of the E. cross-wing is occupied by a 17th-century extension. The central chimney-stack has 17th-century diagonal pilasters. On the N. side the upper storey projects at the end of the cross-wing.

d(12). Six Bells Inn (Plate p. 110), W. of (11), was built probably in the 15th century with a central block and cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. There are large modern additions on the S. and W. sides. A gable at the S. end has an original moulded barge-board. On the N. side, the upper storey projects at the end of the W. cross-wing and has an original moulded bressumer. Inside the building, on the first floor, is some 17th-century panelling and a blocked window probably of the same date. Two original cambered tie-beams are visible in the roof.

d(13). House and shop, opposite (12), has extensive additions of 1700 on the W. and N.

d(14). House (Plate p. 44), now two tenements, on the N. side of Barrack Lane, 120 yards W.N.W. of the church. It was built early in the 16th century with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. On the S. front the upper storey of the main block and the E. wing projects. The original doorway has a four-centred head and carved spandrels with an embattled cornice. The timber-framing is partly exposed in front and at the E. end. Inside the building are some original moulded and carved beams, and the roofs of the main block and both cross-wings have original king-post trusses. (Plate p. 114).

d(15). Cottage, two tenements, 50 yards E. of (14).

(16). House and shop, on the W. side of High Street, 70 yards N.W. of the church, has an 18th-century wing on the N. The upper storey projects at the back of the main block and has a piece of re-used ornamental fascia.

d(17). House, three tenements and shop, N. of (16), has a modern wing at the back.

d(18). House, on the E. side of High Street, 120 yards N. of the church.

d(19). House, 20 yards N. of (18), was built in the 15th century with a central Hall and crosswings at the N. and S. ends. The Hall was divided into two storeys late in the 16th century and there are modern additions at the back. Inside the building, the roofs of both cross-wings have original king-post trusses.

d(20). Range of three cottages, on the S. side of S. Street, 360 yards S.S.W. of the church.

Condition—Poor.

d(21). House (Plate p. 96), formerly Ashcote Farm and now two tenements, 220 yards W. of (20), was built in the 15th century with a central Hall and cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The W. cross-wing with part of the Hall block has been destroyed. Inside the building, the former Hall has an original king-post truss with curved braces forming a four-centred arch and chamfered wall-posts with corbelled heads. The cross-wing has shaped wall-posts.

d(22). Clark's Cottages, 650 yards W.S.W. of (21), incorporates a small gabled wing which may be of the 15th century.

d(23). Fanner's Farm, house, now three tenements, about 1¼ m. S.W. of the church, was built in the 15th century with cross-wings at the S.E. and N.W. ends, but the N.W. wing has been destroyed. The upper storey projects at the front of the S.E. wing. Inside the building two original cambered tie-beams are visible in the cross-wing.

d(24). Garnett's Farm, house, about 1 m. W. of the church, was built probably in the 15th century, with a central Hall and cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The Hall was divided into two storeys probably late in the 16th century, and the W. cross-wing has been replaced by a short continuation of the Hall block. On the S. front, the upper storey projects at the end of the cross-wing, and below it is the moulded head of an original window probably of seven lights. Inside the building, in the cross-wing is an original moulded bressumer re-used. On the first floor are two original cambered tie-beams, that in the former Hall being partly smoke blackened.

d(25). Fitzjohn's Farm (Plate p. 111), house, ½ m. N.W. of (24), was built in the 15th century with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. Late in the 16th century the Hall was divided into two storeys and two gables built on the E. side.

The house has interesting remains of the original roof, doorways, etc., and 16th-century carved barge-boards.

The E. front has four gables all with late 16th-century carved barge-boards with moulded pendants, at the tops. Between the storeys of the main block are remains of a band of ornamental pargeting. Several windows have 17th-century moulded frames and a late 16th-century doorway has a segmental head and a door of eight panels. The late 16th-century central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. On the N. side there is an original window of five transomed lights. At the back is a late 16th-century window of three transomed lights with a moulded mullion.

