41. HORNCHURCH. (A.d.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)lxvii. S.W. (b)lxxiv. N.E. (c)lxxiv. S.E.
Hornchurch is a parish and village about 2 m.
S.E. of Romford. The principal monuments are
the church and Nelmes.
Hornchurch, the Parish Church of St Andrew.
d(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew (Plate,
p. 70) stands on the E. side of the village. The
walls are of septaria and ragstone-rubble, with some
brick; the dressings are of limestone; the roofs are
covered with lead. The Chancel and Nave, with
N. and S. aisles, were built about the middle of the
13th century. Early in the 15th century the North
and S. Aisles were re-built; later in the same century
the North and S. Chapels, the West Tower and the
North Porch were added; the clearstorey of the nave
was built about the same time. The church has
been restored in modern times, the South Chapel
and Aisle being re-built in brick.
The tower is a fairly good example of its period,
and among the fittings are some interesting brasses
Architectural Description—The Chancel (40¼ ft.
by 16½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the
N. wall is a window, all modern except the 15th-century splays and rear-arch; further W. is a
15th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and
two-centred arch; the 15th-century N. arcade is
of two bays with two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders; the column is octagonal, with
moulded capital and base, and the responds have
attached half columns; above the arcade is an
early 16th-century clearstorey window of three
trefoiled lights in a square head and now partly
blocked. The S. wall has windows and arcade
uniform with those in the N. wall; the clearstorey
window is entirely blocked. In the back of the
westernmost bay of the sedilia (see Fittings) is a
squint from the S. chapel. The chancel-arch is
modern except for the N. respond, which is of
mid 13th-century date and has three attached
shafts divided by small rolls.
The North Chapel (31 ft. by 13¼ ft.) is of late
15th-century date and has an E. and two N.
windows, each of three cinque-foiled lights with
vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a
moulded label. In the W. wall is an early 16th-century archway, four-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the
inner resting on attached shafts with moulded
capitals and bases.
The South Chapel has been almost entirely
re-built and has, re-set in the E. wall, a late 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights in a
four-centred head. In the S. wall are two re-set
windows of late 15th-century date and each of
three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in
a segmental-pointed head, patched with cement.
The Nave (53½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has mid 13th-century N. and S. arcades, each of four bays with
two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the
cylindrical columns have moulded capitals and
bases and the responds have attached half columns;
the S.E. respond and the capital of the N.E.
respond are modern; above the third column on
the N. is a round panel enclosing a quatrefoil and
five carved flowers. The 15th-century clearstorey
has on each side four much restored windows, each
of three cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed
The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) has in the N. wall
three windows similar to those in the N. chapel;
between the two western is the 15th-century N.
doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred
arch in a square head with a moulded label; the
spandrels have defaced carving. In the W. wall
is a window uniform with those in the N. wall.
The South Aisle has been re-built, but re-set in
the S. wall are three windows uniform with the
S. windows in the S. chapel. In the W. wall is a
re-set window uniform with the E. window of the
The West Tower (16 ft. square) is of late 15th-century date and of three stages with an embattled
parapet and embattled turrets rising above each
angle; on the tower is a short copper-covered
spire. The two-centred tower-arch is of two
moulded orders, the outer continuous and the
inner resting on attached shafts with moulded
capitals and bases. The W. window, restored
externally, is of three cinque-foiled lights with
vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the W.
doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch
in a square head with a moulded label and plain
shields in the spandrels, all restored in cement;
above the window is a stone carved with the
letter M or a reversed W in relief. The ground
stage is divided into two storeys by a ringing
gallery. The second stage has in each wall a
window of one trefoiled light in a square head,
all partly restored; the N. window is covered by
a clock-face and the S. and W. windows have
moulded labels. The bell-chamber has in each
wall a partly restored window of three trefoiled
lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label.
The W. face of the parapet has a stone with the
initials R F carved in relief. On the stair-turret
is a niche and figure, see Niche under Fittings.
The North Porch is of the 15th century and has
a two-centred outer archway of two moulded
orders with double chamfered jambs. The side
walls have each a window, all modern except the
splays and rear-arches.
The Roof of the chancel is flat-pitched and of
early 16th-century date; it is of three bays with
moulded main timbers and stunted king-posts;
one tie-beam is modern. The 15th-century roof
of the N. chapel is of two bays with moulded main
timbers and curved braces to the tie-beams,
forming four-centred arches. The N. aisle has a
similar roof of four bays. The roof of the nave
is similar to that of the chancel, but the tie-beams
are carved with grotesque faces. The 15th-century
roof of the N. porch is similar to that of the N.
chapel and has moulded rafters and hollow-chamfered braces and wall-posts. The modern
roof of the S. chapel and aisle incorporate some old
timbers and one or two old stone corbels.
