HEREFORDSHIRE Vol. I
(i) Earthworks, etc., Pre-Historic and Later.
Herefordshire, as a county, is peculiarly rich in earthworks, for not only is the pre-historic
period well represented but the mediæval defensive earthworks are both numerous and important.
The S.W. section of the county, dealt with in the present volume, contains one megalithic
monument of first rank, namely Arthur's Stone, in Dorstone parish, which is the chamber and
entrance of a barrow, probably a long-barrow, from which the superincumbent earth has been
entirely removed, leaving only the smallest traces of the original form of the mound. Again,
a mound in St. Weonard's parish, which was opened in 1855, was found to contain two cremationburials.
No recognisable remains have yet been found of any neolithic camp, but of the camps now
generally associated with the early Iron Age, there are several important examples. Of these,
Eaton Bishop, Walterstone, Aconbury, Dinedor and Little Doward (Ganarew) may be
mentioned, the first being a promontory-camp and the others hill-top or contour camps.
The defences, except at Little Doward and Walterstone, consist of a single bank only, and the
entrances, where they survive in anything like their original form, are all of the turned-in type.
Little Doward has remains of a double rampart and a smaller annexe defended only by a nearly
perpendicular outcrop of rock, while Walterstone has a triple rampart.
At Longtown is a large rectangular earthwork partly occupied by the mediæval castle. The
outline suggests the possibility of a Roman origin, but the imposing scale of the rampart and
ditch, indicates that, in their present form, they belong to a later date.
There seems little doubt that the great travelling earthwork, known as Offa's Dyke, and
probably constructed by that king against the Welsh, was not continued across the area under
review. After striking the Wye at Bridge Sollers, the river itself seems to have formed the
boundary through the rest of the county. This would seem to be confirmed by the Welsh names
of several villages in the bend of the Wye and by the presence of such names as English and
Welsh Newton on opposite sides of the river.
Another possible dyke exists on the S. bank of the river, outside the S.E. limit of the city,
consisting of a small segment of land enclosed by a bank, which perhaps was once a bridge-head
and is called Row Ditch, while on the opposite bank there is a length of ditch, also called Row
Ditch, which extends in a N.E. direction. There is no evidence of the date of either of these
Of the numerous early and later Norman castles, the most important are those at Ewyas
Harold and Kilpeck, both of the motte and bailey type and there are smaller, but well preserved
examples at Dorstone, Orcop, Ponthendre (Longtown) and Old Castleton (Clifford). Other
important castles of a kindred type, such as Clifford and Snodhill, may be of a later date or have
been subsequently altered. In addition to these, there are, scattered about the country, numerous
mounds of greater or less height, called Tumps. Most of these were, in all probability, smaller
strongholds, which sprang up for defensive purposes in the Welsh Marches.
The later castles built of stone are commonly otherwise defended only by a moat or ditch.
At Goodrich the great ditch is cut in the rock and the same is partially the case at Pembridge.
Some Mottes & Other Minor Earthworks.
Homestead Moats are almost entirely absent from the district. At Kilpeck, E. of the castle,
is an enclosure probably defending the village.
An earthwork, called Scots' Hole, of indefinite form near Hereford is popularly connected
with the Civil War, and the Bowling Green at Clehonger may also date from the 17th century.
Early in the 17th century a certain Rowland Vaughan devised and apparently executed a
scheme for the scientific irrigation of part of the Golden Valley and published a book (1610)
describing his operations. He appears to have lived in the parish of Bacton, but it is now
impossible to identify with any certainty the ditches and weirs which date from his time.
(ii) Roman Remains.
The Roman remains are scanty and unimportant. The district was traversed by one certain
Roman road, from Abergavenny to Kentchester, represented by the Gobannio—Magnis, M.P.
xxii of the 12th Antonine Iter. A section of this road has been uncovered at Abbey Dore
railway-station. Evidence of buildings has been noticed at Walterstone, on the same route, and
at Whitchurch, near the Wye. An inscribed Roman altar does duty as a stoup at Michaelchurch.
