18. DEDHAM. (D.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xix. N.W. (b)xix. N.E. (c)xix. S.W.
Dedham is a parish and small town (Plate, p. 122)
6½ m. N.E. of Colchester. The church, Southfields, the Sun Hotel and Boxhouse Farm are the
b(1). Parish Church of St. Mary (Plate, p. 81)
stands in the village. The walls are of flint-rubble
and brick; the tower is faced with knapped flints;
the dressings are of limestone; the roofs are lead
covered. The church was practically rebuilt at
the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th
century, but incorporates a few fragments of earlier
walling at the W. end. The rebuilding began on
the S. side and comprised Nave with North and
South Aisles, Chancel, South Porch, West Tower
(finished in 1519) and North Porch. The church
was restored in the 18th century and in modern
The church is a handsome example of the East
Anglian type; the vaulted passage under the
tower is a curious feature and amongst the fittings
the panelled door and early 16th-century monument
Architectural Description—All the details not
otherwise described are of c. 1500. The Chancel
(45 ft. by 20 ft.), has in the E. wall a modern
window. In the N. wall are three windows each of
three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label and moulded
jambs; all have been much restored. In the
S. wall are three windows, similar to those in
the N. wall but less restored; below the middle
window is a modern doorway. The four-centred
chancel-arch is of two moulded orders, the outer
dying on to the walls and the inner resting on
moulded corbels with carved grotesque heads.
The Nave (95½ ft. by 20 ft.) has N. and S.
arcades each of six bays with moulded four-centred arches of two moulded orders, the inner
resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals
and bases; the outer order is continuous in
alternate piers, the outer member in the other
piers springing from a moulded capital and shaft;
from the piers and from the apex of each arch
spring wall-shafts terminating in moulded capitals
under the wall-posts of the roof. The clearstorey
has on each side twelve windows each of three
trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a four-centred
head with a moulded label, and partly restored.
Dedham. The Parish Church of St Mary.
The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) has in the E. wall
a partly restored window of three trefoiled ogee
lights with tracery in a four-centred head with
moulded jambs and label. In the N. wall are five
windows of similar design to that in the E. wall,
and all partly restored; between the two westernmost is the N. doorway (Plate, p. 42), with
moulded and shafted jambs and moulded two-centred arch and label. In the W. wall is a window
similar to that in the E. wall.
The South Aisle (13¾ ft. wide) has windows
similar in number and character to those in the
N. aisle and all partly restored. Between the two
westernmost windows in the S. wall is the reset
S. doorway of c. 1350, with double chamfered
jambs and two-centred arch with a moulded label;
above this doorway is a doorway of uncertain date
to a former gallery. Between the two eastern
windows in the S. wall are the upper and lower
doorways of the rood-loft staircase, both with four-centred heads.
The West Tower (about 16 ft. square) is of early
16th-century date and of four stages (Plate, p. 80),
with an embattled parapet of flint-inlay work,
crocketed pinnacles rising from octagonal turrets
or buttresses, and a moulded plinth with cusped
panels of flint-inlay (Plate, p. 133) enclosing blank
shields and crowned monograms of the Virgin.
The ground stage forms a passage from N. to S.
and is roofed with a segmental-pointed vault of
stone; the soffit (Plate, p. 213) is enriched with a
double range of cinquefoiled panels with tracery on
each side, enclosing carved flowers, portcullises and
two heads, a crown, a mitre, and a hand holding a
sword; there is also a series of small shields bearing
(a) party palewise; (b) a cheveron between three
lozenges and three martlets on the cheveron for
Welbeck; (c) a cross charged with a rose; (d) a cross,
(e) merchants' marks and the initials I.H., I.W.
and T.W. In the E. wall is a lofty arch, the full
height of the nave, with moulded responds and
four-centred arch; it has a brick filling, in the
lower part of which is the early 16th-century
W. doorway with elaborately moulded jambs and
four-centred arch in a square head with a moulded
label and quatrefoiled spandrels enclosing shields;
the rear-arch has traceried panelling on the face
and a panelled and traceried soffit; further N.
on the E. face is a blocked doorway with moulded
jambs and four-centred arch; S. of the doorways
on the E. side is an inserted stair-turret leading
to a stone gallery with a parapet, all modern except
a frieze with three lozenge-shaped panels with
rosettes and a shield with a merchant's mark and
a trefoil-headed panel at the N. end. The upper
part of the filling of the main arch is pierced with
a modern opening with a plain rounded head.
