10 BREDWARDINE (B.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXXI, N.E., (b)XXXII, N.W.)
Bredwardine is a parish on the right bank of the
River Wye, 12 m. W.N.W. of Hereford. The principal
monument is the church.
Parish Church of St. Andrew, Bredwardine
b(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew, stands on the
E. side of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone
with dressings of the same material and of white tufa;
the roofs are tiled. The Nave was built late in the 11th
century and the church at this period possibly included
a central tower and a chancel beyond it; this is indicated
by the thick S. wall of the modern tower and the mass of
masonry to the E. of it, which are otherwise unaccounted
for. The Chancel was built late in the 13th or early in
the 14th century, probably outside the earlier building,
as its axis is acutely deflected. The middle part of the
plan is probably slightly later in date, the S. wall being
built outside the lines of the suggested early tower
before its destruction. The existing North Tower is
said to have been re-built in 1790, and it has been suggested that the position was then moved farther S.;
this would appear to be very unlikely, though there
are some foundations adjoining the N. wall of the tower.
The church was restored in 1875, and the South Porch
The masonry, windows and doorways of the nave are
interesting, and among the fittings the two recumbent
effigies are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (29 ft.
average by 20 ft.) is of late 13th or early 14th-century
date and has an E. window of three trefoiled lights
under a segmental rear-arch. In the N. wall is a restored
window of one trefoiled light in the old splays. In the
S. wall is a window of two trefoiled lights with modern
jambs and mullion; farther W. is a doorway with
chamfered jambs and triangular head.
The eastern part of the Nave (25 ft. by 18½ ft. average)
has, in the N. wall, a modern doorway to the tower.
In the S. wall is a late 13th or early 14th-century
window of three cinque-foiled lights with intersecting
tracery in a two-centred head.
The Nave (38 ft. by 20 ft.) has, in the N. wall, two
late 11th-century windows each of one round-headed
light with dressings of tufa; below the western window
is a doorway (Plate 83), of the same date, now
blocked; it has plain square jambs, round head,
square label and plain tympanum, all of tufa except
the upper jamb-stones and an inserted 12th-century
lintel carved with round geometrical figures and two
small arches each containing a grotesque monster;
the N. wall (Plate 3) is of rubble with some courses
of herring-bone work. In the S. wall are two windows
similar to those in the N. wall; between the windows
is the S. doorway (Plate 83) of the same date; it has
a round arch of two orders, the outer having a roll-moulding, and a plain tympanum; the jambs are of
the same section as the arch, the rolls or shafts having
moulded bases and carved cushion capitals with
chamfered abaci; these capitals appear to be a 12th-century insertion, as is the lintel carved with a round
geometrical design and diapering on the face and soffit;
the original work is of tufa and the insertions of sandstone. In the W. wall is a round-headed window,
modern except for part of the splays and rear-arch, and
traces of a blocked W. doorway; below the window is
an original string-course.
Fittings—Brackets: In E. part of nave—on S.
wall, two mutilated corbels probably for rood-loft.
Churchyard Cross: S. of church, moulded octagonal plinth on square base, with square sinking for
shaft and rectangular cutting on N. face, late 14th
or early 15th-century. Coffin-lid: In nave—fragment carved with small raised cross, 12th-century.
Chairs: In chancel—two, one with turned front legs,
guilloche ornament on rail and back posts and rail,
shaped arms, back panel with arched enrichment and
round ornament; second chair with turned front legs,
shaped arms, enriched front rail, enriched back with
carved arch enclosing two round geometrical designs,
carved top rail with brackets, early to mid 17th-century.
