36. GODMANCHESTER (C.e.).
(O.S. 6 in. XXII N.W.)
Godmanchester is a parish and borough S.E. of
Huntingdon. The Church and the School-house
are the principal monuments, but the town contains a number of dated houses of considerable
(1). Roman Site. There can be no doubt there
was a small Roman posting-station or markettown at the junction with the Ermine Street of the
road coming from the S.W. from Sandy and that
from the S.E. from Cambridge. The remains of
all these roads have been found here: Ermine
Street in Church Lane, the road from Sandy in
Silver Street and the Cambridge road just outside
the northern end of the town. The name Godmanchester and the discovery of Roman coins,
pottery and other objects indicate a settlement at
this point which lies about half a mile S. of the
crossing of the Ouse. The name, however, in the
Antonine Itinerary "Durolipons" generally attributed to it, does not fit in with the distances given
by Antoninus. Leland writing in the 16th century
refers in a general way to coins and foundations
having been dug up, and this statement has been
copied by later writers, but, other than this, there
is no record of the discovery of any structural
remains, nor of any rampart or ditch.
The course of existing streets may show the outline of a polygonal-shaped town, and groups of
burials around it help to mark the limits of the
inhabited area. At Green End, close to the Ouse,
a number of urn-burials has been discovered with
fibulae, pins and other objects. Just outside the
supposed Roman town, along the line of the
Roman road from Cambridge, burials by inhumation have been found over rubbish-pits containing
Romano-British potsherds of early date and coins
from Augustus to the end of the Roman period, and,
eastward of this road, fifteen or twenty rubbish-pits have been traced, some of them containing
skeletons of babies. Other pits, which were
thought to have been the remains of an 'ustrina,'
were found where the Ermine Street enters the
town. [See Collectanea de Rebus Britannicis
(Hearne, Ed. 1715) IV, 13f; Camden, Britannia
(1586) p. 281; Rev. F. G. Walker in Camb. Antiq.
Soc. XIII, 280; Victoria County History, Hunts I.
(2). At Emmanuel Knoll about a mile out of the
town and 40 yards S.E. of the road to Cambridge a
mound, probably of Roman date, was destroyed in
1914; its contents showed that it was a tumulus.
It contained fragments of the decayed wood and
nails of a chest about 18 inches square, filled with
black earth and ashes. In the midst of this earth
was a black urn in which were calcined bones and
clay. A Roman coin was found on the surface of
the mound. (Cambs. and Hunts. Arch. Soc. Trans.
IV. p. 14.) The urn and coin are now preserved at
Tudor House (6), Godmanchester.
(3). Parish Church of St. Mary stands in the
N. part of the town about 140 yards N.E. of the
junction of the Cambridge and Huntingdon roads.
The walls of the W. tower and spire are of limestone ashlar; the rest of the church is built of
brown stones and pebble-rubble, with fragments of
freestone; the dressings are of Barnack and other
limestones. The tooling on some re-used stones
in the N. doorway suggests 12th-century masonry
but the earliest work in situ is in the Chancel
which appears to have been built in the middle or
second half of the 13th century. A N. Vestry was
added to the chancel in the early or middle part of
the 14th century. The nave at this period probably had aisles as there is a blocked window,
probably of 13th-century date, in the W. wall of
the N. aisle. The date of the original building of
the tower is uncertain, as the 13th-century work in
it may have been brought from elsewhere. A
general rebuilding of the nave began late in the
14th century with the widening of the Aisles, the
west windows being the earliest detail. The rest
of the aisles and the arcades are of early 15th-century date, as are the North and South Porches.
The chancel was heightened at much the same time
and its windows were altered. The West Tower
seems to have fallen and been re-built c. 1623, the
date over the doorway; the materials are said to
have come from Ramsey Abbey. The upper
storey of the S. porch and its stair-turret were
added probably in 1669—the date on a roof-beam.
Repairs to the parapets and roofs took place early
in the 19th century and in 1853 the church was
restored, when presumably the E. window was
reconstructed, the Vestry re-built and the second
North Vestry and the Organ Chamber added.
Godmanchester, the Parish Church of St Mary
The building is a good example of a large parish
church; the carved circular panel on one of the
southern buttresses of the chancel is an interesting
feature and among the fittings the carved oak stalls
with their misericords are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (44 ft.
by 20 ft.) has a moulded plinth and against the E.
wall are four buttresses of which the two outer are
each in two stages and the two inner each in one
stage and stop below the restored string under the
E. window. The N. wall is externally of different
materials, the lower part being mostly of ragstone
and the upper mostly of pebble-rubble. The S. wall
is divided into three bays by buttresses (Plate 35)
similar to those at either end of the E. wall;
the walling to the lower part of the westernmost bay
is probably earlier than the rest. At the junction
of the S. wall with the E. wall of the S. aisle is a
projecting turret containing the circular stair to
the former rood-loft; it has a moulded plinth
continued round from the chancel and is built of
ashlar and has a semi-conical head surmounted by
a re-set corbel of a man's head with long hair,
apparently of 15th-century date; it is now used
as a chimney and rising above it is a modern brick
chimney-stack. In the E. wall are three modern
lancet-windows with modern walling between
them. In the N. wall is a 15th-century window of
two cinque-foiled lights with a cusped spandrel in a
four-centred head with moulded reveals and label;
below it, showing only on the vestry side, is a 13th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head with a moulded label and moulded
stops; further E. is a 14th-century doorway with
moulded jambs and two-centred head. At the W.