The passage in the ground stage of the tower has
at the N. and S. ends an archway with a moulded
two-centred arch of two orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts
with moulded capitals and bases; the arch has
a square moulded label with traceried and carved
spandrels. The second stage has the springers of
a ribbed stone vault, never completed; they rest
on moulded corbels; in the W. wall is a window
partly restored and of four cinquefoiled lights with
tracery in a two-centred head with moulded jambs
and label. The third stage has in each wall a
window of two cinquefoiled lights in a four-centred
head with a moulded label. The bell-chamber has
in each wall a window of three cinquefoiled lights
with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with
a moulded label.
The North Porch is of early 16th-century date
and of two storeys, with an embattled parapet,
moulded plinth and diagonal buttresses, all enriched with flint-inlay in panels with cusped heads;
the two-centred outer archway is of two moulded
orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting
on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases;
the arch has a double label enclosing a square head
and having crowned lions as stops; the traceried
spandrels have each a shield—(a) the Trinity
(defaced); (b) quarterly a bend with three crosses
crosslet thereon for Fastolf. The side walls have
each a much restored window of three trefoiled
lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head
with a moulded label. The upper storey has in
the N. wall a much restored window of two cinquefoiled lights in a two-centred head with a moulded
label; flanking it, externally, are niches, each with
moulded and buttressed jambs, moulded pedestal
and trefoiled traceried and crocketed canopy.
The South Porch has an early 16th-century
moulded plinth with panels of flint-inlay and a
14th-century two-centred outer archway of two
chamfered orders reset; above it is a window of
one cinquefoiled ogee light in a square head with
a moulded label.
The Roof of the chancel is flat-pitched and of
four main bays with moulded main timbers and
embattled wall-plates; the principals have curved
braces, springing from wall-posts and forming four-centred arches. The roof of the nave is flat-pitched
and of thirteen bays with moulded main timbers
and carved and embattled wall-plates; the curved
braces beneath the principals spring from wallposts having attached shafts with moulded capitals
and bases and standing on embattled corbels. The
roofs of the N. and S. aisles are of flat pent form
with moulded main timbers with curved braces
Fittings—Bells: eight; 6th by W. Burford,
c. 1400 and inscribed "In Multis Annis Resonet,
Campana Johannis"; 7th by John Darbie, 1675.
Door: In N. doorway (Plate, p. 42)—of two leaves
with moulded and carved fillets planted on;
defaced angel at apex; each vertical panel with
traceried ornament to lower part and above it
six shallow niches each formerly having a figure
and canopy, all now cut away; in head, four
double panels or niches each with remains of
carved figures including probably St. Catherine
and St. Margaret, and two female and four male
figures all unidentifiable, early 16th-century.
