12. CANEWDON. (F.c.)
Canewdon, the Parish Church of St. Nicholas.
(O.S. 6 in. (a)lxx. N.E. (b)lxxi. N.W. (c)lxxi. N.E.)
Canewdon is a parish and village on the S. of
the Crouch estuary, 6 m. N. of Southend-on-Sea.
The church is the principal monument.
a(1). A Roman building of some kind is possibly
indicated by Roman tiles "excavated on the
S. side of the churchyard" about 1848, but no
further information is available. Burial-urns,
recorded to have been discovered in a gravel-pit
near Canewdon Hall about 1712, may have been
either Roman or Saxon.
(For the tiles, B. A. A., IV (1849), 74. For the
urns, Salmon, Hist. of Essex (1743), 385; Morant,
Hist. of Essex (1768), I, 313—both apparently from
Holman, quoted Essex Arch. Soc. Trans. (N.S.),
XII, 113–5. Marked Roman on O.S. 6 in. lxx.
a(2). Parish Church of St. Nicholas stands
near the middle of the parish. The walls are
mainly of ragstone-rubble with some septaria and
flint; the dressings are of limestone; the roofs
are covered with tiles and lead. The Nave,
Chancel and North Aisle were built in the 14th
century. Early in the 15th century the West
Tower and South Porch were added and the S. wall
of the nave re-built; a N. vestry was probably
added at the same time. Later in the same century
the two eastern bays of the N. arcade were re-built
and the N. aisle largely re-built. Late in the 18th
century the N. vestry was pulled down. The church
has been restored in modern times when the chancel
was largely re-built.
The Tower is a good example of its period and
among the fittings the altar-slab and pulpit are
Architectural Description—The Chancel (34½ ft.
by 19 ft.) has an E. window all modern except the
15th-century rear-arch and parts of the splays,
jambs and head. In the N. wall is a modern window
with re-used stones in the splays; E. of it is a
15th-century doorway to the former vestry of
which the toothing of the E. wall remains; the
doorway has hollow-chamfered jambs and two-centred arch and is now blocked. In the S.
wall are two windows, the eastern of the 15th
century but mainly modern externally and of
two cinque-foiled lights in a segmental head;
the western window is of late 15th-century date
and of two cinque-foiled and transomed lights in
a segmental-pointed head, much restored;
between the windows is a 14th-century doorway,
now blocked, with moulded jambs, two-centred
arch and label with defaced stops. The chancel-arch is modern.
The Nave (56½ ft. by 22½ ft.) has a N. arcade
(Plate, p. 24) of four bays originally of the
14th century with the two eastern bays
re-built and widened by the cutting back
of the respond late in the 15th century; the
first bay has a re-set two-centred arch of three
chamfered orders; the second arch is two-centred
and of two chamfered orders, the inner of the 15th
and the outer of the 14th century, re-set; the
remaining two arches are each of three chamfered
orders, two-centred and of the 14th century.
The outer orders spring from carved figures
including a woman's head, beasts and a bird all
much defaced, a beast holding a shield a cheveron
between three rings for Chanceaux and a shield
seven lozenges and a border (perhaps voided lozenges
for Robert Braybroke, Bishop of London). The
octagonal columns of the arcade have moulded
capitals all of the 14th century, the first column
having been re-set; the 15th-century E. respond
is square with a moulded impost; the 14th-century
W. respond has an attached half-column. At
the E. end of the wall is the 15th-century rood-loft
staircase, now blocked but with the N. jamb of
the lower doorway exposed. In the S. wall are
three early 15th-century windows, the two easternmost are of three pointed lights with uncusped
tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded
label and head-stops; the westernmost window is
modern except for the splays and part of the rear-arch and a label with grotesque stops; further
E. is the early 16th-century S. doorway with
moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square
head with moulded labels and traceried spandrels
enclosing blank shields.
The North Aisle (11¼ ft. wide) is said to have
a blocked window in the E. wall. In the N. wall
are four windows, the easternmost is of the 14th
century much restored and of three cinque-foiled
lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred
head; the second window is of the 15th century
and of three pointed lights with uncusped vertical
tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label
and head-stops; the third window is similar to
the second but partly restored; the westernmost
window is all modern except the heads of the two
15th-century cinque-foiled lights; further E. is
the 15th-century N. doorway with moulded jambs
and two-centred arch.
The West Tower (16 ft. square) (Plate, p. 21) is
of dressed ragstone, of early 15th-century date
and of three stages with an embattled parapet
of flint and stone chequer-work with crosses in
the merlons. The two-centred tower-arch is of
four orders; the three inner are chamfered and of
these the outer is continuous and the inner two
rest on attached shafts with moulded capitals
and bases. The W. window is of three cinque-foiled
lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head
with a moulded label and head-stop; below the
window are three moulded panels (Plate, p. 84)
containing shields-of-arms (a) defaced; (b) France
modern quartering England; (c) a bend cotised
between six lions for Bohun impaling a lion
for Fitzalan quartering checky for Warrenne;
the W. doorway has moulded jambs and
two-centred arch in a square head with a
moulded label, angels holding shields, as stops,
and traceried spandrels enclosing defaced shields.
The E., N. and S. walls of the second stage have
each a window of one trefoiled light with a moulded
label; in the W. wall is a window of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head
with moulded jambs and label. The bell-chamber
has in each wall a window of two cinque-foiled lights
with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a
square outer order and label.
The South Porch is of early 15th-century date
and has an embattled parapet of flint and stone
chequer-work with plain crosses on the merlons.
The outer archway has moulded and shafted
jambs and a two-centred arch in a square outer
order with a defaced label; the traceried spandrels
enclose small blank shields. The side walls have
each a window of two cinque-foiled lights in a square
head with a moulded label.