end of the wall is a modern archway. In the S.
wall are three 15th-century windows generally
similar in design to that in the N. wall; the easternmost, however, has a hollow-chamfered rear-arch,
the middle window has an altered three-centred
head, an old label probably re-used from an earlier
window, and mask-stops; the westernmost window
has narrower lights and is set within an earlier
window-opening with wide splays and distorted
rear-arch; above all three windows are brick
relieving-arches and below the middle window
is a 15th-century doorway with chamfered jambs
and four-centred head. The chancel-arch is a
15th- or early 16th-century rebuilding and
heightening of an earlier archway; it is two-centred and of two chamfered orders with small
re-used voussoirs and a label of late 13th- or
early 14th-century date with mask-stops; the
responds are of two chamfered orders with re-set
capitals; that on the N. is of early 14th-century
date and has the bell of the inner order carved with
foliage; the capital to the inner order of the S.
respond is moulded and probably of early 14th-century date and the abacus is continued as an
impost-moulding round the outer order; the inner
orders have moulded bases of slightly different
section and probably of the date of the rebuilding.
The additions on the N. side of the chancel are
modern but re-used in the E. wall of the easternmost vestry are the re-set stones of a square-headed
window with chamfered lintel and sill, roughly
splayed jambs and a 14th-century label with head-stops below it. The E. window of the organ-chamber is of similar design to that in the N. wall
of the chancel and is partly of old material.
The Nave (72 ft. by 27 ft.) has in the E. wall,
above and cut into by the chancel-arch, two 13th-century lancet-windows with plain splays and two-centred rear-arches with remains of 13th-century
paintings. The 15th-century N. and S. arcades
are each of five bays with two-centred arches of
two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the
inner carried on half-round attached shafts, with
moulded capitals and bases. The clearstorey is
of the same date as the arcade and has in each wall
a range of five windows, apparently restored
externally and each of two cinque-foiled lights in
a four-centred head with moulded reveals; below
the windows is an internal moulded string-course.
The North Aisle (15 ft. wide) is of 15th-century
date and has a moulded plinth similar to that of
the chancel, and external and internal string-courses
below the windows. The E. window is now
unglazed and opens into the modern organ-chamber; it is transomed and of five cinque-foiled
lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label
and sub-cusped quatre-foiled heads to the lights
below the transom. In the N. wall are four windows; the easternmost is transomed and of three
cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a three-centred head with a moulded label and beast-stops
and with the lower lights cusped in a similar but
simpler manner to the lower lights in the E.
window; the remaining three windows are each
transomed and of three cinque-foiled lights in a
four-centred head with a moulded label and with
lower lights similar to those of the E. window;
over the windows and between the two westernmost are rough stone relieving-arches; the N.
doorway is probably of 13th- or early 14th-century
date re-set, and some of the jamb-stones appear to
be of the 12th century; it has jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders; over the
W. side of the doorway is the former doorway from
the upper storey of the N. porch, with hooks and
catch for the former door; it has a three-centred
head and is now blocked. In the W. wall is a
window of four cinque-foiled lights with tracery
in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and
label; it is probably of late 14th-century date;
above, and to the S. of this window, is the S.
splay and two-centred rear-arch of an earlier and
higher window with a rough external relieving-arch.
The South Aisle (19 ft. wide) is of 15th-century
date and has a moulded plinth and internal and
external string-courses below the windows. In the
E. wall is a similar window to that in the E. wall
of the N. aisle and to the N. of it is the blocked
doorway to the former rood-loft staircase over
which the string-course from below the windows is
carried in a segmental-pointed form. In the S.
wall are four windows; the three easternmost are
similar to the three westernmost windows in the
N. aisle and the fourth window is of similar character and date but of two lights; the S. doorway
has a two-centred head of two moulded orders with
a restored moulded label, the moulded jambs
having attached shafts with moulded capitals and
bases; the doorway is flanked by niches (see
Fittings); to the W. of it is the plain square-headed doorway to the upper storey of the porch.
In the W. wall is a window similar to the W.
window of the N. aisle but with restored mullions
and tracery and an older and higher four-centred
rear-arch; to the N. is the N. jamb of a former
window of greater height and corresponding to the
destroyed window in the N. aisle; the present
window appears to have been moved, probably
when the W. tower was re-built.