Font: octagonal bowl with panelled faces, carved
with symbols of the evangelists and angels;
moulded lower edge with carved angels' heads,
almost entirely defaced, moulded base, 15th-century. Glass: In N. aisle—in N.E. window,
16th-century quarry with knot and initials E.S.;
in N.W. window, fragments of tabernacle work,
c. 1500. At vicarage—a few fragments. Indents:
In churchyard—S. of chancel, (1) of cross and
four round plates at angles; W. of N. aisle,
(2) of two figures, scrolls, inscription-plate, groups
of children, Trinity and round plates at angles,
15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Edmund
Chapman, 1602, lecturer to the church, alabaster
and black marble tablet with broken pediment
and achievement of arms (see also (5)); (2) of
John Roger, 1636, minister of the church, tablet
with niche containing bust in skull-cap and gown,
represented in pulpit (see also (6)); on S. wall,
(3) to William Burkitt, 1703, minister of the
church, draped white marble tablet with cornice,
lamps and achievement of arms. In N. aisle—
against N. wall, (4) to [Thomas Webbe, early
16th-century, erected by his son John], altar-tomb with plinth partly enriched with quatrefoils,
side of tomb with square quatrefoiled panels
enclosing shields and rosettes; the shields have
the initials I.W., and T.W. and merchants' marks;
grey marble slab with moulded edge; at back
four-centred arched recess flanked by octagonal
panelled piers carried up as embattled pinnacles,
cusped and sub-cusped arch with foliated cornice
and traceried spandrels; at back of recess, range
of quatrefoiled panels with three shields having
the initials T.W. and merchant's mark, and one
with initials I.W., cresting of Tudor flowers;
soffit of recess panelled with quatrefoils; above
cornice, a high attic with panelled and embattled
parapet and cornice enriched with an angel holding
a shield with a cross and small shields repeating
the initials and mark in the recess; on front of
attic, indents of two kneeling figures, scrolls,
groups of children and a square plate; on edge
of altar-tomb socket for marginal inscription.
In churchyard—(5) to Edmund Chapman, 1602;
slab; (6) to John Roger, 1636, table-tomb; (7) to
Robert Alefounder, 1630, table-tomb; (8) slab
of 1638, defaced. Floor-slab: In chancel—to
Martha (Wilkinson), wife of William Burkitt,
1698, with achievement of arms. Niches: See
under N. porch. Piscinae: In chancel—with
cinquefoiled and sub-cusped head and traceried
spandrels enclosing shields with a sprig and the
arms of the Trinity respectively, square drain,
c. 1500, much re-cut. In S. aisle—in S. wall, with
moulded jambs and trefoiled head, quatrefoiled
drain, probably 14th-century reset. Recess: In
chancel—in S. wall, with segmental brick head
and flue, date and purpose uncertain. In room
over N. porch—in W. wall, small with square
head, early 16th-century. Scratchings: on piers
of arcades, doorways and window jambs, many
masons' marks, c. 1500. Miscellanea: Near
tower—carved figure (Plate, p. 133) of kneeling
angel holding scroll, formerly on parapet of tower,
b(2). Southfields (Plate, p. 84), house, said
to have been formerly a "bay and say" factory,
about 300 yards S.S.E. of the church. It is
of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and
plastered; the roofs are covered with tiles and
slates. It was built late in the 15th or early in the
16th century on a courtyard plan, with an entrance
gateway on the N. There are small modern additions to the N. and S. ranges and the building
has been altered to form ten tenements.
The building is of great interest as an example
of a large timber-framed structure of its period.
Elevations—Much of the original timber-framing
is exposed both in the courtyard (Plate, p. xxx) and
in the external walls. The N. Front has in the middle
the entrance archway with exposed ceiling-beams
and a projecting and gabled upper storey; hung
from the middle posts of the entry is an original
door of two folds and nail-studded with strap-hinges.
The E. end of the N. front has a projecting upper
storey. The upper storey of the E. Front also
projected but has been under-built with modern
brick. The S. Front has a projecting wing at the
W. end, with an overhanging upper storey, original
moulded bressumers and massive corner-posts with
moulded capitals and curved diagonal and rectangular braces; the diagonal braces are moulded;
the weather-boarded gable also projects. The
W. Front has at the S. end an original projecting
bay-window (Plate, p. 100) of five transomed lights
with one light on the return; the frame and
mullions are moulded; adjoining this window on
the S. is another window of two lights, with similar
mouldings. The large chimney-stack has tabled
offsets and two octagonal shafts, modern at the top.
On the rest of this front the upper storey formerly
projected but has been under-built. The Courtyard
(60 ft. by 40 ft.) has on the E. side an original
doorway with a four-centred head and now blocked,
and a four-light window with bar mullions, also
blocked. The W. side (Plate, p. 85) has a small
original porch; the outer archway has a flat
triangular head. S. of the porch the upper storey
projects and there are two original windows of four
lights with moulded frames and sills and both now
blocked. The upper storey has a blocked doorway,
formerly approached by an external staircase.
