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'Colchester', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 3: North East (1922), pp. 20-74. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=122864 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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14. COLCHESTER (D.c.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxvii. N.E. (b)xxvii. S.E. (c)xxviii. N.W. (d)xxviii. S.W. (e)xxxvi. N.E.)

Colchester is an ancient borough standing on the crest of a high plateau above the right bank of the Colne river. The present civil parish, formed in 1897, comprises the intra-mural parishes of All Saints, Holy Trinity, St. James, St. Martin, St. Mary at the Walls, St. Nicholas, St. Peter and St. Runwald, the extra-mural parishes of St. Botolph, St. Giles, St. Leonard at the Hythe and St. Mary Magdalene, and the rural parishes of Lexden, Berechurch, Greenstead, and Mile End, In the following inventory the district is treated as a single parish, and the monuments are grouped under the usual sub-heads.

The parish contains important prehistoric earthworks including the various lines of intrenchments covering the approaches from the west, Lexden Mount, etc. The Roman monuments include the greater part of the town wall, the Balkerne Gate and the substructure under the Castle.

Of mediaeval monuments the most important are the ruins of St. Botolph's Priory Church, St. John's Abbey Gate, the churches of Holy Trinity, St. Martin, St. James and St. Leonard at the Hythe, the Castle, the Red Lion Hotel (30), and the Marquis of Granby Inn (69). Monuments 21, 39, 51, 60, 65, 86, 92, 105, 114, 128, 160, 189, 231, 262 and 263 also contain interesting features. A remarkable survival is the number of 14th and 15th-century cellars remaining under many of the houses in High Street and Head Street. Examples of ornamental pargeting are to be found at Monuments 29, 31, 53, 192, 227 and 234.

There are certainly buildings, other than those described, of a date anterior to 1714, but these have been so much altered as to be practically modern, and for this reason they have been disregarded.

LIST OF WORKS TO WHICH REFERENCE IS MADE BY ABBREVIATIONS BELOW.

A.J.—Journal of the Royal Archæological Institute.

Antiq.—The Antiquary.

Arch.—Archæologia. Published by the Society of Antiquaries of London.

B.A.A.—The British Archæological Association Journal.

Cutts, Colchester.—History of Colchester, by E. L. Cutts (Historic Town Series, 1888).

E.A.S.T.—Essex Archæological Society Transactions.

Gent's Mag.—The Gentleman's Magazine.

Gough's Camden—R. Gough's edition of Camden's Britannia, 1789.

Morant—History of Essex, by P. Morant, 1768. (Vol. i, Colchester section).

(N.S.)—New Series.

(O.S.)—Old Series.

O.S.—Ordnance Survey.

P. G. Laver—Information furnished by P. G. Laver, Esq., F.S.A., of Colchester.

P.S.A.—Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries.

Phil. Trans.—Philosophical Transactions (of the Royal Society).

Vet. Mon.—Vetusta Monumenta, published by the Society of Antiquaries.

Wire's MS.—The MS. Diary, plan, etc., of William Wire. Mid 19th-century, now preserved in the Colchester Museum.

Wright—History and Topography of Essex, by T. Wright, 1836.

(1) Roman Colchester

A.—Walls and Gates (see Map of Earthworks and Plan of Roman Town, pp. 72 and 28).

On the N.E. side of the old British oppidum the Romans enclosed an area of about 108 acres by a wall 3,100 yards in length. The Colne approaches to within a few yards of the wall on the N. and the lowest elevation recorded at that spot is 26 ft. The ground rises steadily to a ridge half-way between the N. and S. of the enclosure, and then falls away again to a small depression outside the S. wall. The ridge represents the axis of the Roman town, and is closely followed by the High Street. The level falls from about 115 ft. above O.S. datum at the W. end to about 65 ft. at the E. end of the town. The wall forms roughly a rectangle of about 1,000 yards from E. to W. by 510 yards from N. to S, with rounded angles (except perhaps at the S.W. corner), and exhibits a long curving sweep in the S.E. corner to suit the configuration of the ground. The course of the wall can be traced throughout save for some distance in the S.W. corner, which seems to have suffered special damage in the siege of 1648. Structurally, it consists of layers of septaria, roughly faced, interlaced regularly with fourfold courses of brick, with a core of rubble and cement, the lowest brick course going right through the wall. It has an average thickness of about 8 ft. Towards the E. end of the N. wall and, less clearly, N. of the Balkerne Gate are remains of an internal earthen rampart about 20 ft. in width. At present the only indications of a ditch outside the wall are at the N.E. and S.W. angles. At the N.E. angle the general appearance of the broad, deep, V-shaped ditch suggests a mediaeval origin. At the S.W. angle in Crouch Street the relationship of the ditch with the foundations of Roman buildings, which either impinged upon it or were cut by it, is ambiguous. (E.A.S.T., XII, 257; XIII, 107. B.A.A. (O.S.), IV, 83.)

The wall is strengthened by rectangular and semi - circular bastions; one of rectangular plan, the older form, 19½ ft. wide and 12 ft. high, projecting 13 ft. inwards, and bonded into the wall, stood at the foot of the Castle Park, in the N. wall. Another of similar plan was in the E. wall, N. of the E. gate. No others of this type are known. Of the semi-circular external bastions Morant shows six in the S.E. section of the wall. There are now but four (Plate, p. 23). They are apparently solid and are not bonded into the wall. The wall has been patched at various times, and much of the N. side is in ruinous condition and largely encumbered by buildings.

It may be presumed that the town had six gates, two each on the N. and S., one each on the E. and W., though the evidence is not in every case conclusive.

(1). The Head Gate, in the S. wall, near its western end, was the chief gate of mediaeval Colchester. It was taken down in Morant's day (Morant, I, 7). Traces of a Roman gate are said to have been found in draining operations here in 1913 (E.A.S.T., XIII, 107), and both the fact that the survey of Domesday is based on the London road which issues from this gate and the numerous burials found close by, make out a fair case for the Roman origin of this gate (see Sectional Preface, p. xxvi).

(2). The Roman road from Mersea Island seems to have come up to a South Gate, which must have stood rather to the west of the mediaeval St. Botolph's Gate. This gate would have corresponded with the Roman Rye Gate in the N. wall, but no record of it is known.

(3). The East Gate, which fell in 1651, was apparently the original Roman building, and occupied the northern half of the present highway. It consisted, like Newport Gate at Lincoln, of a central and two small side arches. (Morant, I, 7. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 33, n.)

(4). The Roman Rye Gate was still standing in the middle of last century. It was a few feet E. of the mediaeval Rye Gate and possibly gave access to the road from Stratford. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 53.)

(5). The North Gate has left no trace of itself, but North Hill seems to follow the line of a Roman street, though the frontage of Roman houses underlies the eastern margin of the present street and outside the walls Roman buildings are met with in the existing highway. Cremation burials were found during the building of the North Bridge. (Wire's MS. Gent's Mag., 1843, II, 189, and c.f. Nos. (1) and (2), p. 29.)

(6). The Balkerne Gate (Plate, p. 22), on the W., is the most remarkable monument of its kind in Britain. It is now encumbered by the superimposed structure of a public house—the King's Head—which entirely masks the effect of the great works. These extend for 107 ft. and project outwards from the wall of the town a distance of 30 ft. Provision is made for four passageways, two of 17 ft. in width for vehicular traffic in the centre, and a 6-ft. side-walk for foot passengers at either end, flanked in its turn by a roughly quadrant-shaped bastion, which acted as a guard chamber, entered from the town by means of a passage 12 ft. in length and 6 ft. wide, partly vaulted. The sideways were vaulted in brick. The southern sideway, which is 32 ft. long, and the bastions are still standing, the northern to a height of 15 ft., the southern 12 ft.

It would seem to be a specimen not so much of the fortified gateway as of the 'porte monumentale.' Such were often constructed to mark the completion of a road undertaking, and the gate of Augustus at Rimini and Trajan's gate at Benevento record their origin to have been of this kind. The triangle of roads between Colchester—London —Verulam was no doubt one of the earliest of Roman works of the kind in the province, and it is possible the Balkerne Gate put the seal on the achievement. This would suggest about A.D. 80 as the date of the gate, and the pottery associated with its first foundation, as discovered in the excavation of the site in 1917 (E.A.S.T., XV, 182), points to the same conclusion. Moreover, though there is no exact parallel known among the gates of Gaul, the protuberant Balkerne Gate, with its fout openings for traffic, seems to have the closest affinity with certain gates—among others, the Porte d'Auguste at Nimes, and the two gates at Autun—which belong to the first century B.C. or A.D. Inasmuch as the city walls and the Balkerne Gate are homogeneous in structure, they are no doubt of one period, and the whole enceinte may fairly be set down as the work of the middle of the latter half of the first century. At a subsequent period the gate with its manifold openings and projecting defences seems to have proved a source of weakness to the town rather than of strength, and on two separate occasions blocking took place. While the Roman was still in the land the N. half of the gateway was destroyed, apparently by fire. On rebuilding, the foot-walk on this side disappeared, and the carriage-way was reduced. Yellow mortar, in place of red, proclaims the change of workmanship. In the postRoman period a rough wall, without foundations, 8 ft. in breadth, was built across the whole of the northern half, foot and carriage-way as well. (E.A.S.T., XV, 183.)

In addition to the main gateways two minor gateways or posterns are known. One in the N. wall, to the E. of Rye Gate, was explored in 1849–1856 (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 56, 217). The jambs stood 11 ft. apart and provided for a single passage-way. The other postern, in the W. wall near the S.W. corner of the town in St. Mary's churchyard, is in a fragmentary condition but retains on the N. side the springing of a brick arch.


Colchester, the Balkerne Gate

Colchester, the Balkerne Gate

At both these posterns, drains pass under the wall. In a building to the N.E. of the Castle area (see B (39), below) a spring or well has been found, and the surplus water from here flowed away in a culvert under the northern postern. The probable remains of a drain under the western postern were temporarily uncovered in 1920. Besides these, three other drains are known to have pierced the enclosing wall: one, between the Roman and the mediaeval Rye Gate (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 53); another, in St. James's churchyard (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 56), and, lastly, a curious tile-arched drain which went under the S. wall between the supposed Roman South Gate and the mediaeval Schere Gate (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 57; XII, 257; Wire's MS., 31st March, 1846).

B.—Buildings within the Walls.

(See Plan, p. 28.)

The following is a list of the recorded finds of Roman structural remains within the walls. The numbers refer to the accompanying plan.

(1). Tessellated pavement, at S.W. end of North Hill, under 65 North Hill. (Wire.)

(2). Tessellated pavement and flues, behind 65 North Hill, doubtless part of the same house as (1). (P. G. Laver.)

(3). Foundations, floors, painted plaster, etc., have been found W. of North Hill in the garden of St. Peter's Vicarage at various times since 1844, at a depth of 3 to 4 ft. (Wire's MS. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 155–6.)

(4). Tessellated pavement, W. of North Hill, under summer-house in garden formerly belonging to Mr. Halls. (P. G. Laver.)


Colchester

Colchester
(Reproduced by kind permission of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies from the Journal, Vol. IX, p. 157.)

(5). Part of house of at least six rooms, with mosaics, flues, etc., found in 1865 in a garden formerly belonging to Mr. Halls, 132 yards N. of Balkerne Gate and 32 ft. E. of W. wall of town. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), IV, 53 (plan); V, 161. B.A.A. (O.S.), XXI, 169, note. O.S. 10 ft. and 25 in. xxvii. 12.)

(6). Single tesserae indicating a pavement were observed in 1843 N. or N.E. of (5), behind No. 47, North Hill (old number). (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 155.)

(7.) Tessellated pavement, found in March, 1849, at back of "Mr. Stirling McLean's house" (now No. 45, North Hill). (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 158.)

(8). Tessellated pavement W.S.W. of the former Bowler's Brewery Stores, W. of N. end of North Hill, perhaps the same as (10). (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(9). Tessellated pavement, found on 22nd May, 1845, in the field behind Bowler's Brewery Stores. (Wire's MS. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 155.)

(10). Mosaic, recorded 27th September, 1844, found in making a saw-pit behind Bowler's Brewery Stores. (Wire's MS. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 155. B.A.A. (O.S.), I, 54.)

(11). Tessellated pavement, perhaps the same as (8) and (10) was found on the 27th December, 1844, at Bowler's Brewery Stores. (Wire's MS.)

(12). Mosaics and tessellated pavements have been found at various dates E. of North Hill, in garden of No. 18 (formerly No. 16), Mr. Bryant's, S. of Nunn's Cut; also adjoining this on the S.W. under passageway between Nos. 17 and 18. (Wire's MS. and plan. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 156. E.A.S.T., X, 84 (fig.). B.A.A. (N.S.), XII, 289. Antiquary, II (N.S.), 447. Essex County Standard, 24th November, 1906 (photo). O.S. 10 ft. xxvii. P. G. Laver.)

(13). A trench cut in 1920, 100 yards S.E. of (12), in Mr. Frost's garden 100 yards E. of North Hill, revealed a hard gravelled surface (probably road or passage), and at a distance of 22ft. further E. a tessellated pavement and foundations running N. and S. (P. G. Laver.)

(14). Tessellated pavement, found in 1855 in garden behind Chaise and Pair Inn. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 159.)

(15). Foundations, found on the 25th April, 1842, in North Hill, near E. side, opposite St. Peter's Church, running N. and S. in alignment with each other for a distance of 150 ft. or more. (Wire's MS. and sketch-plan.)

(16). Concrete floor, found December, 1842, in St. Peter's churchyard, a few feet S. of the S.W. angle of the S. aisle "in digging the grave adjoining Mr. J. Green's, senior, for his granddaughter." (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 155.)

(17). Tessellated pavement, found in December, 1849, N.E. of St. Peter's churchyard during the rebuilding of the People's or Public Hall adjoining the former Corn Exchange. The pavement lay "on the E. side of the building where the foundation is at the S.E. curve." (Wire's M.S. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 158. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(18). Elaborate mosaic pavement, found in 1762–3, and near it, part of another pavement found during the demolition of a stable which was itself supposed to incorporate a Roman building, N. of High Street in rebuilding the Queen's Head or Falcon Inn, and in what was then "the garden of Bernard the Apothecary." Part of it was still in situ in 1836. (Gibson's Camden, 1772, I, 356. Gough's Camden, 1789, II, 58. Stukeley's Letters and Diaries (Surtees Soc.), II, 162–3. Morant, I, 184 (plate). Wright, I, 309, etc. Phil. Trans., No. 255, August, 1699, p. 287.)

(19). Mosaic pavement and foundations, found about 1840 and 13th May, 1856, close to (18), on site of and near the Vegetable Market. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 155 and 160. B.A.A. (O.S.), II, 366. Wright, I, 295. Cutts, Colchester, plan, p. 34, I, 7. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(20). One or possibly two pavements, found before 1771, W. of West Stockwell Street (formerly Angel Lane), under the house (Dr. Richard Daniel's) next S. of (21). (Arch., II, 290. Morant, I, 183.)

(21) and (22). Tessellated pavements and flue (?), found W. of West Stockwell Street, in kitchen garden of house opposite St. Martin's Church, 1768. In 1771 more was opened up at the S. end and under it was a stratum of burnt wheat. At the "further end" of same garden, another pavement "with something of an arch under it" was found in 1769. (Arch., II, 287, 290.)

(23). Pavement, found before 1771, under or near house (then Mr. Wall's) next N. of (21). (Arch., II, 290.)

(24). Tessellated pavement, partly destroyed and partly reburied, in yard of Inn (formerly the Bishop Blaise) at the N.E. corner of West Stockwell Street. (E.A.S.T., X, 89.)

(25). Mosaic pavement with leaf border, about 22 ft. by 17 ft., found in 1793, W. of East Stockwell Street (formerly Bear Lane) "in the yard of one Bragg a baker" about 200 yards N.E. by N. of (23). It extended beneath a stone wall into the adjoining garden where it could not be excavated. In September, 1794, it was rapidly being destroyed. (Vet. Mon., III, Plate xxxix. Gent.'s Mag., 1794, II, 801. Soc. Ant. MS. Minutes, XII, 204, etc.)

(26). Mosaic pavement laid on a foundation of bricks set edgeways with a foot layer of broken granite chips on it (? an earlier road or passage). Found in November, 1855, N. of St. Helen's Lane and probably under it, in burial ground of the Independent Chapel (Herrick's), not far from (25) "but sadly mutilated." (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 159, 160.)

(27). Tessellated pavement, found before 1846, in garden of house three doors N. of the Independent Chapel, St. Helen's Lane. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 156.)


Colchester Castle, Plan of Substructures

Colchester Castle, Plan of Substructures

(28). Tessellated pavement and foundations found in 1920 in Truslove's Yard, in North Gate Street. (P. G. Laver.)

(29). The S. wall of the cellar of the house at N.E. corner of Maidenburgh Street, adjoining the site of N. wall of the town, incorporates a piece of Roman brick walling containing an arch, probably a drain, and now blocked. The wall and arch are now buried below the springing of the latter, but the wall is still visible to a height of 6 ft. and a similar breadth from E. to W. The work is good and probably not later than the second century A.D. (Wire's MS. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 53.)

(30). Short length of walling of septaria sur mounted by triple course of Roman brick, still visible and underlying N. wall of St. Helen's Chapel. Presumably Roman, but see monument (17), p. 50.

(31). Tessellated pavement, nearly 3 ft. by 6 ft., found in 1842 and 1845, 6 ft. deep and destroyed; at the S.E. corner of High Street and East Stockwell Street under the former Bear Inn. Near by were remains of a "circular building between 20 and 30 ft. in diameter." (Wire's MS., 13th December, 1845. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 154–5.)

(32). Tessellated pavement on the N. side of High Street, found before 1907, in enlarging Mr. Wicks's wine cellar, next W. of the George Hotel; now destroyed. (E.A.S.T., X, 89.)

(33). Fragment of wall, possibly Roman, running E. and W. found in 1917 under Museum Street. (P.G. Laver.)

(34). Vaulted structure under the Castle— Beneath the Castle is a vaulted building, 92¾ ft. long and 45½ ft. wide internally. It is divided longitudinally by a wall 5¾ ft. thick down the middle which is crossed by a wall of 5 ft. at about 30 ft. from the southern end.

The walls are of ragstone rubble and the vaults (Plate, p. 22) appear to have been built in layers about a foot deep, against boards; the marks of these boards are clearly visible on the E. wall at the S. end; the layers are divided by a joint of yellow sand or very sandy mortar. The walls below the springing of the vault have, where shown on the plan, rough chases, being the 'matrices' of former upright posts; these posts were in position when the vault was built and their heads were enveloped in the masonry, leaving a socket sometimes as much as 9 in. deep. These posts were probably constructional and a similar method of construction (at Rome) is illustrated in J. H. Middleton's Remains of Ancient Rome (1892), Vol. I, p. 48. The form of the vaults is a very irregular ellipse with flattened sides; the main W. vault has been cracked longitudinally, probably by the weight of the former Norman wall above. The foundations of the E. wall of the E. vault have been traced to a depth of 9½ ft. below the existing floor. There are no original openings in any of the walls.

In the N. wall is a cutting made at the end of the 17th century by Mr. John Wheely (Morant, I, 7, 10), who in 1693 bought the Castle for the sake of the building material it afforded, to facilitate the removal of the sand filling from the vaults. This cutting extends vertically to the underside of a course of Roman bricks and if this level is pursued a little to the W. of the cutting the Roman work can be traced some distance higher giving a section of the back wall with a facing of five courses of septaria, six courses of brick, five of septaria and the two lowest of the next courses of brick; above this point the Roman face is not equally well defined, but it can nevertheless be traced about 4 ft. higher, the face of the uppermost foot being set back about 1 ft. from the main wall-face.

The thickness of the side walls has only been tested by excavation on the W. side, where a trench was cut in 1922. It proved that the walls extended as far as and were conterminous with the Norman foundations, there being remains of a cement-rendered face on the older work. Portions of four courses of bricks were found as facing to the Roman work and the brickwork extended into the foundations considerably further at one point than another.

An excavation made at the N. end of the W. vault proved that the Roman work there had been partially destroyed, probably at an early period, as the Norman foundation exhibited a further offset which could not have been built if the Roman wall had then been in existence.

The modern staircase which gives access to the vaults at the S. end cuts through the Roman vault and also the Roman S. wall. Above the core of the crown of the vault at this point can be seen a horizontal course of tiles of the same period. The tiles are irregularly jointed and seem to represent the levelling up for a pavement rather than the pavement itself. A small portion of the outer face of the S. wall has been recently uncovered immediately S. of this staircase; so far as it remained it was entirely of brick.

On the supposition that the foundations were of the same thickness on both long sides of the building, the total dimensions of the resulting platform (above the vaults) would be 105 ft. from N. to S. and 80 ft. from E. to W. See accompanying Plan, also Section on p. 53.

There is now no doubt that this building is Roman. Its structural independence of, and obvious priority to, the 11th-century castle above it are alone sufficient to suggest a Roman origin, and the evidence set forth in the Journal of Roman Studies, IX, 146; X, 87, has been confirmed and amplified by the results of the recent excavations recorded above. It has been noted that during the partial demolition of the Castle at the end of the 17th century a tunnel was cut through the northern Norman and Roman walls, and it may be of significance that "in breaking up the Foundation of one Part, an [ingenious gentleman] saw a Coin of Galba uncovered, which lay between the Bricks in that manner those pieces are found which have been industriously placed to discover the Age of a Building" (N. Salmon, New Survey of England, 1728, I, 137). This statement cannot rank as evidence, but Dr. T. Ashby states that vaulting of the present type was not uncommonly used at Rome in the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D., and the complete absence of reused material in the structure may be regarded as strong evidence for an early date in a district such as Colchester, where good building material is far from abundant.


Colchester, Roman building and streets in the Castle Park.

Colchester, Roman building and streets in the Castle Park.

It is less certain whether, as has been tentatively suggested, this vaulted structure formed the podium of a temple (? the temple to Claudius). The transverse partition wall may have carried the front wall of the cella of a temple, and the excessive thickness of the W. wall and the relative thinness of the N. wall would seem to imply a range of columns on each flank, continued only as pilasters, at the back.

The measurements suggest an octostyle arrangement on the S. front and the resultant plan would thus bear a general resemblance to that of the temple of Mars Ultor at Rome.

(35). Walls and pavements under the ramparts of Castle Bailey found in 1842, 1892, etc. Under the earthwork round the northern end of the Castle area run two parallel walls about 2 ft. in thickness on a rectangular plan. The width of the enclosure thus formed is about 390 ft. Between the two walls is a distance of 25 ft., but on the N. side the outer wall at a distance of 45 ft. from the angle is set back 15 ft., and the space between the walls is there increased to that extent. This space was partially paved with blue lias slabs, and south of the main north-west corner were cement floors on which were found burials almost certainly of pagan Saxon date. These walls have been identified with much probability with the northern part of the forum of the Roman town. The excessive width of the excavated insula (36) to the N. of this site indicates that the forum lay in this longitudinal division of the town plan and the remains discovered are entirely consistent with this attribution. Definite proof, however, awaits a further excavation of the site. (Journal of Roman Studies, IX, 145, plan.) There is a number of drains round about the Castle but their age is doubtful. (Jenkins' Colchester Castle (1853), 10, 18–20, 37, n.; App., pp. 21–2. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 226–7; IX, 123–5. B.A.A. (O.S.), I, 53; (O.S.) II, 36–8.)

(36). Buildings and streets in Castle Park, found S. of town wall in 1906 and 1920. The remains represented the greater part of an insula measuring approximately 420 ft. from E. to W. and 300 ft. from N. to S. They indicate the general ground plan of three houses of fair size, the abodes apparently of good, easy citizens. The first belongs to the corridor type, the other two, which ultimately seem to have been united, are courtyard houses. They are dated with some precision by 'foundation offerings' as appertaining to the Flavian period. These offerings consisting of clay urns carefully buried close to the footing of a wall, and in one case still containing "some minute pieces of the unburnt bones of a small animal," constitute the chief interest of the site, but the buildings attest clearly the regular plotting ordained by the Roman surveyor at the re-edification of the colony after its destruction by Boudicca in A.D. 61 (E.A.S.T., X, 323; XVI, 7, and Sectional Preface, p. xxvi.)

(37). Burnt debris resting on "a long row of tesserae" so continuous that it was thought to be a path inside the wall, at N. end of Sheep's Head Field (now Castle Park) immediately S. of the town wall. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 54.)