Reference has already been made to the possibility that Roman work may have formed the basis
of the rectangular earthwork at Longtown. The general consideration of the Roman remains in
the county will be reserved for the final volume.
(iii) Ecclesiastical and Secular Architecture. Building Materials:
Stone, Brick, Etc.
Almost the whole of the area of the county of Hereford belongs geologically to the Devonian
system, here represented by the beds of Old Red Sandstone. This forms the staple building
material, though here and there, in the Woolhope district, the Malvern Hills and the N.W.
corner of the county, there are outcrops of earlier formations. The Old Red Sandstone, in its
upper beds, is of very shaly nature, but the lower deposits are more compact and form a tolerable
building stone, which, however, rapidly weathers when used externally; its tint varies from grey
to brown and dark red. In addition to this there are, here and there, surface deposits of calcareous tufa, which is sparingly used as building-material, though one church—Moccas—is
almost entirely constructed of this substance. The only other local stone which need be mentioned is a type of breccia, found in the Malvern Hills, and used in a number of early fonts.
Brick is but little used, until the 18th century, except as a filling for timber-framing.
Timber, on the other hand, vies with the local stone as the favourite building-material. In
the western and more mountainous parts of the county stone predominates, but in the eastern,
flatter and more wooded parts there is a preponderance of the use of timber-framing. Stone
slabs were commonly used for the roofing of churches and the larger secular buildings, but these
in many cases were replaced later by red tiling.
Only Kilpeck and Peterstow churches have been noted as retaining structural evidence of
pre-Conquest date; this is not surprising in view of the late date of the Saxon conquest of the
country W. of the Wye; though it is indeed uncertain if the two examples in question are to be
ascribed to Saxon or Celtic builders. Kilpeck retains only one angle of the early structure built
with megalithic quoins, and Peterstow only the base of the N. nave wall, also built of large rough
blocks of stone. To the end of the 11th century must be assigned the scanty remains of the
chapel of the Bishop's palace at Hereford, which may be identified, with some probability, with
the church built by Robert de Losinga, on the model of Charlemagne's minster at Aachen. The
chapel was, in any case, a two-storeyed building of the type common in the Rhineland and
adjoining districts and known as "Doppelkapelle." The greater part of the building at Hereford
was destroyed in the 18th century, but drawings made, before this event, show its general form
The Cathedral at Hereford was begun under Bishop Reynelm (1101–1115) and completed
in the middle or latter half of the 12th century. It was remarkable for certain unusual features in
its design, including the lowness of the arch opening into the main eastern apse and the provision
for two towers over the two E. bays of the presbytery-aisles. This last feature is unique in this
country, but the surviving architectural evidence of the arrangement is conclusive.
Early Norman work, with herring-bone masonry, occurs at Bredwardine and rather later
work at Moccas and Peterchurch. Both these buildings are unusually complete examples of the
date, Peterchurch being planned on a fairly large scale.
The most usual 12th-century parish-church plan seems to have consisted of a nave, presbytery
and apse, with or without a central tower. The lesser churches, however, consisted only of a
rectangular chancel and nave and the cruciform plan was but little used; there are, however,
remains of a cruciform church at Madley. Apses survive at Moccas, Peterchurch and Kilpeck.
The important and well-known church at Kilpeck is the richest example of a peculiar type of
carved ornament, which seems to be largely confined to Herefordshire and has certain features
which appear to be of Scandinavian origin or affinity. This carving is elsewhere represented
in the district at Rowlstone (chancel-arch and S. doorway) and in certain churches in the eastern
and northern parts of the county. The curious carved projections below the gable at Kilpeck
seem to be reproductions in stone of the carved ends of timber wall-plates.
The Cistercian Abbey of Dore, in the Golden Valley, founded about 1147, retains its transepts
and eastern part of the church built about 1180 and exemplifying the usual Cistercian restraint
and sobriety of ornament. The eastern arm was enlarged early in the 13th century by the addition of an ambulatory and chapel-aisle.
