31. GREAT BADDOW. (D.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)lii. S.E. (b)liii. S.W.)
Great Baddow is a parish and village due S. of
Chelmsford. The principal monuments are the
church and Great Sir Hughes.
b(1). Parish Church of St. Mary (Plate, p. 49)
stands in the village. The walls are of flint-rubble
with some fragments of Roman brick; the chapels,
clearstorey and porch are of brick; the dressings
are of limestone and brick; the roofs are covered
with tiles, slates and lead.
The Chancel, Nave and a N. Aisle were built
about the middle of the 13th century probably on
the site of an earlier church, and at a rather later
date a South Aisle was added. In the first half
of the 14th century the Aisles were widened and
the West Tower was begun, the upper half of the
Tower being completed later in the same century.
Early in the 16th century the South Chapel and
the clearstorey of the Nave were added and a little
later the North Chapel was built. The South
Porch was added in the 17th century. The church
has been restored in modern times when the dormer-windows were added to the chancel and the
North Vestry added or re-built.
The clearstorey is a handsome example of early
16th-century brickwork and among the fittings
the 17th-century pulpit is noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (28½ ft.
by 22½ ft.) has a modern E. window of four lights
and tracery; the gable-head is of early 16th-century brick. In the N. wall is a 13th-century
lancet now mostly restored, and further W. is a
modern doorway into the vestry; the early 16th-century brick arch opening into the N. Chapel is
two-centred and of one chamfered order resting
on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases;
the chamfered outer order of the responds is carried
up vertically to the wall-plates and is plastered.
In the S. wall is a window originally a 13th-century
lancet, afterwards widened to the W. in the 15th
century and now all modern except the splays
and four-centred rear-arch; further W. is an
archway similar to that in the N. wall but four-centred and of larger detail. The 15th-century
chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered
orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting
on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases.
The North Chapel (11½ ft. by 14½ ft.) is of brick
with an embattled parapet and has in the E. wall
an early 16th-century brick window of one three-centred light. In the N. wall is a brick window of
three four-centred lights in a square head with
a moulded label, all cemented externally. In the
W. wall is a four-centred arch of two chamfered
orders, the inner carried on shafts with moulded
capitals and tall bases.
The South Chapel (15 ft. by 14½ ft.) is of brick
with a crow-stepped embattled parapet. In the
E. wall is an early 16th-century brick window of
three four-centred lights in a square head with a
moulded label, all cemented externally, and with
a four-centred plastered rear-arch. In the S. wall
is a modern doorway inserted in the blocking of an
original window. In the W. wall is an archway
nearly uniform with that to the N. chapel.
The Nave (46½ ft. by 23½ ft.) has 13th-century
N. and S. arcades of three bays, with two-centred
arches of two chamfered orders; the columns are
cylindrical except the second on the N., which is
octagonal, and all have moulded capitals and bases.
The N. arcade is the earlier and has square responds,
the eastern having an attached square shaft with
moulded capital and base and the western a carved
head-corbel and capital carrying the inner orders
of the arches. The S. arcade has chamfered
responds and the inner orders are carried on corbel-capitals, the eastern partly restored. The early
16th-century clearstorey is of red brick with diaper
patterns in black bricks, and has a crow-stepped
embattled parapet resting on a trefoiled corbel-table; a series of octagonal pinnacles with conical
moulded caps divides it into five bays length-wise
and two cross-wise. In the E. wall are two windows
each of two round-headed lights under a four-centred head; the side walls have each five windows
each of two cinque-foiled lights under a three-centred
head with a moulded label.
Great Baddow, the Parish Church of St Mary.
The North Aisle (14 ft. wide) has an early
16th-century embattled parapet. In the N. wall
are two windows each of two lights and tracery
all modern except the moulded splays and chamfered
rear-arches which are of the 14th century. Further
W. is a blocked doorway with a two-centred head
and segmental-pointed rear-arch of the 13th or
14th century. In the W. wall is a single-light
window all modern except the 14th-century
moulded splays and rear-arch.