Interior—The most important part of the house
is the projecting S.W. wing, called the "Master
Weaver's House." Both storeys have original
moulded ceiling-beams and joists and in the S. wall
is a blocked window of six lights, with moulded
mullions. There is an original doorway with a
four-centred head and some 16th and 17th-century
doors. The staircase of c. 1700 has turned
balusters. The rest of the building has exposed
timber-framing and chamfered ceiling-beams and
some tie-beams with curved braces. The upper
storey of the E. range appears to have formed
one long room, all the existing partitions being
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century, and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many
of the buildings have original chimney-stacks and
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
b(3). Dedham Hall, 300 yards N.E. of the church,
was built early in the 17th century on a T-shaped
plan with the cross-wing at the E. end; late in
the same century a wing was added on the N. of
the main block.
b(4). "Dael Holme," formerly Mill House, 200
yards W. of (3), was built c. 1600, and has later
modern additions at the W. end. The N. front
has an original timber porch with moulded framing
and a dentilled lintel; at the sides are symmetrically
turned balusters. On the S. side are two projecting
gables on original shaped brackets. The gables of
the N. and W. additions also project on shaped
High Street, N. side:—
b(5). Cottage, three tenements, at W. end of
Brook Street and 160 yards E.N.E. of the church.
b(6). House and barn, 30 yards W. of (5). The
House was built late in the 15th or early in the
16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings
extending towards the E. and N. Inside the
building several rooms have original moulded
ceiling-beams and joists, and there is an early
The Barn, N. of the house, is of three bays
with a porch. In the garden are some jamb-stones
of a 14th-century window.
Dedham, Plan Shewing Position of Monuments
b(7). House and shop, 30 yards W. of (6), is of
three storeys, fronted with 18th-century brick.
b(8). Marlborough Head Inn, adjoining (7) on
W. side, was built c. 1500 on an L-shaped plan,
with the wings extending towards the E. and N.
There are 17th-century additions at the end of the
N. wing. Inside the building the S.W. room has
original moulded ceiling-beams carved on the soffit
with foliage or cusped tracery; the lintel of a recess
in the S.E. corner has curved braces with foliated
spandrels. A room on the first floor has an original
moulded ceiling-beam and joists. The roof of the
E. wing is original and of king-post type.
b(9). House and shops, at W. junction of Mill
Lane and High Street, was built early in the
16th century or possibly earlier. The upper storey
projects on the E. side. Inside the building are
some original moulded ceiling-beams. A room on
the first floor has a late 17th-century plaster ceiling
of two bays divided by a beam with vine and oak
leaf ornament; one bay has four panels with
bosses of conventional foliage; the other bay has
similar bosses, irregularly placed.
b(10). Sun Hotel, 60 yards W. of (9), was built
early in the 16th century on a half H-shaped plan
with the wings extending towards the N. The
N.W. wing was twice extended in the 17th century.
Under the E. end of the main block is a cartway,
the lintel of which has curved braces. On the
E. side of the early 17th-century extension is an
external covered staircase (Plate, p. 100) with
exposed timber-framing; the landing at the top
has a gable with a moulded bressumer and shaped
brackets. Inside the building is an original moulded
ceiling-beam and wall-posts with moulded heads.
On the E. side of the yard is a block of stables, of
early 16th-century date; the main partition in
the middle of the building consists of vertical panels
formed by original moulded studs. The roof is of
four bays with braced tie-beams and wind-braced
b(11). House and shop, W. of (10), has on the E.
wall some original pargeting with a design of polygonal panels and cross-shaped panels; the gable
above has moulded barge-boards with conventional
foliage. The main chimney-stack has four grouped
octagonal shafts, on a square base with a moulded
b(12). House and shop, W.S.W. of (11), was built
possibly in the 15th century, but has been completely altered. The shop windows have trefoiled
cusping at the angles, said to have come from
Boxted church. Inside the building are some 17th-century doors. The staircase has an octagonal
newel with a shaped top; the roof has original
b(13). House, 15 yards W.S.W. of (12), was built
probably late in the 16th century, and has a 17th-century addition at the back. In front there is
an elaborate early 18th-century frame, of wrought
iron, for an inn sign. The original chimney-stack
has tabled offsets.