Amongst other late 12th-century work may be mentioned the tympanum at St. Giles
Hospital, Hereford, the chancel-arch at Garway (part of the round nave of a Templars' church),
and the reconstructed chancel-arch at Bridstow.
The 13th century is best represented by the Lady Chapel and other parts of Hereford
Cathedral, the eastern parts of Abbey Dore, the arcades and W. end of Madley (a remarkable
church with an interesting architectural history), the nuns' church at Aconbury, and the arcade at
Kingstone. The late 13th-century N. transept at Hereford Cathedral, with its rather unusual
arches, struck from below the springing, was copied, in this particular, in other churches and
buildings of the district.
The central tower, aisles, W. porch and N.E. transept of Hereford Cathedral are good
examples of early 14th-century work, and the chapter-house, now ruined, was built 1359–70.
Other notable work of the period is to be found at Madley (chancel, crypt and S. chapel).
Work of the 15th and early 16th century is poorly represented, save by the outer N. porch
and the Audley Chapel at the Cathedral.
There is little post-Reformation ecclesiastical building in the district, but the restoration of
Abbey Dore and the addition of the tower date from 1633, and there is a much altered chapel at
Rotherwas built probably c. 1589 and a tower at Bacton of c. 1573.
Stone vaulting, save in the Cathedral and Dore Abbey, is unusual, but examples occur at Kilpeck (apse), Madley (crypt), Sellack (N. chapel), and Ballingham (S. porch). Stone spires of simple
form are to be found at Hereford All Saints and St. Peter's, Peterchurch, Sellack and Goodrich.
Timber roofs of interest survive at All Saints, Hereford (hammer-beam), the cloister of the
Vicar's Choral, Hereford, with rich carving, at Rotherwas chapel, a hammer-beam roof of c. 1589,
a series of roofs at Abbey Dore erected in the 17th century, and a remarkable roof at Vowchurch
built c. 1613 on posts within the walls.
Monastic and Collegiate Buildings.
The cathedral-church of Hereford was served by a college of secular canons, and of this
establishment there remains a cloister, called the Bishop's cloister, the ruined chapter-house, the
college of the Vicar's choral, a cloister connecting this building with the church and perhaps some
slight remains of other buildings.
There were Benedictine cells at Hereford St. Guthlac, Ewyas Harold and Kilpeck attached to
the abbeys of Gloucester and Reading, but there are no recognisable remains of any of these.
The Cluniac priory at Clifford has very slight remains, but the Grandmontine Priory of Craswall
has preserved the whole lay-out of its church and claustral buildings in a very ruined state; it is
in every way typical of the planning and arrangement of this little-known order.
The Cistercian Abbey of Dore retains the whole of the crossing and eastern arm of the
church, restored to use in the 17th century, and also some remains of the nave and polygonal
chapter-house. The latter closely resembles the chapter-house at Margam, the two being the
only examples, so far discovered, of this form of chapter-house in the Cistercian order.
The Canons Regular of St. Augustine were represented only by the small priory at
Flanesford (Goodrich) of which one rather puzzling building is still standing. The church
of the Augustinian Nuns at Aconbury is now the parish church.
The Templars had a Preceptory at Garway which passed in due course to the Knights of
St. John of Jerusalem. The parish church formerly belonged to this establishment and the
foundations of the round nave have recently been uncovered by excavation; a 14th-century
pigeon-house also survives. A second preceptory formerly existed at Harewood, but of this
there are no recognisable remains.
The Hospital of St. Giles at Hereford had also a circular church, of which the foundations
were discovered when the road was widened in 1927. A late 12th-century carved tympanum
The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem had a house at Hereford which was subsequently
transformed into Coningsby's Hospital, part of which dates from the 13th century.
The preaching cross and the western range of the Black Friars' convent at Hereford are still
standing, but the building was much altered in the 16th century and is now a ruin. There are no
remains of the Grey Friars' house in the western suburb of the city.
Of the numerous almshouses in Hereford, St. Ethelbert's Hospital has been re-built and
St. Giles' and Coningsby's Hospitals have already been referred to.