The West Tower (19 ft. by 17½ ft.) was re-built
c. 1623. It is of three storeys, the lowest sub-divided by a string-course, and has a moulded
plinth and an embattled parapet; the parapet has
a carved fleur-de-lis over the middle merlon on
each side, carved beasts at the angles of the string-course and roughly carved obelisk-pinnacles of
17th-century date surmounting the angles. The
tower-arch is two-centred and of three chamfered
orders with a chamfered label and mask-stops; the
wide semi-octagonal responds have modern bases
and 13th-century capitals carved with 'stiff-leaf'
foliage. The W. doorway (Plate 67) has sunk-chamfered jambs, moulded imposts and a moulded
two-centred arch with a moulded label; the door-way may be of 1623 but looks like a later restoration; above the doorway is a moulded panel
carved with a shield with a fleur-de-lis and a scroll
inscribed "bvrgvs gvmece[s]tre"; above this,
in raised figures, is the date 1623. The two W.
windows are each of two cinque-foiled lights with a
trefoil in a semi-circular head with a moulded label.
The second stage has in the N. and S. walls a single
window similar to those just described. The bell-chamber has in each wall two transomed windows
each of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil
in a four-centred head with a moulded label. The
spire is octagonal and has broaches behind the
parapet; it has three tiers of spire-lights on the
cardinal faces, the windows in the two lower tiers
each having two cinque-foiled lights in a gabled
head and the windows to the top tier being each of
one single cinque-foiled light in a gabled head.
The North Porch is of the 15th century and of two
storeys with a moulded plinth; the buttresses may
be later additions. The entrance has moulded and
shafted jambs with moulded capitals to the shafts
and a two-centred arch of two moulded orders with
a moulded label. The E. and W. walls have each
a window of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label and a
modern mullion. The upper storey or parvis, has
in each of the E. and W. walls a window of one
trefoiled light in a square head. In the N. wall is
a modern window.
The South Porch is of two storeys and has a
moulded plinth with two-stage diagonal buttresses
at the S. angle, the lower stages of which have
V-shaped outer faces and are topped with large
grotesque gargoyles to which the water from the
roof was carried by pipes; the half-round grooves
for these pipes appear on the upper stage of each
buttress. The entrance has moulded jambs and flat
four-centred arch with a moulded label and defaced
stops; at the apex of the label is a small shaft
with a corbel-capital, above which is carved a
lilypot; the entrance is flanked by niches (see Fittings). The side walls have each two windows,
each of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred
head with moulded reveals and label. The side
walls on the inside have each a recess with shafted
jambs with plain bases and moulded capitals above
which is a moulded abacus; the arches are moulded
and segmental-pointed. The E., S. and W. walls
of the upper storey have each a square-headed
The Roof to the chancel is low-pitched and in
four bays with moulded and braced principals,
some of which may be old. They are supported on
short lengths of stone wall-shafts rising off moulded
capitals and carved head-corbels; some two or
three feet below the modern wall-plates is a
moulded string-course or cornice which encircles
the shafts; the cornice and capitals to the corbels
suggest late mediæval work, but the carved heads
are mostly of earlier date and appear to be re-used;
most of these have no distinctive features, a few
approach the grotesque, and one on the N. side
has a peculiar nose-bandage and is probably of
13th-century date. The roof of the nave is low-pitched and divided into five bays by braced and
cambered tie-beams with wall-posts carried on
stone corbels carved with busts of angels holding
shields; the tie-beams have two hollow-chamfers
and the braces one hollow-chamfer, the purlins,
ridge and rafters are plain; some of the latter being
modern. The N. and S. aisles have flat pent-roofs,
each of five bays with plain chamfered tie-beams
with curved braces carried on corbel-capitals with
grotesque terminals, most of which are old. The
room over the S. porch has a low-pitched gabled roof
with one large beam inscribed with the date 1669.
Fittings. Brass and Indent. Brass: In nave
—at E. end, small figure of civilian in long robe
with furred sleeves and wearing purse, indents of
figures of two wives, also two groups of children
and inscription-plate, early 16th-century. Indent:
In chancel—of inscription-plate. Chairs: (Plate
40); In chancel—two, each with high back
with modern central panel flanked by carved
scrolls with carved scrolled top and bottom
rails, turned shafts at sides, shaped scrolled
arms and front legs with shaped scrolls between
and four turned stretchers, modern seats; seats
and backs formerly carved, late 17th-century.
Communion Table: In vestry, of oak with
turned legs, early 17th-century. Doors: Between
chancel and vestry, of feathered battens with
modern repair and backing, refixed and probably
of mediæval date. In N. doorway—of two leaves
and of battens with fillets planted on, top cut at
spring of arch, probably 16th-century. In S.
doorway—in two leaves, of battens nailed to
square frame; lower part repaired and top cut square
with springing of head; massive rim-lock with
large key, probably 16th-century. In W. doorway,
of two leaves, each divided into twelve panels
by applied hollow-chamfered ribs and hung on two
long strap-hinges, probably early 18th-century.