Fittings—Bell: clock-bell said to be by Anthony
Bartlet, 1674. Brasses and Indents. Brasses:
In chancel—(1) to George Reede, LL.B., vicar of
the parish, 1530, inscription and scroll with indents
of figure and four roundels; (2) to James Pollexfen,
B.C.L., Fellow, etc., of St. Mary's College, Oxford,
1587, inscription only; (3) in same slab, of two
wives of [William Drywode, 1602], figures of
two women in hats, etc., rest of brass lost;
(4) to Homphry Drywood, 1595, inscription only,
on same slab; (5) group of five boys, c. 1500, on
same slab; (6) a shield of c. 1500, on a cheveron
three hawk's heads razed (?), on same slab; (7) to
Peerce Pennaunte, 1590, inscription with achievement-of-arms re-set in another slab; (8) probably
to Thomas Scargile, 1475, and Elizabeth, his wife,
shield-of-arms a saltire charged with a fleur-de-lis
and a border for Scargile, indents of figure of man
in armour, wife, inscription-plate and three shields;
(9) to [Katherine (Powlet), wife of William Fermor,
1510], all lost except two shields re-set in indents
of (8), (a) a fess between three lions' heads with three
anchors on the fess for Fermor impaling a quartered
shield of Powlet as (b), (b) Powlet quartering
Ereby, Delamore and Skelton; (10) of Thomas
Drywood, 1591, and Anne, his wife, with figures
of man and wife and groups of eight sons and
three daughters, original indent of this brass with
fragment of marginal inscription partly covered
by organ; (11) to Sire Boneface de Hart, canon
of 'Oste' (? Aosta), late 13th or early 14th-century, indents of foliated cross, half figures of
two ecclesiastics, three shields and marginal
inscription in separate capitals, two letters (N and
F) only remain. In N. chapel—on N. wall, (12) of
Thomas Hone, 1604, with groups of six sons and
six daughters, figures of man and wife re-set in
slab in chancel with earlier indents, shield-of-arms
belonging to this brass, in another slab in chancel
(see Indent (5)). Indents: In chancel—(1) of
two figures and inscription-plate, early 16th-century; (2) of figure of woman and inscription-plate, c. 1520; (3) to (?) Philip de Dovre, early
14th-century, marginal inscription in separate
capitals; (4) of figures of man and wife, two
groups of children, and inscription-plate, 16th-century; (5) of figures of man and wife, inscription-plate, and two shields, c. 1480; (6) of figure of
man, inscription-plate and two shields, probably
15th-century; (7) of inscription-plate and shield-of-arms; (8) of figures of man and wife, two groups
of children and inscription-plate, late 15th-century.
In W. tower—(9) of inscription-plate; (10) of
figures of man and wife, two groups of children,
inscription-plate and one shield, mid 16th-century;
(11 and 12) defaced indents. Coffin-lids: On N.
of tower, with foliated cross on stepped base,
13th-century; on S. of tower, fragment with part
of stem of cross. Doors: In N. doorway—of two
folds, each with four vertical panels with traceried
heads, moulded rail at springing level of arch and
plain panels above, early 15th-century. In W.
doorway—of two folds each with vertical panels,
moulded rail at springing of arch; early 16th-century. In doorway to turret-staircase of tower,
with vertical chamfered fillets and strap-hinges,
early 16th-century. Glass: In N. chapel—in E.
window, a fragmentary Crucifixion (with later
female head) and Christ enthroned, and parts of
two shields-of-arms (a) probably argent billetty
sable a fesse dancetty sable for Deyncourt, (b)
Deyncourt impaling a cheveron between three wheatsheaves, numerous fragments of a border of
leopards' heads and coloured glass, tabernacle
work, portions of figures, white roses, and quarries
with conventional designs, 15th and 16th-century.
Image: see Niche. Monuments and Floor-slabs.