Aubrey's Almshouses (1630) and Price's Almshouses (c. 1665) still preserve their 17th-century
Mediæval military architecture is well-represented in the county of Hereford, its position
on the marches of Wales having necessitated, down to the 15th century, not only an organised
system of defence, but also the fortification of all the larger houses on the W. of the Wye. Hereford city was defended by walls which date from the 13th century or earlier and of which there
are still some remains; though practically nothing but earthworks is left of the important castle
of Hereford. The most extensive surviving castle is Goodrich on the right bank of the Wye;
it has a small square late Norman Keep but otherwise is largely a re-construction of c. 1300.
There are remains of an early shell-Keep at Kilpeck and a late Norman cylindrical Keep at
Longtown. Buildings of the 13th century remain at Clifford and Snodhill (Peterchurch).
All the above are strongly defended by earthworks, the two last being of a type which consisted
of a very restricted inner enclosure on a high and largely natural hill or mound with a large outer
bailey on one side. This type is best represented by Grosmont castle, just over the county
boundary in Monmouthshire. A later type of fortress or fortified house is represented by Wilton,
Pembridge and Treago which are defended by ditches, angle-towers and curtains. They date,
mostly, from the 13th century. Gillow (Hentland) is a fortified manor-house of the 15th
century and Kentchurch Court retains a defensive tower.
The earliest surviving house in the district is the Bishop's Palace at Hereford. This is a
highly remarkable timber structure with arcades and aisles, built in the second half of the 12th
century. Though much altered and re-built early in the 18th century it is yet one of the most
valuable examples of early domestic architecture in the country. The other mediæval timber
structures are of two types, the more primitive being distinguished by the use of the crutch-truss,
a truss consisting of two curved principals carried down to the ground and supporting a ridge
and purlins either resting directly on the principals or built up from them. It is obviously
impossible to date exactly any given example of this type as it was in continuous use from the
earliest times down to the close of the middle ages, if not beyond, and has no distinctive details.
The second and more advanced type is distinguished by the extensive use of a bold cusping
between the main timbers of the roof and framing; this form is 14th-century in character but
appears to have survived in the county well into the 15th century. There are good examples of
the crutch-truss at Oldcourt and Ty Mawr, Longtown, Great Treaddow, Hentland, a cottage at
St. Martin's, Hereford, and several barns including that at Daren Farm, Llanveynoe, and of the
second type at Wellbrook Manor, Peterchurch, and Old Court, Bredwardine.
This second type is often provided with a special form of truss, called a spere-truss, which
was incorporated with the structure of the screen. Its distinctive feature is the carrying down of
two posts a short distance away from the side walls.
There are elaborate late mediæval roofs at 29, Castle Street and at Booth Hall, Hereford.
There is a 13th-century vault at 89, Eign Street, Hereford, and 14th or 15th-century stone
houses at Old Court and Ty Mawr, Longtown, Olchon Court, Llanveynoe, Court Farm, Rowlstone and Upper Goytre, Walterstone.
The larger type of country-house of the 16th and 17th centuries is best represented at
Caradoc Court, Sellack; the Mynde, Much Dewchurch and Pontrilas Court, Kentchurch.
Holme Lacy is an example of a large mansion of the end of the period. The most notable of the
smaller buildings of the period are the Old House, Butchers' Row, Hereford, built in 1621 and
ascribed to John Abel, the New House, Goodrich, built in 1636 by the Rev. Thomas Swift on a
symmetrical three-winged plan, Huntsham Court, in the same parish, built c. 1620–30, and Old
Court, Whitchurch; Langstone Court, Bernithan Court and Ruxton Court, all in Llangarren,
have each features of interest.
The river Wye was crossed, in the middle ages, by two bridges only, within the county, a
stone bridge at Hereford, which still exists, and a timber bridge at Ross, which was replaced by
the present stone structure in 1595. Wye Bridge at Hereford is now a structure of various dates
from the 14th century onwards, but Wilton Bridge at Ross survives much as it was built. Both
structures, however, were breached during the civil war and subsequently repaired. The only
other bridges included in the volume are those at Treago (Sellack) dated 1712, and at Abbey
Dore, but a number of undateable structures elsewhere may well be within the Commission's
period, though the evidence for their inclusion is lacking.