Font: with roughly worked octagonal bowl with
crudely carved mask-stop projections on alternate faces, probably 13th-century, stem and
base modern. Monuments: In S. aisle—on S.
wall, (1) to Thomas Betts, 1696, and Elizabeth,
his wife, 1700, black marble inscription-panel
with carved white marble surround flanked
by scrolled brackets with gadrooned shelf below
supported on acanthus-leaf consoles, skull and
drapery, and, above tablet, winged cherub-head,
moulded cornice, carved scrolled brackets and
cartouche-of-arms. In churchyard—on N. side,
(2) to Henry Brown, 1701, head-stone carved with
skull and cross-bones at top. By S.E. angle of
chancel, (3) small head-stone inscribed on E. face,
1708, I.W. and on the W. face, 1684, N.W., J.N.
Niches: In N. aisle, in splays of E. window,
remains of canopied niches, 15th-century. In S.
porch, on either side of doorway to S. aisle, each
with sub-cusped, trefoiled ogee arch with sunk
spandrels in a square head and ribbed soffit;
semi-octagonal moulded bracket in lower part of
niche, supported on attached shaft with moulded
base rising off sloping sill of niche, 15th-century.
On either side of entrance-archway of S. porch,
each with bowed head, trefoiled, sub-cusped and
crocketed, under a crocketed and finialed gable,
and flanked by small projecting buttresses with
pinnacles, the pedestals have perished foliage and
short shafts below. Painting: In nave—on soffit
and remaining jambs of blocked windows over
chancel-arch, conventional scroll-design with simple
indented pattern on chamfered angle, 13th-century.
Plate: (Plate 136) includes a late 16th-century
cup with engraved bands round lip and moulded
knop on stem; a large cup of 1559 with a band of
engraved ornament round top of stem, and a plain
paten of 1559. Poor-box: In nave—of oak, cylindrical and bound with thin iron straps, with sunk
bowl in lid with metal plate pierced for slot; metal
plate round outside with painted inscription and
box secured by chain, early 18th-century. Seating:
In nave—re-set on face of modern bench-ends fronting central gangway, several traceried heads of
panels of two types—(a) septfoiled with carved
foliated spandrels in square heads; (b) of two
trefoiled divisions with tracery in a four-centred
arch with carved foliated spandrels in a square
head. Re-set, on fronts and backs of seats facing
cross-gangway, traceried heads (Plate 63) of
various design, some with spandrels carved with
grotesques, birds, fishes, conventional leaves, etc.,
others on ends of benches fronting central gang-way, all of 15th-century date. Stalls: In chancel
—on either side, ten in two groups of three and
seven (Plate 63), with plain backs with
curved and moulded capping and shaped divisions
with carved haunches (Plate 66) as follows: N.
side—(1) king's head, below, attached shaft with
moulded capital and base; (2) grotesque animal
with cat's face and dragon's wings; (3) lion's head
with flowing mane; (4) a rose; (5) a five-petalled
flower; (6) grotesque animal; (7) vine-leaf; (8)
crouching animal; (9) jester with cap and bells
and hands spread at sides; (10) foliage; (11)
eagle; (12) part of a crowned head; S. side—
(1) partly modern, portion of king's head; (2)
winged angel on clouds; (3) crowned angel, wings
folded back, lower part destroyed; (4) moulded
piece inset in place of former carving; (5) rose
partly destroyed; (6) man's head cowled and
surrounded with twisted vines with grapes;
(7) bird, head missing; (8) crouching beast, tail
missing; (9) crowned angel on clouds; (10)
crowned angel, draped, with scroll passing under
arms; (11) human head with flowing hair and
buttoned vest, sides destroyed; (12) five-petalled
flower on each side. Carved misericords to seats,
N. side (Plate 64)—(1) mask of man with flowing hair, beard and moustache, two leaves; (2)
dog wearing collar of bells and lying on tasselled
cushion; (3) bird on branch; (4) shield charged
with fleur-de-lis; (5) crouching hare or rabbit
surrounded by double rays; (6) devil's head,
horned and with tongue protruding; (7) vine-leaf; (8) crouching cat; (9) seated ape, partly
broken; (10) wyvern with beast's head with
knotted tail and head at end of tail. S.
side (Plate 65)—(1) fox carrying off goose,
tail destroyed; (2) crowned angel holding scroll;
(3) angel with spread wings, hair bound with circlet
and holding shield charged with letters W.S.
intertwined, slightly restored; (4) crouching lion;
(5) lion-mask with protruding tongue; (6) reclining
horse; (7) cat holding mouse with teeth and claws;
(8) eagle holding scroll; (9) dappled fawn, crouching and scratching nose with hind foot; (10)
shield charged with fleur-de-lis; all flanked by
foliage-bosses. The front of the stalls panelled
with cusped and traceried heads and having a
moulded capping forming a book-rest; all the
traceried heads are modern except those to the W.
group on the S. side, which are old but partly
restored. The ends of the stalls are original with
ogee-shaped tops surmounted by carved popey-heads (Plate 63), N. side—(1) two doves back
to back, with two similar birds above billing; (2) a
draped angel, broken; (3) apparently modern; (4)
two owls back to back with foliated finial. S.