Font: large round bowl of breccia with central and
four subsidiary shafts, the latter with cushion-capitals
and bases, late 12th-century. Cover: of oak with
central turned post and pierced terminal and four
curved struts, 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In chancel—against N. wall,
(1) mutilated effigy (Plate 50) of man, perhaps a
Baskerville, in armour, with bascinet, camail, jupon,
etc., head on two cushions with supporting angels,
late 14th-century, base modern; against S. wall,
(2) alabaster effigy (Plate 49) of man, perhaps a
Fouleshurst, in plate armour of c. 1450 with SS.
collar, enriched hip-belt, head on helm, feet on
mutilated beast, base modern. In nave—on N. wall,
(3) to Elizabeth (Parrey), wife of Thomas Hodges,
1703, crudely carved cartouche. Floor-slab: In nave
—to Elizabeth, wife of Walter Hill, 1677, and to Walter,
her husband, 1706–7.
b(2). Homestead Moat, N. of Old Court, 400 yards
N. of the church.
b(3). Bredwardine Castle (Plan, p. xxxvi), stood
on the W. bank of the River Wye, immediately S.E. of
the church. The earthworks consist of an irregular
oblong-shaped bailey with a slightly narrower projection at its S. end on which stood the keep and which
appears to have been originally divided from the bailey
by a ditch. A slight mound on the site of the keep
indicates the foundations of a rectangular building
approximately 78 ft. by 45 ft. with a projecting bay on
the W. side with two banks extending from either end
of the S. side showing the position of a former curtain
wall along the S. side of this projection. The enclosure
was protected along the whole of the E. side by the
steep scarp to the river, while on the N. and W. ran a
ditch, though this has been largely filled in in the
making of a garden N. of the site; this latter work is
also responsible for concealing any further defences
which may have existed at the N. end, and the construction of a road has destroyed any evidence of the
probable N.W. entrance to the bailey. The S. end is
protected by a double scarp with a berm which formed
one side of a small valley across the mouth of which
was thrown a bank to act as a dam to the stream which
filled two fish-ponds in the bottom of the valley. At the
W. end of the valley the S. end of the bailey ditch is
continued along the S. scarp as a trackway to the edge
of the Wye cliff, where there is a small mound about
4½ ft. high. From here the trackway follows the top
edge of the Wye scarp southwards for approximately
100 yards when approaching the scarp of a second
valley. There is a further mound approximately 14
yards in diameter at its base and about 4 ft. high; there
is a ditch along the latter part of the W. side of the
trackway. Beyond the second mound the trackway
runs downwards towards the upper end of the second
valley, which also has a bank across the E. side damming
a stream which flows through it, and for flooding the
valley. Farther S. the trackway continues towards
b(4). Old Court, house, 300 yards N. of the church,
is of two storeys. The walls are of stone rubble and
the roofs are covered with stone slates. The house
was built in the 14th century and had a central hall
open to the roof, and N. and S. cross-wings. An upper
floor was inserted in the hall, probably late in the 16th
or early in the 17th century, and the S. cross-wing may
have been re-built in the 17th century. The upper
part of the N. cross-wing is now used as a granary
and is approached by a flight of external steps. The
upper part of the gables to both the cross-wings on the
E. side of the house have been re-built. There is a
large projecting chimney-stack in the middle of the E.
side with splayed offsets. The hall has chamfered
beams in the ceiling of the ground floor. In the N.
wing is a moulded beam. Two of the original roof-trusses over the hall remain. One of these was apparently over the original screens and has the tie-beam
supported by two posts, a short distance from the outer
walls, and from which spring curved braces forming a
two-centred arch below the tie-beam with traceried
spandrels; the truss is of collar-beam type with sloping
struts between the tie-beam and collar-beam and collar-beam principal rafter, all of which are cusped and form
a series of open trefoiled panels with a quatrefoil in the
head of the truss. The second truss is of a modified
scissor-form, but with a central suspended post and
with traceried spandrels. In the granary one old
queen-post roof truss is visible. The 17th-century
staircase has a square newel with shaped finial and a
a(5). Lion Inn, 320 yards W. of the church, is of
two storeys with attics. The front walls are of red
brick on a stone plinth and the other walls are of rubble;
the roof is covered with stone slabs. It was built
probably early in the 18th century. The N.E. front
has a projecting band at the first floor level and a dentilled brick cornice, above which rises a central gablet
pierced by a round-headed window and flanked by two
hipped dormers. The windows have plain keystones
and are divided into two or three lights with oak
mullions and transoms; two have been filled with
later sashes. Inside the building some of the rooms
have exposed ceiling-beams.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys
or one storey with attics. The walls are of stone rubble
and the roofs are covered with stone slates or modern
slates. Some of the buildings have old chimneystacks and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
a(6). House and barn, adjoining (5) on the S. The
House has been considerably altered and heightened in
modern times. Part of the W. wall is timber-framed
with brick filling. The Barn is timber-framed on a
stone base; the walls are partly weather-boarded with
the upper part of interlacing slats between the framing.