Altars: Mediæval stone altar-slabs with consecration-crosses, survive at Abbey Dore,
Clehonger, Garway, Llangarren, Peterchurch, Urishay, and Vowchurch, and a doubtful example
Bells: There are some twenty-five or more bells of Pre-Reformation date: some of these
are inaccessible for close inspection, but one at Dulas and another at Llancillo, seen from below,
appear to be of the long waisted 13th-century shape, while that at Hereford St. Peter, also narrow
waisted and inscribed "Sancta Maria," is probably of early 14th-century date. Two bells at
St. Devereux having wheel-stops on the inscriptions may also be ascribed to the 14th century.
There are inaccessible bells at Kilpeck, Moccas and Welsh Bicknor which may also prove to be
of the 13th or 14th century when examined more closely. A bell at Hentland has the King and
Queen head-stops used by the Worcester Foundry and is probably the work of the end of the
14th or beginning of the 15th century. Twelve others with inscriptions in Lombardic capitals
are probably of the 15th century. They are at Ballingham, Bridstow, Little Dewchurch, Dewsall,
Dorstone, Hereford Cathedral, Llanwarne and Preston on Wye. That at Kenderchurch (inaccessible) may be as ancient. Of the above, two at the Cathedral are inscribed with the names of
their founders, William Warwick and Stephen Banister, but their dates and foundries have yet to
be identified. Two bells (at Dewsall and Goodrich) have black-letter inscriptions and are
probably late 15th-century. Of the above bells one is dedicated to the Holy Trinity (the Warwick
bell at the Cathedral), one to God the Father (Dewsall), five to the Blessed Virgin, five to St. John
(including the Hentland bell), one to St. Michael (Bridstow), one to St. Gabriel (Llanwarne)
and one to St. Cuthbert (the tenor at the Cathedral). The black-letter inscription at Dewsall is a
series of letters without meaning. Of the later bells ten dating from 1627 to 1656 can be identified
with John Finch the Hereford founder, one by T.H. dated 1627 is at Hentland, three by I. P. are
at Goodrich 1672, Bridstow 1675 (re-cast) and Llanrothal 1681, and some twenty are the work
of Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester previous to 1714. There are about ten with 17th or early
18th-century inscribed dates but without the names and marks of the Founders. Eight other
bell-cotes are inaccessible and the bells cannot be seen from below; some of these may prove
to be of earlier date than 1714.
Brasses: The brasses, of any importance, in the S.W. part of the county, are confined to the
Cathedral. Here there is a good series beginning with the single fragment from the brass of
St. Thomas Cantilupe, c. 1290, and including the fine memorial of Bishop Trilleck, 1360,
with a canopy, Canon Richard de la Barre, 1386, in the head of a cross, Richard Delamare, 1435,
and his wife with a canopy, Dean Frowsetoure, 1529, with elaborate canopy, and other members
of the cathedral body. In addition to the cathedral brasses mention may be made of the
curious memorial to a drowned boy at Llandinabo.
Chairs: First in the interest and perhaps unique is the country in the late 12th or early
13th-century chair in Hereford Cathedral; the shallow-turned posts and rails are of a type which
survived until the 16th century, but fortunately the details of the arcading are distinctive of the
date here assigned to it. There is a somewhat similar chair, assigned to the same period, at
Rusby, Sweden. At Dulas is a remarkable collection of fourteen chairs of the first half
of the 17th century. There is a rich example of the same period at Hentland and a good late
17th-century example at Michaelchurch Escley.
Chests: There are 'dug-out' chests at Garway, Kingstone, Llancillo and St. Weonards,
which date from the 13th or 14th century. Of late 13th or early 14th-century date are the two
fine chests with chip-carving in Hereford Cathedral and All Saints, Hereford. Other chests of
interest are to be found at Garway, Sellack and Clodock, the last dated 1691.