side—(1) three grotesque masks with thick curled
hair and beards; (2) apparently modern; (3)
foliage popey-head; (4) two winged monsters with
serpent-headed tails entwined to form finial. The
muntins to desks in front of boys' seats apparently
old, but arched heads, spandrels, etc., modern;
front formerly close-panelled. The fleurs-de-lis on
the misericords probably indicate that the stalls
were made for Godmanchester and the initials
W.S. may refer to William Stevens, vicar of the
parish, 1470–81. Sundial: On gable of S. porch—
inscribed "G. 1623 W.S.," iron gnomon. Miscellanea: Carved late 13th-century wheel-panel,
(Plate 35) on westernmost buttress on S.
wall of chancel, carved in relief, about 2 ft. 4 in.
in diameter, with eight trefoiled compartments on
spokes radiating from small ring-hub and having
semi-foliated capitals; each compartment sub-divided by smaller radial ribs; in centre remains
of iron fixing, the number and arrangement of
divisions renders the panel useless as a sundial.
Masons' marks, various, on arches of nave-arcade,
15th-century. Over lobby of W. door, part of
moulded wood pediment with three cherub-heads
carved in relief, probably late 17th-century. In
S. porch, fragment of circular stone shaft with leaf
or scale-ornament on surface, 12th-century.
(4). The Causeway, between the town and
Huntingdon Bridge, was reconstructed in 1637
by Robert Cooke, but very extensive works took
place in 1767 and 1784, and it is probable that the
two bridges which form part of the causeway date
from the later period. Both bridges are of brick
and of eight spans and have segmental arches;
the piers have rounded cutwaters on the upper
or western side, surmounted by flat pilasters.
Set in the parapet of the southern bridge is a
stone with a modern copy of the old inscription
"Robertus Cooke ex aquis emersus hoc viatoribus
sacrum D.D. 1637." Both bridges have considerable modern repair.
(5). Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School,
school-house (Plate 149) 130 yards S.W. of
the church, is of one storey; the walls are of
brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built,
probably, about the date of the foundation, 1560,
and then consisted of a rectangular hall with a
two-storeyed porch on the S. side. The building
was much altered and restored in 1851 and has
modern additions on the N. side. The main
building has a plain plinth and a simple brick
entablature a short distance below the eaves-level
and continued round the porch; at the angles are
brick pilasters. The porch has a restored outer
doorway with moulded jambs and square head;
the upper storey is gabled and has a modern
window; above the window is an inscription,
"Eliz. Reg. hujus scholae fundatrix" and a
restored sundial with a moulded cornice and the
inscription "Sibi Aliisque." The inner doorway
of the porch has an original doorway with moulded
frame and elliptical arch in a square head; the
arch has carved spandrels and moulded key-block
and brackets; the partly restored door has long
scrolled hinges. The ceiling of the porch has a
chamfered beam and the roof of the main building
has plain tie-beams.
(6). Tudor House and barn, on the E. side of
Ermine Street, ¼ m. E.S.E. of the church. The
House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are
timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. The house
was built, probably, between the years 1600 and
1603 and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. There are 18th-century
and modern additions in the angle between the
wings. The timber-framing is exposed on all sides
of the house. The upper storey projects on the
whole of the W. front (Plate 69) on curved
brackets, two with scrolled enrichment; there is a
projecting gable at each end of the same front,
with moulded bargeboards and base-beams; on
the S. gable is the date 1600, but the two middle
figures are modern and the original end-figures
may have been intended for initials. The doorway
(Plate 160) has a moulded frame and three-centred arch in a square head with carved
spandrels and a panel above carved with the date
1603 and two roses; the door is panelled and
has strap-hinges. On the ground-floor are five
original windows, each of three lights and all
blocked; there is one original window on the first
floor, with moulded frame and mullions. The back
elevation (Plate 69) has a small gabled projection with a blocked original window in the
gable. The S. elevation has been partly refaced
with modern brick. Towards the E. end is a
small projecting wing with exposed timber-framing.
The main E. wing has an original chimney-stack
with two diagonal shafts. Inside the building the
ground-floor rooms of the N. wing have original
moulded or chamfered ceiling-beams. There are
two early 18th-century panelled doors.
The Barn, E. of the house, is timber-framed and
weather-boarded. It is probably of early 17th-century date and has aisles.
Condition—Of house, good.