Interior—The former Hall has an original central roof-truss with tie-beams and main collar both with curved braces; the collar stands on queen-posts and supports a king-post on which a central purlin and secondary collar rest; the truss has been much cut and altered. At the S. end of the former Hall are two original doorways with three-centred heads, and at the N. end is a room lined with late 16th and early 17th-century panelling and has a cupboard with cock's head hinges. The cross-wings have both original cambered tie-beams. The staircase between the N. wing and the main block has a central newel and oak steps. The building contains several blocked windows mostly of the 16th century.

The Outbuildings, W. of the house, are probably of the 17th century and have a staircase of solid oak balks. S. of the house is a dove-house, probably also of the 17th century.

d(26). High Houses, four tenements, 800 yards W. of the church, are said to have been reconstructed from 16th-century material. Inside the building are some moulded ceiling-beams and the roof has tie-beams, collars and wind-braced purlins.

d(27). Waltham Bury, house, 1,100 yards N.W. of the church, is perhaps of the 16th century, but has been much altered. Inside the building is an original cambered tie-beam and evidence of a former projecting upper storey, now under-built.

b(28). Oak Farm, house, now two tenements, in Croft Lane, nearly 2 m. N.W. of the church. Inside the building are two original fireplaces with four-centred heads.

c(29). Dina's Farm, cottage, 350 yards N.E. of (28), was built probably early in the 18th-century.

b(30). House, at Rolphy Green, ¼ m. N. of (29), was built probably in the 15th century with a cross-wing at the N. end. The other cross-wing has been altered or re-built. Inside the building are some original moulded joists and four windows with diamond-shaped mullions, and now blocked. The roof of the N. wing has an original king-post truss.

c(31). Cottage, at Ringtail Green, about 2 m. N.N.W. of the church.

Ford End

c(32). Cottage, 150 yards E.S.E. of Ford End church.

c(33). Cottage, 50 yards N.N.W. of (32).

c(34). Cottage, now two tenements, 40 yards N.E. of (33).

c(35). Hill Farm, house, 150 yards N. of (34), was built early in the 16th century but has a late 16th-century extension on the N. At the back is a chimney-stack with moulded weatherings and a gable with moulded barge-boards. Inside the building are two original doorways with four-centred heads and a late 16th-century window, now blocked, and with moulded mullions. The roof of the main block has two original moulded and cambered tie-beams resting on moulded posts.

c(36). House, 80 yards S.W. of Ford End church, was built in the 15th century and originally had cross-wings at the S.E. and N.W. ends, but these are now under one roof with the main building. Inside the building are remains of the original roof.

c(37). House, on Sandon Hill, 100 yards W.N.W. of Ford End church.

c(38). House, now two tenements, ¼ m. N.W. of (37), has been refronted with red brick. An original chimney-stack has a cross-shaped shaft, set diagonally. Another chimney-stack has remains of crow-stepped buttresses.

b(39). Wall Farm, house, 550 yards W. of (38), has an original cross-shaped chimney-shaft, set diagonally.

North End

a(40). Cottage, two tenements, 350 yards N.N.E. of Black Chapel, has an original central chimney-stack with flat pilasters.

a(41). Cottage, two tenements, 40 yards N.E. of (40).

a(42). Cottage, two tenements, on the N. side of the road, 50 yards N. of (41), was built late in the 16th century and has a cross-wing at the N.E. end.

a(43). Cottage, two tenements, 70 yards E.N.E. of (42), was built early in the 16th century. Inside the building are two original cambered tie-beams.

a(44). Northend Place, house and barns, nearly ½ m. N.E. of Black Chapel. Most of the existing House appears to have been late 16th-century additions to an earlier house, now destroyed; there is a 17th-century addition at the N.E. angle. One chimney-stack has two 17th-century shafts set diagonally. Inside the building is an original doorway with a four-centred head and sunk spandrels, and also original windows, now blocked.

