45 LEINTWARDINE (C.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)II, N.W., (b)II, N.E., (c)II, S.E., (d)III,
Leintwardine is a parish and village on the river
Teme and on the N. border of the county, 11 m. N.W.
of Leominster. The remains of the Roman earthwork, the church and Heath House, are the principal
c(1). Bravinium (Plan, p. 109), Roman station on the
XII Antonine Iter, 22 M.P. from Magnis (Kenchester)
and 27 M.P. from Uriconium (Wroxeter). The Roman
site forms a roughly rectangular area with an internal extent of about 10 acres, formerly enclosed by earth banks
but these are now partly obliterated by the village which
occupies much of the area. The defences had rounded
angles, but the only portion which is at all well preserved
is the N.W. angle with much of the bank on the W.
side. Even this portion has lost much of its inner
scarp. The best preserved part of the bank (on the
W. face) rises about 10 ft. above the ground outside
and has a nearly levelled top, some 41 ft. wide, within
which is a gentle slope towards the interior of the
enclosure. At the S.W. angle modern levelling for
gardens and roads has largely defaced the line of the
bank which probably followed nearly the line of the
road immediately to the S. The line of the E. half
of the S. bank can be traced though it has been cut
into for the formation of gardens. On the N. and
N.E. traces of the line of the outer scarp are still visible.
The whole of the E. bank has been largely obliterated,
but its line can be traced by the difference in level within
and without the former enclosure. The main road
running from S. to N. through the enclosure no doubt
represents the course of the original Watling Street.
A plan of the site in the Transactions of the Woolhope
Field Club for 1882 indicates that the remains were then
more complete than they are at present.
In a letter of 1874 (Arch. Camb., 4th Ser., V., p. 163)
it is stated that "whenever graves have been dug in the
churchyard to the depth of 8 ft. two layers of ashes and
charcoal, intermixed with tiles, broken pottery, bronze
articles, and coins have been passed through; the
uppermost layer at a depth of 6 ft. and the lower one
about a foot or 18 in. beneath. The remains, from
time to time found, were generally thrown away as
rubbish or dispersed, until Mr. Evans commenced his
observations. Among the articles which he has
stored away are half a circular stone hand mill or quern,
pierced with a hole, the upper part of an earthenware
pounding mill, with a lip or rim; fragments of Roman
pottery, a bronze ring and a third brass of Constantine
the Great, with a square altar on the reverse. At the
north-east corner of the enclosure some grains of
wheat in a charred state were found at a depth of a few
feet in excavating the foundations of a cottage, and on
the south-west fragments of thick brown pottery,
apparently roof-tiles, were turned up."
There is a plan of this Roman station in General
Roy's Military Antiqs. of the Romans in Britain.
c(2). Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalene
stands in the village. The walls are of local sandstone
rubble and ashlar with dressings of the same material;
the roofs are covered with lead, tiles and slate. The
earliest detail in the church is the blocked 12th-century
W. doorway, which is probably not in situ. The
Chancel was re-built early in the 13th century, and about
the middle of the same century the S. arcade of the
Nave, with the South Aisle, was built. About 1320–30
the N. arcade was built, and about the same time the
North Chapel was added and the South Tower built.
Late in the 14th century the North Aisle and adjoining
Chapel were built, the N. chapel heightened, and the
clearstorey added to the nave. The chancel-arch was
re-built about 1865, and the upper part of the tower was
re-built in 1894–6; the tower was further restored in
The church, the E. part of which is set across the E.
bank of the Roman station, is of some architectural
interest, and among the fittings the stalls and reredos
Leintwardine, the Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalene
Architectural Description—The Chancel (41½ ft. by
26 ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall is an
early to mid 14th-century arcade of three bays, with
segmental-pointed arches of two chamfered orders,
octagonal columns and semi-octagonal responds with
moulded capitals and bases. In the S. wall are two
windows, all modern except the retooled 13th-century
splays; between them is an early 13th-century doorway
with jambs and round head of two chamfered and one
moulded order, shouldered at the springing-level and
with a chamfered label. The chancel-arch is modern.