(7). House (Plate 69), 110 yards S.S.W. of (6)
is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the
roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1625, but the S. part
of the house appears to be of slightly different date;
the building is of rectangular plan with cross-wings
at the N. and S. ends. The timber-framing is
exposed on the W. front and the upper storey
projects, throughout its length, on exposed joists
and curved brackets; the gable of the N. cross-wing also projects and has moulded barge-boards
and pendants. Above the 18th-century doorway
is the date 1625. The ground-floor has a series of
blocked windows under the projection of the
floor above; there is a similar blocked window on
the floor above. Inside the building there are
original moulded ceiling-beams to the ground-floor
rooms. The fireplace of the S. room has brick
diapering at the back
Godmanchester, Plan Showing the Position of Monuments
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century and of two
storeys; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Some of
the buildings have original chimney-stacks, open
fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
Ermine Street. (Plate 68) W. side
(8). House, 30 yards N. of (7), is of L-shaped
plan with the wings extending towards the S. and
W. There is a later addition in the angle between
the wings. The E. front has a gable at the N. end
with exposed timber-framing with moulded and
enriched barge-boards; projecting from the first
floor is an oriel-window with enriched bargeboards to the gable and a plastered ogee base with
wooden mouldings at the top and bottom. The
two original chimney-stacks have grouped diagonal
shafts or pilasters on a dentilled or moulded base.
Inside the building is a late 17th-century panelled
(9). Cottage, 110 yards S.S.W. of (8), has an
early 18th-century staircase with turned balusters.
(10). Cottage, two tenements, at the angle of
Piper's Lane, was built early in the 18th century.
(11). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 640
yards S.S.E. of the church.
(12). Cottage, 25 yards S.S.E. of (11), was built
late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.
(13). Porch Farm, house 80 yards S.S.E. of (12),
was built in the 16th century and has a short wing
projecting S.W. at the back of the house. The
porch (Plate 160) was probably added c. 1600
and is of timber on a brick base; the base-beam of the gable is carved with guilloche
and billet-ornament and the barge-boards have
carved semi-circular enrichments; at the apex
is a turned pendant. The sides of the porch
have symmetrically-turned balusters. The door,
within the porch, is panelled and probably of
the same date. The upper storey of the front
formerly projected, but has been under-built with
brickwork. The 17th-century chimney-stack of the
back wing has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the
building, the middle part of the house has an
original moulded ceiling-beam with foliated stops.
There are several early 18th-century panelled
(14). Looker's Farm, house on the N.E. side of
the road, 30 yards N. of (13), has an original central
chimney-stack with three detached shafts, two of
which are set diagonally. Inside the building are
some early 18th-century doors and a length of
balustrading with turned balusters and a square
(15). Cottage, on the N. side of the street, at the
corner of Piper's Lane.
(16). Cottage and outbuilding on the S. side of
the street, 140 yards W.S.W. of (15). The out-building is probably of early 18th-century date.
(17). Cottage, on the E. side of the lane, N.W. of
(10), was built early in the 18th century.
(18). Cottage, N.W. of (17), was built, probably,
early in the 18th century.
(19). Cottage (Plate 73), on the N. side of the
lane, 50 yards N.W. of (18). The upper storey
projects in front on exposed joists and curved
(20). Cottage, three tenements, on the W. side
of the lane, 15 yards N.N.W. of (15), was built,
probably, early in the 18th century and has an
outbuilding of the same date to the N.W.
(21). Queen Victoria Inn, 130 yards N.W. of
(16), has an 18th-century addition at the back. The
upper storey projects in front and the timber-framing is exposed on the N. side. Inside the
building one room has a moulded ceiling-beam.
(22). Cottage, 30 yards N.N.W. of (21), has a
projecting upper storey at the W. end.
(23). Red Lion Inn and barn on the W. side of
the road, 40 yards N.W. of (22). The Inn is built
of brick and has a moulded band-course between
the storeys. The front doorway has an original
moulded frame and a simple brick label. Inside
the building are two original moulded ceiling-beams.
The Barn, adjoining the house on the S.E. has
(24). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 550
yards S. of the church, was built probably early
in the 18th century.
(25). Cottage (Plate 73), three tenements, 130
yards S. of (24).
(26). House (Plate 73) on the W. side of the
road, 20 yards S.W. of (24) has a wing at the
back, making the plan T-shaped. The upper
storey projects on the E. front on curved brackets.
Corpus Christi Lane
(27). House, on the S. side of the lane, 60 yards
N.N.W of (26), was built late in the 16th or early
in the 17th century. The N. front has a 17th-century porch of rusticated brickwork, with a
round archway, flanking pilasters and a pediment;
the panelled door has strap-hinges with foliated
ends. On the E. side is a large chimney-stack
with moulded offsets. The central chimney-stack
has four grouped shafts, set diagonally. Inside
the building are some early 18th-century wooden
fittings and on the first floor is some early 17th-century panelling. The ceilings of two upper rooms
have each a moulded panel enclosing an oval panel
with a lozenge-shaped boss in the middle.
The garden-wall is of 17th-century brickwork.
(28). Dove-house, 25 yards S.W. of (27), is a
square brick building with a hipped roof.
(29). House, on the N. side of the lane, 15 yards
N.W. of (27), is of two storeys with attics. It was
built, probably, early in the 16th century but has
been much altered and has an 18th-century addition on the N. side. Inside the building is an
original moulded ceiling-beam.
West Street. N. side
(30). Cottage, about 400 yards S.S.W. of the
church was built late in the 17th or early in the
(31). House and shop, W. of (30), is of L-shaped
plan with the wings extending towards the W. and
N. The upper storey projects on the S. front.
(32). Cottage, three tenements, 30 yards W.S.W.
of (31), has been refaced with brick. The two
dormers in front have original moulded bargeboards with pendants at the apex.