The Barns, N.E. of the house, are of late 16th-century date.

a(45). Brook Farm (Plate p. 129), house, 250 yards W.N.W. of (44), was built in the 15th century and altered in the 16th century; it has cross-wings at the N. and S. ends, and the upper storey projects on the whole of the E. front on curved brackets. The 16th-century central chimney-stack has four octagonal shafts on a square base. Inside the house are original joists laid flatwise, and several 16th-century doors, one with linenfold panelling.

a(46). House, opposite Bennet's Farm and ¼ m. N.W. of (45), was built in the 15th century with a cross-wing at the W. end. The upper storey projects at both ends of the cross-wing. Inside the building, the cross-wing has an original king-post truss.

a(47). Greenend Farm, house, 700 yards N.W. of Black Chapel, has been refronted with modern brick.

c(48). Great Appletrees Farm, house, about 2 m. N.N.W. of the parish church. The N.W. cross-wing is of the 15th century, but the main block has been either re-built or much altered. Inside the building, the cross-wing has an original cambered tie-beam.

c(49). Crowgate, cottage, 270 yards S.E. of (48). Condition—Bad.

c(50). Littley park, house, about 2½ m. N. of the parish church, appears to have been originally a range of outbuildings belonging to a larger house. The main block is probably of early 16th-century date and the S. wing was added late in the same century. The chimney-stack of the S. wing has three grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, the main block has parts of an original king-post roof, and at the foot of the stairs is a doorway with a four-centred head. In the S. wing is a 16th-century fireplace of brick with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; above it is an enriched panel of brick with a shield of arms, a fesse with three roundels in chief.

Littley Green

c(51). Cottage, two tenements, 350 yards S.S.W. of Littley Green church.

c(52). Butler's Hall, house and barn, opposite Littley Green church.

c(53). Cottage, 70 yards N. of (52).

c(54). Cottage, 30 yards N. of (53), was built probably early in the 18th century.

c(55). House, two tenements, E. of (54), has an original chimney-stack with two conjoined octagonal shafts.

c(56). Cottage, about ½ m. E. of (50), on border of the parish.

c(57). Old Shaw's Farm, house, about 2 m. N.N.E. of the parish church, incorporates part of a late 16th-century house.

c(58). Liberty Hall, about 2 m. N.E. of the parish church, was built in the 15th century. Inside the building are some original windows with diamond-shaped mullions and now blocked. The roof is of three bays with original king-post trusses.

c(59). Bailey's Farm, house, about 1¾ m. N.E. of the parish church, was built late in the 16th century and has been refronted with early 18th-century brickwork. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal pilaster strips; the N.E. chimney-stack has tabled offsets and two diagonal shafts. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams.

c(60). Range of four tenements, 400 yards S. of (6). The S.W. half is modern.

c(61). Cottage, two tenements, opposite Wellhouse Farm and nearly 1½ m. N.N.E. of the parish church.

c(62). Cottage, two tenements, 140 yards S.S.W. of (61), has one wing of the 15th century with a projecting upper storey and an original king-post roof-truss.

c(63). Hillhouse Farm, house, now two tenements, 50 yards S. of (62), was built in the second half of the 16th century with cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. On the E. front the upper storey projects at the ends of the cross-wings. The original central chimney-stack has two shafts, set diagonally. One window in front has original moulded mullions. Inside the building are several original windows, now blocked, and an original fireplace with a four-centred arch. The staircase has an original newel with a turned head, and one door has ornamental strap-hinges. There is also some early 17th-century panelling in the front rooms.

c(64). Chalk Farm, house, 300 yards S. of (63), was built late in the 16th century with crosswings at the N.E. and S.W. ends. On the N.W. front the upper storey projects at the end of the N.E. cross-wing. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal pilaster strips. Inside the building is a little original panelling and a fireplace with a three-centred arch.

c(65). The Nursery, cottage, 260 yards S.S.W. of (64).

How Street

c(66). Howstreet Mill, house and mill, 1 m. N. of the church.

c(67). House, now three tenements, 220 yards W. of (66).

c(68). House, 250 yards S.E. of (67), was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century and has late 16th-century additions at the back. The main block is now covered by one roof. The S. chimney-stack has two 17th-century diagonal shafts. Inside the building is a considerable amount of original linen-fold and some later panelling. There is also a blocked window with moulded mullions, some old doors with ornamental strap-hinges and some remains of the original king-post roof construction.