(38). Tessellated pavement, found about 1848, N.E. of the N.E. angle of the Castle ramparts and immediately E. of the refreshment room in the Park. (Jenkins' Colchester Castle (1853), p. 37; note plan and App., p. 22. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 226; V, 157. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(39). A building 30 ft. square with double walls, clay being rammed between them, and a concrete floor, furrowed by wide gutters and a spring still filling it, was partly excavated in 1853 by Duncan, N.E. of the Castle in the "Holly Trees" grounds. Three feet above the floor was an arched opening 2 ft. square, forming the mouth of a culvert which was traced for a distance of 200 ft. N. to a gateway in the town wall. The culvert after passing through the gateway branched into two and was traced for a distance of 56 ft. outside the walls. It was 1 ft. 9 in. wide and 4 ft. 4 in. high, built with tiles, and arched where it passed under the gateway. In the building from which it led was a large spiral spring for a trap which would close the culvert when the water in the well rose only 5 ft. high. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 210 (plan).)

(40). Tessellated pavement, 18 in. below the surface, found about 1852 under Castle Road, opposite Radnor Terrace, towards the W. end of former Botanical Gardens. A well-worn 'second brass' coin of Faustina the Elder was found underneath the concrete bed of the pavement which is probably the same as that described by another writer as black with a red border, 10 ft. by 30 ft. found 23 in. below the surface. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 215; V, 158–9.)

(41). Layers of wood ashes found 2½ ft. below surface, and a little further E. a flagstone floor 6 ft. square bearing traces of fire found about 1852 a little N. of (40). Still further E. a fragmentary floor of Roman tiles 3 ft. below surface, continued by a path of septaria and pebbles 3 ft. wide and of unknown length. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 159; cf. also (O.S.), I, 215.)

(42). Pavement, S. of High Street, 80 yards S. of East Hill House. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii. 12, 4.)

(43). Mosaic pavement, red and white with 'star-like' pattern found, before 1768, in "Berry Field," now the grounds of East Hill House, probably within the N.E. corner of the meadow, 130 ft. W. of the E. wall as marked on the O.S. 10 ft. xxvii. 12, 9. (Morant, I, 183. Arch., XVI, 147.)

(44). Large piece of tessellated pavement and 10 ft. from it a smaller piece in a geometrical pattern found February, 1907, S. of East Hill House, in levelling the bowling green. (Daily Telegraph, 4th February, 1907. Essex Weekly News, 1st February, 1907.)

(45). Pavements and foundations under S. wall of town. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 37, 57. A.J., LXIV, 216.)

(46). Pavement found in 1920, E. of the former Theatre (now garage), near the S.E. corner of Queen Street, and about 20 ft. N. from the town wall. (P. G. Laver.)

(47). Pavement or paved way found in 1848 W. of Queen Street, opposite house No. 27. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 157. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(48). Roman brick floor found September, 1848, a little N. of (47), about half-way up Queen Street; now destroyed. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V. 157.)

(49). Very hard foundation-wall crossing the street at right angles, in Culver Street, opposite garage on site of old Grammar School. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan). E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 158. B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 86.)

(50). Very hard foundations of septaria and a floor of Roman tiles found October, 1848, under Culver Street, E. of Long Wyre Street, opposite the backway to the Cross Keys Inn. (B.A.A., (O.S.), V, 86. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 158. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(51). Two hypocaust flues, and near them three arched hypocaust fire-places or flues covered internally with soot, were found in August, 1848, at a depth of 6 ft. from the surface, under Long Wyre Street, about 150 ft. S. of Culver Street, opposite the entrance to Smith's Yard. More remains under the footpath were not opened. The remains were reburied except for one fireplace, which was damaged. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan). E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 157. B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 87.)

(52). Mosaic pavement found before 1850, approximately E. of (51) under the soil-pit and garden of a house overlooking Long Wyre Street. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan). B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 86.)

(53). Pavement under Long Wyre Street, at the entrance to Albion Court. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii. 12, 9, perhaps a mistake for (54) below.)

(54). Pavement found September, 1848, opposite the third and fourth doors on the N. side of Albion Court, east of Long Wyre Street. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan). E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 157. B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 87.)

(55). Foundation-wall, S. of (53), crossing Long Wyre Street "at an angle," found in 1848. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan). B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 86.)

(56). At intervals, successively a tessellated pavement and a floor of Roman tiles, the latter close to the S. end of the street, found in 1848, S. of (55) under the same street. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan).

(57). Mosaic with spiral border, found in 1892, E. of (55), in alterations at Mr. Lock's furniture shop, under an old chimney and extending under part of the house. (Antiq., XXVII, 24. E.A.S.T. X, 89.)

(58) and (59). Two mosaic pavements in Victoria Place, at S.W. end of Long Wyre Street, each 130 ft. N. of Eld Lane and 140 ft. and 70 ft. W. of Long Wyre Street respectively. (B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 86. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 157. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(60). Foundations found in 1848 under Culver Street, S. of St. Nicholas graveyard and immediately W. of Long Wyre Street. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan). B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 86.)

(61). Foundations, etc., found 23rd December, 1842, in St. Nicholas churchyard. (Wire's MS.)

(62), (63) and (64). Foundations and tessellated pavement found in Culver Street, between Long Wyre Street and Trinity Street, and S. of Culver Street. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii. Apparently no other authority.)

(65). Tessellated pavement found before 30th April, 1842, "on the premises of Mr. Salmon, linen-draper, No. 50 High Street," now No. 48. (Wire's MS. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 154.)

(66). Fragments of Roman wall extending E. and W. and consisting of ten courses of brick on rubble footing, S. of High Street, 50 yards W. of Red Lion Inn, in E. wall of cellar of Messrs. Brand Bros., 34 High Street, 9½ ft. S. of the street wall. Still visible.

(67) and (68). Two, possibly three, pavements; one of black and white tesserae and another an elaborate mosaic, found before 1762, in June, 1849, and in 1857, under the yard of the Red Lion Inn. (Morant, I, 183. B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 87. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 158; X, 87.)

(69). Pavement, found before 1849, in Lion Walk, at the N. end; now destroyed. (Wire (sketch-plan). B.A.A (O.S.), V, 86.)

(70). Mosaic pavement, found 1848 and 1849, in Lion Walk, near the S. end, about 20 ft. from Eld Lane, opposite a spirit warehouse. (Wire's MS. (sketch-plan). E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 157–8. B.A.A. (O.S.), V, 86.)

(71). Tessellated pavement, found 1843, in graveyard of Lion Walk Chapel, about 30 ft. E. of Lion Walk, where grave was being dug for T. B. Harvey. (Wire's MS. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 155. B.A.A (O.S.), V, 86.)

(72). Tessellated pavement, E. of (71), adjoining the wall dividing this graveyard from the next property on the E. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(73). Tessellated pavement, nearly 3 ft. below the surface, found in 1748, etc., W. of Trinity Street, in garden of Trinity House (now Messrs. Cooper and Garrod's, formerly Sir Ralph Creffield's). (Morant, I, 183, hence Brayley and Britton, V, 293. Cutts, Colchester (plan I, 12). O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(74). "Very hard foundations," at depth of 5 ft., found E. of Trinity Street, opposite the "house of Worts, Surgeon," Nos. 5 and 6 Trinity Street. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 158. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(75). Tessellated pavement, at a depth of 6 ft., found N. of (77), at the Culver Street back entrance of No. 1 Trinity Street. (E.A.S.T., X, 88.)

(76). Foundations, found 1880, S.W. of (75), in garden of No. 1 Trinity Street. (P. G. Laver.)

(77). Tessellated pavement found W. of Trinity Street, in garden of "Mr. Francis, Solicitor" (i.e., Tymperleys.) (Cutts, Colchester (plan I, 13). O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(78). Pavement, in Sir Isaac's Walk under the Friends' Meeting House. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(79). Tessellated pavement, under the house at the N. corner of Head Street and Sir Isaac's Walk. (Cutts, Colchester (plan I, 3). O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(80). Mosaic pavement, with central vase, guilloche, ivy leaves, etc., and fragments of walls and coloured plaster, found May, 1881, at a depth of 5 ft., E. of Head Street, under part of Messrs. Mumford's Iron Foundry, formerly Mrs. Prosser's garden; reburied. (E.A.S.T. (N.S.), III, 140 (plate); X, 88. P.S.A. (2nd series), VIII, 543.)

(81). Mosaic and foundations, found 1886, partly under Culver Street and partly under adjacent buildings, at the gateway to Mumford's Iron Foundry, 60 yards E. of Head Street. Close by, down the former "Hitchcock's Backway," opposite Bank Passage, a tessellated pavement and roof tiles were found in 1856. (Builder, 5th November, 1886, 682. Antiq., XV, 29. E.A.S.T. (N.S.) III, 207, and X, 88. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 160.)

(82). Two walls of brick and septaria running E. and W., found January, 1920, in High Street, S. of tram-lines, about 300 ft. from W. end of Street. (P. G. Laver.)

(83). Foundations, etc., are known to exist beneath several of the buildings on S. side of High Street, at the W. end. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(84). "A concrete road apparently Roman" seen W. of Head Street, at N. angle of Church Street and Head Street, and vaguely described. It can hardly be accepted as evidence, although a Roman street probably ran near this site. (Wire's MS.)

(85). Foundations and tessellated pavement found in 1893 W. of Head Street, at back of King's Head Inn, in making a strong-room for Mr. Howard's office. (P. G. Laver.)

(86). Tessellated pavement found N. of (85), in the garden of the house now known as St. Mary's, E. of St. Mary's Church. (P. G. Laver.)

(87). Foundations, etc., found 1892 in garden S. of (85). (P. G. Laver.)

(88). Tessellated pavement, found about 1871 a little S. of St. Mary's Church and Church Street South, in the garden of St. Mary's Cottage, formerly Mr. Unwin's; taken up and relaid in the veranda of the house. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 160. Cutts, Colchester (plan I, 1). O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(89). Pieces of tessellated pavement found at considerable distances apart during the digging of graves in graveyard S. of St. Mary's Church. (Morant, I, 183.)

(90). Foundations and tessellated pavement found under E. end of St. Mary's Church, in 1871. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(91). Tessellated pavement found in cherry garden, N. of the old Rectory which was immediately N. of St. Mary's Church tower. (Morant, I, 183.)

(92). Foundations and tessellated pavement found 1871 under E. wall of S.E. bay-window of the modern St. Mary's Rectory. (Cutts, Colchester (plans).)

C.—Buildings outside the Walls.

There was a number of buildings on the N.W., W. and S.W. of the town. Outside the Balkerne Gate there were houses on both sides of the road for some little distance, and under 23 St. Mary's Street is a tessellated pavement. Extensive foundations have also been met with in the grounds of the Union Workhouse. (P. G. Laver.) On other sides the marshes made the ground unfit for habitation. The foundations under Crouch Street suggest the former existence there of a house of some importance.

(1). Tessellated pavement found February, 1875, at a depth of 2½ ft. by the N. entry of the Victoria Inn and under the W. side of Station Road (as far as the middle of the road) in front of the Inn and opposite Albert Road. (E.A.S.T. (N.S.), II, 189; III, 129.)

(2). A strong "wall of Roman character" was found to support the northern abutment of North Bridge when it was rebuilt in 1843. (Wire's MS., 26th May, 1843. Gent's Mag. (1843), II, 189.)

(3). Tessellated pavement found August, 1876, between the Workhouse N. of Lexden Road and Blatch Square, close to the Hospital. (A.J., XXXIII, 420. E.A.S.T., X, 89.)

(4). Several fragments of red tessellated pavement found in excavations for the nurses' quarters at the Hospital, and therefore close to (3). (E.A.S.T., X, 89. Some were left in situ.)

(5). Tessellated pavement laid on a foundation of septaria and brickbats, etc., found December, 1852, just outside the W. wall of the town, E. of Balkerne Lane. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 159; X, 89. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(6). A small piece of red tessellated pavement found 3 ft. below the surface in Lord's Land Nursery in March, 1895. (Antiq., XXXIX, 130.)

(7). Tessellated pavement found behind St. Mary's Villa at the corner of Balkerne Lane and entrance of Lord's Land Nursery Gardens. (O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(8). Red tessellated pavement, fragments of a wall, painted plaster, etc., found 30 in. below the surface in the middle of the Chantry Lands, 1st January, 1853. (Wire's MS. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 159.)

(9). "Considerable masses of Roman masonry" and the footings of a large structure of septaria and white mortar found opposite No. 61 (Dr. Renny's) Crouch St., near the King's Arms Public House. (E.A.S.T., XIII, 110.)

(10). A mass of Roman masonry with red mortar in it found at a depth of 8 ft. in Crouch Street, opposite to the entrance to the Bull Hotel, 150 ft. W. of Head Gate. Septaria in white mortar, sections of columns found a few feet further W. (E.A.S.T., XIII, 110.)

(11). A pavement of large red tesserae found at a depth of 4 ft. in the middle of Osborne Street, near the Bath Hotel, which is 200 ft. W. of St. Botolph's Gate. (E.A.S.T., X, 88.)

(12). A tessellated pavement found at a depth of 11 ft. near (11) in February, 1903. (E.A.S.T., X., 88. Antiq., XXXIX, 65. Daily Graphic, 7th February, 1903).

(13). A tessellated pavement found opposite St. Botolph's Terrace in Priory Street (Cutts, Colchester, Plan I, 4. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(14) Foundations partly under the S. wall of the town N. of (13). (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 57. O.S. 10 ft. xxvii.)

(15). Recent discoveries observed by P. G. Laver include—(a) remains of pavement on N. side of Crouch Street opposite the Maldon Road. (b) Foundations, walling and tessellated pavement, found in the grounds of the Union Workhouse. (c) Foundations of buildings, tessellated pavements and roadway, found near the N.E. corner of the junction of Crowhurst and Papillon Roads. (d) Foundations and walling, near Burlington Road, at the S. end of Dr. Chichester's Garden. (e) Foundations and walling, S. of the main building of the Hospital and E. of the Kitchen wing.

D.—Kilns. (See Map, p. 72.)

(1). About half-way between Lexden Road and Sheepen Farm to the N., floors, rubbish pits and kilns of various forms have been found over an area of ¼ acre. One kiln is still preserved and roofed over. In the neighbourhood much Samian was found, including part of a Samian mould: early coins—Cunobeline, Claudius, etc., to M. Aurelius— and miscellaneous metal objects. (E.A.S.T. (N.S.), I, 192, plans. B.A.A. (O.S.), XXXIII, 230 and 267. A. J., XXXIV, 302; XXXV, 70.)

(2). "On the S. side of Lexden Road," probably near St Mary's Lodge were found "vases standing on circular vents above the hollow chambers through which the heat was conveyed to them." (C. Roach Smith, Coll. Ant., II, pl. xiii.)


Colchester: Plan of Town Showing Positions of Monuments

Colchester: Plan of Town Showing Positions of Monuments

(3). On the N. side of the Colne, in a garden 500 yards N. of the town near the road from Middle Mill, was a 3-ft. layer of burnt earth mixed with brick, probably a brick clamp. Near the same place, adjoining the railways, E. of Mile End Road, a Roman pottery kiln was said to have been found, "some years before." (E.A.S.T., X, 325. Colch. Mus. Rep., 1908, p. 11. Wire's MS., 28th March, 1845.)

E.—Cemeteries. (See Map, p. 72.)

Cemeteries existed all round the town where the soil was dry enough.

(1). North.—Between the town and the railway E. of the North Station, a tile tomb, cinerary urns and a skull with some bronze coins, including a fine one of Caligula, have been uncovered. (C. R. Smith, Coll. Ant., II, 39. B.A.A. (O.S.), I, 238. Arch., XXXI, 443. Colch. Mus. Rep., 1908, 10–12. Wire's M.S. O.S. 6 in. xxvii. N.E.)

(2). South.—(a) In Mill Place, Butt Road, and about Denmark Street, cinerary urns and inhumations have been encountered with lead coffins and skeletons. This cemetery seems to be of late date. (Wire's M.S. C. R. Smith, Coll. Ant., III, 52–4; II, 297. Antiquary, XXVIII, 45. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), IV, 265. B. A. A. (O.S.), II, 297. O.S. 25 in. xxvii.)

(b) Similar finds have been made in the vicinity of Chapel Street and in and near the N. end of the Artillery Barracks, and apparently in the grounds of Reed Hall. (E.A.S.T. (N.S.), III, 276. O.S. 25 in. xxvii.)

(3). The largest Cemetery by far is that near the Lexden Road, flanking the original Roman road to London, which led S.W. from the Balkerne Gate, and intersected the Lexden Road at the N.W. corner of the Hospital grounds. Its use was continuous throughout the Roman period; both cremation and inhumation were practised here; it extended full half a mile along the road and the earliest burials seem to be near the Hospital and West Lodge. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), IV, 257; V, 162; (N.S.), III, 273; VI, 171. C. R. Smith, Coll. Ant., II, 39. Arch., XXXII, 404. P. S. A. (1st series), I, 159, 328; (2nd series), III, 381; IV, 271, 433; XII, 43. B.A.A. (O.S.), II, 42, 101; (O.S.) III, 57; (O.S.) IV, 401; etc.). The most noticeable finds have been:—

(a) The Sphinx, a freestone block 25 in. by 25 in. by 10 in. unearthed in March, 1821, in the garden of the Hospital. Early coins (Agrippa and Claudius) were associated with this find. (Drummond Hay, Letter to the Committee (Colchester, 1821). Gent.'s Mag. (1821), I, 367; (1822) I, 107. E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 64. C. R. Smith, Coll. Ant., II, 37.)

(b). The 'Colchester Vase,' discovered 1853 in the grounds of West Lodge; a very fine piece of slip-ware 9 in. high, decorated in barbotine with a gladiatorial scene and wild animals. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), I, 128). C. R. Smith, Coll. Ant., IV, 82.)

(c). A tombstone commemorating a centurion of the XXth legion, found in 1868 in the garden of the fifth house on the E. side of Beverley Road, and a fragment found in the Hospital grounds in 1821 to another centurion of the same legion. (E.A.S.T. (O.S.), V, 87.)

(d). A 'Columbarium.' In a garden at the corner of Beverley and Queen's Roads, almost certainly modern.

(e). An embossed glass vase 3 in. high and 3¼ in. in diameter found near Wellesley, formerly Blatch Road, representing a scene in the circus with quadrigae and bearing the names of four popular charioteers. Vessels of this type were made probably in Belgium and were fashionable in the late 1st and early 2nd century. (Schuermans, Annales de la Soc. Archéologique de Namur, xx (1893). Kisa, Das Glas im Altertume, III, 730, 742, etc.) It probably commemorates the victory of Crescens, the champion of the blue faction, a Moor who had won over 1½ million sesterces when he was 22 years of age. (See Lanciani (1888), Anc. Rome, 214. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, VII, 1273. P.S.A. (2nd series), III, 165.)

(f). A lead coffin was discovered in the Creffield Road with a lead pipe to the surface from over the mouth of the corpse. (P.S.A., xii, 43. E.A.S.T. (N.S.), III, 273.)

(g). An altar dedicated to the Sulevian Mothers found in Balkerne Lane, in 1881, a short distance from the S.W. angle of the town wall. (Proc. Soc. Ant. Lond., 2nd series, II, 266–283.)

(h). Funeral inscription in Purbeck marble found in digging foundations of Grammar School annexe in 1910. (Essex Review, xix (1910), 165. Haverfield, Ephemeris Epigraphica Additamenta Quinta, (1913), 522–23. Corporation Colchester Museum Report, 9 (plate I).)

Ecclesiastical

b (2). Parish Church of All Saints stands on the S. side of High Street. The walls are of stone and flint-rubble mixed with brick; the dressings are of limestone; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The Nave was built probably in the 12th century or earlier, as Morant records that there was herring-bone work in the S. wall, which has now been refaced. Early in the 14th century the Chancel was largely rebuilt and late in the same century a W. tower was added. In the 15th century the North Chapel was added and the North Aisle rebuilt. Early in the 16th century the West Tower was rebuilt. The church was restored in the middle of the 19th century when the existing N. arcade of the nave replaced a previous one of iron.


All Saints Church, Plan

All Saints Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (27½ ft. by 16 ft.) has a modern E. window. The 15th-century N. arcade is of two bays with two-centred arches of two moulded orders; the column has four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the responds have attached half columns. In the S. wall are two modern windows of 14th-century character and between them are traces of a blocked doorway, covered externally by a modern buttress. The early 14th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders; the responds have each three attached shafts with moulded capitals and modern bases.

The North Chapel (27½ ft. by 15½ ft.) has an almost entirely modern E. window of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall are two similar windows also much restored. In the W. wall is a 15th-century two-centred arch of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded and embattled capitals and moulded bases.

The Nave (49½ ft. by 18 ft.) has a modern N. arcade. In the S. wall are two modern windows incorporating some old stones internally; further W. is the modern S. doorway.

The North Aisle (12½ ft. wide) has an embattled parapet with cusped panels inlaid with flint. In the N. wall are three much restored 15th-century windows, similar to those in the N. chapel; further W. is the late 15th-century N. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label; the spandrels carved with a lion and a unicorn; this bay has the plinth enriched with quatrefoiled panels inlaid with flint. In the W. wall is a much restored window of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoiled spandrel.

The West Tower (11 ft. by 10 ft.) is of three stages with a moulded plinth and embattled parapet; the walls are faced with knapped flint. The late 14th-century, two-centred tower-arch is of two orders, the outer moulded and continuous and the inner chamfered and resting on semi-octagonal attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The early 16th-century W. window is much restored and of three cinquefoiled lights with an embattled transom and vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the reset late 14th-century W. doorway has moulded jambs and a two-centred arch with a moulded label. The second stage has in the N. and S. walls a much restored window of two cinquefoiled lights in a square head with a moulded label. The bell-chamber has in each wall a much restored window of three cinquefoiled and transomed lights with tracery in a square head with a moulded label.

The Roof of the chancel has modern boarding and 14th or early 15th-century moulded plates. The flat 15th-century roof of the N. chapel is of two subdivided bays with moulded main timbers and plates. The trussed-rafter roof of the nave is old but now covered with modern boarding. The roof of the N. aisle is similar to that of the N. chapel but of four bays.

Fittings—Bells: five; first and second by Miles Graye, 1610; third by Richard Boler, 1587; fourth by Miles Graye, 1620; fifth by Miles Graye, 1682. Bell-frame old. Communion Table: with turned legs, shaped brackets and ball-feet, mid 17th-century. Doors: In N. aisle—in N. doorway, of two leaves, each with three panels, moulded fillets and frame planted on; below springing level, band of Tudor flowers, c. 1500. In tower—in doorway of turret staircase, of battens with straphinges, 15th-century; in W. doorway, of battens with moulded fillets planted on, and strap-hinges, 15th-century. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Elizabeth Rampley, 1688; (2) to Edmund Hickeringill, 1708, rector of the parish, Anne, his wife, 1708, and Edmund, their son, 1705, with shield of arms; said to be under organ—(3) to John Phillips, town chamberlain, 1683. Monument: In churchyard, to George Davidson (?), 1701 (?), table-tomb. Plate: includes cup with baluster stem, early 17th-century; large cup of 1714 and small paten of the same date.

Condition—Good.

b(3). Parish Church of the Holy Trinity stands on the S. side of Culver Street. The walls of the chancel, chapel and aisle are of flint-rubble and septaria with courses of Roman brick and dressings of Reigate stone; the rubble of the tower is of the same materials but with much more Roman brick and with dressings of Roman brick; the roofs are tiled. The W. wall of the Nave is part of a pre-Conquest church of uncertain date; to this was added about the middle of the 11th century the West Tower and at the same time the tower-arch was inserted in the older wall. The Chancel was rebuilt about the middle of the 14th century and late in the same century the S. arcade of the nave was built and a S. aisle added. There are some indications (in the re-use of material) of the existence of a late 14th-century S. chapel. Late in the 15th century the South Chapel and its arcade were built or rebuilt; the South Aisle refaced or rebuilt together with the South Porch, both incorporating work of the 14th century. The church was restored in the second half of the 19th century when the East Vestry, North Chapel and North Aisle were added.


Colchester. The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity

Colchester. The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity

The W. wall of the nave and the W. tower are particularly interesting examples of two periods of pre-Conquest work and among the fittings the 15th-century mazer is noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (27¾ ft. by 15 ft.) has an E. window all modern except the splays and rear-arch which are of probably the 14th century. In the N. wall is a modern arcade. In the S. wall is a late 15th-century arcade of two bays with moulded four-centred arches and moulded labels on both sides with carved stops, possibly earlier work reused; the column has four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the responds have attached half columns, with earlier moulded bases, reused. The late 14th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached and filleted shafts with moulded capitals and bases; S. of it is a 15th or early 16th-century squint with a four-centred head.