Monuments: In chancel—under N. arcade, (1) to
[William Ayloffe, 1517, and Audrey (Shaa), his
wife], altar-tomb with moulded slab and base,
sides and end with quatre-foiled and sub-cusped
panels, each enclosing a shield—(a) a collared lion
between three crosses formy, for Ayloffe, (b) Ayloffe
impaling a cheveron ermine between three lozenges
ermine, for Shaa, (c) a cross charged with a leopard's
head a crescent for difference for Bruges or Bridges
impaling Ayloffe, (d) Ayloffe, (e) Ayloffe impaling
Shaa, (f) Shaa impaling a fesse engrailed between
three cinquefoils for Darcy, sinking for brass fillet
round slab. In S. chapel—on E. wall, (2) of Humfrey
Pye, 1625, alabaster and marble wall-monument
with kneeling figure in civil costume at prayer-desk, carved side-pilasters, cornice and two shields-of-arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (3) of Richard
Blakstone or Blaston, 1638, alabaster and marble
wall-monument with kneeling figures of man and
wife in recess with draped and curtained canopy
flanked by headless female figures, achievement
and two shields-of-arms. In S. chapel—on S.
wall (4) to Sir Francis Prujean, 1666, marble tablet
with Ionic side columns, entablature and broken
pediment, achievement and two shields-of-arms.
In tower—on N. wall (5) to Thomas Withring,
1651, chief Postmaster of Great Britain, marble
tablet with side pilasters and obelisks, round arch
and segmental pediment, achievement and two
shields-of-arms, below tablet two small recumbent
skeletons; (6) to Charles Pratt, 1624, marble
tablet with Corinthian side columns and broken
pediment; on S. wall (7) of Francis Rame, 1617,
and Helen, his wife, 1613, marble wall-monument
with kneeling figures of man and wife in recess
with side pilasters and entablature, on base
figures in relief of nine sons and a daughter; (8) to
Charles Ryves (Ryvius) S.T.P., vicar of the parish,
1610, marble tablet with carved frame. In
churchyard—W. of tower (9) name illegible, but
of 1698, head-stone with fluted pilasters. Floor-slabs; In chancel—(1) to Sir Edward Jackman,
1650; (2) to Sir John Sudbury, Bart., 1691, and
Bridget (Exton), his wife, also to Ann, their
daughter, 1691, with achievement-of-arms. In N.
chapel—(3) probably to (Richard Bl)akeston, 1638;
(4) with name hidden, c. 1650, with lozenge-of-arms. In tower—(5) to George Thorowgood, 1648,
with shield-of-arms. In churchyard—E. of chancel
(6) to Francis Shaw, vicar of the parish, 1696, also
to Jane, 1697, Edward 1697, and Elizabeth, 1697,
his children. Niche: On W. tower—on W. face of
stair-turret, with square head and carved seated
figure of bishop in mass vestments, much
weathered, 15th-century. Piscina: In chancel—
modern, but incorporating W. side of cinque-foiled
arch in a square head, spandrel carved with
rose and foliage, 15th-century. Plate (Plate,
p. xliv): includes cup and cover-paten of 1563,
with bands of engraved ornament, and flagon
of 1699, given in 1700, with locking-lid and
whistle. Paintings: In nave—on S. respond
of tower-arch, outline of shield, 16th or 17th-century. Sedilia: In chancel—of three bays
divided by shafts with moulded capitals and bases,
jambs with attached shafts, cinque-foiled heads,
c. 1270, but very much restored. Stoup: On
tower—S. of W. doorway, with stone jambs and
segmental brick head, now filled in, 15th-century,
repaired in the 16th century.
Condition—Structurally good, but some dressings
perished and roof not altogether weather-proof.
c(2). Homestead Moat, at Dovers, 3 m. S.S.W.
of the church.
a(3). Nelmes, house, outbuildings and moat,
about 1 m. N. of the church. The House is of
three storeys; the walls are of brick and plastered
timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. The S.E.
wing was built in the 16th century on a half
H-shaped plan, with wings extending towards the
S., and has a 17th-century addition on the N.
At the same time the E. kitchen-wing was built.
Subsequent alterations include the demolition of
the kitchen-wing and a modern addition between
the wings of the original house.
The main staircase is a rich example of an
The S. front was refaced c. 1720. The W.
elevation has a moulded string on the S. block
and the 17th-century addition has rusticated
angles. The N. elevation is of rusticated brickwork and has a brick eaves-cornice. The lower
part of the N. wall of the kitchen-wing remains;
it is of similar rusticated brickwork and has a
moulded brick plinth. Inside the building the
back staircase is of early 17th-century date and
has moulded handrail and strings, turned balusters
and square newels with moulded knobs and
pendants. In the adjoining passage is some late
16th-century panelling and there are some doors
of the same date. The main staircase (Plates,
pp. 71, 75) to the first floor is of late 17th-century date. It has panelled and carved newel
posts, with moulded tops surmounted by spherical
knobs carved with acanthus leaf, heavy moulded
hand-rail and carved moulded string, and in place
of balusters are large moulded panels with elaborate
pierced carving of conventional foliage and flowers.