c(69). Green Man Inn, 160 yards S.E. of (68), was built in the 14th century with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. Early in the 17th century the Hall was divided into two storeys. There are modern additions at the back and S. end and the main block has been refronted with brick. Inside the building, the Hall was of two bays with a central roof-truss; this has an original octagonal king-post with a moulded capital and curved four-way struts. The N. cross-wing has also a king-post roof-truss of plain character but probably original.

c(70). House (Plate p. 97), now two tenements, 80 yards S. of (68), and on the W. side of the road, was built in the 15th century, with cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. On the E. front the upper storey projects at the end of the S. cross-wing.

d(71). Cottage, two tenements, on the W. side of the road, 150 yards S.E. of (69), was built late in the 15th century, with cross-wings at the N.W. and S.E. ends; the whole is now under one roof. In the 17th century the Hall was divided into two storeys. Inside the building are the cambered tie-beams of the original roofs; that in the former Hall has curved braces forming a four-centred arch. The middle staircase has solid oak treads probably original but not in situ. One blocked window has original diamond-shaped mullions.

d(72). Cottage, two tenements, S. of (71), has plastering in front, dated 1799.

d(73). House (Plate p. 110), now two tenements, 30 yards S. of (72), was built in the 15th century, with cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The Hall was divided into two storeys probably in 1623. On the E. front the upper storey projects at the ends of the cross-wings. The N. wing has moulded barge-boards of the 17th century. At the end of the S. wing are the head and moulded sill of an original window. Inside the building in the former "screens" is an original doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch. Next to the central chimney-stack is a doorway with the date and initials 1623 RBF carved on the lintel; the room N. of the stack has moulded ceiling-beams. The roof of the former Hall has an original truss with curved braces and a king-post with a chamfered base. The S. wing has an original cambered tie-beam and a staircase with some flat shaped balusters of the 17th century.

d(74). House, now three tenements, 150 yards E.S.E. of (73), was built in the 15th century, with cross-wings at the N.E. and S.W. ends. In the 16th century the Hall was divided into two storeys and the N.E. cross-wing included under the same roof. Inside the building, in the N.W. wall of the former Hall is an original doorway to the former 'screens' with a four-centred head and now blocked. The roof has an original truss with curved braces and rebated king-post. The S.W. wing has two rough tie-beams in the roof.

d(75). House, now two tenements, 50 yards S.W. of (74), was built probably in the 15th century but an upper floor and two gables were inserted in the main block in the 16th century. Inside the building, several original cambered tie-beams remain.

d(76). House, now two tenements, on the S.E. side of the road 50 yards S. of (75), was built in the 16th century and has the original roof with tiebeams, collars, purlins and wind-braces.

d(77). Langleys Cottage, 120 yards S.W. of (76), was built possibly in the 15th century, with crosswings at the E. and W. ends; it has been refronted with brick and much altered. Inside the building are two original cambered tie-beams.

d(78). Chatham Hall, 1,100 yards E.N.E. of the parish church, was built in the 15th century and of this house the S. cross-wing and part of the Hall-block remain. Inside the building, the S. wing has original king-post roof-trusses. Above a fireplace in the Hall block is a crudely painted cartouche of the Rich arms with an Earl's coronet.

d(79). White Hart Inn, 1,400 yards E.S.E. of the parish church, incorporates a 17th-century house but has been entirely altered externally.

d(80). House, now three tenements, 300 yards S.S.W. of (79), was built in the 15th century, with a cross-wing at the S. end. The Hall was divided into two storeys, probably in the 17th century. Inside the building, the original king-post truss remains in the S. wing and there are remains of the original roof in the main block.

d(81). Ball's Farm, house, 1,100 yards S.S.E. of the parish church, was built in the 15th century, with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The Hall was divided into two storeys probably in the 17th century. Inside the building, the W. wing has an original king-post truss and original cambered tie-beams remain in the E. wing and in the main block.

d(82). House, now three tenements, at Minor End, ½ m. S.E. of the parish church.

d(83). Cottage, two tenements, 100 yards N.N.W. of (82), has four original cambered tie-beams in the roof.

d(84). Rose and Crown Inn, N. of (83), was built probably in the 16th century. Inside the building is an original window with moulded mullion and now blocked.

d(85). Cottage, two tenements, 200 yards N.W. of (84).



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