Churchyard and Wayside Crosses: Herefordshire has retained an unusually large number of
churchyard crosses mostly lacking the head and part or all of the shaft. The base-stone commonly
has a shallow niche cut in the W. face, but the purpose to which it was put is uncertain. The
churchyard crosses at Hentland, Madley and Tyberton retain their carved heads. Many crossshafts have subsequently been used as supports for sundials. The finest wayside cross is that
erected by Bishop Charlton (1361–70) to the W. of Hereford City and called the White Cross.
The wayside cross at Madley may also be mentioned. In a class by itself is the preaching cross
of the Blackfriars at Hereford. This feature formed a common if not invariable adjunct of
the lay cemetery of a Dominican convent, but the example at Hereford appears to be the only
one which has survived.
Coffin Lids: These are unusually numerous in Herefordshire, but the great majority are of
ordinary type. At Llanveynoe are two very early slabs which will be referred to under monuments. At Hereford Cathedral is a richly ornamented coffin-lid of early 14th-century date and a
lid of a rather earlier period, at Kingstone, bears a shield with a coat-of-arms.
Communion Tables: Few of these are of any particular interest, but there is a fine early 17th-century example in All Saints, Hereford, and others of less interest at Holme Lacy and Preston on
Doors: A door on the N. side of the church at Abbey Dore has interesting ironwork of
the 13th century and there are remains of ironwork of the same age at Madley. At Bridstow
is a door with 14th-century tracery in the head, and in the Audley Chantry at the Cathedral
is a panelled and painted door of the 15th century.
Fireplaces: The earliest fireplace, noted in the inventory, is that in the keep at Kilpeck which
maybe of late 12th-century date. There are several examples with stone hoods of c. 1300 in
Goodrich Castle and a reconstructed 14th-century fireplace of stone in Wellbrook Manor,
Peterchurch, and another fireplace of the same period at Flanesford Priory. Later fireplaces are
generally of no particular interest and there are no outstanding examples of Elizabethan or
Jacobean overmantels. The overmantels at Cobhall Farm, Allensmore; the Mynde, Much
Dewchurch; Dewsall Court; and the Black Lion Hotel and 33, Bridge Street, Hereford, may
however be mentioned.
Fonts: The most interesting local type of font is of late 12th or early 13th-century date and
consists of a very massive bowl of ovolo section made of a variety of breccia; there are examples
at Kilpeck, Madley, Bredwardine and Turnastone. There is a richly carved but restored 12th-century font in Hereford Cathedral; there are other fonts of the same age at Michaelchurch,
Much Dewchurch and Vowchurch and a very primitive example at Kingstone. The later fonts
are of no great interest, but one at Bolstone, with rose, thistle and fleur-de-lis, is probably of early
17th-century date; a second at Thruxton, and a third with cherub-heads and drapery at Holme
Lacy, deserve notice.
Galleries: On the S. side of the presbytery at Hereford Cathedral is an early 14th-century
gallery with an arcaded screen towards the aisle; it may once have supported the quire-organ.
There are early to mid 17th-century west galleries, more or less enriched, at Abbey Dore, Kilpeck
and Sellack and a similar gallery of c. 1700 at Clodock.
Glass: S.W. Herefordshire is fairly rich in examples of ancient painted glass. The earliest
and most interesting examples are the early 13th-century medallions with incidents from the life
of St. John the Evangelist at Madley. In the Lady Chapel at the Cathedral are two windows of
late 13th-century glass, one having panels with figure-subjects from the Passion. There are
parts of a 14th-century tree of Jesse in Madley church, but more remarkable is the almost complete E. window in Eaton Bishop church which, from its inscriptions, may be dated about 1330.
A fair amount of early 14th-century glass also survives in Hereford Cathedral in a rather
fragmentary state, and there are fine examples of tabernacle-work, remaining in situ, in Moccas
church. Fragmentary work of the same period may be mentioned at Allensmore and Clehonger.