It is in four bays and has queen-post roof-trusses.
a(7). Lower House Farm, cottage, outbuilding and
barn, nearly ½ m. S.W. of the church. The Cottage is
of late 17th or early 18th-century date. Inside the
building is an original cross-partition with stop-chamfered posts and narrow vertical panels. The Outbuilding and Barn are probably contemporary with the
house. The latter building is timber-framed on a stone
base. Both have doorways with old chamfered frames.
a(8). Oldhouse Farm, cottage, 360 yards S. of (7), is
of two storeys with attics. One or two of the windows
retain their thin stone labels and one window on the E.
front has an original frame, chamfered mullions and
vertical iron bars. Inside the building is an original
timber cross-partition of the usual local type.
a(9). Bottrell Farm, house (Plate 15), 400 yards W.
of (8), was built probably in the 16th century. A few
of the windows retain old frames. Inside the building
a cross-partition between the two westernmost rooms
is of crutch-form. A doorway in the westernmost room
has a chamfered frame and segmental-pointed head cut
in the lintel.
a(10). Fine Street Farm, house, barn and cowshed,
360 yards W. of (7). The N.E. wall of the House is
timber-framed, and one three-light window in the N.W.
wall has diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the house
is an original timber partition with chamfered posts
and narrow vertical panels. The Barn and cowshed,
N.E. of the house, are of early 17th-century date and are
timber-framed, partly weather-boarded and partly with
a(11). Benfield Farm, house and barn, about ¾ m. W.
of the church. The House was probably built as a
timber-framed building, but was encased in stone in
the 18th or early in the 19th century and subsequently
extended westward. The Barn S. of the house is of
weather-boarded timber-framing, and is in four bays
with a projecting porch on the S.W. side.
a(12). Old Weston Farm, cottage, about ½ m. N.N.W.
of (11), is a fragment of a larger building. The upper
part of the N. and S. walls are timber-framed with wattleand-daub panels and there is one old gabled dormer on
each side. In the E. wall is a wide fireplace spanned by
an oak lintel; it belonged to the destroyed part of the
original building and has now been filled in.
a(13). New Weston Farm, house, barn and tallat, 500
yards N.E. of (12). The House was probably originally
timber-framed, but was encased in stone rubble in the
18th century, and in the 19th century was enlarged and
heightened. The Barn, N.W. of the house, is now one
long structure of twelve bays and over 150 ft. in length.
It was originally two barns each of five bays which have
been connected together by two further bays made up
of old timbers. It is of timber-framing on a stone
base and is mostly covered with weather-boarding,
but retains some of the original infilling of interlacing
slats; the timber-framing is exposed at the N. end.
Inside the building the roof-trusses in the five southern
bays are generally of the tie-beam and collar-beam
type with sloping struts between the tie-beams and
principal rafters. The trusses in the northern part of
the barn are without collar-beams and have four or six
radiating struts between tie-beams and the rafters, but
these are mostly old timbers re-used. The trusses
between the two inserted bays and the two original
barns show evidence of having formed the framing of
external gables. The Tallat to the N. of the barn
is a long building of twelve bays and of two storeys.
The lower storey is of stone rubble and is used as a
cowhouse; the upper storey is for the storage of fodder
and is timber-framed; it is completely open on the S.
side and along the top of the N. side to allow a free
passage of air for the rapid drying of the fodder; the
closed portion is weather-boarded. Inside the building the lower part is open from end to end with a
passage along the N. side divided from the cow-stalls by
a low wall. The roof-trusses are of queen-post type.