(33). House, two tenements, 180 yards W.S.W.
of (32), was built probably early in the 18th century. The walls are of brick and there is a band-course between the storeys. The plan is T-shaped
with the cross-wing at the S.E. end.
(34). Cottage, 120 yards S.W. of (33).
(35). Cottage, S.W. of (34), has been refaced with
(36). Cottage and barn, 60 yards S.W. of (35).
The barn, N.E. of the cottage is weather-boarded.
(37). Cottage, 120 yards S.W. of (36).
(38). Belle Isle, house (Plate 71) S.W. of
(37), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending
towards the N.E. and N.W. The front door is
original and panelled and retains a drop-handle
with scrolled ironwork. The original central
chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and
pilasters on a rectangular base with a moulded
capping. Inside the building one room has an
original moulded ceiling-beam. The staircase has
turned balusters, moulded rails and strings and
square newels with shaped terminals. In the
back-wall below the staircase is an old battened
door and a window with a bar-shaped mullion.
(39). House (Plate 69), formerly the Shepherd
and Dog Inn, 60 yards E. of (37) was built
c. 1593. Most of the timber-framing is exposed.
The upper storey formerly projected in front
but has been under-built in brick; the bressummer
is carved with guilloche-ornament. The gable
at the S.W. end of the front bears the date
1593 and has moulded and enriched base and
barge-boards and carved pendants at the apex
and feet. The gable at the N.E. end of the
house has moulded and enriched barge-boards and
carved pendants. The central chimney-stack has
grouped diagonal shafts. The front door is panelled
and has an iron drop-handle and scutcheon-plates;
the frame is moulded. Inside the building the two
principal rooms have original moulded ceiling-beams.
(40). Lord Nelson Inn, house, tenement and
barn, 250 yards N.E. of (39). The roof of the inn
is covered with corrugated iron; the Barn is
weather-boarded and perhaps of early 18th-century date.
(41). Cottage, two tenements, 15 yards N.E. of
(42). Cottage, two tenements, 25 yards N.E. of
(43). House, on island-site, at cross-roads, 200
yards E.N.E. of (42). The upper storey projects
on the N. front. Inside the building the staircase is
original and has heavy turned balusters, moulded
rails and strings and square newels with ballterminals.
The Causeway. (Plate 68) E. side
(44). House, (Plate 69) two tenements,
220 yards S.S.W. of the church, was built c. 1600
and has a cross-wing at the N. end. The timber-framing is exposed on the W. front. The upper
storey of the cross-wing and the gable both project
on curved brackets and the gable has moulded
base and barge-boards and moulded pendants.
The original central chimney-stack has three
detached diagonal shafts. Inside the building the
N.W. room has a late 17th-century moulded
surround and cornice to the fireplace.
(45). The Vicarage, 90 yards N. of (44), is of two
storeys with attics, and has extensive 18th-century
and modern additions on the E. and N. The S. end
has a projecting gable with moulded base and bargeboards. On the E. side of the house are two
original windows with moulded frames and mullions. Inside the building are some early 18th-century panelled doors. (House now demolished.)
(46). House, two tenements, 100 yards N.N.W.
of (45) has been refaced with brick but has
an original central chimney-stack with grouped
(47). House and shop, 20 yards N.N.W. of (46),
has been refaced with modern brick. It was built,
probably, early in the 18th century.
(48). House, (Plate 71) two tenements, 25
yards N.N.W. of (47), is of L-shaped plan with
the wings extending towards the S. and E. The
upper storey projects on the whole of the W.
front on heavy shaped brackets; pairs of these
brackets are placed above the two doorways and
finished with pediments on the face of the storey
above; they form a sham hood to the doorway.
Inside the building are some early 18th-century
panelled doors. An outbuilding, in continuation
of the E. wing, is perhaps of early 18th-century
(49). House, three tenements, 25 yards N.N.W.
of (48), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending
towards the S. and E. The timber-framing is
exposed on the N. side of the E. wing.
(50). House, 260 yards N.N.W. of the church, is
of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick
and there is a brick band-course between the
storeys. The back has three hipped gables.
(51). House, two tenements, 20 yards S. of (50),
has an original central chimney-stack with grouped
diagonal shafts and a sunk panel in the base. The
upper storey projects on the E. front. The gable
at the S. end has moulded barge-boards.
(52). House, 140 yards S. of (51), is of L-shaped
plan with the wings extending towards the N. and
W. The upper storey projects on the E. front
and has exposed timber-framing. There is a
plaster cove below the eaves and the front doorway
has an eared architrave and door of early 18th-century date. The S. end has a projecting gable
with an original moulded base-beam.
(53). House, three tenements, 20 yards S. of
(52), has an 18th-century mansard-roof; the
walls are of brick.