b(14). House and shop, at W. corner of Princel
Green and High Street, was built probably early in
the 18th century.
b(15). House and shop (Plate, p. 123), W.S.W. of
(14), was built c. 1600, and has a late 17th-century
wing at the back. The upper storey projects in
front and on the same side are two projecting gables
with original shaped brackets. Inside the building
are original moulded ceiling-beams and joists, one
with shafted dentils.
b(16). House and shop, W.S.W. of (15).
b(17). House, standing back from the road and
80 yards W.S.W. of the church.
b(18). House and shop, 20 yards N.N.E. of (17).
b(19). House and shop, 15 yards N.E. of (18).
The upper storey formerly projected on the N. and
a(20). Rookery Farm, house, 1,100 yards W.S.W.
of the church, has inside the building some original
doors and a window with moulded mullions, now
a(21). Cottage, by the river, about 1 m. W.N.W.
of the church, was built c. 1500. The upper
storey projects on the W. side and S. end and has
an original moulded and embattled bressumer,
exposed joists and curved brackets. Inside the
building are original moulded ceiling-beams and
a(22). Boxhouse Farm, house, ½ m. W. of (20),
has a W. wing of 15th-century date; the main
block was rebuilt early in the 17th century. The
upper storey of the W. porch projects in front;
above the entrance is a defaced date 16—, in plaster;
the window on the first floor is largely modern.
In the S. wall is an opening with original turned
balusters and above it is a band of running foliage
in plaster. To the S. of the porch, above the lower
window, is a band of scallops and conventional
honeysuckle in plaster. N. of the porch is an
early 17th-century window. Inside the building
the S. room has a late 17th-century plaster ceiling
(Plate, p. 235), divided into four bays by moulded
trabeations with rich conventional foliage on the
soffits; the cornice is also enriched and the bays
have central foliated bosses and sprays of fruit,
etc., at the angles. The room above has a similar
ceiling. There is one 17th-century door and the
E. wing has remains of the original roof.
a(23) Blackbrook Farm, house, 650 yards S.W.
c(24). Mount Pleasant, house, about 1¼ m. S.W.
of the church, was built probably in the first half
of the 16th century, with a cross-wing at the S.W.
end. The upper storey projects at the S.W. end
and did formerly also on the S.E. front. Inside
the building both wings have original moulded
ceiling-beams. In the S.W. wing is a mid 17th-century plaster ceiling divided into square bays,
with enriched borders and centre-pieces and fleurs-de-lis at the angles.
c(25). Lamb Inn, 50 yards N.E. of (24).
c(26). House (Plate, p. 189), 170 yards N.E. of
(25), was built probably in the 16th century.
Inside the building are some original moulded joists.
c(27). Rye Farm, house, 200 yards S.E. of (26),
was built probably late in the 16th century, with
a cross-wing at the W. end.
b(28). Cottage, two tenements, in Cooper's Lane,
½ m. S. of the church, was built in the 16th century
and has a projecting upper storey on the W. side.
b(29). Cottage, S. of (28), has exposed timberframing.
b(30). House, formerly Prince of Wales Inn,
120 yards E. of (29), was built in the 15th century,
with a central hall and cross-wing at the W. end.
The upper storey projects at the W. end of the
cross-wing, but is covered by a modern annexe.
Inside the building are original moulded ceilingbeams and king-post roof-trusses.
a(31). Castle House, 70 yards S.E. of (30), has
been almost completely altered.
b(32). House, 160 yards E.N.E. of (31), has an
original chimney-stack, with four octagonal shafts
on a square base. The timber-framing is partly
exposed at the back.
d(33). Lufkin's Farm, house, 1¼ m. S.S.E. of the
church, has an original chimney-stack with diagonal
d(34). Hill Farm, house, 550 yards E.N.E. of
(33), was built possibly in the 16th century. The
gable projects at the N.W. end.