The South Chapel (27¾ ft. by 13½ ft.) has a late 15th-century E. window of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery, having embattled transoms and a segmental-pointed head; further N. is a modern doorway. In the S. wall are two windows uniform with that in the E. wall; between them is a late 15th-century doorway, now blocked, with moulded jambs, four-centred head and label. In the W. wall is a late 15th-century, four-centred arch of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded bases and embattled capitals; the labels are moulded and that on the E. has earlier headstops reused.

The Nave (34½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has a modern N. arcade. The late 14th-century S. arcade is of three bays with four-centred arches of two moulded orders with moulded labels; the carved stops on the N. side are two dogs holding rabbits and a head and on the S. side three heads and a beast; the piers have each four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases and the responds have attached half piers. The W. wall is that of a pre-Conquest nave of earlier date than the tower with which it makes a straight joint; the original wall is about 28 ft. high to the base of the gable, the line of which is indicated inside the tower by a raking break in the bonding; below the gable in the present second stage of the tower are traces of a window or opening, now blocked. The tower-arch is a late pre-Conquest insertion and is built of Roman brick; the plain responds have three plain offsets at the base and three oversailing courses for imposts; the arch is semi-circular; the opening is flanked on both faces by pilaster strips carried round the arch and interrupted by the imposts.

The South Aisle (11½ ft. wide) has in the S. wall two windows, both modern except for the splays and rear-arches which may be of the 14th century; between them is the restored 14th-century S. doorway, probably reset, and with moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label with defaced head-stops. In the W. wall is a 17th or 18th-century window of three pointed lights in a four-centred head; the splays and rear-arch are of the 15th century.

The West Tower (11½ ft. square) is of late pre-Conquest date and is built on to the earlier wall on the E. side. It is of three stages (Plate, p. 34) with an offset plinth and courses between the stages all of Roman brick; at the top are a few courses of 18th-century brick, a coved cornice and a pyramidal roof. The ground stage has in the N. and S. walls a double splayed window with a round head. The W. doorway (Plate, p. 142) is entirely of Roman brick and has a triangular head, three oversailing courses as imposts and pilaster strips at the sides continued over the head. The second stage has externally, in the N. and S. walls, a round-headed recess. In the W. wall are two double splayed windows with round heads, now blocked; below them is a round-headed opening the imposts of which are formed by returning the string-course between the storeys. The bell-chamber has two ranges of windows; the lower has one round-headed window in each wall; the upper range has in each wall a window of two round-headed lights with a pier between them; between the two ranges of windows are slight traces of a round-headed wall-arcade marked out by small fragments of brick, most of which have probably fallen out; in the E. wall these arches are continued down as strips of upright bricks but the work is much weathered and is in no part very distinct.

The South Porch has an outer archway, probably of the 14th century reset; it has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label; above the arch is a restored opening with a trefoiled head. The side walls have each a window all modern except for part of the splays and three-centred rear-arch which are probably of the 15th century.

Fittings—Bell: one by Miles Graye, 1633. Chest: In vestry—plain iron-bound, probably 16th-century. Doors: In S. doorway—of feathered battens, with three strap-hinges and pierced scutcheon-plate, 14th or early 15th-century. In W. doorway—of battens, with strap-hinges, probably 16th-century. Font: octagonal bowl, each face carved with foliage or blank shield, moulded lower edge with ribbon ornament, early 15th-century, stem and top of bowl, modern. Glass: In S. Chapel—in E. window, in tracery, coloured roundels set in tracery, partly restored, 15th-century. Indent: In S. aisle—of figure and inscription-plate. Monuments and Floor-slabs: Monuments: In N. chapel—on N. wall, (1) to William Gilberd, 1603, marble and alabaster tablet with side pilasters, cornice, achievement and thirteen shields of arms. In S. aisle—in S. wall, (2) recess, with moulded jambs and four centred head, altar-tomb, with panelled front and shields, much defaced, late 14th-century. Floorslabs: In S. aisle—(1) to Thomas Talcott, 1686; (2) to Rev. Joseph Powell, 1698; (3) to Ann, widow of Gravely Hurst, 1688; (4) to Gravely Hurst, 1679; (5) to Sarah Cockerill, 1679. Piscina: In S. chapel—in S. wall, with trefoiled four-centred head and octofoiled drain, late 14th-century. Plate: includes alms-dish or mazer (Plate, p. xxxv) with maple wood bowl and moulded silver-gilt rim inscribed in black letter "Jaspar fert myrram tus Melchior Baltazar aurum," 15th-century, and a pewter flagon of c. 1700. Seating: In chancel— modern seat with 15th-century standard and popey-head. Stoup: In S. porch—E. of S. doorway, with trefoiled head, 15th-century, bowl missing.

Condition—Good.

b(4). Parish Church of St. James stands on the S. side of East Hill. The walls are of flint and septaria-rubble, partly faced with knapped flints; the tower has a large admixture of Roman brick; the dressings are of limestone; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The N.W. angle of a 12th-century Nave remains, but this is the only visible work of that period. The West Tower was perhaps added in the 13th century. The N. and S. arcades of the Nave suggest four different periods of the enlargement of the main body. The two E. bays of the S. arcade belong to late in the 13th century and there is some structural evidence that at this time the church had transepts. Early in the 14th century the two E. bays of the N. arcade were built or rebuilt. Early in the 15th century the chancel-arch was rebuilt, the western part of the S. arcade built or rebuilt, and the eastern part rebuilt with the 13th-century materials; the western part of the South Aisle is of this date and was probably built to line with the S. face of the former transept, which was incorporated in it. Late in the 15th century the N. arcade was reconstructed on similar lines to the S. arcade and the North Aisle rebuilt, the former transept on this side being apparently reduced in length. About 1500 the Chancel, North and South Chapels and North Vestry were rebuilt. The W. tower appears to have been much rebuilt in the 15th century, but the exact extent of the work is uncertain. The church was restored in the 19th century when the tower-arch together with a North Porch, in place of an earlier one of unknown date, were rebuilt and the clearstorey added.

The building is of interest from its somewhat complicated history.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (43 ft. by 18½ ft.) is of early 16th-century date and is faced with knapped flints with a moulded and panelled plinth and buttresses ornamented with flint-inlay. The E. window is modern except for the moulded and shafted jambs and two-centred head. The N. and S. walls have each an arcade of two bays, with moulded two-centred arches, the outer members continued down the pier and responds and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; further E. on each side is a wall-arch corresponding to the arcades and enclosing a window of three trefoiled ogee lights with flowered cusps and vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the jambs and mullions are moulded. The side walls have a moulded external cornice or string with carved flowers and shields with the initials SRC, TC and SST all partly restored. The lofty chancel-arch is of early 15th-century date, four-centred and moulded; the responds have each a large half-round attached shaft with small angle-rolls, moulded capitals and bases.


St. James' Church, Plan

St. James' Church, Plan

The North Vestry is of early 16th-century date and is faced externally with knapped flint; the moulded parapet has a facing of quatrefoiled diapering with a carved flower in each quatrefoil; at the N.E. angle is the base of a former pinnacle. In the E. wall is a modern doorway. In the N. wall is a window of three trefoiled lights in a square head. In the S. wall is a recess with a segmental-pointed head at the back of the recess (see Fittings) in the chancel; further W. is a blocked doorway with a four-centred head. In the W. wall is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with quatrefoiled spandrels, enclosing shields.

The North Chapel (29 ft. by 13 ft.) is of early 16th-century date and has a parapet ornamented like that of the vestry. The N.W. buttress is wider than the others and may represent the adapted end of the E. wall of the former transept. In the E. wall is a window similar to the side windows of the chancel. In the N. wall are two windows similar to that in the E. wall. In the W. wall is a two-centred arch of two moulded orders; the responds have each an attached round shaft with moulded capital and base; this arch is higher than the main level of the S. aisle roof which is canted up to cover it, a circumstance which indicates the former existence of a transept.

The South Chapel (29 ft. by 18 ft.) is of early 16th-century date and has an E. window of four lights and two windows of three lights in the S. wall, all similar in detail to those in the N. chapel. In the W. wall is a two-centred and moulded arch probably of 13th-century material, reset; the responds have each an attached shaft with moulded capital and base.

The Nave (65 ft. by 18½ ft.) has a N. arcade of four bays, the two eastern bays are of early 14th-century date, reconstructed in the 15th century; they have two-centred arches of two moulded orders; the column is octagonal with moulded capital and base and the responds have attached half columns; the two western bays of the arcade are of late 15th-century date with two-centred arches of two moulded orders; the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The S. arcade is also of four bays of which the two eastern are of late 13th or early 14th-century date with the arches rebuilt in the 15th century; the two-centred arches are of two moulded orders; the column is octagonal with moulded capital and base and the responds have attached half columns; the two western bays are of early 15th-century date and have two-centred arches of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The clearstorey is modern.

The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) has in the N. wall three modern windows; further W. is a much restored, late 14th-century doorway, probably reset and with jambs and two-centred arch of two moulded orders. In the W. wall is a modern window and further S. is the Roman brick angle of the original nave.

The South Aisle (18 ft. wide) has in the S. wall four windows, all modern except the splays and rear-arches probably of early 15th-century date; below the easternmost window is an early 14th-century string-course probably indicating part of the end wall of the former transept; W. of the windows is the modern S. doorway. In the W. wall is a window, all modern except the 15th-century splays and rear-arch; further N. is the partly restored 14th-century doorway to the tower stair-turret; it has an ogee head.

The West Tower (11 ft. square) is of three stages but is divided externally into two only by a deep offset; the parapet is embattled and above the buttresses the quoins are of Roman brick. The tower-arch, W. window and doorway are modern. The second stage has in the N., S. and W. walls a window of one pointed light; the N. and W. windows are modern externally but the S. window and the splays and rear-arches of the others are perhaps of the 13th century and are of Roman brick. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window all modern except the splays and rear-arches which are of Roman and later bricks and perhaps of the 14th century.

The Roof of the N. chapel is flat and of early 16th-century date; it is of three bays with moulded main beams; the two middle principals have curved braces carved with the arms of the See of London and probably 17th-century repairs. The early 16th-century roof of the S. chapel is of similar character but has original curved braces, carved in the E. and middle trusses with large symbols of the four Evangelists. The roof of the N. aisle is modern but incorporates four pairs of brackets carved with foliage, flowers, etc. Incorporated in the supports of the modern spirelet are two 15th-century moulded beams.

Fittings—Bells: two, by Miles Graye, 1622. Bell-frame old. Bracket: In S. chapel—in E. wall, moulded bracket supported by angel with spread wings and holding a scroll, carved flowers in hollow of moulding, traces of colour, early 16th-century. Brasses: In S. chapel—on S. wall, (1) of John Maynarde, 1569, alderman, figure of man in fur-lined gown and inscription-plate; (2) of Ales, wife of John Maynard, 1584, figure of woman, upper part missing, and inscription-plate; palimpsest on figure part of large draped figure and an inscription part of a Flemish plate with a shield of arms, a molet between three bugles and an engrailed border. Doors: In N. chapel—in doorway to vestry, nail-studded, with moulded fillets and pierced scutcheonplate, 15th-century. In tower—in doorway of staircase, of battens with strap-hinges, 15th-century. Glass: In N. chapel—in E. window, cartouche with the arms of the See of London impaling Compton, early 18th-century. Monument and Floor-slab. Monument: In tower— on W. wall, to Thomas Reynolds, 1665, mayor, and Margery (Decoster) his wife, 1649, oval tablet with enriched border and two shields of arms. Floor-slab: In tower—to Nathaniel Laurence, 171 [4], and Martha [Greene], his wife, 1677. Piscinae. In chancel—square drain partly restored. In N. chapel—in E. respond, plain perforated shelf, early 16th-century. In S. aisle—in S. wall, with two-centred head and moulded drain, 14th-century. Plate: includes a salver of 1705. Sedilia: In chancel, S. chapel and S. aisle, sills of S.E. windows carried down to form seats.

Condition—Good.

b(5). Parish Church of St. Martin (Plate, p. 38) stands on the E. side of West Stockwell Street. The walls are of flint-rubble with much Roman and later brick; the dressings are of limestone and Roman brick and the roofs are tiled. The Nave was built early in the 12th century and had a narrow N. aisle. Late in the same century the West Tower was added. Early in the 14th century the Chancel was rebuilt and a N. chapel was perhaps built at the same time; late in the 14th century the N. and S. arcades of the nave were built, the North aisle widened and the South Aisle and the North and South Transepts added. A S. porch was built probably at the same time. About the middle of the 15th century the chancelarch was rebuilt. The upper part of the tower fell probably early in the 17th century and later in the century the South Porch was rebuilt. The church was restored in the latter half of 19th century and there is a temporary Vestry on part of the site of the former N. chapel.

The church contains interesting 12th and 14th-century work, the roof-truss forming an open screen in the chancel, being an unusual feature.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (32 ft. by 15 ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window of three trefoiled ogee lights with net tracery in a two-centred head; the splays and rear-arch are moulded; the external jambs are modern. In the N. wall is a window, all modern except for the 14th-century splays and rear-arch; further W. is a late 15th-century, four-centred and moulded arch, awkwardly cut into the chancel-arch on the W. side and now blocked; in the W. jamb is a squint from the N. aisle; further E. is a 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch. The exterior of the wall shows traces of the junction of the former E. wall, of the N. chapel. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern is uniform with the corresponding window in the N. wall, the western is modern except for the early 16th-century splays and four-centred rear-arch; between them is a doorway all modern except parts of the splays and rear-arch, which are probably of the 15th century. The mid 15th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases.

The Nave (46 ft. by 16 ft.) has late 14th-century N. and S. arcades of three bays with two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders and partly restored; on the nave side are labels with animal and head-stops; the octagonal columns have moulded capitals and bases and the responds have attached half columns; the N.E. respond is partly restored. E. of the S.E. respond is a 15th-century doorway, with a four-centred head to the roof-loft staircase, the upper doorway has also a four-centred head. The S.E. external angle of the nave has 12th-century quoins of Roman brick.

The North Transept (14¼ ft. by 16¼ ft.) is of late 14th-century date and has brick quoins. In the E. wall is a two-centred arch of one chamfered order. In the N. wall is a much restored window of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the jambs and head are moulded. On the W. side is a modern arch to the N, aisle.


Colchester: The Parish Church of St Martin

Colchester: The Parish Church of St Martin

The North Aisle (12 ft. wide) has in the N. wall a window, nearly modern except the late 14th-century rear-arch, splays and internal jambs; further W. is the late 14th-century N. doorway with moulded jambs, two-centred arch and segmental rear-arch. The W. wall is partly of the 12th century with Roman brick quoins to the original angle; in it is a window, modern except for the splays and rear-arch which are probably of the 14th century.

The South Transept (14 ft. by 16 ft.) has in the S. wall a late 14th-century window, generally similar to the window in the N. transept, but with restored mullions. On the W. side is a 15th-century four-centred arch of two hollow-chamfered orders; the inner order springing on the S. side from a moulded corbel.

The South Aisle (12 ft. wide) has in the S. wall a partly restored window of c. 1400 and of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; further W. is the late 14th-century S. doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of two wave-moulded orders with a moulded label. In the W. wall is a partly restored early 14th-century window, possibly reset, and of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded label.

The West Tower (11½ ft. by 12½ ft.) is of late 12th-century date and is now of one stage with part of the ruined second stage; the pilaster buttresses have quoins of Roman brick and in the N. and S. walls are rough construction arches, of Roman brick, possibly inserted to avoid interference with the foundations of the pre-existing nave. The stair-turret is lit by small quatrefoiled openings of the 14th or 15th century. The tower-arch is modern and above it is a blocked doorway of uncertain date. In the W. wall is a doorway of c. 1400 with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with quatrefoiled spandrels and a moulded label, partly restored.

The South Porch has a reset late 14th-century outer archway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch. The side walls have each a square 17th-century window fitted with four turned oak balusters; the balusters in the W. window are modern.

The Roof of the chancel is of early 14th-century date and of two bays with a central king-post truss; the tie-beam is moulded and is supported below by moulded wall-posts extending to the floor, and curved and moulded braces forming a two-centred arch (Plate, p. 39) with traceried spandrels and a boss at the apex carved with a face and foliage; the braces rest on 17th-century carved consoles; at the springing level are the sawn-off ends of a moulded cross-beam; the octagonal king-post has a moulded capital and base and four-way struts; this arched truss probably served as a screen from which to hang the lenten-veil; each bay of the roof has eight pairs of moulded and curved rafters, twelve of which have, at the apex, carved bosses of foliage, grotesque heads, etc.; against the walls are double moulded wall-plates forming a frieze formerly panelled; the traceried head of one panel remains on the N. side. The nave, transepts and aisles have plain braced collar-beam roofs probably of late 14th-century date; that over the S. transept has been much rebuilt and that over the S. aisle has a moulded wall-plate on the S. side. Above the arch on the S. of the N. transept are remains of timbering, apparently to the former eaves before the erection of the transept.

Fittings—Altar: In chancel—slab with chamfered under-edge, five consecration crosses, two possibly modern. Chair: In chancel—with panelled back, fluted top rail, shaped arms and turned front legs, 17th-century. Chests: In N. aisle—(1) panelled, with fluted top rail, one lock, early 17th-century; (2) plain panelled, possibly late 17th-century. Coffin-lid: In chancel—with foliated cross, 13th-century. Doors: In chancel—in N. doorway, made up of late 17th-century and modern work, with swags and bolection mouldings. In N. aisle—in N. doorway, of feathered battens with straphinges, probably late 14th-century. In S. aisle— in S. doorway, modern, with reused strap-hinges, 15th-century. Font (Plate, p. xxxiv): octagonal bowl with traceried panels and crocketed ogee heads, pinnacles at angles, stem with attached shafts having moulded capitals and bases, 15th-century. Niche: On S.W. buttress of porch, with canopied and crocketed head and side buttresses, late 14th-century, partly restored. Piscinae: In chancel—with square jambs and moulded ogee head and label, with crockets and remains of finial, side pinnacles with traceried panels and carved finials, octofoiled drain, 14th-century. In S. transept—in S. wall, with trefoiled head and sexfoiled drain, with middle boss, late 14th-century, under modern sill 14th-century head-corbel. Poor-box: In nave—incorporating mouldings and panels carved with arabesque ornament and a figure-subject, mid to late 17th-century. Pulpit: incorporating four carved panels with conventional foliage and other designs, 16th and 17th-century. Recess: In chancel—in N. wall, with trefoiled and sub-cusped ogee head and moulded label, 14th-century, possibly Easter Sepulchre. Screen: Under chancel-arch, incorporating, below the rail, six trefoiled, sub-cusped and richly traceried heads, cusp points with carved heads, foliated spandrels to tracery, early 15th-century. Sedilia: In chancel —sill of window carried down to form seat, 14th-century, restored. In S. transept—similar sedile. Miscellanea: In chancel—incorporated in seat, two traceried heads, 15th-century.

Condition—Fairly good, but some ivy on ruined tower.

b (6). Parish Church of St. Mary-at-the-Walls stands in the S.W. angle of the walled town. The walls of the tower are of stone, with limestone dressings; the upper stage is of brick. The West Tower is of mid to late 15th or early 16th-century date as to its two lower stages. The church was ruined during the siege and rebuilt 1713–14, but this building was pulled down in the second half of the 19th century and the present church erected 1872. The top stage of the tower was added in 1729.

Among the fittings the 17th-century chalice is particularly noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The West Tower (15 ft. by 13¾ ft.) is of three stages the two lower of rubble and the top stage of brick with an embattled parapet. The moulded plinth, partly restored, has stone panels alternately with pointed heads and circles cusped and enclosing blank shields. There are diagonal buttresses at three angles and a stair-turret at S.E. angle. The unusually lofty tower-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders the outer continuous and the inner resting on semi-circular shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the S. wall is a modern doorway to the stair-turret. The W. window is of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head, with an embattled transom, all restored except the splays and rear-arch. The W. doorway has stop-moulded and shafted jambs and moulded two-centred arch, with a crocketed label, finial, square head and traceried spandrels, modern or restored. The second stage has in the N., S. and W. walls a window with a three-centred head, all of brick. The bell-chamber has in each wall a brick window with plain jambs and three-centred head, all of early 18th-century date.

Fittings—Bell: one by John Darbie, 1679. Monuments: In tower—on N. wall, (1) of John Rebow, 1699, erected by Sir Isaac Rebow, and to others of later date, black and white marble monument, with seated figure of man, before an arched panel with Corinthian side-columns and an achievement of arms. In churchyard—S. side, (2) to Richard Rootrey, 1707; headstone; (2) to seven children, 1689, headstone, names buried. Plate: includes a richly decorated chalice (Plate, p. xxxv) inscribed " Maria monty Jonasn me fieri fecit pro conventu fratrum minorum de Rosriala Pro cujus anima oretur Ano: 1633"; on the bowl is I.H.S. and on the knop "Ave Maria"; the cup has scale ornament and the knop is pierced and engraved with the instruments of the passion; on the foot is an engraved crucifixion; (Rosriala is probably Rossereily, county Galway) there is also a cup and cover-paten of 1714. Pulpit: In vestry —cupboard made up of carved work and inlaid panels of former pulpit; panels have monograms of the Rebow family and H.C. with a mitre, for Henry Compton, Bishop of London, early 18th-century.

Condition—Good, mostly rebuilt.

b (7). Parish Church of St. Nicholas stands on the S. side of High Street. The walls are of mixed rubble with dressings of limestone; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The church was entirely rebuilt early in the 14th century when it consisted of Chancel, N. Vestry, Crossing, probably N. and S. Transepts, and Nave with North and S. Aisles; there was also a S. chapel of uncertain date. According to Morant a tower fell late in the 17th century and as this ruined the chancel it probably stood over the crossing. The building was restored in the 18th century and the North Tower built or rebuilt in its present position N. of the crossing. In 1875 the church was generally restored, the chancel largely rebuilt, the S. aisle and Transept Chapel destroyed and a new church of much larger size added to the S. of the old building; the north tower was refaced and partly rebuilt and a spire added.


St. Nicholas's Church, Plan

St. Nicholas's Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel of the old church (25 ft. by 15½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall are two modern windows copying old features and below the western is a 14th-century doorway modern internally but with an old rear-arch on the outer face of the wall, indicating the former existence of a vestry. The S. arcade is modern.

The Crossing of the old church (14 ft. by 15½ ft.) had originally on each side an early 14th-century arch, two-centred and of two moulded orders; the responds had each three attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; of these arches the eastern only retains its much restored N. respond; the N. arch has been thickened by the addition of two modern orders with their responds and with the old outer order on the N. reset in a new position; the S. arch has been replaced by the modern W. bay of the arcade mentioned above, but the W. respond incorporates some of the old stones; the W. arch is intact.

The Nave of the old church (27 ft. by 17¾ ft.) has an early 14th-century N. arcade of two bays with a moulded column of quatrefoiled plan and with other details similar to the W. arch of the crossing; in the spandrel over the column is a round quatrefoiled opening of the 14th century. The S. arcade is uniform with the N. arcade, but the eastern and part of the western arch are modern and there is no opening in the spandrel. In the W. wall is a large window all modern except the 15th-century moulded and shafted splays and the two-centred rear-arch.

The North Aisle of the old church (11½ ft. wide) now a vestry, has in the E. wall a modern doorway set in the blocking of a plain segmental-pointed half-arch. In the N. wall are two 14th-century windows, much restored and each of two trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. Set high in the W. wall is a single light window, entirely restored; below it there is said to have been a doorway, removed at the restoration.

The North Tower has been entirely restored but the core of the lower walls may be old and the S.E. turret staircase is old internally.

Reset in the S. wall of the modern S. aisle is an early 15th-century doorway with moulded and shafted jambs and moulded two-centred arch; it is flanked by buttresses from which springs an ogee crocketed label, either much restored or modern. In the W. wall of the same aisle is a window incorporating a moulded and shafted 15th-century S. splay and part of a moulded rear-arch of the same date.