The Roof of the nave is of the 15th century and
of four bays with plain king-post trusses; the third
tie-beam is inscribed R.H., T.D. 1698, the date of
some repair. The N. aisle has a plain lean-to
roof of uncertain date with main timbers dividing
it into eight bays. The 15th-century ceiling of
the ground-stage of the tower has heavy chamfered
braces crossing in the middle and formerly having
a boss at the intersection. The flat-pitched 15th-century roof of the S. porch is of two bays with
chamfered main timbers.
Fittings—Altar: In N. aisle—at E. end, slab
with chamfered under-edge and broken in two,
four consecration crosses remaining. Bells: Five;
1st by John and Christopher Hodson, 1678; 3rd
by Miles Graye, 1634; 5th by John Waylett,
1707; bell-frame old. Brass Indents: In nave
—(1) of figures, scroll and inscription-plate. In S.
porch—(2) of man and two small figures and
inscription-plate; (3) of inscription-plate; (4) of
man, three wives and children; (5) of marginal
inscription. Chests: In chancel—small, of hutch-type with moulded edge to lid, early 17th-century.
In N. aisle—with panelled front and ends and
moulded edge to lid, 17th-century. Doors: In nave
—in S. doorway, of overlapping battens with trellis-framing and strap-hinges, 15th-century. In tower
—in W. doorway, of nail-studded battens with
hollow-chamfered fillets, mostly missing, 15th-century; in bell-chamber doorway, of overlapping
battens with strap-hinges, 15th-century. Glass:
In nave—in middle S. window, remains of border
of crowns and ruby glass, fragments of black-letter
inscription, etc., early 15th-century. Monuments:
In churchyard—S. of nave, (1) to John Bishop,
1709, brick and stone table-tomb; (2) to John Allen,
1691, headstone with skull and cross-bones. Niches:
In N. aisle—in E. wall, (1) with cinque-foiled
head from former window, 15th-century, remains
of red and black paint; (2) with cinque-foiled ogee
head and broken sill, 14th-century, with painted
red stars on a black ground. On W. tower—
flanking W. doorway, two with moulded jambs
and cinque-foiled heads and square moulded labels,
moulded pedestals, early 15th-century; on W.
buttress, two with moulded jambs and trefoiled
ogee heads, and pedestals, early 15th-century.
Painting: In N. aisle—on E. splay of N.E. window,
remains of black border, etc.; see also Niches and
Miscellanea. Piscinae: In chancel—with moulded
jambs and cinque-foiled square head, early 15th-century, round drain partly broken, above it a
shield-of-arms—a cheveron between three rings,
15th-century. In N. aisle—in E. wall, with
moulded jambs and trefoiled head with defaced label, quatre-foiled drain, 14th-century.
Plate: includes cup of 1665, dated 1665. Poor-boxes: In N. aisle—(1) small iron-bound box
with strap-hinges and two straps, 15th-century;
(2) cylindrical box with concave lid and iron
lock, probably 17th-century. Pulpit: hexagonal,
panelled sides with carved and moulded cornice,
cherub-heads and swags of fruit and foliage, pendants of foliage at the angles, late 17th-century.
Sedile: In chancel—in S. wall, with hollow-chamfered jambs, 15th-century, modern head.
Miscellanea: In N. aisle—a collection of objects
including part of a circular base of font-stem;
late 17th-century twisted baluster from communion rails, 15th-century popey-head and traceried
panel. In W. tower is a 15th-century head-stop. In chancel—built into S. wall, parts of
panelled buttresses or shafts of a tabernacle and
also a painted head belonging to the same work,
original red, dark green and gold colour, 15th-century.
Condition—Poor, cracks in walling and stonework much decayed.
a(3). Homestead Moat, at Canewdon Hall, N.E.
of the church.
b(4). Lambourne Hall, house and moat, about
1 m. E.S.E. of the church. The House is of two
storeys with attics; the walls are timber-framed
and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built
possibly late in the 15th or early in the 16th
century but the S.E. end was re-built in the 17th
century when a two-storeyed porch was added on
the S.W. front and a chimney-stack inserted at
the W. end of the original hall. There are
18th-century and modern additions. On the S.W.
front the upper storey of the porch projects and is
gabled. The upper storey projected on the N.E.
side of the main block, but has been under-built.
One chimney-stack has a 17th-century hexagonal
shaft. Inside the building a few of the curved
braces supporting the main beams are exposed as
are also some of the ceiling-beams.
The Moat formerly surrounded the house.
Condition—Of house, good.
a(5). Scott's Hall, house and moat, about
¾ m. S. of the church. The House is of two storeys,
timber-framed and weather-boarded; the roofs
are tiled. It was built in the 17th century on a
rectangular plan but has later additions. Inside
the building there are exposed ceiling-beams.
The Moat N. of the house is now dry.
Condition—Of house, good.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century, and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. Some of the
buildings have exposed ceiling-beams and original
Condition—Good or fairly or fairly good.
a(6). House, now three tenements, on S. side of
road, about 350 yards E. of the church, was built
possibly in the 15th century. It has been much
altered and partly refaced with modern brick.
The upper storey projects at the E. end of the
a(7). House, 200 yards E. of (5), was built possibly
in the 16th century and has later additions. The
upper storey of the W. wing projects on the
a(8). White House, about 380 yards S.W. of the
church, is of two storeys with attics. It is of
the central-chimney-type and has low additions
at the E. end.
a(9). Sturgeon's, house, 750 yards S. of the church,
is of one storey with attics and was built in the
16th century. Inside the building is an original
fireplace and the roof has exposed wind-braces.
a and c(10). Red Hills, S. of and following line of
the River Crouch, at Norpits Farm, 1½ m. N.W. of
the church, and some others further E. in detached
portion of parish.