The North Chapel (40¾ ft. by 22 ft.) has an E. window
all modern, except parts of the jambs, the splays and the
rear-arch which are of the 14th century. In the N.
wall are three early to mid 14th-century windows, each
of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. In the W. wall is an arch of the same
date; it is two-centred and of two chamfered orders,
the outer continuous and the inner dying on to the
responds; in the W. gable is a blocked window of three
lights with a two-centred head.
The Nave (66¼ ft. by 18¾ ft.) has a N. arcade of c.
1320–30 and of five bays with two-centred arches of two
chamfered orders, octagonal columns and semi-octagonal responds with moulded capitals and bases.
The mid 13th-century S. arcade is also of five bays with
similar arches except that the outer order is generally
plain; the columns are round and the responds half-round, with moulded capitals and bases; the E. half
of the first arch has been re-set at a later date and the
respond-capital raised. The late 14th-century clearstorey has, on each side, three windows each of two
trefoiled lights in a flat triangular head. The W.
window is probably of late 13th-century date, but the
mullions and tracery are modern; it is of four lights
in a two-centred head; below it, but well to the N.
of the axis of the nave (Plate 15), is a late 12th-century
doorway, now blocked; it has a round head of two
plain orders with a moulded label; the inner order is
continuous, but the outer springs from attached shafts
with carved foliated capitals and moulded bases.
The North Aisle (11¼ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall,
a late 14th-century arch, two-centred and of two
chamfered orders; the responds are of the same section
with moulded capitals and chamfered bases; further
W. are three late 14th-century windows each of two
trefoiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; at the W. end of the wall were two
windows, now destroyed, and probably of 18th-century
date and inserted in connection with the former W.
gallery. In the W. wall is an early 14th-century
window of one pointed light. The line of the earlier
pent-roof of the aisle can be seen on the E. wall.
The North Chapel (15¾ ft. by 11½ ft.) is of late 14th-century date and has, in the N. and W. walls, a window
uniform with the N. windows of the adjoining aisle.
At a height of about 9 ft. the E. wall is corbelled
forward, the upper part being about 1¼ ft. thicker.
The South Aisle (9¾ ft. wide) has an E. window,
probably of early 14th-century date, but with modern
tracery in the two-centred head. In the S. wall are
three windows, uniform with that in the E. wall,
the 13th-century S. doorway, probably re-set when the
tower was added, has a two-centred arch of two
moulded orders, the inner continued down the jambs
and the outer springing from shafts with moulded
capitals and bases and having a moulded label. In the
W. wall is a 13th-century lancet window.
The South Tower (14 ft. square) is of five storeys
(Plate 129) and of early to mid 14th-century date, with
an embattled parapet. The ground stage has, in the S.
wall, a doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of
three moulded orders with a moulded label. The second
storey has, in the E. and W. walls, a square headed
window; in the E. wall, farther N., is an arched recess
with a small square-headed window and a blocked
doorway with a shouldered head, leading to a former
upper floor over part of the S. aisle. In the S. wall
is a window of one pointed light. The third storey
has a square-headed window in the E. and W. walls.
In the S. wall is a trefoil-headed window, pierced with
a pointed head below the trefoil. The fourth storey
has a blocked window in the N. and S. walls. The
bell-chamber has been largely restored and has a square-headed window in the E., N. and W. walls and a
pointed window in the S. wall, all with moulded
The Roof of the N. Chapel is of the 14th century, and
of trussed-rafter type. The late 15th-century roof of
the nave is of five bays and of flat pitch, with moulded
wall-plates, principals and curved and foliated braces;
each bay is divided by moulded ribs into twenty-four
panels with foliage-bosses at the intersections; at a
much lower level are the corbels of an earlier roof. The
roofs of the aisles and the aisle-chapel are of similar
date, flat-pitched and with moulded plates and
Fittings—Chest: In N. chapel—plain with anglestraps, lid remade, two old locks, 17th-century. Font:
octagonal bowl, each face cut to an ogee form at the
base and carried back to a circular stem, 14th-century,
base modern. Glass: In N. aisle-chapel—in N.
window, fragments of borders, foliage, roses, etc.,
14th and 15th-century, made up with modern work.