Fittings—Bells: six with a clock-bell and one additional bell; 3rd by Richard Hille, 15th-century, inscribed "Sancte Jacobe Ora Pro Nobis"; 5th by Henry Pleasant, 1701; 6th by Joanna Hille, 15th-century, inscribed "In Multis Annis Resonet Campana Johannis"; additional bell, from St. Runwald's church, by Miles Graye, 1621. Bracket: In old nave—in N.E. angle, moulded corbel with stiff-leaf foliage and trumpet stem curved back into wall, early to mid 13th-century. Chests: In old nave—with carved and panelled front, three panels with lozenges of carving, conventional fleur-de-lis ornament to top rail, 17th-century. In modern S. aisle—carved front with two arcaded panels and frieze, early 17th-century. In N. tower —plain with cambered lid and tapering sides, 17th or 18th-century. Communion Table: In modern vestry—with turned legs, shaped brackets and carved top rail, c. 1660. Monuments: In old chancel—on N. wall, (1) stone tablet with recessed panel having cinquefoiled ogee head with crockets and finial and cinquefoiled super-head with spandrels carved with thistles; in main panel slab with indents of kneeling figure of a civilian, scroll, Trinity, roundel and inscription-plate; above it a square boss carved with a doubtful figure, said to be a mermaid; in top panel two shields with merchant's mark and the initials W.I. and O.I., c. 1500, brought from St. Runwald's church. In old nave—(2) to Samuel Great, 1706, and Susan, his wife, 1722, shaped marble tablet with cherubheads and cartouche. Niches: In old N. aisle— on E. wall, with ogee head, formerly cinquefoiled, ribbed vault and rosettes, very small, 15th-century; in W. wall, externally, with trefoiled ogee head and tracery above it, 14th-century. Painting: In new nave—at W. end, altar-piece painted on canvas, the dead Christ and women, early 18th-century, brought from St. Runwald's church. Piscinae: In old chancel—in E. wall, with moulded jambs and trefoiled head, late 14th-century, probably not in situ, sill modern. In old N. aisle—loose, scalloped capital of pillar-piscina with nail-head ornament and square drain, 12th-century. Plate: includes cup with incised ornament and cover-paten, dated 1569; Elizabethan cup with band of incised ornament; large cup and cover-paten probably of 1667, the former with baluster stem, and stand-paten of 1708; all except the first cup and paten belonged to St. Runwald's parish. Recess: In old chancel—in N. wall, large with segmental-pointed head, date and use uncertain. Stoup: In old N. aisle—in W. wall externally, recess with two-centred head, probably stoup to former doorway, date uncertain. Miscellanea: In churchyard— N. and S. of church, worked and moulded stones including tracery and one head-corbel or stop. 14th and 15th-century.

Condition—Good, much restored.


St. Peter's Church, Plan

St. Peter's Church, Plan

b(8). Parish Church of St. Peter stands on the E. side of North Hill. The walls, where ancient, are of mixed rubble with septaria, brick and ragstone; the dressings are of Reigate and other limestone. The roofs are covered with lead and tiles. The earliest part of the structure are the four western bays of the S. arcade of the Nave with the South Aisle, which are of early 15th-century date; later in the same century the corresponding bays of the N. arcade with the North Aisle were built. At this time the church included a central tower occupying the space between the third and part of the second bays of the existing arcades. Early in the 16th century the North Vestry with the Bone-hole beneath it were added. There is no evidence of the date of the Chancel. The church was injured by an earthquake in 1692 and probably soon after the windows of the aisles were remodelled. In 1758 the central tower was removed, the N. and S. arcades extended, partly with old materials over its site, and the West Tower added; shortly after the chancel was reduced to half its length by extending the nave arcades eastwards and at the same time the S. aisle was extended to the same point. The church was restored in the 19th century when the clearstorey was added and the chancelarch built.

The vaulted bone-hole is interesting and among the fittings the early 14th-century ironwork of the S. doorway is noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (12 ft. by 17 ft.) has no ancient features.

The North Vestry is of early 16th-century date and has at the eastern angles square projecting buttresses each with remains of flint-inlay panelling partly restored and having the base of a pinnacle at the top. The parapet of the N. wall has richly cusped panelling or diapering with carved rosettes; on the E. wall the parapet has been rebuilt in brick but it incorporates some portions of the old work on which are two shields, one a cheveron with a molet in the sinister quarter and the other a cross. In the E. wall is a modern doorway with the square head and moulded label with head-stops of a former window. In the W. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed arch, with a moulded label.

The Bone-hole, beneath the vestry, is of early 16th-century date and is of two bays with a quadripartite vault of plastered brick having chamfered main, diagonal and wall-ribs. In the E. wall are two windows each formerly of three quartrefoiled openings; of these the middle quartrefoil in each window remains with traces of another in the northern window. In the N. wall was a similar window but only the rear-arches remain; further N. is a doorway with a four-centred stone head; it is approached by a flight of steps.

The Nave (87 ft. by 20½ ft.) has N. and S. arches of seven bays, of these the second and third bays probably occupy the site of the former central tower. The piers and arches of the first three bays on the N. side though generally similar to the rest of the arcade are largely composed of reused material and 18th-century imitations of 15th-century work; the rest of the N. arcade is of 15th-century date, perhaps partly reset and with two-centred arches of two orders, the outer sunk-chamfered and continuous and the inner moulded and resting on shafts with moulded capitals and bases; there is a moulded label on each face; the responds have attached half-columns, that on the E. having been altered into a column in the 18th century. The S. arcade has the three eastern bays of the 18th century but with a reset 15th-century E. respond similar to those of the N. arcade, a reset third arch and reused materials in the columns; the remaining four bays of the S. arcade are of early 15th-century date and have two-centred arches of two moulded orders with a moulded label on the N. side and remains of a similar label on the S. side; the columns have attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases and the W. respond has an attached half-column. The clearstorey is modern and the W. gallery is of the 18th century.

The North Aisle (17 ft. wide) has a large 18th-century gallery. In the E. wall, above the vestry is a 15th-century window of two cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In the N. wall are five 18th-century windows with round heads, key-stones and imposts; each is set in a partly blocked 15th-century window opening of which portions of the much weathered jambs, sill and head are visible; in the fourth bay are traces of a 15th-century doorway with a two-centred head. In the W. wall is an 18th-century window set in an earlier opening, similar to those in the N. wall.

The South Aisle (12 ft. wide) has an 18th-century gallery. The easternmost bay is entirely of mid 18th-century date. The remaining bays of the S. wall, except the fifth, have each an 18th-century window set in an earlier opening, similar to those in the N. aisle; in the fifth bay is a 15th-century S. doorway with moulded and shafted jambs and two-centred arch. In the W. wall is a window similar to those in the S. wall and below it is an 18th-century doorway.

Fittings—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In N. aisle—on N. wall, (1) of Richard Sayer, 1610, and Alse (Spooner) and Ellen (Lawrence), his wives, rectangular plate with kneeling figures of man, wives, one son and one daughter with an achievement of arms and inscription; (2) of Agnes (Woodthorpe), wife successively of Aleyn Dister and Robert Leache, 1553, rectangular plate with kneeling figures of two men (Robert Leache) in red aldermanic gown in enamel, wife with widow's veil, four sons and five daughters, architectural background, ornamental border and inscription; (3) of William Brown, 1572, and Margaret, his wife, 1573, kneeling figures of man and wife at prayer-desks, five sons, two daughters, achievement of arms and foot-inscription. In S. aisle— on E. wall, (4) of John Sayer, 1563, rectangular plate with kneeling figures of man at prayer-desk, architectural background, achievement of arms and inscription ; on S. wall, (5) of John Sayre, alderman, 1509, and Elizabeth, his wife, 1530, rectangular plate with kneeling figure of man in red aldermanic gown in enamel, wife with widow's veil, four sons and one daughter in butterfly head-dress, architectural background and inscription. Indents: In N. aisle—(1) of inscription-plate. In tower—(2) and (3) defaced. Chair: In chancel— with carved and upholstered back, turned or twisted legs and rails, shaped arms, late 17th-century. Communion Table: small with twisted legs, carved and shaped top rails, probably late 17th-century. Communion Rails: In tower—twisted and turned balusters, rail carved with acanthus ornament. reused in gallery staircase, c. 1710. Doors: In N. aisle—in doorway to vestry, of feathered battens and a frame of fillets planted on, two strap-hinges and domed scutcheon-plate with ornamental edge and drop handle, probably 14th-century, latch and key-plate, probably 16th or 17th-century. In S. aisle—in S. doorway, in two folds with moulded feathered battens and two enriched strap-hinges (Plate, p. 42) with scrolled foliage terminating in leaves or rosettes of stamped iron, c. 1300, ascribed to Thomas of Leighton (Buzzard) ; intermediate strap-hinge, without scroll-work is interrupted by round scutcheon-plate, probably a later 14th-century addition, with pierced traceried panels and a raised rim of fret pattern ; lower hinge much damaged. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments : In chancel—on N. wall, (1) of Martin Basill, 1623, and Elizabeth, his wife, 1625, marble wall-monument with two niches containing kneeling figures of man and wife, flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature with achievement of arms, below, figures in relief of six sons and seven daughters; on S. wall, (2) to Mary (Thurston) wife of William Eldred, 1671, marble oval tablet with wreath and cartouche of arms; (3) of George Sayer, 1577, and Agnes (Wesden), 1556, and Frances (Sammon), small wall-monument with kneeling figures of man, two wives, four sons and three daughters, three Corinthian columns supporting entablature and achievement of arms. Floor-slabs: In chancel— (1) to [John Cole ?] alderman 16—, and Anne? (Thurston ?), his wife, 1668. (2) to Danyell Cole, 1642, last Bailiff and first Mayor of Colchester. In nave—(3) to [Aquila], wife of Edmund Thurston, 16[81], with lozenge of arms. In N. aisle—(4) to Sir William Campion, killed 1648, with defaced shield of arms; (5) to Elizabeth R[ayner, daughter of William Swallow], 1693, also to Mary, wife of William Rayner, and others; against N. wall, (6) to John Stilleman, 1699; against W. wall, (7) to Mary, daughter, 1710, four other daughters and four sons of John Potter, 1699, and others later; (8) to John Freeman, 1714, with achievement of arms. In S. aisle—(9) to Mrs. Jasper Waters, 1683, six sons and five daughters unnamed, and to Jasper Waters, 1706, and Sarah his wife, 1724; (10) to James Lemyng, 1671, and Mary (Batten), his wife, 1671; Piscina: In S. aisle—in S. wall, with septfoiled ogee head, early 15th-century. Plate: includes stand-paten of 1698. Pulpit: hexagonal, each face with raised inlaid panels, foliage fruit and flowers, cherub-heads, two cherubs supporting a shield of St. Peter under book-board, early 18th-century, stem mostly modern. Royal Arms: In nave—on N. wall, of William III carved and painted woodwork. Table: In vestry—large, with turned legs and shaped top rail, early to mid 17th-century. Miscellanea: In churchyard— various fragments of worked stones, 15th and 16th-century.

Condition—Good, but external stonework badly perished.

b(9). Parish Church of St. Giles stands a short distance to the E. of St. John's Green. The walls are of mixed rubble with some septaria and brick; the porch is mainly of brick and the tower is timber-framed and weather-boarded; the dressings are of limestone and brick and the roofs are covered with tiles, slates and lead. The S. wall of the Nave was built probably in the 12th century. The Chancel has one 13th-century window and may be of that date. A North Aisle, now included in the nave, was built or rebuilt probably late in the 14th century. Early in the 16th century the North Chapel and the South Porch were added. The West Tower is probably of late 17th or early 18th-century date. Early in the 19th century the nave and aisle were thrown into one and the existing colonnades and galleries erected. Early in the 20th century the church was restored and the South Chapel added.


St. Giles' Church, Plan

St. Giles' Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (30 ft. by 17½ ft.) has an E. window all modern except the splays and a few reset, external stones. In the N. wall is a brick arcade of two bays all modern except a few bricks of the eastern arch and the column which has four attached shafts with partly restored moulded capitals of early 16th-century date; further E. is an early 16th-century doorway of brick with chamfered jambs, partly restored and a moulded four-centred arch; it is now blocked. In the S. wall is a modern arcade of two bays and E. of it is a mid 13th-century lancet window entirely covered with cement. The chancel-arch is modern except for the moulded capital and some reset stones of the S. respond which are of the 15th century.

The North Chapel (31 ft. by 14 ft.) has an E. window all modern except parts of the splays, rear-arch and some external stones, which are of early 16th-century date; further S. is a modern doorway. In the N. wall are two early 16th-century windows both much restored and each of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label. In the W. wall is a modern archway.

The South Chapel is modern but in the S. wall is a doorway with an old rear-arch, reset. Above the doorway is a wooden tablet bearing the names of churchwardens and the date 1665.

The Nave (64½ ft. by 35½ ft.) has modern colonnades. In the N. wall are three windows probably of the 17th century and each of three plain segmental-pointed lights with uncusped tracery in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label; between the two western windows is the late 14th-century N. doorway with moulded and double-shafted jambs and two-centred arch with a moulded label; on either side of it are traces of the existence of a former porch. In the S. wall are four windows, the easternmost is of early 16th-century date and of three trefoiled ogee lights with rosettes to the cusps and vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the jambs and mullions are moulded and the splays have shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the second window is of the 18th century and is set in the lower part of a blocked, early 14th-century window formerly of two trefoiled ogee lights with a cusped spandrel in a two-centred head; the two western windows are apparently entirely modern; W. of the porch is a wide single-light window with a roughly pointed head, all of Roman brick and perhaps of the 12th century; it is now blocked; E. of it is the modern S. doorway with traces of the brick jamb of a 16th-century doorway W. of it; the S.W. angle of the nave has quoins of Roman brick. In the W. wall is a modern doorway set in the blocking of a rough tower-arch of doubtful date; N. of it is a modern doorway and S. of it externally are traces of the former square-headed W. window of the nave; above this is a quatrefoiled opening probably modern.

The West Tower is partly timber-framed and weather - boarded and has no ancient features visible.

The South Porch is mainly of red brick with a little rubble; it is of early 16th-century date and has an outer archway with jambs and four-centred arch of two moulded orders. The side walls have each a window of two four-centred lights in a square head; the mullions are modern.

The Roof of the N. chapel is of early 16th-century date and of four and a half bays with moulded main timbers, moulded and hollow-chamfered principals, moulded collars with curved braces and moulded side purlins with curved wind-braces. The early 16th-century roof of the S. porch is of two bays with braced collar-beams and curved wind-braces, the main timbers are moulded and the E. plate is carved with twisted foliage; the W. plate is missing.

Fittings— Bell: one, said to be by Miles Graye, 1657. Bracket: In N. chapel—in E. wall, probably with angel, but defaced, early 16th-century. Coffin-plates: In N. chapel—on S. wall, (1) to John, Lord Lucas, 1671; (2) to "the Lady Anne Lucas," 1660. Door: In N. doorway—of two leaves with elaborately traceried head, late 14th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In N. chapel—on N. wall, (1) probably to Sir Thomas Lucas, 1611, and Mary, his wife, 1613, modern recess, marble shelf set above the recess, and carved rosettes and strap-ornament on soffit of arch. In nave—in S. wall, (2) to William Cock, 1619, pastor of the church, and Anna, his wife, 1625, plain inscribed stone. Floor-slab: In N. chapel—on N. wall, to Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle, shot in 1648. Pall: Funeral pall of the Lucas family, oval shape and of purple velvet, with fringe, embroidered initials and date E. L., 1628, G.S., I H S, and true lovers' knot. Panelling: In S. chapel—partition made up of late 16th-century panelling. Piscina: In chapel—with modern jambs and two-centred head, re-cut, old drain. Stoup: W. of N. doorway externally, blocked recess, possible stoup. Miscellanea: In nave, memorial tablet recording benefactions of Jeremiah Daniell, 1695.

The Churchyard has incorporated in the N. and E. walls many worked stones from the abbey including several portions of an interesting wall-arcade of the 12th century. Extending W. from the tower is a length of 16th-century brick walling.

Condition—Good, except S. wall of nave, rest much altered and restored.

d(10). Parish Church of St. Leonard-at-the-Hythe stands on the N. side of Hythe Hill. The walls are of mixed rubble, septaria, flint, pebbles, brick and freestone; the dressings are of limestone and the roofs are covered with lead and tiles. The Chancel and the N. arcade of the Nave and the North Aisle were built c. 1330–40 and at the same time or soon afterwards the North Vestry was added; the West Tower was built late in the 14th century. In the 15th century the S. arcade was built, the South Aisle and South Porch added and the chancel-arch rebuilt. About 1500 the North and South Chapels were added or rebuilt and the clearstorey added; c. 1530 the rood-stair was rebuilt. The church has needed continuous restoration owing to subsidence or to the insufficient strength of the old work. The top stage of the tower is modern and the S. porch has been largely rebuilt.

The nave has a good hammer-beam roof and among the fittings the mazer-bowl of 1521 is noteworthy.


St Leonard's Church, Hythe, Plan

St Leonard's Church, Hythe, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (42½ ft. by 20 ft.) has an E. window, all modern except parts of the jambs and shafted splays which are of the 15th century. In the N. wall is a two-light window of 14th-century character but all modern except parts of the jambs, splays and rear-arch; further W. is an arcade of c. 1500 and of two bays with four-centred arches of two moulded orders, the outer continued down the responds and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the S. wall is a window and arcade, uniform with those in the N. wall; between them is an early 16th-century squint with a rounded head. The late 15th-century chancel-arch is four-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the arch is much distorted.

The North Vestry has in the E. wall a loop-light and N. of it a modern doorway. In the N. wall is an early 16th-century window, heavily grated and formerly of two lights; it now has a flat four-centred head and a plastered label. In the S. wall is the recess of the former 14th-century doorway from the chancel; it is now reset in the W. wall; it has double sunk-chamfered jambs and a moulded two-centred arch.

The North Chapel (32¾ ft. by 12½ ft.) has in the E. wall a window of c. 1500 and of three cinquefoiled lights in a segmental-pointed head, with moulded spiays, jambs and label. In the N. wall are two windows similar to that in the E. wall. In the N.W. angle are the two early 16th-century doorways of the rood-loft staircase; the lower one has rebated jambs and four-centred head, the upper has chamfered jambs and a square head. In the S.W. angle and set in a corbelled projection is a doorway at the level of the loft and with chamfered E. jamb and square head; in the thickness of the wall are stairs leading up to the higher level of the main loft across the chancel-arch. In the W. wall is an early 16th-century arch, two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases.

The South Chapel (34 ft. by 15½ ft.) has a modern E. window. Close to the junction with the chancel is a straight joint indicating the position of a former buttress. In the S. wall are three modern windows and below the middle one is a doorway originally of early 16th-century date but reconstructed in the 18th century and covered with Roman cement. In the W. wall is an arch uniform with the W. arch of the N. chapel but much distorted.

The Nave (49 ft. by 20 ft.) has an early 14th-century N. arcade of four bays with two-centred arch of two moulded orders; the columns are of quatrefoil plan with moulded capitals and bases and the responds have attached half-columns; the third column and the fourth arch have been rebuilt in the 15th century to match the earlier work. The 15th-century S. arcade is of four bays with four-centred arches of two moulded orders, the outer continued down the responds and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the columns have each four similar shafts but of these the shaft of the first has been rebuilt and the whole of the second is modern. E. of the arcades on each side is a carved head-corbel, one defaced, to support the former rood-beam. The clearstorey has on each side six windows each of two lights and originally of early 16th-century date but now almost completely restored.

The North Aisle (11 ft. wide) has in the N. wall three windows of c. 1500 and uniform with those in the N. chapel; further W. is the 14th-century N. doorway with restored jambs and two-centred arch of two orders the inner rounded and the outer chamfered; the label is moulded. In the W. wall is a 14th-century window almost completely restored and of three lights, two plain and one cinquefoiled, with tracery in a two-centred head.

The South Aisle (14 ft. wide) has in the S. wall three modern windows; further W. is the 15th-century S. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels, a moulded label and stops carved with half-angels; the head is partly restored; further W. and set high in the wall is a square-headed doorway to the room over the porch. In the W. wall is a modern window and further N. the wall incorporates a buttress of the tower, formerly external.

The West Tower (13 ft. square) is of three stages, the two lower of late 14th-century date and the top stage modern. The moulded plinth has flint chequer-work and above it as far as a modern string-course the wall is faced with alternate bands of brick and knapped flint. The tower-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals and widely spreading bases. The W. window is modern except for the splays and rear-arch; below it is a plain pointed doorway of brick, set low in the wall and probably of the 14th century; it is now blocked. In the N.W. angle is the doorway to the turret staircase with moulded jambs and ogee head. The second stage has in the N., S. and W. walls a quatrefoiled opening with a modern label.

The Roof of the N. chapel is of early 16th-century date and of flat pent form; it has moulded main timbers and curved brackets under the principals, resting on angel-corbels of stone. The roof of the S. chapel is uniform with that of the N. chapel but the main timbers at the E. end are not moulded and there are no brackets on the S. wall. The early 16th-century roof of the nave (Plate, p. 35) is of hammer-beam type and of six bays with seven trusses; the purlins, principals and posts are moulded and the hammer-beams and collars are moulded and embattled and have curved braces beneath them; the spandrels above the collars and hammer-beams are traceried and the moulded wall-plates have carved rosettes; four figures of angels fixed on the hammer-beams are now preserved in the vestry. The roof of the N. aisle is uniform with that of the N. chapel but has two bosses carved as roses at the intersection of the intermediate principals and remains of painted decoration in bands at the E. end. The S. porch has a boarded ceiling with moulded cornice and ribs having flowered bosses at the intersections; much of this appears to be modern but part of it is of late 15th-century date.

Fittings — Bells: five; 2nd by H. Jordan, 15th-century, and inscribed "Benedictum Sit Nomen Domini"; 3rd by Kebyll, 15th-century, and inscribed "In Multis Annis Resonet Campana Johannis."Chairs: In chancel—three with carved backs and lower rail, turned and shaped legs, early 18th-century; one with carved back and arms, turned and shaped legs and rails, early 18th-century. In S. chapel—one with turned legs and back carved with lozenge ornament, early 17th-century; another with plain back and turned legs, late 17th-century. Chest: In N. chapel—of oak with panelled and arcaded front, 17th-century. Clock: On tower—on S. wall externally, clockface of stone, circular dial with radiating figures and carved spandrels, c. 1500. Doors: In N. chapel, in doorway to vestry—of battens with moulded fillets, strap-hinges and drop handle, 16th-century. In S. doorway—of battens with ornamental strap-hinges and pierced scutcheonplate, 15th-century; woodwork pierced with several holes, said to be loopholes made during the siege of 1648. In upper doorway, by S. doorway—of plain battens, with strap-hinges, 15th-century. Floor-slabs: In N. chapel—(1) name covered by organ, 1708. In S. chapel—(2) to Alice, wife of Robert Bell, 1646; (3) to Isaac Sherley, 16(92). Font: octagonal bowl with panelled sides alternately blank shields in quatrefoils and chalice and host, Agnus Dei and flowers, stem with trefoil-headed panels, 15th-century. Indent: In N. chapel—of priest and inscription-plate. Niche: In chancel—in N. wall, with cinquefoiled head, 15th-century. On tower—on S. wall externally, with moulded jambs and cinquefoiled head, 15th-century. Piscinae: In chancel —in S. wall, with moulded jambs and cinquefoiled head, sexfoiled drain, 15th-century, restored. In S. chapel—in S. wall, similar to that in chancel, 15th-century. Plate (Plate, p. xxxv): includes mazer-bowl with silver-gilt rim of 1521, and mid 18th-century inscription, raised silver-gilt moulded boss at bottom with the initials I H C in black letter; large Elizabethan cup with two bands of incised ornament; large cup probably of 1624 and a paten of 1713. Screen: In chancel—under S.W. arch, lower part of parclose with moulded rail and close traceried panels, early 16th-century. Miscellanea: In chancel—low down in N. wall, square quatrefoiled sinking or panel, 15th-century.

Condition—Arcades and walls out of perpendicular and various arches much distorted, building still subject to settlement and needs constant attention.

e(11). Parish Church of St. Michael, Berechurch stands about 2 m. S. of Colchester. The walls are of brick with stone dressings; the roofs are tiled. The church has reused detail of the 14th century but the whole building consisting of Chancel, Nave and West Tower was rebuilt c. 1500. At a slightly later date the North Chapel was added and the chancel widened towards the N. The church was restored in the 19th century when the N. walls of the chapel and nave were rebuilt.

The early 16th-century roof of the N. chapel is noteworthy.