The South Aisle (14½ ft. wide) has an early
16th-century crow-stepped embattled parapet of
brick. In the S. wall are two windows each of
three lights and tracery all modern except the
14th-century splays and rear-arches. Further W.
is the S. doorway with modern shafted and moulded
jambs and a moulded two-centred arch of the 13th
century re-set in the 14th century and having a
chamfered outer order and moulded label. In the
W. wall is a 14th-century window of three lights
and tracery in a two-centred head, all much
The West Tower (13½ ft. by 12½ ft.) is of the
14th century; the upper half, which is probably
a little later than the lower half, has an embattled
parapet, and is surmounted by a leaded spire. The
two-centred tower-arch is of three chamfered orders,
the outermost continuous from the responds, the
inner two carried on large attached semi-octagonal
shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The W.
window is of two trefoiled ogee-headed lights
with partly restored tracery in a two-centred head
with a moulded label and defaced head-stops. The
W. doorway has moulded jambs, two-centred arch
and label with defaced head-stops. The second
storey has in each wall a window of one pointed
light; the E. window looking into the nave. The
bell-chamber has 18th-century windows of brick.
On the E. face of the tower are the weatherings of
the former steep-pitched roof of the nave.
The South Porch (Plate, p. xxxviii) is of the first
half of the 17th century and is built of brick. The
outer archway is of two orders, the outer square, the
inner semi-circular with imposts and a pendant key-block. Above it is a moulded entablature and
the gable-head has a moulded coping and, at the
base and apex, the remains of circular pinnacles.
The side walls have each a window of two round-headed lights, covered with cement.
The Roof of the S. chapel has hollow-chamfered
transverse rafters of the 16th or 17th century, the
rest is modern. The low-pitched roof of the nave
is of early 16th-century date and is of five bays;
the principal beams are moulded and carved with
twisted running foliage and have curved braces
below their ends springing from moulded corbel-capitals enriched with carved cresting; the
moulded ridge and smaller ribs divide each half
bay into six compartments; the ceiling is boarded;
the wall-plates are moulded and have carved
cresting. The flat lean-to roof of the N. Aisle
has three tie-beams carrying posts and two-way
curved struts under a central purlin, all the timbers
being moulded and of the 14th century; the curved
struts are carried on the sides of the tie-beams by
small moulded corbel-capitals, two of which are
now missing; the S. wall-plate is also moulded
and of the same date; the N. wall-plate is moulded
and carved with plain bosses and is probably of
the 17th century; above it is a fascia-board
inscribed "HUMFERI LOW ET HENRY
STILEMAN CHURCHWARDENS ANO D 1639";
under the N. ends of the principals are chamfered
wall-posts from the floor, with plain capitals probably of the 16th or 17th century. The roof of the
S. Aisle has old square rafters probably of the
17th century or later. The floor of the ringing-chamber of the tower has old timbers, possibly
14th or 15th-century.
Fittings—Brass and Indents. Brass: In chancel—
of Jane (Lewkenor), wife of John Paschall ,
figure of woman, inscription, and shield-of-arms.
Indents: In S. porch—four slabs and fragments of
a fifth with rivets and much - defaced indents.
Glass: In nave—in spandrels of clearstorey windows, fragments of black and yellow border, 14th-century and later re-set. Monument and Floor-slabs.
Monument: In S. chapel—on S. wall, to Hellen
Sydnor, 1651, and Elizabeth Hubert, 1625,
daughters of Thomas Leventhorpe, marble wall-monument with side-pilasters, cornice and two
shields-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) to John
Ingram, 1694; (2) to the Reverend Charles Adams
M.A., 1683. In N. aisle—(3) to John Everard,
16(14?). In tower—(4) to Abigall, wife of John
—(name defaced), 1692. Piscinae: In chancel—
with trefoiled heads in front and side-opening into
sedile, octofoiled drain, late 13th-century. In N.
chapel—in E. wall, with four-centred head and
round drain, early 16th-century. In S. aisle—in S.
wall, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head,
round drain, 14th-century. Plate: includes flagon
of 1627, with shield-of-arms, and alms-dish of
1675 with shield-of-arms. Pulpit (Plate, p. 4):
octagonal with alternate wide and narrow sides, all
panelled; larger panels with representations of
arches in perspective with side-columns, pediments
and carved frames, smaller and lower panels with
foliage and jewel-ornaments; base modern except
central post; sounding-board with panelled soffit
having carved rose in centre, carved frieze, moulded
cornice, carved strap-work cresting, and at the
angles, consoles with pinnacles above and small
pendants below; the back standard has three
panels, one carved with a cross and another with
the Sacred Heart, shaped and carved borders; on
a rail is carved the date 1639. Recess: In N.
chapel—in E. wall, with two-centred head, 16th
century. Royal Arms: Over chancel-arch—
painted board, with initials C R and date 1660;
all in a moulded wood frame surmounted by
a broken pediment. Sedile: In chancel—sill of
former S.E. lancet carried down to form a seat,
of same date as piscina.
b(2). Homestead Moat at Mascalls, about 1 m.