Lectern: modern, but incorporating two early 17th-century panels with conventional ornament; incorporated in ends, two 16th-century quatrefoils enclosing
roses. Floor-slab: In chancel—to Richard Bythe . .,
1712. Piscinæ: In chancel—recess (Plate 61) with
chamfered jambs and cinque-foiled head, 14th-century,
sill modern. In N. chapel—in E. respond of arcade,
recess with ogee head, foiled drain with projection cut
back, 14th-century. In N. aisle chapel—in S. wall,
recess with trefoiled ogee arch in a square head with
traceried spandrels, plain drain partly cut away, late
14th-century. Reredos: In chancel—flanking E.
window, stone panelling (Plate 132) with moulded
plinth, dado-rail and cornice, dado-rail with range of
quatre-foiled panels and cornice with panelled and embattled cresting and pinnacles, one range of cinquefoil-headed panels below dado-rail and four ranges above,
buttressed standards flanking surviving portions, early
15th-century, central part destroyed. Screen: In chancel
—in E. bay of N. arcade, largely modern but incorporating six traceried heads of varying design and moulded
cornice, 15th-century, formerly part of stalls. Sedilia
(Plate 61): In chancel, of three bays with trefoiled
heads, 14th-century, seat modern. Stalls (Plate 130):
In chancel—on N. and S. sides, each with a panelled
backing (Plate 130) of six bays, with trefoiled, sub-cusped, crocketted and traceried heads to each bay and
moulded cornice, all similar to one bay of screen
described above; panels on N. open, but those on S.
close-boarded; on N. six seats with moulded arm-rests
carved with angels' heads; outer front desk (Plate 130)
incorporates moulded top and six panels with trefoiled
heads and spandrels carved with chained and crowned
antelopes, winged griffons, falcons and antelopes without chains; on S. six similar seats but retaining old
misericordes (Plate 131) as follows: (a) The Resurrection, at sides a man and broken carving; (b) Man kneeling at prayer-desk, at sides a mutilated crucifix ? and the
Virgin and Child; (c) Seated man with flat cap and
sceptre or sword, at sides broken carving and man's
head; (d) The Annunciation, at sides censing angels;
(e) Two wrestlers, at sides mermaid and a shell with a
mutilated figure; (f) Carving defaced; at ends of desk,
two moulded standards (Plate 131) with carved figures
at top, on E. two bishops back to back and two lions'
heads, and on W. probably St. John and St. James,
back to back, standing on beasts; part of book-rest
old, and trefoiled panels in front with spandrels carved
with winged dragons, falcons, griffons, foliage and
roses, early 15th-century and restored with new work in
1896, reputed to have come from Wigmore Abbey, and
evidently part of a larger series of stalls. Table: In
N. chapel—plain, with chamfered posts, 17th or 18th-century. Miscellanea: In N. chapel—six carved
wooden angels holding shields, from ends of roof-trusses, late 15th-century. In chancel and N. chapel—
15 th-century wood tracery incorporated in prayerdesks and similar work in detached door in aisle-chapel.
a(3). Heath House (Plate 133), 2 m. N.W. of the
church, is of two storeys with attics and cellars; the
walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built
about the middle of the 17th century on a half H-shaped
plan with the wings extending towards the N. There
is a modern addition on the W. The S. front has a
moulded plinth and a coved eaves-cornice of plaster;
the string-course between the storeys has been cut back.