St. Michael's Church, Berechurch, Plan

St. Michael's Church, Berechurch, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (17 ft. by 24¼ ft.) is structurally undivided from the nave. On the E. wall towards the N. is a diagonal buttress not at the true angle and indicating the widening of the chancel. The E. window is of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in an acute two-centred head of plastered brick and is probably of early 17th-century date. In the N. wall is a four-centred arch probably of the 16th century but entirely covered with cement. In the S. wall is a much restored doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch of the 14th century reset.

The North Chapel (17½ ft. by 14½ ft.) has in the E. wall an early 16th-century brick window of three four-centred lights with intersecting tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded label and round stops. The N. wall is modern. In the W. wall is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label all of brick.

The Nave (31¼ ft. by 24¼ ft.) has a modern N. wall. In the S. wall are two modern windows and between them is a reset 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch.

The West Tower (9¾ ft. square) is of three stages with an embattled parapet. The four-centred tower-arch is plastered and of three square orders; the responds have oversailing capitals and moulded bases. The reset late 14th-century W. window is of three cinquefoiled and sub-cusped lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label and head-stops; the reset 14th century W. doorway has moulded and shafted jambs and two-centred arch with a moulded label. The second stage has in the W. wall a reset late 14th-century window of one trefoiled light with moulded label. The bell-chamber has in the E. and N. walls a brick window of c. 1500 and of two four-centred lights under a square head; in the S. and W. walls are reset late 14th-century windows of stone and each of two cinquefoiled and sub-cusped lights, under a square head.

The Roof of the N. chapel is of early 16th-century date and of the hammer-beam type, with moulded rafters; the embattled wall-plates, the hammerbeams, braces and wind-braces are moulded and richly carved with faces, foliage and flowers of varying designs; below the middle of the collarbeams are carved pendants and at the ends of the hammer-beams and at the feet of the wall-posts are carved and painted cartouches of the arms of Audley of Walden, added early in the 17th century.

Fittings—Brass: In N. chapel—on E. wall, to Thomas Awdeley, 1584, and John Awdeley, 1588, inscription only. Doors: In S. doorway—made up of linen-fold and traceried panelling, with straphinges and ring handle, early 16th-century. In doorway to turret staircase, of oak battens with moulded fillets, 16th-century. Font: octagonal bowl, each face quatrefoiled and enclosing a flower, plain stem and moulded base, 15th or early 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. chapel—against N. wall, (1) of Sir Henry Audley and Anne (Packington), his wife, erected 1648, in his lifetime, black and white marble monument (Plate, p. 97) with reclining figure of man in armour, in front of base kneeling figures of two sons and three daughters, at back inscribed tablet with side pilasters pediment and cartouche of arms; on S. wall, (2) to Robert Awdeley, 1624, erected by Katherine (Windsor), his wife; black and white marble tablet with ornamental border and three shields of arms. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Anne, daughter of Robert Barker, 1647. In N. chapel (2) to Catherine, wife of Robert Audley, 1641; with shield of arms. (3) To Robert Awdeley, with three shields of arms. Niches: In N. chapel— in E. wall, two with four-centred heads, early 16th-century, covered with cement. Paving: In N. chapel—of black and white marble squares, 17th-century. Piscina: In chancel—sill with heptagonal drain, date uncertain. Recess: In N. chapel—in S. wall, with four-centred head, early 16th-century, covered with cement. Screen: In archway to N. chapel—of wrought-iron with plain strikes, arched bar over entrance, with partly twisted standards and a finial all terminating in large ornamental fleurs-de-lis, 16th or 17th-century.

Condition—Good, but much ivy on walls.

d(12). Parish Church of St. Andrew, Greenstead, stands on a hill to the E. of the Colne. The walls are of mixed rubble and the W. Tower is of red brick; the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. The W. part of the N. wall of the Nave is perhaps of the 12th century. Late in the 16th century the West Tower was added. The Chancel and the E. part of the nave were refaced but perhaps not entirely rebuilt late in the 18th century and are covered with rough-cast. The South Chapel and Aisle and the North Porch are modern.


St. Andrew's Church, Greenstead, Plan

St. Andrew's Church, Greenstead, Plan

Architectural Description — The Chancel and Nave (53 ft. by 18 ft.) are structurally undivided. The E. wall is probably old up to the springing of the window-head, where there is a set-off; the E. window is of the 18th century. In the N. wall are three modern windows and further W. is the plastered N. doorway with plain jambs and a round head; the N.W. angle has quoins partly of Roman brick and perhaps of the 12th century. The S. arcade is modern.

The West Tower (6 ft. square) is of late 16th-century date and of red brick; it is of three stages with some diapering in black brick and a modern parapet. The plastered tower-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on modern corbels. The 18th-century W. window is set in an opening with moulded stone jambs of reused material. The second stage has in the N., S. and W. walls a window with a plain segmental head and a modern inserted mullion. The bell-chamber has in each wall a similar but larger window with two inserted mullions.

The Roof of the nave is of trussed-rafter type and ceiled, but the old timbers are exposed under the eaves of the N. wall.

Fittings— Floor-slab: In chancel—to Thomas Shaw, M.A., 1692, rector of the parish. Piscina: In chancel—reset in E. wall, with hollow-chamfered jambs and trefoiled head, cinquefoiled drain, late 13th or early 14th-century. Plate: includes an early 17th-century cup. Recesses: In chancel— in E. wall, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head, plastered and perhaps modern; in N. wall, with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed arch, all plastered, probably a 14th-century tomb-recess. In W. tower—in N., S. and W. walls, three, of brick with segmental or three-centred heads, late 16th-century.

Condition—Good, much restored.

b(13). Parish Church of St. Leonard, Lexden, on the S. of the main road, was entirely rebuilt in the 18th and 19th centuries and occupies a site several yards S. of the original church. It contains from the old church the following:—

Fittings—Bells: twelve and clock bell; clock-bell uninscribed but probably mediaeval. Chairs: In chancel—two, one with enriched and inlaid arcaded back, shaped arms and turned legs, early 17th-century, the other with panelled back, fluted top-rail with brackets, shaped arms and turned legs, early 17th-century. Monuments: In churchyard—slabs to (1) Jonathan Woodthorpe, 1683; (2) to Nathaniel Cuffley, 1676 (?); (3) to Penelope (Lucas), wife of Isaac Selfe, 1700, with achievement of arms; headstone (4) to Anne Wilshere, 1707. Plate: includes cup of c. 1670 with shield of the Lucas arms.

a(14). Parish Church of St. Michael, Mile End, stood on the E. side of the road. The old church fell down in the 19th century and a new church was built in the village in 1854–5. On the site are remains of the rubble foundations of the nave about 18 ft. wide and of indeterminate length; the chancel has entirely disappeared. Near the entrance to the churchyard are two pieces of 14th or 15th-century moulded stonework.

b(15). Abbey of St. John the Baptist, gatehouse and precinct wall lies to the S. of St. John's Green. The Abbey was founded late in the 11th century for Benedictine monks by Eudo Dapifer. The buildings have completely disappeared except for the great gatehouse and portions of the precinct wall.


Colchester. St John's Abbey

Colchester. St John's Abbey

The Gatehouse is of two storeys, the walls are partly of rubble and partly of brick with limestone dressings; the roofs are covered with lead and tiles. It was built probably in the 15th century and has been considerably restored.

Elevations—The N. Front (Plate, p. 43) has a moulded plinth, modern parapet and walls faced with knapped flint set in stone panels with cusped heads; this work is mainly original to the ground storey and mainly restored to the upper storey; the restored work includes a series of lily-pots in stone. Flanking the gate are two octagonal turrets of two stages with ornamental cresting, partly restored between the stages and crocketed pinnacles restored at the top. The main outer archway has stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch of two orders with a moulded label and a square-headed outer label with defaced carved spandrels; the small archway further W. is similar but without labels or spandrels; flanking the main arch are two large niches with trefoiled and crocketed canopies, semi-octagonal on plan and each having a ribbed lierne vault with a central rosette and small supporting shafts in the angles; the brackets are moulded and supported by large half-angels holding shields, that on the E. with the Agnus Dei and that on the W. defaced; flanking the niches are shallow buttresses. The upper storey has two windows all modern except the lower part of the jambs of the eastern window; between the windows is a large niche almost entirely restored. The front of the porter's lodge adjoining the gatehouse on the E. has a moulded plinth and remains of the junction of a thin wall extending towards the N. Further E. are remains of an original window with a square head, subsequently used as a doorway and now blocked with bricks. The S. front has an inner archway with stopped jambs and four-centred arch of two hollowchamfered orders with a moulded label and headstops and partly restored. Above it is a window almost entirely modern and the parapet is also modern. The octagonal turrets are finished with crocketed pinnacles.

The Gate Hall has a ribbed lierne vault of stone with moulded ribs and ashlar web; at the middle intersection is a defaced carved boss; the ribs spring from moulded corbels carved with two human heads and two lions, one of them winged; in the N.E. angle are marks of the impact of a cannon-ball, probably dating from the period of the siege in 1648. In the E. wall is a doorway with stop-moulded jambs and four-centred head. In the W. wall is a recess with moulded jambs and four-centred head and further S. is a doorway with similar mouldings and head. The porter's lodge, now of two storeys with attics, has no ancient features internally. The rough S. wall seems to indicate that it formerly extended further in that direction. Adjoining the W. side of the gatehouse was a building now destroyed; from it the staircase in the S.W. turret was entered and has two doorways one above the other, each with a four-centred head.

The Precinct Wall remains standing for a considerable length on the N.E. and S. sides; it is of rubble and 16th-century brick. There are numerous worked and moulded stones built into a wall on the W. side of the site and also into a pier near the middle of the site. Near the E. wall is a round construction entirely composed of vaulting ribs and other fragments. Some 12th-century fragments are incorporated in the internal walls of the gatehouse. Other fragments are incorporated in the churchyard wall of St. Giles's Church and the wall N. of the St. John's Green School.

Condition—Of gatehouse, good.

b(16). Priory Church of St. Botolph, ruins (Plates, pp. 46, 47), stand to the E. of St. Botolph Street. The walls are of flint-rubble and the dressings of Roman brick with a few dressings of Barnack and limestone. The Priory was founded at the close of the 11th century, being the first house of Austin Canons in the country. After the suppression of the priory in 1536 most of the buildings were destroyed, but the nave, or such part of it as was parochial, was retained. The building was entirely ruined in the siege and has ever since remained in that condition. The whole of the existing remains, with the exception of minor alterations, belong to the middle of the 12th century.

The ruins are those of the nave of a conventual church planned on an imposing scale. The use of Roman brick so extensively in a building is unusual and the whole of the wall surfaces were no doubt originally plastered. The detail of the W. front in general and of the W. doorway in particular is noteworthy.

Architectural Description—There are no remains of the eastern arm or crossing of the church.

The Nave (27 ft. wide) has remains of the seven western bays; it was originally at least of eight bays and probably of more. The N. arcade has cylindrical piers with bands of Roman brick and capitals of two projecting courses of the same material; the semi-circular arches, of two plain Roman brick orders, remain only in the third, sixth and seventh bays from the W. The triforium has similar arches of two plain orders and all of these remain except that in the W. bay; between the bays are plain pilasters. The clearstorey has been entirely destroyed. The S. arcade has been uniform with that on the N. but only the three W. bays remain and the triforium arch of the third bay has fallen.

The North Aisle (9¾ ft. wide) has plain pilaster buttresses to the N. wall and similar responds on the inside from which sprang the former quadripartite vault; the transverse arch between the seventh and eight bays from the W. remains. The N. wall extends one bay E. of the arcade and has in this bay an original window with a round head; in the next bay is a window of c. 1280 and formerly of two lights in a two-centred head; the mullion has gone; the sixth bay from the W. has a mid 14th-century window of two cinquefoiled lights in a two-centred head; the second, third and fifth bays from the W. have each remains of a similar window; in the fourth bay is an original doorway with a round arch and jambs formerly of two orders, each with a round shaft; the chamfered bases and part of the inner pair of shafts remain; above the doorway is a round-headed window of the same date.


St Botolph's Priory. Colchester.

St Botolph's Priory. Colchester.

The South Aisle (10 ft. wide) is generally similar to the N. aisle but has remains of a 14th-century window only in the third bay from the W., there are traces of a former doorway in the next bay to the W. and between that and the W. bay the transverse arch of the former vault remains. Across the aisle opposite the fifth column are remains of an inserted wall, indicating the former existence of a chapel.

The West Front (Plate, p. 46) extends as one composition the full width of the nave and aisles and was flanked by the two western towers; of these the northern is ruined to near the ground, while of the southern the lowest stage is standing; of the front itself a fragment at the end of the S. arcade rises almost to the full height but the rest is more or less ruined. In the middle of the front is the W. doorway (Plate, p. 50) with round arch of five orders richly ornamented, the outer with a roll-moulding and the rest with various forms of cheveron ornament; the jambs have each six shafts of which two were coupled and attached to the reveal of the doorway; of the others the outer has a cushion capital and the rest richly carved capitals of the same form; three of these remain on the S. and two on the N. side; above the doorway are remains of raking lines of a low gable of Roman brick; flanking the doorway both inside and out are recesses with round heads and beyond them the two doorways at the ends of the aisles; each of these was of four round orders but of the northern only the base of the jambs remain with four shafts; two of them coupled as in the main W. doorway; of the southern doorway the opening is complete but the stone enrichments and shafts have been removed. Above these doorways and extending across the front are two tiers of wall-arcade with interlacing round arches of Roman brick; at the back of the upper arcade is the triforium passage with small round-headed windows pierced through the back of the arcade. Above this the middle bay has about half of a large round window flanked on the S. by a large round-headed window; in the S. bay at this level are four round-headed recesses in two tiers and above them a round recess. Of the topmost stage of the front only a fragment remains with traces of a wall-arcade.

The North West Tower (12½ ft. by 8 ft.) is ruined to the base of the walls.

The South West Tower (8½ ft. by 8 ft.) is of the same plan as the N.W. tower and has a barrel-vault, groined back on the N. and S. In the N. wall is a round arch to the aisle and in the W. wall is a round-headed window; there was a similar window in the S. wall, but the wall here is much broken away.

The Domestic Buildings lay to the S. of the church, but of these nothing remains except the base of the N. arcade wall of the cloister. A thick rubble wall incorporated in the house, now shop, No. 37 Botolph Street, is probably part of the entrance or gateway to the Priory.

Fittings—Glass: In case in S.W. tower—fragments found in the excavations. Niches: In nave —in first column from E. of N. arcade, with round head and stone jambs, 12th-century. In cloister— in W. bay of N. wall, with cinquefoiled ogee head and crocketed pinnacles at sides, 14th-century. Painting: In N. aisle—on plaster on N. wall, masoned lines, etc., probably 14th-century. Paving: In nave and aisles—remains of paving in situ, slip-tiles with geometric patterns and shields of arms, (a) Clare, (b) a lion passant, also plain red tiles.

Condition—Now a National Monument, in care of H.M. Office of Works.

b(17). St. Helen's Chapel, now a parish hall, stands on the W. side of Maidenburgh Street. The walls are of rubble with bonding courses of brick; the dressings are of limestone and the roofs are tiled. The chapel appears to have been entirely rebuilt late in the 13th century, but under the later walling on the N. side are a few courses of septaria and Roman brick, not quite in the same alignment and either of 12th-century or Roman origin. The building has been restored and partly rebuilt in modern times.

Architectural Description—The Chapel (33¼ ft. by 14½ ft.) has an E. window all modern except the late 13th-century chamfered rear-arch and part of the jambs. In the N. wall are two late 13th-century windows each of one pointed light; the western window has been partly restored. In the S. wall is a similar window, now blocked. In the W. wall are a modern doorway and window; above the doorway is a pointed relieving arch of Roman brick.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Secular

b(18). The Castle (Plates, pp. 51, 55, 58, etc.) stands on the N. side of High Street, between it and the N. wall of the town. It consisted of an inner bailey, with the keep or great tower in the middle and an outer bailey covering the ground between the inner bailey and the N. wall of the town. The High Street appears to have been diverted so as to skirt the outer edge of the moat of the inner bailey.

The Keep or Great Tower was built and the earthworks raised late in the 11th century on the site of what has been provisionally identified as the Forum of the Roman town, the keep standing on substructures of Roman date. The walls of the keep show evidence of two 'builds,' following probably on one another, with only a short interval during which the unfinished walls were provided with a temporary crenelation. No alteration appears to have been made during the rest of the mediaeval period, but there is documentary evidence that the building became ruinous early in the 17th century. The precise date of the destruction of the bailey walls, outer gates, and the filling up of most of the moat is uncertain. In 1693 and the succeeding years the destruction of the keep was begun, but it only extended to the upper storeys. About the middle of the 18th century the existing structures on the tops of the N.E. and S.W. turrets were added. There are modern prison and museum buildings in the S. part of the Keep.


Colchester Castle.

Colchester Castle.

The castle is amongst the most important remains of mediaeval military architecture. In area it is the largest Norman keep now remaining in the country.

The Earthworks now consist of an inner bailey with a strong rampart and ditch on the N. and E. sides, and traces of a rampart and ditch on the W. Morant states that the bailey was formerly surrounded on the S. and W. sides by a strong wall, in which were two gates. The W. wall reached nearly as far as the E. side of St. Helen's Lane (now Maidenburgh Street) and the S. wall almost as far as the High Street. The northern rampart is 32 ft. high above the bottom of the ditch and is thrown up upon a Roman wall. The defences on the S. have been destroyed, but recent excavations on the N. side of the High Street indicate that the ditch ran roughly parallel with the street on this side.

The Keep, or Great Tower (110 ft. by 151½ ft. externally), is now of two storeys with substructures; it was formerly of three storeys or more. The walls are of coursed rubble, consisting of septaria, Roman brick and ragstone, with dressings of Roman brick, Barnack, Caen, and other freestones. The building is of two bays on the N. side and of three on the E. and W., divided by flat pilaster buttresses and having square projecting turrets at three angles and an apse projecting E. from the S.E. angle. The walls have a plain chamfered plinth course of Barnack stone, below which they batter outwards. The lower storey generally has quoins of ashlar while those of the upper storey are chiefly of Roman brick; near the base of the upper storey on the E. and N. faces is a course of Roman bricks set on edge.

Above this course on the E. and W. faces and on the S.W. turret and lining with the termination of the stone quoins is a series of upright joints, probably representing a temporary crenellation erected during a pause in the building operations. The lower or ground storey is entered by an original doorway (Plate, p. 50) at the W. end of the S. front (Plate, p. 51); the round arch is of three moulded orders with a moulded label enriched with a double billet ornament; the jambs are of two orders; the side shafts have been removed but the capitals remain, the inner pair being of ornamental cushion form while the outer have crude volutes and a row of conventional leaves; the capitals also have moulded abaci continued as imposts; portions of one moulded base remain on the W. side. The reveals of the arch are grooved and slotted for a portcullis. This entrance gives access to a lobby with a modern wall on the E. side; from the lobby a round-headed arch opens into the main staircase in the S.W. turret. In the space to the E. of the lobby is a large stone and brick steened well. The main building is divided unequally from N. to S. by a cross-wall (Plate, p. 58) and the larger hall was further subdivided by a longitudinal wall or arcade, now destroyed, except at the S. end. This main hall (Plate, p. 58) had in the N. wall two windows with round heads and deep embrasures of two round-headed orders, the outer of Roman brick and the inner of ashlar; the western of these embrasures has been cut through to form a modern doorway. In the W. wall are three similar windows and embrasures. In the E. wall is a doorway with a round-headed arch of brick and jambs; it opens into the smaller hall (Plate, p. 62) which has in the N. wall one and in the E. wall three embrasures and windows similar to those in the large hall except that the southern has been cut through for a modern doorway; a third window further S. has also been cut through for a doorway, now blocked. S. of the main hall is a room with a plain barrel-vault of rubble and a modernized window in the S. wall. At the S. end of this room is a rectangular sinking (9 ft. by 8 ft.) in the floor, enclosed with stone walls and of doubtful purpose but possibly a cistern. The apse (Plate, p. 54) is divided into five bays externally by pilaster buttresses and contains a barrel-vaulted room with an apsidal end, half-domed; across the W. end is a cross-vault groined into the main vault; there are modernized windows in the E. end and at the S. end of the cross-vault. The two northern turrets are solid at this level.


Colchester Castle

Colchester Castle


Colchester Castle

Colchester Castle

The second storey has an original entrance (Plate, p. 59) in the N. wall of the main hall, now blocked; it has a plain round arch and was approached by an external flight of steps, now destroyed, but of which the marks are visible on the external wall; this entrance is commanded by a narrow loop in the N.W. turret, which also contains a circular staircase to the floor above and two garde-robes, one now blocked. In the N. wall of the main hall are four windows and embrasures similar to those in the ground floor but with larger windows. In the W. wall are three pairs of similar windows and embrasures, but the windows of the northernmost pair have been partly restored; between these pairs of windows are two large fireplaces with rounded backs of herring-bone brickwork and round arches of brick set in a slight projection; they have double flues. The E. wall at this level is entirely of herring-bone brickwork and has a round-headed doorway with reveals also of herring-bone work. In the N. wall of the smaller hall is a window similar to those in the main hall. The N.E. turret has a barrel-vaulted room and entrance and a modernized window in the E. wall and a narrow original window in the N. wall. The main E. wall has four windows similar to those in the main hall; the southernmost is now blocked. S. of the third window is a garde-robe in the thickness of the wall with a small barrel-vaulted lobby adjoining it; there are also two fireplaces similar to those in the main hall. The sub-chapel in the S.E. angle of the building now forms part of the museum, it has a barrel-vault with a half dome over the main apse and groined cross-vaults over the side apses also with half domes. An entrance has at some period been cut at the back of the middle apse on the N. side but the original entrance appears to have been in the western apse on the same side. Here is now a ragged gap, but the original draw-bar hole remains on the E. side. There is also a ragged gap in the W. wall broken through the back of an apsidal bay in the adjoining part of the building. The windows have been modernized except the two side windows of the main apse which are original. W. of the sub-chapel is a large room with modern N. wall and ceiling and modernized windows. In the S. wall is a reset stone fireplace of late 15th or early 16th-century date, with a moulded segmental-pointed arch with traceried spandrels enclosing shields, one blank and one with a merchant's mark. Flanking the fireplace are early 17th-century carved terminal figures of oak supporting a carved shelf and an overmantel of two bays each with a pair of arcaded panels, which are divided and flanked by carved and coupled Ionic columns standing on open pavilions and supporting a richly carved entablature; the woodwork is not in situ and the design is, in places, incomplete. The main staircase in the S.W. turret has a ramped barrel-vault below the stairs (Plate, p. 59).


Plan of Third Storey.

Plan of Third Storey.

The third storey has been destroyed except for the base of the walls. The walls of the chapel in the S.E. angle are standing about 4 ft. high and have plain internal responds round the apse. The comparative thinness of the outer wall compared to the thickness of the walls of the sub-chapel below seems to indicate the former existence of an arcade and ambulatory similar to those of the White Tower, London. The projecting turret on the S. of the apse contains at this level a small side chapel with an eastern apse. Remains of stone paving are visible against the S. wall, further W.

There are several carvings and graffiti in various parts of the building. These include in the main entrance (1) inscription in Lombardic capitals "AL YAT FOR ROGER CHANNBYRLEYN & FOR HYS WYF GOD (Y?)EF HEM AL? GODE (L)YF," mid 14th-century, for Robert Chamberlayn, gaoler, and Elena his wife; (2) four sunk panels each with a trefoiled-head and one with a figure in relief of St. Christopher, another a man with a staff, and the other two with mitres and crosiers, 14th century; on opposite reveal, (3) a trefoil-headed panel with a damaged Crucifixion, 14th or 15th-century. In doorway in cross-wall between main and lesser halls, (4) several roughly cut figures with a spear, bow, etc., a double fleur-de-lis ornament, probably mediaeval and the name JOHN, probably 17th-century. Adjoining doorway on W. face, (5) carved Crucifixion with two attendant figures, 15th-century. In an embrasure in W. wall, (6) design with crossed keys.

The substructures are described under Roman, B (34).

Condition—Of ruins, good; of earthworks, imperfect.

b (19). Town Hall on N. side of High Street is modern but the tower contains a bell (from former Town Hall) inscribed "Thomas Marie Sonat In Ethere Clare" and probably of c. 1400.