S.S.E. of the church.
b(3). Great Sir Hughes, house (Plate, p. 52),
1¾ m. S.S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with
attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are
tiled. It was built early in the 17th century and
appears to have been the N. wing of a much larger
house. There is an 18th-century kitchen addition
on the W.
The exceptional amount of external carved woodwork is of interest.
The plan is rectangular and consists of two
parallel blocks, the lower part of the northern
block forming an open loggia divided into five
bays with square fluted columns standing on
panelled pedestals and having moulded capitals
and bases and carved brackets supporting the
carved bressummer to the upper storey. Below
the bressummer, between the brackets, each bay
is sub-divided by two elliptical arches separated by
moulded pendants and having sunk spandrels. The
upper storey has three oriel-windows, each supported on three carved brackets and of five lights
with moulded mullions and carved transoms. The
timber-framing is exposed, the vertical members
between the windows being in the form of tapering
pilasters with moulded capitals above which are
carved brackets supporting a widely projecting
eaves. The chimney-stack has two octagonal shafts
with moulded bases. The entrance door is original
and is divided into small panels enriched with
lozenges by moulded and nail-studded rails and
muntins. It has an original knocker and lozenge-shaped plate; at the side are the remains of an
iron bracket. The E. end has original moulded
barge-boards and pendant. The S. block has a
three-storeyed bay-window. Inside the building
two of the rooms are lined with 17th-century
panelling and one of the attics has an original
panelled door. A carved newel-post and a few of
the balusters to the staircase are original.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. Many of the buildings
have original chimney-stacks and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
b(4). House, 30 yards N.W. of the church, has
been refaced with brick and much altered.
b(5). White Horse Inn, 70 yards S.W. of the
church, has an original chimney-stack of grouped
shafts but is otherwise modern.
b(6). House and Shop (Plate, p. xl), on W. side
of road, 50 yards W. of the church, was built
probably late in the 15th century. A central
chimney-stack was inserted late in the 16th or early
in the 17th century; the S. end of the house has
been converted into a shop and the building has
been added to and much altered. On the E. front
the whole of the upper storey projects. The
chimney-stack has four grouped octagonal shafts.
Inside the building the shop has moulded ceiling-beams; the principal cross-beam has curved
braces which spring from moulded brackets and
have sunk spandrels.
b(7). House, 60 yards N.W. of (6), is built on
an L-shaped plan and has wings extending towards
the N. and W. and a projecting bay in the centre
of the E. front. The window in the upper storey
of the centre bay is original and is of four lights
with moulded mullions and transoms. There are
two original chimney-stacks; one has two diagonal
shafts. A modern scratching on the plaster at the
N. end gives the date 1675.
b(8). House, 50 yards N.W. of (7), has a central
chimney-stack with grouped diagonal shafts.
Inside the building is an early 17th-century panelled
b(9). House (Plate, p. 57), on N. side of road,
350 yards N.N.W. of the church, was built
probably in the 16th century with a cross-wing
at the W. end. The main chimney-stack has
three octagonal shafts with moulded bases.
b(10). Manor Farm, house, 20 yards E. of (9),
has on the S. front an original door divided into
small panels by wide, nail-studded rails and
b(11). Cottage, 100 yards E. of (10), was built
probably early in the 16th century but has been
added to and much altered. Inside the building
is a richly moulded beam.
a(12). Lathcoats, cottage, about 1 m. W.S.W. of
the church, was built probably late in the 16th
century. It has modern extensions at the back.
The upper storey projects at the N. end of the
a(13). Oakman's Farm, house, about 1¾ m. S.W.
of the church, was built probably in the 16th
century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings
extending towards the N. and W. At the S. end
of the E. front the upper storey projects.
a(14). Bareman's Farm, house, 50 yards S.W. of
(13), was built probably in the 16th century. The
upper storey projects at the S. end of the W. front.
b(15). Cottage, opposite Brook Farm, nearly 1¼ m.
S. of the church, has a projecting storey at the
b(16). Duffield's Farm, house ¾ m. S.S.W. of the
church, has been much altered. The principal
chimney-stack is original and has two diagonal
shafts. Inside the building the timber-framing in
one of the rooms is exposed and there is a wide
fireplace, now partly blocked.
b(17). The garden-wall enclosing the grounds of
Baddow House is largely of 17th-century date.