The windows are modern, but the doorway is original
and is flanked by fluted tapering pilasters with a cornice,
pediment and pedestals above the pilasters. The E.
and N. fronts have plinths and cornices as on the S.
front and retain their moulded string-courses; both
fronts retain some original windows, with moulded
frames, mullion and transom, and some have moulded
labels. The roofs, both on the S. front and at the ends
of the wings, are hipped and have small dormer-windows lighting the attics.
Interior—The hall is lined with original moulded
panelling, and the fireplace is flanked by moulded
pilasters with the cornice carried across as a mantelshelf; in the fireplace is an iron fire-back with the
initials and date, I. and H.E., 1708. The staircase (Plate
76), on the N. of the hall, is original and is arranged
with double flights up to the half-landing, double flights
again to the first floor, and two parallel straight flights
to the second floor; it has turned balusters, panelled
risers, moulded rails and square panelled newels with
moulded terminals; the lower flights are cased with
panelling of c. 1700. The passage, W. of the staircase,
is lined with original panelling. The S. room in the
E. wing is lined with panelling of c. 1700, and the ceiling
has twelve original moulded panels of plaster. The N.
room has a moulded surround to the fireplace, also of
c. 1700; this room and others in the W. wing have
exposed ceiling-beams, and in the W. wing also there
are fireplace surrounds of c. 1700. On the first floor
the S.E. room is lined with mid to late 17th-century
panelling with a moulded cornice; the ceiling has
twelve plaster panels; the fireplace has a square head
flanked by pilaster-strips with moulded bases and
capping and a moulded mantelshelf. The N.E. room
is lined with panelling of c. 1700; the original stone
fireplace has flanking pilasters of two stages, the lower
with enriched panels and the upper fluted; the upper
capping is carried across as a mantelshelf.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys,
timber-framed and with stone, slate or tile-covered
roofs. Some of the buildings have exposed external
timber-framing and internal ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
a(4). Heath Lodge (Plate 33), 350 yards N.N.W. of
(3), has a thatched roof and diagonal framing in the
Leintwardine, Plan Shewing Position of the Monuments.
b(5). Marlow Farm, house, two tenements, about
1½ m. N. of the church, is of rubble, and has modern
additions at both ends.
b(6). Marlow Lodge, 100 yards S.S.E. of (5), has been
much altered and re-built.
b(7). Cottage, called the Plough, on the W. side of
the road, 550 yards N.N.W. of the church, has a
High Street, E. side
c(8). House, 280 yards N.N.W. of the church, is
built of rubble.
c(9). Cottage, 15 yards S. of (8), has a thatched roof.
c(10). House, 55 yards N.W. of the church, was built
probably early in the 16th century, and has a late 16th-century addition at the N. end.
c(11). House, two tenements, 35 yards S.W. of the
church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending
towards the W. and N.
c(12). House and shop, immediately S. of (11), was
much altered c. 1700. Inside the building, one room is
lined with mid 17th-century panelling. Some fireplaces have moulded surrounds of c. 1700.
c(13). House, 85 yards S.W. of the church, was built
c. 1600, but has been heightened.
c(14). House and shop, on the N. side of Church
Street, 20 yards S.W. of the church, is of three storeys
and partly of rubble.
c(15). Cottage, on the S. side of Mill Lane, 230 yards
S.W. of the church, is built of rubble and has a thatched
c(16). The Mill, at the W. end of Mill Lane, 100
yards W. of (15), is built of rubble on an L-shaped plan
with the wings extending towards the E. and S.
c(17). Bridge House, on the S. side of the road, 240
yards S. of the church, is built of rubble, and has been
c(18). Cottage, on the S. side of Rosemary Lane, 25
yards E. of (17), has a thatched roof.
c(19). Cottage (Plate 27), immediately E. of (18), is
built of rubble, and has a thatched roof.
c(20). Swan Inn, opposite (19), is built of rubble, and
has been extensively altered.