High Street, S. side

b (20). House (6 and 7 High Street), now the Colchester Club and formerly the White Hart Inn, about 40 yards E. of Head Street. The house was built probably in the 16th century but has been complete altered externally. Inside the building is a fine late 17th-century staircase with close strings, turned and twisted balusters, moulded rails and square newels. There is also an original fireplace of stone with moulded jambs, four-centred arch and spandrels carved with blank shields and foliage. On the ground floor is a late 17th-century panelled door.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b (21). House and shop (11 High Street), 30 yards E. of (20), is partly of two and partly of three storeys; the walls are timber-framed but the house has a late 18th-century front of brick. The house was built in the 17th century and at the back is a wing of c. 1700 forming practically a separate building. The back gable of the main block has original moulded barge-boards. The detached wing has on the S. side a modillioned eaves-cornice and inside is a complete panelled room of c. 1700 with bolection-moulding and a dentilled cornice; all the panels have rough paintings of architecture or landscape. The fireplace in the W. wall has a panelled overmantel flanked by pilasters carved with conventional foliage.

Condition—Good.

b(22). House and shop (12 High Street), E. of (21), is of three storeys; partly of brick and partly of plastered timber-framing. The cellar is probably mediaeval but the house was rebuilt c. 1700. The front is of brick with a band between the upper storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice. Inside the building the cellar has the front and part of one side wall of rubble; the floor above is supported on heavy chamfered beams. On the upper floors is some early 17th-century panelling and the top part of the staircase is of c. 1700 with heavy twisted balusters and moulded string and rail. The E. boundary wall at the rear of the house is of brick and probably of late 16th-century date.

Condition—Good.

b(23). House (13 High Street), E. of (22), was rebuilt late in the 18th century but the cellars are partly of 16th or 17th-century brickwork.

Condition—Rebuilt.

b(24). House, now two houses and offices (23 and 24 High Street), 40 yards E. of (23), is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The house was built probably in the 16th century but there is little to indicate the date. At the back of No. 23 is a detached brick building of c. 1660 with moulded band-course between the storeys and between it and the main building is a gallery formerly open and divided into two bays by an oak post in the form of a column with a moulded capital and egg ornament. One window at the back of No. 24 has a 17th-century moulded bracket beneath the sill. Inside the building both parts have some late 16th or early 17th-century panelling. The back staircase of No. 24 is of c. 1600 and has a moulded rail, symmetrically turned balusters and similar but larger newels with ball caps; a doorway at the foot of the stairs has a rounded head of the same date. The detached building has on the S. wall a reset overmantel, made up of early 17th-century material; it has arcaded panels and moulded pilasters carved with two full length and one terminal figure.

Condition—Fairly good.

b(25). House, now shops (28–30 High Street), 35 yards E. of (24), is of three storeys with attics, partly timber-framed and plastered and partly of brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century and has a modillioned eaves-cornice to part of the front. Inside the building is part of an early 18th-century staircase with close string and twisted balusters.

Condition—Good.

b(26). House, now shop (34 High Street), 20 yards E. of (25), is of two storeys with attics, partly timber-framed and plastered and partly of brick; the roofs are tiled. The cellar is probably mediaeval but the house was rebuilt early in the 18th century and has modillioned eaves-cornices both in front and behind. Inside the building the cellar has rubble walls and a lamp-niche in the S. wall; incorporated in the E. wall is a section of Roman walling. In the shop is some reused late 16th-century panelling.

Condition—Good.

b(27). House and shops (35–37 High Street), E. of (26), has been completely rebuilt except the cellar which is of the 14th century. In a rubble wall about 12 ft. S. of the street frontage is an original doorway, with chamfered jambs, two-centred arch and moulded label; E. of the doorway is a square-moulded bracket and W. of it is a fireplace, probably of the 16th century, with chamfered jambs and a back built of alternate courses of brick and tiles; above the modern lintel is a square vent-hole.

Condition—Good.

b(28). House and shop (38 High Street), E. of (27), has a late 14th-century cellar. The house above is perhaps of the 17th century but has been entirely altered. The cellar has rubble walls and a cross-wall running E. and W.; the ceiling has heavy beams resting on posts with massive curved brackets. In the cross-wall is an original doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch; the crown is broken away and the doorway has been reset c. 1500; an original splay probably of this doorway remains further W. The cross-wall has also two niches with pointed heads and a moulded and embattled bracket of c. 1500. The front cellar has two recesses with curved backs and a lamp-niche with a triangular head.

Condition—Good.

b(29). House and shop (39 High Street), E. of (28), is of two storeys with attics partly timberframed; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 16th century but has an 18th-century block on the street front. At the back is a projecting wing with remains of elaborate pargeting of c. 1650 on the E. face, consisting of floral scrolls and the initials R. C. D. Inside the building the cellars have mediaeval rubble walls and a pointed niche on the E. side; the floor above has heavy beams and posts with curved brackets. On the first floor one room has original and elaborately moulded ceiling-beams and joists. In the wing is a 16th-century window with moulded jambs and mullion and diamond-shaped intermediate mullions. The staircase landing has a painted dado of late 17th-century date, representing balusters and handrail.

Condition—Good.

b(30). Red Lion Hotel (Plate, p. 63), 10 yards E. of (29), is of three storeys, with cellars; the walls are timber-framed and plastered and the roofs are tiled. The cellars have rubble walls and two doorways probably of c. 1400. Of the house, the earliest part is the present kitchen and the bedroom above it which formed part of a two-storeyed hall of c. 1470 with the ' screens' at the W. end; there are slight indications of a former cross-wing at the E. end, but if any cross-wing existed at the W. end it must have stood on the adjoining property. About 1500 the house appears to have been turned into an inn; the main block on the street front was built, with two lighting areas, at the back of it and a cart entrance in the middle; to allow of this entrance communicating with the inn-yard at the back, the eastern part of the older hall was pulled down and a new two-storeyed hall built on the W. side of the courtyard. Probably late in the 16th century the E. lighting area was incorporated in the building and late in the 17th century a staircase was inserted between the old and the later halls. Probably in the 18th century the building was extended S. on both sides of the courtyard and still further extensions were made in the 19th century. Early in the 20th century the building was carefully restored.

The house is an important and richly ornamental example of late 15th-century work.


Red Lion Hotel

Red Lion Hotel

Elevations — The North Front has exposed timber-framing and the two upper storeys and the eaves project; the roof is finished towards the street with four hipped gables, probably of the 18th century. The projection of the first floor has been under-built, except the entrance archway, which is of c. 1500, with moulded posts and a four-centred arch in a square head; the spandrels are carved with figures of St. George and the dragon; E. of the archway is a large curved bracket, to the overhang, with carved spandrels and terminating in a carved face; the moulded bressumer has other carved faces indicating where the former brackets occurred. The second storey is divided into bays by eight shafts with little tabernacles at the top and moulded bases; from these shafts spring carved brackets terminating in faces and supporting the moulded bressumer above; the windows on this storey are all modern but the blocked openings of two original windows remain; the wall-face between the studding is ornamented with two ranges of traceried panels, of which twenty-nine remain in the lower range and six in the upper range. The third storey is divided into bays by shafts of simpler form than those of the storey below; the moulded bressumer of the eaves is supported on curved brackets, four of them carved. The wall-space has two ranges of traceried panels of which sixteen remain in the lower range and three in the upper; of the latter, two have a painted decoration of zig-zag bands in white, slatecolour and brown.

The W. Lighting Area is built over on the ground floor, but above this level the E. and W. sides are treated in a similar manner to the N. Front. Six traceried panels are preserved on each side. The N. side of the area is covered by modern work.

The Wing on the W. side of the courtyard is of two storeys and the upper storey projects on the E. side; it rests on curved brackets springing from buttressed shafts, with moulded capitals, all of c. 1500.

Interior—The Cellars have rubble outer walls and a series of brick piers and arches inserted to carry the cartway above. In the N. wall are two doorways of c. 1400, with double chamfered jambs; the former arches have been mostly destroyed, but the jambs retain their old doorhooks.

All the original rooms of the ground and first floors of the front block except the shop but including the cartway have moulded ceilingbeams and joists of c. 1500 and there are similar joists in the smoking room on the E. side of the courtyard. The former E. lighting area forms the back part of the lounge on the ground floor and has a modern timbered ceiling; above, it is occupied by a modern staircase and has in the W. wall a window of c. 1500 and formerly of eight lights, with moulded mullions and two-centred heads; half of this window has been removed and the remainder now forms an unplastered partition. On the second floor above this window is another with bar-mullions set diagonally; this window has been partly cut away for a late 16th-century doorway with a four-centred head. In the E. wall of the front block, at this level is a blocked window of three lights with moulded mullions and two-centred heads; it is set in the wall with the mouldings reversed as though intended to light the adjoining building, but this is probably only a carpenter's error.

The original Hall block of c. 1470 reduced in length at the E. end now forms the Kitchen and a bedroom above it. The Kitchen has moulded wall-plates, longitudinal beams and tie-beams; the tie-beam has curved brackets with spandrels richly carved with conventional pomegranate ornament, and springing from much damaged shafts with moulded capitals. The plates and longitudinal beam run into the E. wall and this with the spacing of the bays shows that the Hall formerly extended about 8 ft. further E. Near the W. end of the room is a plain tie-beam with mortices for a partition on the soffit; it probably formed part of the 'screen.' The bedroom above the Kitchen is similar in arrangement and ornament to the room below, but the details are better preserved. The window in the N. wall has below it an original moulded sill, and in the S. wall is an original window of one light with a four-centred head. A room on the first floor of the former E. cross-wing has a moulded ceiling-beam of c. 1470, its position indicating that the cross-wing was three bays long. The roof of the original Hall has a plain king-post truss; the rafters on the N. side retain some of the lathing for the former tiles before the addition of the roof of the front block c. 1500.

The Block on the W. side of the courtyard is separated from the old Hall by a staircase of c. 1700 with turned balusters, close string and moulded handrail; the ceiling at the foot of the staircase has reused moulded joists of c. 1500. The upper storey of this block was originally open to the roof and has a central truss dividing it into two bays; the truss has a king-post of c. 1500 with moulded capital and base.

Condition—Good.

b(31). House, two tenements and shops (45–47 High Street), E. of (30), is of three storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The cellars below the house are of the 14th century but the house itself was rebuilt probably in the 16th century and much altered early in the 18th century. The wing at the back is possibly of the 17th century. The front has an 18th-century eaves-cornice. At the back the upper storey projects and has a moulded bressumer and carved brackets. The E. face of the back wing has remains of good 17th-century pargeting with strapwork and foliage in panels. Inside the building the cellar has rubble walls and a cross-wall about 12 ft. back from the street frontage. In the cross-wall is a mid 14th-century doorway with widely chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed arch with a moulded label and one head-stop with a liripipe hood; further E. is a window of the same date and of a single pointed light; W. of the doorway is a pointed niche. The shop on the W. has some 16th-century moulded ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good.

b (32). House and shops (48 and 49 High Street), E. of (31), are entirely modern except the cellars which are mediaeval and have rubble walls. The cellar under No. 49 has traces of former ceilingbeams dividing it into four bays and in the N. wall is a rough stone corbel.

Condition—Good.

b(33). Houses and shops (56 and 57 High Street), 45 yards E. of (32), have been practically rebuilt about the middle of the 18th century but stand upon mediaeval cellars with rubble walls. That under No. 57 has heavy ceiling-beams with one curved brace and was formerly of three bays.

Condition—Good.

b(34). House (65 High Street), 35 yards E. of All Saints Church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are partly timber-framed and plastered and partly of red brick; the roofs are tiled. The back wing was built probably in the 17th century but the front block was rebuilt early in the 18th century. The N. front is of brick and has an early 18th-century modillioned eaves-cornice. The upper storey projects on the W. side of the back wing. Inside the building the early 18th-century staircase has a close string, turned balusters and square newels; in the back wing is a door of moulded battens.

Condition—Good.

b (35). House, three tenements and shops (69–72 High Street), about 50 yards N.E. of All Saints Church, is of three storeys, partly timber-framed and partly of brick; the roofs are tiled. The back wing of the front block was built early in the 17th century and further S. is a block of the same date and formerly detached; the block between these two is probably of late 17th-century date and early in the 18th century the block fronting the street was rebuilt. There are extensive modern additions. The N. front is of brick and has an early 18th-century moulded band between the two lower storeys. Inside the building are some 17th-century ceiling-beams and two doorways of the same date with heavy frames.

Condition—Good.

b (36). House and shop, 20 yards E. of (35), is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 17th century but was refronted in brick late in the 18th century. At the back is an early 18th-century addition with a staircase having twisted balusters and square newels. The cellars have heavy ceiling-beams and some of the ceiling-beams are exposed in the main block.

Condition—Good.

b (37). House, called the Minories, E. of (36), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The back wing is of early 16th-century date as are the cellars under the main block, which was itself rebuilt and fronted with brick late in the 18th century. Inside the building the cellars of the front block have rubble walls, a number of arched recesses and heavy ceiling-beams. The cellars below the back wing have brick walls with arched recesses and a pavement of bricks set herring-bone wise. In the ground storey of this wing is an original moulded ceiling-beam and on the first floor is an original doorway of moulded and V-shaped battens with moulded frame and muntins. The staircase is of c. 1600 and has symmetrically turned balusters and square newels with incised ornament; there is also some late 16th-century panelling.

Condition—Good.

N. side

b(38). Winsleys, house 130 yards W.N.W. of St. James' Church, is of two storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 18th century and has on the S. front an original eaves-cornice, with carved modillions.

Condition—Good.

b (39). Gate House and house adjoining (Plate, p. 122) (83 and 84 High Street), W. of (38), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The main block was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but in the second half of the latter century the S. front was rebuilt and an L-shaped addition made on the N. side. The upper storey projects on the whole of the S. front and has a moulded bressumer and large shaped and moulded brackets; a wall-post at the E. end has a panel with the initials and date WBS 1680 (probably for William Boys and Sarah his wife). The four gables also project and have a moulded bressumer and barge-boards with carved pendants. The wall faces below the gables are treated with rusticated plasterwork. There are four projecting bay-windows on the first floor, and in the middle is an oval window with a moulded frame. There are also three projecting bays on the ground floor, the space under the fourth above being occupied by a cartway. Inside the building there is some late 17th-century panelling and a door of the same date.

Condition—Good.

b(40). House, now two houses (85 and 86 High Street), W. of (39), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 16th century and extended W. in the 17th century. There is a late 18th-century wing at the back. The upper storey formerly projected both at the front and the back of the main block but has been under-built. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams and there is an original doorway with hollow-chamfered frame and four-centred head.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(41). House and shop (105 High Street), 170 yards W. of (40), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century but has been much altered. Inside the building are exposed ceilingbeams.

Condition—Good.

b(42). House and shop (106 High Street), at corner of Museum Street and W. of (41), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the S. and W. sides and has a curved diagonal bracket at the angle. In the cellar of the building is a fragment of brick and rubble walling.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b (43). House and shop (108 High Street), at W. corner of Maidenburgh Street, is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 16th century, but was entirely remodelled c. 1700. The second storey projected on the E. and S. sides, but has been under-built on the S.; at the angle is an original heavy curved bracket. Inside the building the S. room on the first floor has an elaborate early 18th-century plaster ceiling with moulded panels and in the middle an oval wreath of foliage with acanthus ornament and enclosing sprigs of oak and a sunflower. The space from which the main staircase has been removed has an enriched cornice and a panelled plaster ceiling with a wreath of foliage; on the E. side is a narrow gallery formerly with a balustrade towards the staircase; the gallery has a panelled soffit.

Condition—Fairly good, much altered.

b (44). Swan Hotel, 10 yards W. of (43), is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 17th century and has a cellar with brick walls and heavy ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b (45). House and shop (111 High Street), W. of (44), is partly of three and partly of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The back wing is of 15th or early 16th-century date, but the front block was rebuilt early in the 18th century. The S. front has an early 18th-century modillioned eaves-cornice. The upper storey of the back wing projects on the W. side and has an original roof with king-post trusses.

Condition—Good.

b(46). House and shop (113 High Street), 10 yards W. of (45), is of three storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century, but has been almost entirely altered.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(47). George Hotel, 10 yards W. of (46), is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. There are remains in the middle of the house of a 15th-century building with a main block and cross-wings; the cellars also are mediaeval but probably of rather later date. The building was probably brought into its present form in the 17th century when the earlier house was entirely enveloped and wings were added at the back. Inside the building the cellars consist of two parallel rooms running E. and W. and each of six bays with heavy ceiling-beams and rubble walls; in the dividing wall is an early 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head of brick; in the same wall are two fireplaces with four-centred heads and each with a vent-hole above the arch; there are also two early 16th-century niches in the cellar, one with a two and one with a four-centred head. On the ground floor the kitchen has a ceiling-beam with a curved brace resting on a corbel carved with a bearded head. On the second floor at the head of the stairs is an original king-post (Plate, p. xxxvii) with a moulded base and embattled capital; it apparently formed part of the middle truss in the hall of the 15th-century house. In the roof are the original moulded wall-plates of the former E. cross-wing; an early 16th-century beam carved with foliage and nude figure is incorporated in the later roof.

Condition—Good.

b(48). House and shop (118 High Street), 20 yards W. of (47), is of three storeys, timberframed and plastered, with modern brick front; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 15th or early in the 16th century but has no ancient features except the roof which is of two bays with a plain king-post truss, central purlin and curved wind-braces.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(49). House, two tenements and shops (119 and 120 High Street), W. of (48), is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered, with a modern brick front; the roofs are tiled. The cellar is probably mediaeval, with rubble walls and heavy beams dividing it into four bays. The superstructure is perhaps of the 17th century and contains some late 16th-century panelling.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(50). House and shops, 80 yards W. of (49), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century or perhaps earlier. The upper storey projects on the S. front.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(51). Angel Hotel, W. of (50), is modern except for the cellar and a two-storeyed block at the back which is of early 17th-century date. The upper storey of this block projects on the W. side on two brackets richly carved with foliage and a bearded head. Inside the building is some original panelling and the cellar has mediaeval walls of rubble; in one corner is a round stone well-shaft and there is a stone doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; there are three later openings of brick and the cellar has heavy ceilingbeams and joists.

Condition—Good.

b(52). House and shop (145 High Street), 90 yards W. of (51), is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century but has been refronted and a one-storeyed extension built at the back. The two upper storeys project at the back and both of these have original shaped and moulded brackets; the higher projection has a moulded bressumer.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(53). House and offices, W. of (52), is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered, with a modern front; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century and has a projecting wing at the back. The W. side of this wing has remains of good pargeting enriched with foliage and scroll-work in panels. Inside the building is some original panelling.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(54). House and offices (149 High Street), 15 yards W. of (53), is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century and has an open cartway at the W. end. The upper storey formerly projected in front and on one side of the cartway is an original post with an attached embattled capital with a curved bracket above it. The adjoining house on the E. may have been part of the same building.

Condition—Poor, much altered.

b(55). House and shop (151 High Street), 10 yards W. of (54), is of three storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 16th century but the timber-framing in front has been renewed except one curved bracket. The upper storeys both project in front.

Condition—Good, much altered.

Head Street, W. side

b(56). House and shop, No.21, at S. corner of Church Street North, is of two storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the E. and N. sides with a heavy curved bracket at the angle. The projection on the N. has an original moulded bressumer and curved brackets springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(57). House, now offices and formerly the King's Head Inn, stands back from the road about 60 yards S.W. of (56). It is of two storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The main block was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century but it was remodelled in the 18th century. The base of the chimney-stack at the N. end is original. Inside the building are some original ceiling-beams and panelling. The building N. of the front courtyard and also part of the King's Head Inn is timber-framed and plastered, and probably of the same date.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(58). House on street front S.E. of (57), also part of the King's Head Inn, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered and with a modern front; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 16th or 17th century but little of the original work is visible.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(59). House, at S. corner of Church Street South, is modern but has an early 17th-century wing at the back, of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered. The upper storey projects on the N. side and under the eaves are original shaped and moulded brackets. The projecting gable at the W. end has a moulded bressumer.

Condition—Good.

E. side

b(60). House (54 Head Street), nearly opposite (58), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered. The front is modern. The roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century. The upper storey projects at the back on shaped and moulded brackets, below which are Ionic pilasters carved with terminal figures.

Condition—Good, much altered.

b(61). House (60 Head Street), S. of (60), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and plastered and with an 18th-century front; the roofs are tiled. The cellar is probably mediaeval but the upper part of the house appears to date from the end of the 17th century. It is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. The back has a coved eaves-cornice of plaster, returned round the wings. Inside the building the cellar has rubble walls and heavy hollow-chamfered ceiling-beams with curved braces; the main room (now cut up) is of five bays and there is a small projecting room on the W. The staircase to the cellar has some reused 17th-century panelling. The upper part of the house contains much bolection-moulded panelling of c. 1690 and one room on the ground floor has a fireplace with a marble architrave of the same date.

Condition—Good.

Monuments (62–264).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. Many of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless stated.

North Hill, E. side

b(62). House and shop (2 North Hill), 35 yards N. of St. Peter's Church.

b(63). House (8 North Hill), 50 yards N. of (62), has a modern front block. At the back there are additions, extending eastwards; the middle one is of the 16th century and has a projecting upper storey on the N. side; the other two are of the 17th century the easternmost being of brick. There is a blocked five-light window in the S. wall of the middle building.

b (64). House and shop (12 North Hill), 45 yards N. of (63), is probably of the 16th century and has, at the S. end, a cartway into Crispin Alley.

b(65). House and shops (13–15 North Hill), N. of (64), was built in the 15th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S. In the 17th century the W. part of the S. wing was rebuilt and the N. wing of the street front added. The upper storey projects on the S. side of the E. wing; in the ground storey is an original window of two cinquefoiled ogee lights with a square head; further W. is a blocked doorway with a four-centred head. In the N. wall of the same wing are two late 16th-century windows one of five and one of three lights and with moulded mullions. Inside the building on the first floor part of the original block has a moulded and embattled wall-plate. One room has remains of painted decoration, foliage and geometric patterns, in green, yellow and red and of late 16th-century date. The roof of the E. wing has original king-post trusses.

b(66). Durlston House (18 North Hill), 25 yards N. of (65), is perhaps of the 16th century but has been much altered; there is a 17th-century kitchen wing at the back.

b(67). House and shop (19 and 20 North Hill), N. of (66), has a front block of the 16th century, refaced with brick in the 18th century; at the back is a long early 17th-century wing and a later wing in the angle between it and the front block.

b(68). House (24 North Hill), 25 yards N. of (67), was built probably in the 16th century but has an 18th-century brick front.

Condition—Poor.

b(69). Marquis of Granby Inn, N. of (68), was built early in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S.; there is a modern addition in the angle.

The E. wing has particularly good carved detail.

The upper storey projects on the W. front and also on the N. side of the E. wing; below it are two original windows each of six lights, with moulded mullions. At the S. end of the S. wing is a passage with original moulded ceiling-beams and two doorways (Plate, p. 100) with four-centred heads and spandrels carved with foliage and grotesque heads. Inside the building the main room of the E. wing has original moulded ceilingbeams and joists, it is divided into two bays by a heavy transverse beam (Plate, p. xxxvii) richly carved with acanthus foliage, birds, beasts, boys, griffons, eagles and grotesques; in the middle is a shield with the initials H. M. or W., intertwined with a knot; the beam rests on wall-posts with capitals carved with figures in early 16th-century costume; the wall-plates have acanthus enrichment. The modern fireplace has an original lintel, moulded and carved with seven medallions of male and female heads. A cupboard in the room has linen-fold panelling. The other rooms on the ground floor have original moulded ceiling-beams and joists and one beam has in the middle a cartouche carved with a crowned grotesque head and foliage. On the first floor the main room in the E. wing has an original moulded ceiling-beam.

b(70). House, four tenements and shops (26–29 North Hill), N. of (69), was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, but has been much altered. The upper storey projects on most of the W. front. Inside the building is an original doorway with a four-centred head.

W. side

b(71). House and shop, nearly opposite (68), was built early in the 16th century but this part of the building is now largely pulled down, only the W. and S. walls remaining; the rest of the house was rebuilt probably in the 17th century. The ruined building has an original moulded door-frame in the E. wall and two original doorways in the S. wall, both blocked; the passage between it and the 17th-century part has original moulded ceilingbeams.