The staircase is partly supported by an Ionic
column standing on a shaped pedestal. In the
hall is a doorway with a round moulded head, a
tympanum with radial flutings and a panelled door.
At the top of the stairs are some turned and
twisted balusters, which are said to have been
taken from the church.
The Outbuilding, about 100 yards S.W. of the
house, is now a dwelling known as Capel Nelmes,
and is said to have been the stables. It is of
brick and of two storeys with attics. It was built
in the 16th century and has in the N. wall two
original two-light windows and one of four lights,
each light having a four-centred head; in the
attic is an original square-headed window of two
lights. The 17th-century staircase was removed
here from Nelmes in recent years and has moulded
hand-rail, string and newels and heavy turned
The Moat is fragmentary.
Condition—Of house and outbuilding, good.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century, and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many
of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams and
Condition—Good, or fairly good.
High Street, N. side
d(4). Dury Falls, house, 300 yards E. of the
church, was built in the 16th century, on an
L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards
the S.E. and N.E.; the S.E. wing was extended
in the 18th century and there are large modern
additions. The 17th-century main chimney-stack
has six grouped diagonal shafts on a rectangular
base and that at the N.E. end of the original block
has two diagonal shafts on a moulded base.
d(5). The Vicarage, N. of the church, has modern
additions on the N., E. and W., and has otherwise
been much altered.
d(6). The Hall, 120 yards N. of the church, was
built in the 16th century and has a large modern
addition on the S. front. One 17th-century
chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts on a
rectangular buttressed base. Inside the building
the dairy has a red brick floor divided into patterns
by lines of bones. Another room has its floor lined
with stone slabs, the centre of each slab being cut
out and filled with a square of small bricks. One
room has some original panelling. There is some
17th-century brick walling in the garden N. of the
d(7). The King's Head Inn, 300 yards W.N.W.
of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The
original building was on an L-shaped plan, but
has been added to and much modernized.
d(8). Plough House, shop and tenement, 500
yards N.W. of the church, was built early in the
16th-century and has modern additions on the
E. and S.
The upper storey projected on the S. and W.
fronts, but on the W. has been under-built and on
the S. incorporated in the modern extension.
There is a 16th-century doorway, with a four-centred head, to the shop. Inside the building is
a similar doorway.
d(9). House, now tenements, and shop, 30 yards
S.W. of (8), is of two storeys with attics; it is
partly faced with brick. It was built in the 16th
century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings
extending towards the W. and N.; the N. wing
was extended N. in the 17th century. A projecting
chimney-stack on the E. front is partly of stone.
d(10). The Bull Inn, 100 yards W. of (9), was
built probably in the 16th century and has an
18th-century block on the S. front. A 17th-century chimney-stack on the N. side has three
diagonal shafts on a buttressed base.
d(11). Pennant's Almshouses, 50 yards W. of (10),
were built probably c. 1597, but have been almost
entirely re-built in the 18th century.
b(12). House, now three tenements, 100 yards
W. of (11), was built probably in the 16th century
on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending
towards the E. and S. A 17th-century chimney-stack on the S. side has two diagonal shafts.
d(13). House, now three tenements, 60 yards E.
of (12), was built in the 16th century and has an
18th-century extension on the E. The upper
storey projects in front and has a piece of a 17th
or 18th-century carved fascia on the bressummer.
d(14). House, now two tenements and cartway,
opposite (9), was built in the 15th century and
was probably an inn. The upper storey of the
gateway and E. wing projects on both sides; the
gateway forms a gabled cross-wing and retains.
at the back, its original curved braces.
d(15). House, now two tenements, opposite (9),
was built possibly in the 16th century. The upper
storey at the N.E. end of the house originally
projected at the back, but has now been under-built.
d(16). House, 60 yards S.E. of No. 15, is of two
storeys with attics. It is of L-shaped plan, with
the wings extending towards the S.E. and S.W.;
the S.W. wing was built probably in the 15th
century and the S.E. in the 16th century. Below
the eaves in the N.W. wall of the original building
is a blocked four-light window. The 17th-century
chimney-stack of the S.E. wing has three diagonal
d(17). Cottage, 650 yards N.W. of the church.
d(18). White House, on E. side of North Street,
50 yards N. of (17), is of two storeys with
attics and has modern additions on the E. The
original central chimney-stack is of a cross-shaped plan, set diagonally on a square moulded
base. On the E. side of the central stack is a
gabled stair-turret with a central newel.
d(19). Hacton Farm, house and barn, about
1,100 yards S. of the church. The House is of
T-shaped plan, with the cross-wings at the N. end,
and was built late in the 16th century and extended
S. in the 17th century. The original central
chimney-stack is of four grouped shafts set
diagonally, and there is a blocked attic window,
with moulded head, jambs and mullion in the S.
wall of the 16th-century building.