Watling Street, E. side
c(21). House, 30 yards N.W. of (20).
c(22). House, two tenements, immediately N. of
c(23). House, 90 yards N. of (22), was originally of
L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the
N. and E.
c(24). House, 5 yards N. of (23).
c(25). House, immediately N. of (24), was built in the
16th century and has a 17th-century extension on the S.
c(26). Cottage, 80 yards N.E. of the church, has a
c(27). House, 15 yards N. of (26), is built of rubble and
c(28). Cottage, at the road-fork, 140 yards N.N.E. of
(27), has a thatched roof.
c(29). House, two tenements, 3 yards E.N.E. of the
church, is built of rubble on an L-shaped plan with the
wings extending towards the E. and S.
c(30). House, two tenements, 65 yards S. of (29).
c(31). House, immediately S. of (30), is built of
c(32). Swan Inn, 30 yards S. of (31), is of T-shaped
plan with the cross-wing at the N. end.
c(33). House, 40 yards S.S.W. of (32), is built of
c(34). Cottage, 75 yards S. of (32), is built of rubble.
c(35). Cottage, two tenements, at the road-fork,
400 yards N.N.E. of the church, is built of rubble.
b(36). Cottage, two tenements, at Kinton, 630 yards
N.E. of the church, was built c. 1600. The S. porch
has original moulded wall-plates.
b(37). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, 70 yards N.
of (36), is built of rubble and has a thatched roof.
b(38). House, 100 yards E.S.E. of (37), was built
late in the 16th century and has a 17th-century addition
on the E. The roofs are thatched.
b(39). House, three tenements, 40 yards S.E. of
b(40). Kinton Farm, house, 80 yards N. of (38) and
800 yards N.E. of the church, was built c. 1600. The
S. wall was re-built in stone c. 1700, and has some solid-framed windows of that date.
b(41). Cottage, 100 yards W. of (40), has been partly
re-built in rubble and has a thatched roof.
b(42). Coverland, cottage, about 1 m. N.E. of the
church, was built of rubble c. 1700, and has a thatched
b(43). Pool House, 2 m. N.E. of the church, is built of
d(44). Old Lodge, house, two tenements, 3 m. N.E.
of the church, was built in the 16th century, and has a
17th-century addition on the E. The exposed timber-framing is fairly close-set.
c(45). Cottage, on the E. side of the road at Whitton,
750 yard E.N.E. of the church, was built of rubble
c(46). Cottage, opposite (45), is also built of rubble.
c(47). Watkin's Farm, house, 220 yards S.E. of (45),
is of two storeys with attics, and was originally of
L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the
S. and W. It was built in the 16th century, but
heightened and added to in the 18th century. The
walls are of rubble.
c(48). Cottage, immediately S. of (47), has been much
c(49). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 600 yards
E. of the church.
c(50). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 20 yards
S.E. of (49).
c(51). Cottage, at the E. end of Rosemary Lane, 130
yards S.S.W. of (50), was built of rubble c. 1700. At
the N.E. corner of the cottage is a broken headstone
with the date 1667.
c(52). Lynchets, 250 yards E. of Trippleton Farm
and nearly ¾ m. S.E. of the church, consist of six terraces,
190 to 200 yards long and varying from 4 to 12 yards
in width. The vertical height of the terraces varies
from 10 to 15 ft. There is a second series of three
terraces of about the same length, to the S.E.
c(53). Lynchets, 100 yards N.E. of the river Clun
and 750 yards W.N.W. of the church, consist of three
terraces, 200 to 215 yards long. The outer terraces
are 23 to 17 yards wide, and the intermediate one 4 yards
wide. There is a second group of five terraces,
immediately to the N.W., about 160 to 180 yards long
and 16 yards wide, except the second from the top,
which is 5 yards wide.
c(54). Lynchets, 800 yards N.E. of Stormer Hall
and 1¼ m. N.N.E. of the church, consist of four
terraces, about 190 to 200 yards long and terminating
on the N.W. in a transverse bank. The terraces vary
in width. There are traces of two further groups to the