Condition—Partly ruinous.

b(72). House (45 and 46 North Hill), 50 yards S. of (71), is partly of three storeys; it was built in the second half of the 16th century. The front block was remodelled early in the 18th century and has a coved eaves-cornice of plaster. The upper storeys project on the N. side of the back wing and have original shaped brackets.

b(73). Cock and Pye Inn and house (55 and 56 North Hill), 75 yards S. of (72), is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. The N.W. wing is probably of 15th or early 16th-century date with a 17th-century extension on the W. The S.W. wing, extending to the street, was built late in the 16th century. The rest of the building was rebuilt and the whole refronted in the 18th century. The upper storey projects on the N. side of the original N.W. wing and on part of the N. side of the S.W. wing; on the first floor of the latter is the moulded sill of a projecting 16th-century window with two shaped brackets.

b(74). House (57 North Hill), S. of (73), has a projecting upper storey on the E. front. The door to the cellar is original and of moulded battens. Inside the building is a moulded ceiling-beam, probably reused.

b(75). St. Peter's Vicarage, 15 yards S. of (74), has walls of red brick. It was largely rebuilt late in the 18th century except for a portion of an early 18th-century house at the S.W. angle. The staircase is original but not in situ; it has twisted balusters, square newels and moulded close string.

b(76). House (60 North Hill), S. of (75), has an early 17th-century back wing. The front block was rebuilt about the middle of the 18th century but incorporates an earlier staircase. Inside the building the early 18th-century staircase is of the dog-legged type with square panelled newels, turned balusters and moulded strings. There is also some moulded panelling probably of the same date. The back wing has original ceiling-beams resting on an octagonal post with a moulded capping. There are several old battened doors.

b(77). House (63, North Hill), 25 yards S.W. of (76), has been much altered. Inside the building is a carved bracket of early 16th-century type, reused.

b(78). House (64 and 65 North Hill), S.E. of (77), is of three storeys and has been almost completely altered.

b(79). Waggon and Horses Inn, S. of (78), is of three storeys, has been very much altered and restored; the upper storeys project on the E. front.

b(80). House and shop (67 North Hill), S. of (79), is of three storeys. The second wing projects on the E. front.

b(81). Range of tenements on N. side of Cistern Yard and 45 yards W. of (70). The western part was built probably in the 17th century but the eastern is of early 18th-century date. The whole range stands partly on the N. wall of the town. A doorway at the E. end of the S. side has an oval plaster panel, above it, with the date 1702. On the N. side the upper storey of the W. block projects. Inside one tenement are two 15th-century moulded beams, reused.

Northgate Street, N. side

b(82). House, two tenements (4 and 6 Northgate Street), 45 yards E. of North Hill.

b(83). House (10 Northgate Street), 15 yards E. of (82).

b(84). House, now tenements (34 Northgate Street), 70 yards E. of (83). The walls are of red brick. It was built c. 1620 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. The storeys are divided by a moulded brick string and the eaves-cornice has shaped modillions also of brick. There are many original windows which formerly had moulded mullions and square moulded labels; some are now blocked but one, on the E. side, is of four lights.

Condition—Bad.

S. side

b(85). House, two tenements (13 and 15 Northgate Street), 35 yards W.S.W. of (84), has a projecting upper storey on the N. front, supported by three heavy shaped brackets.

West Stockwell Street, E. side

b(86). House (Plate, p. 63), (3–6 W. Stockwell Street), 55 yards N. of High Street, was built late in the 15th century. The front part of No. 6 appears to be of rather earlier date and to have been the original Hall with a two-storeyed wing at the back. The double-gabled building (No. 3) incorporates the 'screens' passage at the N. end and has a projecting upper storey with a moulded bressumer and curved brackets springing from shafts with capitals carved as angels; the timberframing of this part is exposed and has been partly restored but the framing for the windows is mostly original. The northernmost light on the ground floor, and the N. half of the window above it have original traceried heads. The two doorways have four-centred heads; that on the N. opens into the former 'screens,' a passage with three original doorways across it and two on the S. side all with four-centred heads. Inside the building the front block of No. 6 has an original moulded wall-plate and remains of the former king-post roof-truss; the back wing has an original king-post truss. The roof of the N. part of No. 3 is similar. Braced beams in the S. wall of the front rooms show that the building formerly extended further to the S. It was said to have formed part of the Angel Inn.

b(87). House (10 W. Stockwell Street), 15 yards N.W. of St. Martin's Church, has a 16th-century wing at the back forming two tenements; the front block was rebuilt early in the 18th century. The back wing has an original window of three lights with moulded mullions.

Condition—Poor.

b(88). House (13 W. Stockwell Street), 10 yards N. of (87), has a projecting upper storey on the W. front.

b(89). House (14 W. Stockwell Street), N. of (88), was built probably in the 16th century and has a cross-wing at the N. end. The upper storey projects on the N. and W. sides of the cross-wing with a 17th-century shaped bracket. The gable has moulded barge-boards.

b(90). House, three tenements (14a–16 W. Stockwell Street), N. of (89), has a projecting upper storey on the W. front.

b(91). House (17 W. Stockwell Street), N. of (90). The former projecting upper storey on the W. front has been under-built.

b(92). Stockwell Arms Inn, N. of (91), was built probably late in the 15th or early in the 16th century but the S. part of the house has been either rebuilt or completely altered. There is a cross-wing at the N. end with a projecting upper storey on the N. and W. sides, with a moulded and embattled bressumer; at the angle is a heavy diagonal bracket springing from a moulded capital carved with a defaced angel; the subsidiary brackets are curved and spring from small shafts with moulded capitals; the shafts are mostly cut away or buried. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams.

b(93). House, three tenements (20–22 W. Stockwell Street), 10 yards N. of (92). The upper storey projects and is gabled in the middle and W. bays of the S. front.

b(94). House, two tenements (23 and 24 Stockwell Street), 10 yards N.W. of (93), was built in the 15th century and has a cross-wing at the E. end. The upper storey projects on the S. front on curved brackets. The E. side has exposed timberframing and an original doorway with a four-centred head.

Condition—Bad.

b(95). House, three tenements (25–27 W. Stockwell Street), N.W. of (94). The upper storey projects on the S.W. front of the two eastern tenements.

b(96). House (Plate, p. 65), three tenements (29–32 W. Stockwell Street), 15 yards N.W. of (95), is of three storeys and was built c. 1600. The upper storeys project on the W. front and there are three gables; the projections have elaborately shaped brackets and the upper one a moulded bressumer.

b(97). House, two tenements (35 W. Stockwell Street and 21 Northgate Street), at corner, 25 yards N. of (96), has an early 18th-century wing on the S. side. On the S. side is an original shaped bracket to the eaves.

Condition—Poor.

W. side

b(98). House, two tenements (36 and 37 W. Stockwell Street), opposite (97), was built early in the 16th century and has a cross-wing at the N. end. Inside the building are some original moulded joists and some 17th-century doors of moulded battens.

Condition—Partly ruinous.

b(99). House (Plate, p. 123), two tenements and shop (53 and 54 W. Stockwell Street), opposite (90), was built in the 15th century with cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The N. cross-wing was rebuilt in the 17th century. The upper storey projects at the E. ends of the cross-wings on curved brackets. Inside the building are original cambered tie-beams and wall-posts.

b(100). House (Plate, p. 123) (55 W. Stockwell Street), S. of (99), has a projecting upper storey on the E. front.

b(101). House (Plate, p. 123) (56 W. Stockwell Street), S. of (100), was built in the 16th century and has an extension of c. 1700 at the back. The upper storey projects at the E. end with curved brackets.

b(102). House (62 W. Stockwell Street), 45 yards S. of (101), was built c. 1600 but the S. part of the house is a late 17th-century addition. The front is modern. Inside the building is some early 17th-century panelling and an overmantel of four arched bays resting on pilasters and having a strapwork frieze. There is one original window, with moulded mullions and now blocked.

Stockwell S. side

b(103). House, two tenements and formerly Workhouse, 15 yards E. of (92).

b(104). House, two tenements, E. of (103).

East Stockwell Street, W. side

b(105). House, nowthree tenements Nos. 30–32 and 30 yards S. of Stockwell. The S. tenement is probably part of a late 14th-century house and includes the 'screens' of a former Hall extending towards the N. In the 15th century a wing was added W. of the original block and about the middle of the 16th century a three-storeyed building replaced the former Hall. The N. tenement is of c. 1500 and may have been a separate building. At the back is a small almost detached wing, partly of the 17th century. The upper storey projects at different levels on the whole of the E. front; the gable of the middle block also projects and has a 16th-century moulded bressumer. The former 'screens' has at the E. end an original doorway, but with the head removed. Further S. are remains of the head of a 15th-century doorway or window. On the N. side of the W. wing is a 15th-century window with diamond-shaped mullions; further W. are two late 17th-century windows with solid frames. Inside the building the former 'screens' has in the S. wall two original doorways with moulded jambs and two-centred heads; in the N. wall are two square-headed doorways, one of the 15th or 16th century and one later; at the W. end of the passage is a doorway with an ogee head, probably original. The middle block has 16th-century moulded ceiling-beams. The W. wing has a 16th-century fireplace with a moulded lintel and on the first floor are remains of a 15th-century king-post roof.

b(106). House, two tenements, Nos. 38 and 39, 25 yards S. of (105), was built in the 16th century with a cross-wing at the S. end. The upper storey projects at the E. end of the cross-wing; a door on this side is of moulded battens.

b(107). Stockwell House, 60 yards S. of (106), has an early 18th-century front of brick with a moulded band-course between the storeys. Inside the building are some early 17th-century moulded ceiling-beams and moulded wall-posts. The staircase of c. 1700 has twisted balusters and a moulded rail. There is also an early 17th-century door of moulded battens.

E. side

b(108). House, No. 14, 25 yards N. of St. Helen's Lane, has a projecting upper storey on the W. front.

Condition—Poor.

b(109). The Gables, house opposite (107), has a projecting upper storey at the W. end. Inside the building the wall running N. and S. on the W. of the staircase is of rubble.

b(110). House, 60 yards S. of (109), has been much altered.

b(111). House, No. 1, and shop on E. side of George Street, 20 yards N. of (46), has a projecting upper storey on the S.E. side. In the cellar is a rubble wall running E. and W.

Maidenburgh Street, W. side

b(112). House, No. 61, 55 yards N. of St. Helen's Chapel, is part of a larger 15th-century house. The roof has an original king-post truss.

Condition—Poor.

b(113). House, two tenements, Nos. 51 and 52, 45 yards N. of (112), has a projecting upper storey on the E. and S. sides, with three heavy shaped brackets in front.

E. side

b(114). Cottage and shop, No. 10, 15 yards S.E. of St. Helen's Chapel, was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century and no doubt formed part of a larger building. The front is of modern brick. Inside the building the shop and the room behind it, formerly one room, have a rich plaster ceiling of c. 1600 and divided into panels by intersecting ribs with foliated bosses and terminals; two panels have rose sprigs. The ceiling has been partly cut away for the staircase. Above the fireplace in the S. wall is a plaster panel representing a pot from which a conventional orange tree is growing.

b(115). House, two tenements and shop, Nos. 14 and 15, 15 yards N. of (114), has a projecting upper storey on the W. side.

b(116). House, three tenements, Nos. 18–20, 10 yards N. of (115), has an early 18th-century front of brick.

b(117). House, No. 23, 25 yards N. of (116), has a S. part of rather later date than the rest. The upper storey projects on the W. side and has one original shaped bracket. Inside the building are two original battened doors.

b(118). House, three tenements, Nos. 27–29, 30 yards N. of (117).

Condition—Poor.

b(119). House, No. 33, 15 yards N. of (118).

b(120). House, two tenements, Nos. 39 and 40, 30 yards N. of (119), has walls of red brick and was built early in the 18th century. There is a band-course dividing the storeys.

b(121). House, on W. side of Ryegate Road, and 30 yards S.W. of the castle, is modern but incorporates a 16th-century lintel or the base beam of a gable; it is carved with foliage and has a diamond-shaped boss in the middle.

Culver Street, N. side

b(122). House, at corner of St. Nicholas Street, is of three storeys with two gables on the W. front. The second storey projects on the W. and S. sides and the two gables also project on large shaped brackets.

b(123). House, No. 12, standing back from the road 100 yards W. of Pelham's Lane, was built early in the 18th century and has a brick front with a band-course between the storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice.

(123a). House, on S. side of road, 90 yards W. of Trinity Street, was built probably in the 17th century, but was largely rebuilt and refitted early in the 18th century.

S. side

b(124). House, now office, at W. corner of Lion Walk, has a projecting gable on the E. side. Inside the building on the W. of the main block is a short length of mediaeval rubble wall with a reset doorway of stone with a segmental head.

b(125). Finch Almshouses, 70 yards E. of (124), have been entirely rebuilt but reset at the end of the courtyard is a 17th-century stone tablet recording the foundation by Ralph Finch in 1552.

b(126). Cross Keys Inn, at the E. corner of Long Wyre Street, has at the back a small early 16th-century block with a projecting upper storey on the E. side. Inside this wing are some original moulded ceiling-beams and joists. The cart entrance has old timber-work with curved brackets.

b(127). House, formerly Grammar School, now garage, 40 yards E. of (126), was built early in the 16th century and the ground floor has original moulded ceiling-beams and joists.

b(128). All Saints Court, tenements E. of (127). A T-shaped block on the W. side of the court was built late in the 16th century the cross-wing being at the N. end; to the N. of this is a cellar of about the same date. The N. range of the courtyard is of the 16th or 17th century and the rest of the buildings of the 18th century. There are some 16th-century windows with moulded mullions. Inside the building the cellar has rubble walls, a doorway with a two-centred head and a number of recesses; on the S. side are three narrow bays with quadripartite vaulting and divided up by modern partitions. The cross-wing of the original building appears to have been originally of one storey and three bays long; it has richly moulded wall-plates, hollow-chamfered tie-beams and collars with curved braces forming two-centred arches; the trusses have been partly cut away. The staircase is of late 17th-century date with turned balusters and moulded hand-rail. The wing extending S. has original moulded wall-plates and beams; in the W. wall is a moulded corbel formerly supporting a curved brace.

b(129). Range of two houses, Nos. 69 and 71, at the W. corner of Queen Street, are of red brick with a moulded band between the storeys. They were built probably early in the 18th century and have sash windows with flush frames. The western house has an oval window in addition and an eaves-cornice. The eastern house has a later parapet and inside it one room is lined with original panelling and has a fireplace with egg and tongue ornament and swags.

b(130). House, now workshop, on E. side of Pelham's Lane and S. of (26), has a projecting upper storey on the W. side.

Queen Street

b(131). House, two tenements, Nos. 7 and 9, on E. side of road opposite All Saints' churchyard, has a cross-wing at the N. end with a projecting upper storey.

b(132). Range of four houses, Nos. 6–12, on W. side of road 30 yards S.W. of (129), is of red brick, with a band-course between the storeys. It was built c. 1698 the date on a small panel near the middle of the front. The S. part of the building retains its original modillioned eaves-cornice but the rest has a later parapet. One doorway has an original architrave with egg and tongue ornament. Inside the building is some 17th-century panelling and an original fireplace with a moulded architrave.

b(133). House, Nos. 20–24, now shop, 30 yards S. of (132), has a projecting upper storey on the E. front; the interior has been completely gutted.

Long Wyre Street, W. side

b(134). House and shop, 45 yards S. of Culver Street has a projecting and gabled upper storey on the E. front.

b(135). Range of houses and shops, Nos. 17–23, S. of (134), has a projecting upper storey on the E. front.

b(136). House, two tenements and shops, Nos. 33 and 35, 55 yards S. of (135), has a projecting upper storey in front.

b(137). House, No. 37, and shop at corner of Eld Lane and S. of (136), was built early in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the E. and S. sides with a heavy diagonal bracket at the angle and has four curved brackets on each face.

Trinity Street, W. side

b(138). The Bays and two adjoining houses, at W. corner of Culver Street, have walls of brick, now covered with rough-cast. A timber-framed wing at the back may be of early 17th-century date but the whole of the front block appears to have been rebuilt about the middle of the same century. There is a plain band-course between the storeys and above this the E. and W. walls are divided into bays by shallow pilasters; those on the W. side have Ionic capitals but on the E. these have been removed. The N. end has a series of sunk panels and pilaster strips. Inside the building the middle tenement has some late 16th-century panelling, reused.

b(139). House, 15 yards S. of (138), has walls partly of brick and partly timber-framed. It was built early in the 18th century and has a red brick front with a band-course between the storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice. Inside the building there is some original panelling and a staircase with turned balusters and a close string.

b(140). House, S. of (139), was built in the 16th century, but has no old features externally. Inside the building, both the ground and first floors have original moulded ceiling-beams.

b(141). Tymperleys, house W. of (140), was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century and has a lower wing, little later in date, at the E. end. The upper storey projects on the S. front and has curved and hollow-chamfered brackets. On the first floor, at the E. end, is an original doorway with a four-centred head; it is now blocked but may have opened on to an external staircase; that the house extended further in this direction is negatived by the existence of the almost contemporary E. wing. Inside the building the ground floor has some original moulded ceiling-beams and the roof has an original octagonal king-post with moulded capital and base and four-way struts. The staircase projects at the back, and has late 17th-century twisted balusters, close string and square newels with turned pendants. The E. wing has original moulded ceiling-beams.

b(142). House, S. of (140), was built probably in the 15th century and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. The W. wing has exposed timber-framing, formerly internal, on the N. side and two original blocked doorways with pointed heads. The S. wing has been much restored; the upper storey projects on most of the E. side and there is a short length of original embattled bressumer. Near the S. end is an archway with some reset 17th-century panelling. Inside the building the W. wing has an original roof-truss with an octagonal king-post with a moulded capital. A room on the first floor has the initials and date in plaster—E. R. A. R. M. R. 1670. Another room is lined with panelling of c. 1700 and a short length of staircase has turned balusters and moulded rail of the same date.

b(143). House, three tenements, Nos. 12–14, 10 yards S. of (142), was built probably in the 16th century but has been much altered. It is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending W. The upper storey projects on part of the E. side and at the ends of the wings.

Condition—Poor.

E. side

b(144). House, two tenements, Nos. 25 and 26, opposite (142), has a cross-wing at the N. end. The upper storey projects at the W. end of the cross-wing.

b(145). House and shop, No. 22, 10 yards S. of (144), has a projecting upper storey on curved brackets at the W. end.

Condition—Poor.

b(146). Clarence Inn, 30 yards S. of (145), was built probably in the 16th century, but has been much restored. The upper storey projects on the W. and S. sides.

b(147). House, three tenements, Nos. 12–14, on N. side of Sir Isaac's Walk, 50 yards W. of Trinity Street, was built probably early in the 18th century. The S. front has a coved eaves-cornice of plaster with the date, probably 1711, but a modern painted 16 replaces the 17. In the roof are a series of hipped dormers.

b(148). Schere Gate (Plate, p. 64), house, gateway and shop, opposite (146), has a projecting upper storey on the whole of the N. front, with curved brackets. The house is built partly on the town wall and the gateway of old timber-framing, but without character, replaces a former postern.

b(149). House and shop (Plate, p. 64), S. of (148) and on W. of Schere Gate, has a projecting upper storey on the E. side with one original shaped bracket.

b(150). House and shop (Plate, p. 64), opposite (149), has on the W. front a coved eaves-cornice of plaster and an oval panel with the date 1692.

b(151). House and shop (Plate, p. 64), 10 yards S. of (149) and at corner of St. John's Street, was built probably in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the S. and E. sides with an original heavy diagonal bracket at the angle, carved on both faces with conventional foliage and springing from a moulded capital. Inside the building is an original beam carved with foliage, but not in situ.

b(152). House, on S. side of St. John's Street, 50 yards W.S.W. of (151), has a projecting upper storey on the N. side with original shaped brackets.

b(153). House, No. 23, on S. side of Stanwell Street, 55 yards E. of Abbeygate Street. The front has a moulded eaves-cornice of c. 1700; the back wing is probably of rather earlier date.

b(154). House, two tenements, Claudius House and the next house, on N. side of Vineyard Street, 10 yards E. of Schere Gate. The E. part of the house has a moulded eaves-cornice with carved modillions and below it a plaster frieze with vine enrichment. The W. part has a coved cornice of plaster. Inside the building is a late 17th-century staircase with close string, twisted balusters and newels with turned pendants.

b(155). House, on S. side of Vineyard Street, 50 yards W. of St. Botolph's Street, is an 18th-century building but incorporates a late 16th-century doorway with stop-moulded frame and square head.

b(156). House, four tenements, Nos. 11–14, on N. side of St. John's Green, 120 yards W. of St. Giles' Church, was built probably in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the S. front on curved brackets.

b(157). House, at S.W. corner of St. John's Green, 100 yards S.W. of (156).

Condition—Poor.

St. Botolph's Street, E. side

b(158). House and shop, at S. corner of Priory Street, has a projecting upper storey on the W. side.

b(159). House, two tenements and shops, Nos. 40 and 41, 15 yards S. of (158). The projecting eaves on the W. side have two original brackets carved with acanthus ornament and a small head.

b(160). Winnock's Almshouses, on S. side of Military Road, 320 yards E.S.E. of St. Giles' Church, is a long block of tenements of red brick. It was built c. 1678 and is a good example of the brickwork of the period. The N. front is divided into two bays by pilasters and into storeys by a continuous entablature; the middle bay has a plain pediment and the two middle doorways (Plate, p. 176) are combined to form an architectural composition with pilasters surmounted by halfballs and a broken voluted pediment; under the pediment are two sunk panels with the initials and date IWM 1678. The doors of the six tenements are original and have each two large panels, bolection-moulded. The back is plain but the doors to the ground floor mostly have old frames.

Magdalen Street, N. side

b(161). House, No. 187, 320 yards E. of St. Giles' Church. The upper storey projects on the E. side on heavy hook-shaped brackets. There is a late 17th-century addition on the street front. Inside the building the former projection of the upper storey on the S. of the original block is visible.

b(162). House, No. 181, 35 yards E. of (161).

b(163). House, No. 166, 110 yards E. of (162), has a projecting upper storey on the street front.

Condition—Bad.

b(164). House, two tenements, Nos. 164–5, E. of (163), has a cross-wing at the W. end. The upper storey projects at the end of the cross-wing.

Condition—Bad.

b(165). Baker's Arms Inn, 240 yards E. of (164), has a projecting upper storey on the S. side but has been almost completely altered.

b(166). House and shop, No. 111, W. of St. Mary Magdalene churchyard. The upper storey formerly projected but has been under-built.

S. side

b(167). House, No. 35, now institute, 25 yards S.E. of (162). The upper storey projects on the N. side.

b(168). House, three tenements, Nos. 43–5, 60 yards E. of (167), has a gabled cross-wing at the E. and W. ends.

Condition—Poor.

b(169). House, No. 53, including entry to Brown's Yard, 40 yards E. of (168).

b(170). House, two tenements and shop, Nos. 81 and 82, 170 yards E. of (169).

b(171). Inn, No. 29, on N. side of Barrack Street, 120 yards E. of St. Mary Magdalene Church, has a modern block on the street front.

Hythe Hill, N. side

d(172). House, No. 133 (Plate, p. 123), now tenements, W. of Hythe churchyard, was built probably in the 15th century. The upper storey projects on the whole of the S. front, on curved brackets. Inside the building the main block has an original king-post roof-truss.

Condition—Poor.

d(173). Dolphin Inn and house, No. 127, 30 yards E. of Hythe Church, has cross-wings at the E. and S. ends. The upper storey of the main block and E. wing project on the S. front. Inside the building the W. wing has an early 18th-century staircase with close string and twisted balusters.

d(174). House, two tenements, Nos. 124–5, E. of (173).

Condition—Poor.

d(175). House, two tenements and post-office, Nos. 122–3, E. of (174), was remodelled or rebuilt early in the 18th century. The front has a modillioned eaves-cornice and original first floor windows; at this level is a panel surrounded by a much damaged plaster wreath; the plaster face of the wall has large square panels.

d(176). House, three tenements, 20 yards E. of (175).

d(177). House, No. 103, 70 yards E. of (176), has a projecting upper storey on the S. side.

S. side

d(178). House (Plate, p. 123), three tenements, Nos. 50–2, 30 yards S.W. of (172), has a cross-wing at the E. end. The upper storey projects on the N. front and there is a small original window on this side with moulded frame and mullion.

d(179). House, three tenements, Nos. 68–70, 80 yards E. of (178), has a projecting upper storey on the N. side with original shaped brackets.