There is some much restored early 16th-century glass at St. Weonards. The E. windows at
Abbey Dore are filled with 17th-century glass, with figures of apostles, which is remarkable
for its colour and quality; it was no doubt put in by John Lord Scudamore about 1633.
Some similar glass, with earlier work, fills the E. window at Sellack and was placed there by
Richard Scudamore in 1630. It is remarkable that this window with all its incongruities was
copied in 1675 in the E. window of the neighbouring church of Foy; the poor quality of the
later work shows the decay in the art during the intervening 45 years. Heraldic glass may be
noticed at Moccas, Allensmore, Hereford Cathedral, St. Weonards, Clehonger and elsewhere.
Monuments: The earliest surviving funeral monuments in the district are the two primitive
slabs at Llanveynoe, one bearing a crucifix, which date from the 11th century. There is also a
coffin-lid at Kenderchurch which dates from the 12th century or earlier. The county is prolific in
mediæval recumbent effigies; over 50 have been noted in the district under review. Of these 30
are in the Cathedral at Hereford and include the painted figure of Bishop Aquablanca, 1268, Joan
Bohun and Peter Grandison in the Lady Chapel, Sir R. Pembridge in the nave, Bishops Stanbery
and Mayhew in the presbytery and Bishop Booth in the N. aisle of the nave. As at Wells, a
series of effigies, ten in number, were carved about 1300, to represent some of the earlier bishops
of the See who were without memorials. The figures are crudely cut and are of little historical
interest. Two 14th-century effigies, ascribed to Dean Aquablanca and a Swinefield, are remarkable for the delicate and distinctive treatment of the drapery. Besides the two military effigies
mentioned above there are armed figures at Abbey Dore, Bredwardine and Moccas. Priests are
represented at Clifford and there is a diminutive effigy of a bishop at Abbey Dore, perhaps indicating a heart-burial. The lady at Welsh Bicknor is a beautiful example of sculpture. Most of the
other effigies are local works, crudely rendered in low relief. The priest at Clifford is executed in
oak, and the effigies of Bishop Stanbery and Sir R. Pembridge in the Cathedral and one of the
Knights at Bredwardine in alabaster.
There are interesting mediæval monuments without figures at Bridstow and Goodrich, both
in the form of shrine-bases; these may be compared with the magnificent base of the Cantilupe
shrine in the Cathedral. There are slabs with incised effigies at Allensmore (late 14th-century),
Hereford Cathedral (1497) and Turnastone (1522).
The series of Renaissance monuments begins with the fine alabaster altar-tombs with effigies
of Alexander Denton (1566) in the Cathedral and of John Scudamore, 1571, at Holme Lacy. A
rather later (1574) and much shattered monument at Madley should also be noticed; this tomb
bears the name of the maker John Gildo. At Bacton, a crudely executed monument commemorates Blanche Parry, maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth and has a figure of the queen herself.
In the Cathedral are the remains of a series of monuments of early 17th-century bishops, broken
up by Wyatt and others early in the last century. Other late 16th and 17th-century monuments of
interest are to be found at Much Dewchurch and Kentchurch. A local type of wall-monument
is best exemplified at Foy (two examples 1673 and 1675) and Turnastone (1685). The finest
monuments of this period, however, are the two on the N. side of the chancel at Holme Lacy.
Two floor-slabs at St. Devereux have unusual enrichments.
Paintings: There are comparatively few wall-paintings in the district, but of these the large
panel of Christ surrounded by implements of labour, at Michaelchurch Escley, is remarkable. At
the Cathedral are some much defaced remains of 14th-century figure-subjects in the N.E.
transept and a series of apostles and saints on the screen of the Audley chapel. There are
also remains of mediæval painted decoration on the walls of Michaelchurch and traces of a Doom
at Madley. At Abbey Dore, the transept and crossing has remains of two schemes of decoration
dating from the 17th century and the reign of Queen Anne.
Painted decoration in houses is best represented at Caradoc Court, Sellack, and there are
remains of a series of painted busts of the Muses, etc., at 133, St. Owen Street, Hereford.