(54). Mill, 40 yards W. of (53), is of three storeys
with attics; the walls are weather-boarded and of
(55). House, 30 yards S. of (53). The base of
one chimney-stack is original and has a moulded
capping. Inside the building is an original
(56). Cottage, two tenements, on the W. side of
the lane, E. of (45).
(57). Cottage, two tenements, 15 yards N.E. of
(58). Cottage, 50 yards N.N.E. of (57), has a
projecting and gabled upper storey on the E. front.
The window, of four lights, on the first floor, is
(59). House, on the N. side of the street, 150
yards S.E. of the church was built in the 16th
century and has a cross-wing at the W. end. The
front of the main building has exposed timber-framing. Inside the building are two original
(60). Range of three houses (Plate 72) on the
S. side of the street, 140 yards S. of the church,
was built c. 1611–13. The upper storey projects on
the whole of the N. front with a moulded bressummer. At the W. end is a cross-wing with a
projecting gable. The gable has curved brackets
and turned pendants and a partly blocked window
with an original frame. The two central chimney-stacks are original, the western has grouped diagonal
shafts and on the base a plaster fleur-de-lis and the
date 1611; the eastern stack has two detached
diagonal shafts and on the base is a simple geometrical design with the date 1613. Inside the range,
two of the houses have moulded ceiling-beams,
perhaps of earlier date than the house. The W.
house has a room with early 18th-century panelling,
cornice and dado-rail. On the first floor is an
original panelled door and over the fireplace in the
E. room is a painting of the Stuart royal arms on
plaster, with the initials I.R.; the fireplace has
an early 18th-century moulded surround.
(61). Cottage, 80 yards E. of (60), was built,
probably, early in the 18th century.
St. Ann's Lane
(62). Cottage, standing back from the N. side of
the lane and 30 yards S. of (61), was built, probably,
early in the 18th century.
(63). Cottage, 90 yards E.S.E. of (62).
(64). Cottage, 50 yards E. of (63), was built,
probably, early in the 18th century but has been
refronted in modern brick.
(65). Cottage, on the S. side of the lane, opposite
(64), was built, probably, early in the 18th century.
(66). Wall, on the N. side of the lane, 340 yards
S. of the church, was probably the boundary-wall
of a large garden. The eastern part is mainly of
re-used ashlar with some rubble and incorporates
some moulded stones; the remainder of the wall
is of 17th-century brickwork with some bricks of
Back Church Lane
(67). House (Plate 71), two tenements, on
the S.W. side of the lane, 210 yards E.S.E. of the
church, was built in the 16th century and is of
L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards
the N.W. and S.W. The upper storey projects
on the N.E. front. Inside the building is an
original moulded ceiling-beam.
(68). House (Plate 71), three tenements, facing
the end of the road and 370 yards S.E. of
the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was
built c. 1613 on an L-shaped plan with the wings
extending towards the N. and W. The W. wing
is continued through to the front of the house and
has a projecting upper storey and a projecting
gable with moulded and enriched base-beam and
moulded pendants. On the front is the date
(69). White Hart Inn, on the N. side of the road,
25 yards N.E. of (68), has been much altered.
(70). House (Plate 69), 40 yards E. of (69),
was built about the middle of the 16th century
and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending
towards the N.E. and S.E. The timber-framing
is exposed on the S.E. front and in the middle of
the main block is a large gable with moulded and
enriched barge-boards of early 17th-century date.
The gable at the back has simply moulded bargeboards. Inside the building, the N.E. room has
elaborately moulded ceiling-beams and moulded
joists. There is another moulded ceiling-beam at
the S.W. end of the house. The middle room has
a large fireplace with stop-chamfered jambs of
(71). House, 70 yards E. of (70) was built in
1714. The walls are of brick and the roof is
hipped. There is a brick band between the storeys
and on the front are two square stone blocks, one
incised as a sundial and the other with the date
1714 on a cartouche. The front doorway has a
moulded architrave, cornice and pediment and is
flanked by shallow square-headed recesses, one
on each side being pierced for a window. The
three windows in the upper storey have moulded
heads and two other windows have been blocked.
Inside the building, the original staircase has
turned balusters, moulded rails and strings and
square newels; between the staircase and the hall
is an arch with moulded archivolt, panelled soffit,
imposts and plain key-block; flanking the
opening are two cupboards with panelled doors and
openings above with flat shaped balusters. There
are also several original panelled doors.
(72). House, on the S. side of the road, 80 yards
E.S.E. of (71), has been incorporated in a larger
building. The original chimney-stack has four
grouped diagonal shafts on a square base.
(73). Mound, on the S. side of the Cambridge
road, about 1¼ m. E.S.E. of the church, was of
circular form but does not now extend beyond the
hedge bounding the road. On it is a tree known as
Emmanuel Knoll Tree.
(74). Mounds, on the W. and E. sides of the
London road, about 1¼ m. and 1¾ m. S.S.E. of the
church respectively. There are slight indications
of what may have been mounds at these two
points. They are now marked by trees called One
Mile Tree and King's Bush respectively.