Condition—Poor.

d(180). House, two tenements, Nos. 71–2, E. of (179), is probably of the 16th century but has been much altered. There is an original moulded ceiling-beam in the E. tenement.

d(181). Queen's Head Inn, 70 yards E. of (180), was built early in the 16th century but has recently been much altered and restored. The upper storey projects on the N. front and rests on two original curved brackets springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals. Inside the building is a heavy original ceiling-beam with curious mouldings.

d(182). House, two tenements, Nos. 89 and 90, 55 yards E. of (181), was built probably in the 16th century and has a cross-wing at the E. end. A cartway in the middle of the house has original moulded beams and plates.

d(183). House, three tenements and shops, Nos. 91–3, E. of (182), was built early in the 16th century with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The upper storey projects at the N. end of the E. wing. Inside the building in the main block is an original moulded ceiling-beam carved with twisted-leaf foliage and a shield bearing the initials I. G. (or C.) and crescent, triangle and square.

Condition—Poor.

d(184). House and shop, No. 97, 20 yards E. of (183), has weather-boarded walls and two gables on the N. front. It was built early in the 16th century and has original moulded ceiling-beams and joists in the shop.

d(185). House, two tenements and shop, Nos. 98-9, E. of (184), was built probably in the 16th century and has a weather-boarded cross-wing at the W. end. The upper storey projects on the N. side of the main block.

Hythe Quay

d(186). House, two tenements, Nos. 4 and 5, S. of (185), was built probably in the 15th century. The upper storey projects on the E. side. Inside the building the N. tenement has an original moulded oak corbel, bracket and wall-plate on the S. wall.

d(187). House, S. of (186), was built c. 1720 but contains some early 17th-century panelling and in the cellar is an early 16th-century beam, carved with twisted leaf ornament.

d(188). Warehouse, 60 yards S. of (187), was built probably in the 16th century and there is one original window.

d(189). Neptune Inn, S. of (188), was built in the 15th century with a central Hall. The exterior is quite modern and the original part has been much altered. The Hall formerly extended on to the site of the adjoining warehouse and in the partition is part of an original roof-truss. A curved and moulded brace springs from a moulded wall-post and supports the tie-beam; the spandrel is filled with traceried panels divided by moulded uprights; the spandrels of the tracery have carved foliage.

Priory Street

b(190). Range of seven tenements, Nos. 76–82, on N. side, 270 yards E. of St. Botolph's Street. The tenements differ slightly in period but are all of late 17th or early 18th-century date.

b(191). House (Plate, p. 65), three tenements, Nos. 55–7, on W. side of road 30 yards S. of East Hill. The upper storey projects on the E. front.

b(192). House, now The Convent School, on E. side of road at S. corner of Childwell Alley, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The W. wing was extended late in the 17th century. Both sides of the S. wing (Plate, p. 101) and the S. side of the W. wing have projecting gables with original shaped brackets and moulded bressumers; below the southern gable on the E. front are remains of a former bay-window and the wall-face has pargeted panels of flowers or foliage, but now much damaged. The later extension has mullioned and transomed windows. Inside the building is an early 16th-century fascia, reused and carved with running foliage.

b(193). House, five tenements, Nos. 1–5, Childwell Alley, 35 yards E. of (192). The two E. tenements are a late 17th-century addition. In the middle of the N. front is a projecting gable with original shaped brackets. The upper storey formerly projected at the W. end but has been under-built.

Condition—Poor.

East Hill, S. side (Plate, p. 65)

b(194). House, two tenements, Nos. 16 and 17, 100 yards E. of Priory Street, was built early in the 16th century and has an early 17th-century wing at the back. The upper storey projects in front and has one original curved bracket and a late 16th-century shaped bracket. There is one late 16th-century window, on the ground floor, with moulded frame and mullion and five similar windows under the eaves, all now blocked. At the E. end is a late 16th-century door (Plate, p. xxx) of square moulded panels with a lozenge-shaped enrichment in each panel. The timber-framing is exposed in front.

b(195). Whalebone Inn, 30 yards E. of (194).

b(196). House, two tenements, Nos. 23–4, E. of (195), has a projecting upper storey in front.

b(197). House, three tenements, Nos. 25–7, 10 yards E. of (196), has three gables at the back. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.

b(198–199). Houses, Nos. 29 and 32, 15 yards E. of (197), are possibly the cross-wings of one house of which the main block, between them, has been rebuilt. Both are probably of the 17th century but the back part of the W. house is of early 16th-century date. The upper storey projects on the front of both buildings and the W. one has shaped brackets with moulded pendants. Inside the W. house the back part has an original moulded ceiling-beam.

Condition of both—Poor.

b(200). House, No. 35, 15 yards E. of (199), was built probably late in the 16th century with a wing at the back. The upper storey projects on the N. front and has original hook-shaped brackets.

b(201). House, two tenements, Nos. 36–7, E. of (200), has a projecting upper storey on the N. front with hook-shaped brackets.

b(202). House, two tenements, Nos. 38–9, E. of (201), was built probably in the 15th century. At the back is a 16th or 17th-century extension. The upper storey projects on the N. front on curved brackets and also on the E. side of the extension. Inside the building at the back of the front block was an original doorway with a four-centred head; the head is now lying loose in the garden.

b(203). House, No. 47, 20 yards E. of (202), was perhaps originally of one storey. It has been refaced with brick and has a modern upper storey and back addition.

b(204). House, now four tenements, Nos. 48–51, E. of (203), was built early in the 16th century and has a 17th-century addition at the back. The upper storey in front has exposed timber-framing and formerly projected, but has been under-built. There are two original windows under the eaves with moulded frames and mullions. Inside the building one of the middle tenements has richly moulded original ceiling-beams and joists both on the ground and first floors. The E. tenement has also an original moulded ceiling-beam.

b(205). House, two tenements Nos. 1 and 2, East Bay, 35 yards E. of (204). The E. half of the front block is a wing of a 15th-century house, including the 'screens.' The rest of the block was rebuilt in the 17th century and there are 17th and 18th-century wings at the back. The upper storey projects in front and below it is an original doorway with a four-centred head. Inside the building the 'screens' are now represented only by the heavy beams of the former partitions. There are remains of the original king-post roof.

N. side

b(206). House, two tenements, 60 and 61, opposite (204), was built probably in the 15th century with a cross-wing at the W. end. In the 16th century a wing was added at the back and in the 17th century a long wing adjoining this addition on the N. was built; about the same time two gables were added to the main block and a room built over the cartway further W. The added gables project in front of the main block on two 17th-century shaped brackets and have moulded bargeboards, and there is another bracket of the same date in the cartway. Inside the building the main block has original moulded ceiling-beams and remains of a king-post roof-truss.

b(207). House, Nos. 63–4, 10 yards W. of (206), has a 15th-century wing at the back. The front block which is of L-shaped plan was built early in the 16th century and there is a 17th-century addition in the angle between the wings. The front is modern. Inside the building the original wing has an oak post in the middle and above it a king-post roof-truss. The 16th-century building has an original moulded ceiling-beam and there are two original windows of three lights, now blocked.

b(208). House, No. 67, 15 yards W. of (207), has in the middle a mid 17th-century building of brick; the front block is of late 17th-century date and there is an 18th-century addition on the E.

Condition—Poor.

b(209). House, two tenements and shops, Nos. 68–9, W. of (208), has an 18th-century extension on the E. and a modern brick front.

b(210). Goat and Boot Inn, No. 70, 10 yards W. of (209), has been much altered. The upper storey projects on part of the E. side.

b(211). House, three tenements, Nos. 79–81, 140 yards W. of (210).

b(212). House, two tenements on E. side of Land Lane and 50 yards N.W. of (211), has been partly refaced with brick.

East Street, S. side

d(213). House, five tenements, Nos. 11–13, 60 yards E. of the bridge, was built probably early in the 16th century. The W. part was altered and the S. wing added in the 17th century. The upper storey projects on the N. front. Inside the building the E. part of the front block has original moulded ceiling-beams and joists.

d(214). House (Plate, p. 65), two tenements, Nos. 17 and 18, 15 yards E. of (213), has a projecting upper storey in front.

d(215). House (Plate, p. 65), two tenements and shops, Nos. 24–5, 30 yards E. of (214), was built probably in the 15th century with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends; the main block and the front part of the E. wing were rebuilt late in the 17th century and the W. wing extended S. The upper storey projects at the front end of the W. wing. On the W. side of the E. wing is the head of an original window. Inside the building are remains of the original roof construction.

d(216). House, No. 26 (Plate, p. 65), E. of (215), was built probably in the middle of the 16th century. The upper storey projects in front and has an early 18th-century modillioned eaves-cornice.

d(217). Range of three houses and shops, Nos. 30–33 (Plate, p. 65), 15 yards E. of (216). The E. part of the front block is of early 16th-century date; the rest of the front is of rather later date. There are late 17th or early 18th-century additions at the back. The upper storey projects on the whole of the N. front; at the E. end is an original curved bracket with carved foliage. The upper storey is plastered in panels and near the middle is an oval wreath enclosing the initials and date WRA 1692. The eaves have a modillioned cornice of that period. Inside the building the E. part of the front block has original moulded ceiling-beams and some panelling of c. 1600.

d(218). House, two tenements, Nos. 34–5, E. of (217), has an 18th-century block on the N. front. The rear block is of late 17th-century brickwork.

d(219). House, and shop, No. 36, E. of (218), was built probably late in the 16th century.

d(220). House, No. 37, E. of (219), was built probably late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. The upper storey projects in front on curved brackets.

d(221). House, No. 38, 10 yards E. of (220), was built probably late in the 16th century and has a later addition at the back. The upper storey projects in front. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.

d(222). House, two tenements, Nos. 39 and 40, E. of (221), was built probably in the 15th century with a cross-wing at the W. end. The upper storey projects in front.

d(223). House, No. 41, E. of (222), has a projecting upper storey in front and a later addition at the back.

d(224). House and shop, 15 yards E. of (223), has been much altered.

N. side

d(225). Clarendon Inn, and house, 100 yards E.N.E. of (224), was built probably late in the 16th century and has 17th-century additions at the back. In the roof are two reused beams with early 16th-century carving.

d(226). House, three tenements, at W. corner of the old Ipswich road, was built in the 15th century with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends and a wing projecting towards the N. In the 17th century this wing was extended and an addition made at the back. The upper storey projects at the S. end of both cross-wings and on the side of the N. wing. Inside the building the N. wing has an original king-post roof-truss.

d (227). House, three tenements, Nos. 58–9, 40 yards W. of (226), was built about the middle of the 16th century; the W. end is a late 17th-century addition. The upper storey projects on the S. front of the original block and has an original moulded fascia and curved brackets. At the back the upper storey has remains of 17th-century pargeting with conventional foliage in panels.

Condition—Of E. part, poor.

d(228). House (Plate, p. 65), two tenements, Nos. 60 and 61, 40 yards W. of (227), has a projecting upper storey on the S. front with heavy shaped brackets.

d(229). House (Plate, p. 65), two tenements and shop, Nos. 62–3, W. of (228), was built in the 16th century with a cross-wing at the W. end. The upper storey formerly projected in front, but has been under-built.

d(230). Houses (Plate, p. 65), two tenements and shops, Nos. 64–5, W. of (229), were built in the 15th century and now consist of two blocks both gabled towards the S. and both having original roof construction, of king-post type.

d(231). Siege House and adjoining house, No. 74, (Plate, p. 64), 45 yards W. of (230), was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The upper storey projects on the S. and W. sides with a heavy diagonal bracket at the angle springing from a moulded capping. The exterior is very much restored, but the E. part of the moulded bressumer is original and near the middle of the upper storey is an original window with diamond-shaped mullions. On the W. side is an original shaft with a moulded capital, supporting a curved brace; part of the moulded frame of the adjoining window is also original. The timberframing is much pitted with bullet holes, dating from the period of the siege. Inside the building several rooms have original moulded ceiling-beams. The N. room on the first floor has a modern fireplace with a mid 16th-century overmantel, of two panels with carved male and female heads; on the E. wall-plate is carved one of the beatitudes and in the S. wall is an original doorway with a four-centred head and now blocked. In the window are two medallions of arms in glass reported to have been removed from a house in another part of Colchester: (1) the quartered coat of Katherine Parr, with an ornamental border including the initials and date W. S. 1546, and a merchant's mark; (2) the quartered coat of Howard, Duke of Norfolk (with Brotherton in the first quarter) with an ornamental border, 16th-century. The roofs have remains of the original construction of king-post type.

Greenstead Road, S. side

d(232). House, No. 1, two tenements and shops, 35 yards S. of (225), was built early in the 16th century and has a 17th-century wing at the back. The front has been faced with modern brick. Inside the building the ground floor has original moulded ceiling-beams, one in the E. tenement being unusually elaborate with a band of running foliage; below its junction with the wall-plate is a carved shield with foliage. In the front wall is a window of c. 1600 with moulded frame and mullions.

d(233). House, No. 137, 350 yards E.S.E. of (232), was built early in the 16th century. The upper storey is gabled and projects on the N. front with a moulded bressumer and curved brackets, carved with foliage. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.

d (234). House, three tenements, Nos. 283–7, 620 yards S.E. of (233), was built probably late in the 16th century. On the N.E. front are remains of 17th-century pargeting with large panels of scroll-work and vine ornament.

Condition—Poor.

d(235). House, No. 309, 130 yards S.E. of (234), has an 18th-century extension on the S.E.

Condition—Poor.

Middleborough, E. side

b(236). House, No. 1, 10 yards N. of Northgate Street, adjoins the town wall on the N. The upper storey projects at the back.

Condition—Bad.

a(237). House, No. 10, 50 yards N. of (236), has been much altered.

a(238). House, two tenements, No. 11, N. of (237). The upper storey formerly projected at the W. end but has been under-built.

a(239). House, two tenements, Nos. 12 and 13, N. of (238), has a later addition at the back. The upper storey formerly projected on the W. front, but has been under-built.

Condition—Poor.

a(240). House, two tenements, N. of (239).

a(241). House and shop, No. 16, N. of (240), has been refaced with modern brick.

a(242). House, three tenements and shop, Nos. 17–19, N. of (241), was built in the 15th century with cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The main block has been rebuilt and the whole is faced with modern brick. The roofs of the two cross-wings are original, the king-post remaining in the N. wing. There are some 17th-century battened doors.

W. side

a(243). House, two tenements, opposite (242), has walls of brick with a moulded string-course between the storeys on the E. front; below it are the segmental heads of three original windows.

North Station Road, E. side

a(244). House, No. 1, four tenements, N. of North Bridge. The back part is of early 17th-century date and the front part an addition of later in the same century. The W. front is faced with modern brickwork.

a(245). House and shop, No. 3, 20 yards N. of (244), has been faced with modern brick. There is a later addition at the back.

Condition—Poor.

a(246). House, two tenements, Nos. 7 and 9, 20 yards N. of (245), has on the W. front a panel with the initials and date MIH 1621.

a(247). House, three tenements and shops, Nos. 25 and 27, at S. corner of Albert Road. It has three gables on the W. front but the two side bays are probably 18th-century additions.

a(248). House, two tenements and shops, Nos. 45 and 47, 60 yards N. of (247), was built early in the 16th century. Inside the building the ground floor has original moulded ceiling-beams and joists.

W. side

a(249). Range of four tenements, Nos. 52–58, 90 yards N.N.W. of (248). The S. half is of early 17th-century date and the N. half was added later in the same century.

a(250). Range of seven tenements, Nos. 12–24, 100 yards S. of (249), was built probably early in the 18th century.

a(251). Castle Inn, N. of North Bridge, has been much altered. Inside the building is an original door of twelve moulded panels. At the back is an original window of two lights, now blocked.

Crouch Street, N. side

b(252). House and shop, No. 5A, 10 yards W. of Head Street, has a projecting upper storey on the S. front.

b(253). House, two tenements and shops, W. of (252), has a projecting upper storey on the S. front.

b(254). House, two tenements and shops, No. 17, 20 yards W. of (253), has a projecting upper storey on the S. front.

Lexden. Main Road, N. side

b(255). House, 160 yards N.E. of Lexden Church. The gable at the E. end has original moulded barge-boards with a pendant at the apex.

b(256). House, 200 yards W. of (255), was built in the 16th century with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The upper storey projects at the front end of the cross-wings. Inside the building the 17th-century staircase has turned balusters, square newels with terminals, and moulded strings. In the upper storey is an original window of three lights, with moulded frame and mullions and now blocked.

S. side

b(257). House, 350 yards W. of Lexden Church, was built in the 16th century or earlier and has a cross-wing at the E. and W. ends. The upper storey projects at the front end of both cross-wings. The roof of the E. wing has been altered.

b(258). House, now tenements, 30 yards W. of (257), was built probably in the 15th century with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The upper storey projects at the front end of the cross-wings. In the roof is an original king-post with two-way struts.

a(259). Church Farm, house, 100 yards N.N.E. of the modern church at Mile End, was built probably in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the S. front.

a(260). Pest House, cottage between Mill Road and Clay Lane and ½ m. E.N.E. of Mile End new Church, has been much altered in the 18th century.

Condition—Poor.

a(261). House, 270 yards S. of (260), was built in the 16th century. The upper storey projects at the E. end.

d(262). Winsley's Almshouses and farmhouse, about ½ m. S.S.W. of the Hythe Church. The middle block of the almshouses and the W. wing of the farmhouse, S. of it, belong to a fairly large late 16th-century house of brick and of courtyard or half H-shaped plan. The E. block of the farmhouse was added probably early in the 17th century. The almshouses were founded c. 1726 and incorporated the main block of the house which was much altered and flanking wings were added on the E. and W. sides forming an open courtyard; these wings have been subsequently extended. The farmhouse was separated from the almshouses by breaking down a section of the building immediately S. of the latter. The main block of the almshouse has been much altered and has a projecting porch in the middle with original octagonal turrets at the angles, but entirely covered with cement and with applied features of 1726; the outer archway has double-chamfered jambs and three-centred arch in a square head; the inner archway has a four-centred arch and set in it is an original stop-moulded oak frame and a door of moulded battens. The W. wall of the farmhouse has an original doorway with double - chamfered jambs and four-centred arch in a square head. The 17th-century addition has a window of three lights, with plastered mullions. Inside the building two tenements on the E. side of the entrance have each a 17th-century fireplace with a carved oak lintel, one has masoned decoration, carved stops and the date and initials H B 1649 (Henry Barrington, Mayor, 1648); the other has egg and dart ornament and other decoration of Jacobean character. There are also two doorways in these tenements with original stop-moulded frames and square heads. In the entry behind the porch is a similar door-frame and a 17th-century door elaborately panelled and with a small cut opening at the bottom. On the first floor the middle of the main block and the space over the porch is fitted up as a chapel but has no features earlier than 1726. The original part of the farmhouse has a moulded ceiling-beam.


Earthworks, New Colchester

Earthworks, New Colchester


Triangular Work on the Line of Grymes Dyke

Triangular Work on the Line of Grymes Dyke

b(263). Bourne Mill (Plate, p. 68), ¾ m. S.E. of St. Giles' Church, was built c. 1591. The walls are freestone rubble with some brick; the stone is mostly spoil from some 12th and 13th-century building, probably St. John's Abbey. The front has four original windows with stone mullions and moulded labels; the doorway (Plate, p. 100) has double-chamfered jambs and three-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label; above it in a raised and moulded panel is an achievement of the Lucas arms. There is also a doorway to the upper storey, with a moulded label. The gables of the two ends are elaborately treated in the Dutch manner with curved and voluted offsets from which spring pinnacles of varying form; in the S. gable is a stone panel inscribed "Thomas Lucas, miles, me fecit Ano domini 1591"; at the apex of each is an octagonal chimney-shaft. The back elevation has three windows, similar to those in front, and a doorway with a keyed three-centred head with carved spandrels and flanked by fluted pilasters. The reused material in the walls includes numerous moulded stones and the base of a 12th-century shaft.

b(264). Monkwick, house 1,100 yards N.E. of Berechurch Church, was built probably in the 16th century. The upper storey projects on the S. side and has two gables. Inside the building one room has early 17th-century panelling and an overmantel of three enriched arcaded bays divided by fluted pilasters supporting a fluted frieze.

Unclassified

(265). The Lexden Earthworks.—These earthworks may be described as four main dykes, shown on the plan as A, B, C and D, each consisting of a rampart with a ditch on the west side.

The first four are situated at some distance apart, one behind the other, and running roughly north and south. The entrenchments protect the area elsewhere enclosed by the Colne and Roman Rivers and have flanking works extending beyond both rivers. There are slight traces of minor banks in the vicinity of the main entrenchments.

The date of the work is doubtful, but the evidence, which is negative in character, suggests a pre-Claudian origin.

A.—Gryme's Dyke, or the outward trench of Wyldenhey, situated partly in Stanway parish, is the westernmost of the four dykes, and extends for a distance of about 3 m.

It is first apparent, though almost obliterated by the plough, on the west side of the Bergholt road, near New Bridge, south of the Colne, and continues to near the Halstead road, where it is obliterated by gardens. Near the gravel-pits, east of the Union it is well defined and from this point the ditch is occupied by the road which runs past New Farm. About 300 yards S. of the farm is an original entrance which cuts obliquely through the bank. The dyke continues southwards in strong outline to a spot east of Stanway Green, where it turns sharply towards the west and again, after about 300 yards, to the south. The defences at this angle are double and further strengthened by a ditch across the base of the triangle, forming a small defensive work (see plan 73). Following the footpath which runs along the ditch, the dyke carries on across the Maldon road, along the western boundary of Butcher's Wood down to Baymill Cottages, near a ford of Roman River. (See Sectional Preface, p. xxiii.)

The rampart at a point south of Stanway Green is 10 ft. above the ditch, which is 50 ft. wide from crest to crest.

Condition—Fairly good.

B.—Partly in Layer de la Haye parish is shown on an 18th-century plan to commence S. of the London road. The position of the northern extremity of this line is doubtful. It is now visible in a field S.W. of Heath Cottage, where there would seem to have been a junction of the several lines of entrenchment, and is indicated by a scarp running past Well House and across the Maldon road to the N.E. corner of Oliver Thick's Wood. This section of the work is very indefinite. From Oliver Thick's Wood the course of the dyke can be followed running S.E. and S., past "Olivers" and across a ford of Roman River. Through Chest Wood and the garden of the Vicarage at Layer de la Haye, a stream runs along the ditch.

Total length, about 2 m.

Condition—Poor.

C.—This length of entrenchment is first visible in a plantation on the E. side of Lexden Straight Road, about 400 yards S. of London Road. For a distance of 350 yards it consists of a treble rampart and ditch, the ramparts being 5 ft. above the ditches, which are 50 ft. wide from crest to crest. On leaving the plantation it is much denuded and consists only of a single rampart and ditch, but is still easily traceable through the fields towards a small wood near Heath Cottage, which is said to be the site of a small earthwork. The total length is slightly over ½ m.

Condition—Good in parts.

D.—"The Sunken Way," or "Hollow Way," is the easternmost line of entrenchment and is said to be visible under certain conditions from the turning near Great Horkesley Church, across St. Botolph's Brook and the golf links to the Bergholt road near "Achnacone." From this point the outline of the work is well defined, running west of south across the railway cutting, where a good section of the work can be seen, and on past Lexden Lodge to the River Colne. Immediately east of the dyke at Lexden Lodge is a wide rectangular moat wrongly shown on the O.S. maps as "site of Roman fort."

The work is next evident in considerable strength in Lexden Park, and continues through the Park and across the road in a S.E. direction with a road on the crest of the rampart, to a point N.E. of Prettygate Farm. The supposed site of the old Roman road to London crosses the dyke close to this spot. A slight bank running, with intervals, S.W. past Prettygate Farm and Heath Farm, to a point E. of Stanway Green, may be a continuation of this work.

A section taken near Lexden Lodge shows the rampart to be 10 ft. above the ditch, which is 50 ft. wide from crest to crest.

Total length from Great Horkesley, about 3½ m.

Condition—Good.

Earthwork in Brinkley Grove, about 2 m. N. of the town, consists of the S.W. angle of an apparently rectangular site defended by a ditch 60 ft. wide and 9 ft. deep, with both an internal and external rampart. This work is not shown on the O.S. maps.

Condition—Imperfect.

Tumulus, in Lexden Park, about 7 ft. high. Opened 1860 and some pottery found.

Condition—Fairly good.

Lexden Mount, about ¼ m. S.W. of the church, is about 12 ft. high and 110 ft. in diameter at the base. The excavations of 1910 were largely negative in their results but some fragments of Roman Pottery were found. (See Sectional Preface, p. xxiii.)

Condition—Good.

King Coel's Kitchen, on the W. side of Gryme's Dyke, N. of the London Road. A large excavation, possibly a disused gravel-pit. (See Sectional Preface, p. xxiv.)



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