Plasterwork: The district is comparatively rich in examples of ornamental internal plasterwork of the 16th and 17th centuries. Plaster ceilings are particularly numerous in the city of
Hereford where the examples at 23, Church Street and the Conservative Club may be specially
noted. In the country-districts the most important examples are at Langstone Court, Llangarren,
Grange Farm, Abbey Dore, Michaelchurch Court, Michaelchurch Escley. Late 17th-century
plasterwork is well represented by the fine series of ceilings at Holme Lacy.
Plate: The most remarkable piece of plate in the district is the 15th-century chalice and
paten at Bacton. There are coffin-chalices at Dorstone and Hereford Cathedral; the two at the
latter place are of importance as having been taken from the graves of Chancellor Swinefield,
1297, and Bishop Swinefield, 1316. Of the twelve Elizabethan cups three are of 1571 and six
date probably from 1576. Later plate of some interest includes a beaker cup at Allensmore, a
cup of 1617 at Goodrich, given by Dean Swift, two porringers of 1682 and 1683 at Newton and
Wormbridge, a Commonwealth cup of 1656 at Foy and a cup of 1689 at Welsh Newton engraved
with Chinese figures. At the Cathedral are two 17th-century maces and at Vowchurch is a
remarkable 17th-century wooden cup with figures of birds on the bowl.
Pulpits: Good Jacobean pulpits with their sounding-boards survive at the Cathedral, All
Saints, Hereford, Abbey Dore and Sellack; that at All Saints has rich carved ornament. Other
pulpits, of the same period, may be mentioned, at Llancillo, Allensmore and Foy. There is a
pulpit and sounding-board of c. 1700 at Clodock.
Screens: St. Margarets retains its late 15th or early 16th-century rood-screen, complete with
loft and with richly carved bands of ornament. There is a second screen with a loft of about the
same date at Kenderchurch, but this has been much restored. The early 16th-century screen at
Llandinabo has interesting early Renaissance carving. There are good early 16th-century
parclose-screens at St. Weonards. Welsh Newton has a stone screen, of three moulded arches
and of c. 1330. Post-Reformation work of this class is represented by the magnificent screen of
c. 1630 at Abbey Dore, and by one dated 1613 at Vowchurch.
Staircases: Apart from those of stone there are few if any staircases of importance in the
district, dating from earlier than the 17th century. There is an example with early 17th-century
turned balusters at New House, Much Dewchurch and others with flat or pilaster-balusters at
Gillow Manor, Hentland, Kilpeck Court, Langstone Court, Llangarren and at White House, St.
Margarets. Later 17th-century staircases may be noted at Snodhill, Peterchurch; New Court,
Marstow; No. 24, Church Street, and No. 29, Castle Street, Hereford; Langstone Court and
Bernithan Court, Llangarren and Holme Lacy House. There are early 18th-century staircases of
note at the Mynde, Much Dewchurch, and elsewhere.
Stalls: The 14th-century stalls in the Cathedral, though rearranged and reduced in number,
are fine examples of the period, with canopies and carved misericordes; forming part of the S.
range is the bishop's throne, of the same date, with a lofty canopy. At All Saints, in the city, are
stalls of a similar character, with carved misericordes. St. Peter's, Hereford, has 15th-century
stalls with a continuous canopy. There are also some remains of the stalls at Madley and Holme
Miscellanea: A few important fittings of unusual character may be collected under this
heading. Of these the most important are the remarkable swinging iron screens at Rowlstone.
Their position shows that they had some connection with the lenten veil but the cross-bars are
provided with pricks and rings for candles. The animal-ornament is peculiar and the whole is a
perhaps unique survival in this country. At Kilpeck is a holy-water stoup of the date of the
church (12th-century) with a crude carving of a figure clasping the bowl; stoups of this age are
extremely rare. Bacton preserves an embroidered altar-frontal of the age of Elizabeth and said
to have been worked by Blanche Parry, one of her Maids of honour. In the N. aisle at Madley is
a large family pew, made up with earlier screen-work and roofed in.