The Barn, N. of the house, is a large building
of brick, with chimney projections on the N. side,
and was originally the wing of a 16th-century
house. There are several original windows, now
blocked, and three original fireplaces, one with a
four-centred head and one blocked.
c(20). Brittons, house and barns, 2 m. S.W. of
the church. The House, though practically re-built in the 18th century, incorporates some
fragments of mediaeval coursed limestone and
septaria-masonry, and some 16th and 17th-century
brickwork in its walls, indicating a former building
of considerable size. In the attics is some 16th
and 17th-century linen-fold and moulded panelling
with a carved figure; there is a re-set staircase
to the third storey of c. 1700, with a moulded
handrail and string and carved and twisted
The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of brick. The
N. wall has a moulded plinth and is of 16th-century
date, but the rest of the building is modern, though
some old timbers have been re-used in the roof.
Running E. from the barn is an old wall, the lower
part of which is of flint-rubble, the upper of 16th-century brickwork and re-used ashlar. The top is
modern. The Barn S. of the above is of 16th-century brick with a moulded plinth, the E. and
W. walls are gabled and have weathered copings
and stepped terminals, and the N. wall is divided
into nine bays by weathered buttresses. In the
E. wall are the remains of an original doorway
and window, with a four-centred head, above
which runs a moulded string-course. The middle
entrance in the N. wall is modern, but on either
side are four narrow square-headed lights with
wide internal splays and there are corresponding
original lights in the wall opposite. In the centre
of the S. wall is a blocked doorway, with a wide
four-centred head and towards the W. end of the
wall is a rough heart-shaped diaper in black
headers. The roof is divided into nine bays by
queen-post trusses having cambered tie-beams
supported by curved braces which spring off
stepped brick corbels. The roof has been very
S. of the barn is a 16th-century garden-wall
enclosing a square garden. In the centre of the
N. wall is a doorway with a four-centred head, to
the E. of which is a V in black headers. W. of
the doorway are five niches with four centred heads
and there are also five niches in the W. wall. Part
of the W. wall retains its original plaster.
b(21). Wyebridge Farm, house, about 1¾ m.
W.S.W. of the church, was built in the 16th century
on an L-shaped plan with wings extending towards
the S.E. and N.E. A 17th-century chimney-stack
and modern extensions have been built on the N.E.
side. The upper storey of the N.E. wing projects
on the S.W. front, and on the N.W. front the
timber-framing is exposed. An original chimney-stack in the centre of this wall is of three diagonal
shafts and the two shafts of the 17th-century
stack are similar; there are two original windows
with moulded frames, now blocked.
b(22). Crown Inn, about 1½ m. W.N.W. of the
church, is of two storeys with attics; although it
incorporates some old timbers, possibly of 17th-century date, it has been almost entirely re-built
in modern brick. On the W. side is a modern
plaster panel with the date A.D. 1433.
b(23). Bush Elms, house, nearly 1¼ m. N.W. of
the church, is of two storeys with attics. The
E. cross-wing was built in the 15th century, but
the Hall and the W. cross-wing were re-built in the
17th century. There are modern additions on
the N. and S.W. The upper storey projects at
the S. end of the original wing. The 17th-century
central chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts.
Inside the building the screen dividing the
original wing from the former Hall remains and
has two four-centred doorways, one of which is
blocked. In the roof is a king-post truss with
central purlin and four-way struts.
There are some fragments of worked masonry
in the garden, including a piece of a 15th-century semi-octagonal respond with its moulded
capital and base, and in the greenhouse are a few
13th-century glazed tiles.
d(24). Burnt Houses, cottage, about 1 m.
N.N.W. of the church.
d(25). House, now four tenements, on E. side
of North Street, about 1,200 yards N.N.W. of the
church, was originally of T-shaped plan; it has
been considerably added to. The original chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts.
d(26). Lillyputs, house, about 1 m. N.E. of the
church is built partly of brick. The original house
was extended S. late in the 17th century and has
a modern addition on the N.
d(27). Fairkytes, house, 800 yards N.W. of the
church, was built c. 1700, but has been much
altered. Inside the building is an early 18th-century staircase, with turned balusters and cut
Horndon, see Horndon-on-the-Hill,
East Horndon and West