16 BROMYARD (D.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXI, N.W., (b)XXI, S.W.)
Bromyard is a small market-town 13 m. N.E. of
Hereford. The church, with 12th-century detail, and
Tower House are the principal monuments.
a(1). Parish Church of St. Peter (Plate 104) stands
on the N. side of the town. The walls are of local
sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material;
the roofs are slate-covered. A minster (monasterium)
existed here c. 840 (Arch. Journ. xxx. 174), and it is
just possible that the figure of St. Peter and the cross
over the S. doorway are of the pre-Conquest period.
A cruciform church was built c. 1180, and of this
there remain portions of the North and South Transepts
and Central Tower, the S. arcade and the W. wall of
the Nave. The N. arcade was begun about the same
time, but not completed till early in the 13th century.
The N. transept was completed or partly re-built in the
13th century. Early in the 14th century the Chancel
was re-built, together with the crossing-arches, the
North and South Aisles re-built and widened, the
S. transept partly re-built and the arches inserted
between the transepts and aisles; the tower-staircase
is a late 14th-century addition. The church was
restored in 1805, when the nave-arcades are said to
have been heightened about 2 ft. The transepts were
repaired in 1887 and 1897, and the North Vestry is a
The church has interesting 12th-century work, and
among the fittings the 16th-century communion table
Architectural Description—The Chancel (46¾ ft. by
19¼ ft.) is of early 14th-century date. The E. window
is modern except for the splays, rear-arch and part of
the jambs. In the N. wall is a two-light window with
a modern head; farther E. is a doorway with a
later segmental-pointed head; at the W. end of the
wall is a doorway, to the tower-staircase, with chamfered
jambs and segmental-pointed head. In the S. wall are
two windows, both modern except for the splays and
rear-arches; between them is a modern doorway.
The Central Tower (18¾ ft. square) is of three stages
with a modern embattled parapet. The ground-stage
or crossing has, in each wall, an early 14th-century
arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders with
moulded imposts. The second stage is a modern
arrangement, and has shaped corbels in the N. and S.
walls with a change in masonry at about the same level.
The early 14th-century bell-chamber has, in each wall,
a window of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel
in a two-centred head. On the W. wall of the tower
are traces of two earlier roofs of the nave.
The North Transept (19¼ ft. by 18¾ ft.) has an early
14th-century E. window of three cinque-foiled lights
with tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall
is a late 13th-century window of one trefoiled light with
a quatrefoil above in a two-centred head; farther W.
is a late 12th-century doorway (Plate 13) with a round
arch enriched with cheveron-ornament and enclosing a
modern tympanum; the jambs have each an attached
shaft with moulded base, scalloped and enriched capital
and enriched abacus. The N. wall up to a chamfered
offset is of 12th-century date; above this point it is of
the 13th century, and has a lancet-window. In the W.
wall is a two-centred 14th-century archway of two
chamfered orders with re-used 12th-century imposts.
The South Transept (18½ ft. by 19½ ft.) has an early
14th-century E. window of three pointed lights with
plain tracery in a two-centred head. In the S. wall is
a three-light window, all modern externally, but with
splays and rear-arch probably of the 14th century.
The wall up to the head of this window is of 12th-century date; above it is later, and contains a late
14th-century window of two trefoiled lights with a
quatrefoil in a two-centred head. In the W. wall is a
14th-century archway, two-centred and of two continuous chamfered orders.
Bromyard, the Parish Church of St Peter
The Nave (66 ft. by 20¼ ft.) has an early 13th-century
N. arcade of five bays with two-centred arches of two
chamfered orders; the E. bay is narrower than the rest;
the cylindrical columns and half-cylindrical responds
have moulded bases and spurs, apparently of earlier
date, capitals (Plate 17) carved with stiff-leaf foliage
and moulded abaci of quatre-foiled plan; the arcade
is said to have been heightened in 1805, to which date
probably belong the very slender arches themselves,
and perhaps the cutting back of the abaci to a quatre-foiled plan; the respond-walls are much thicker than
the arcade. The late 12th-century S. arcade (Plate 9)
is of five bays with two-centred arches of two plain
orders; the cylindrical columns and half-cylindrical
responds have moulded bases and spurs, scalloped
octagonal capitals and moulded abaci; this arcade
appears also to have been heightened. In the W. wall
is a window of three pointed lights with plain tracery
in a two-centred head, perhaps of the 18th century or
later; below it is a blocked modern doorway.
The North Aisle (19¾ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall,
four early 14th-century windows, each of two trefoiled
lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head; the
re-set late 12th-century N. doorway (Plate 13) is set in
a projection; it has a round arch of three orders, the
inner with cheveron-ornament, the two outer plain
except for some cheveron-ornament at the base of the
middle order; the arch encloses a modern tympanum;
the jambs are of four orders with moulded imposts or
abaci; the inner order is plain, and the outer enriched
with cheveron-ornament and diapering; the two middle
orders have attached shafts with carved capitals. In
the W. wall is an early 14th-century window of two
pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred
The South Aisle (20 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, four
windows, the easternmost is modern except for the
splays; the early 14th-century second window is of
two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head; the late 14th-century third window is
of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded label and head-stops; the
westernmost window is modern except for the splays
and rear-arch; the re-set late 12th-century S. doorway
(Plate 103) is set in a projection; the round arch is of
three orders, the outer with embattled ornament, the
middle diapered with lozenges and foliage, and the
inner with cheveron-ornament; the arch encloses a
diapered tympanum with a later segmental-pointed head
cut in it; the jambs are of four orders with moulded
and enriched imposts or abaci; the inner order is plain,
the outer has two attached shafts, and the middle orders
each have one attached shaft, all with carved or scalloped
capitals (Plate 14) and moulded bases. In the W. wall
is a window similar to the corresponding window in
the N. aisle, but largely modern.
Fittings—Coffin-lid; At foot of tower-stairs, part
with cross-head in relief, late 13th-century. Communion Table (Plate 50): with enriched bulbous legs
having Ionic capitals, moulded lower rails on feet,
gadrooned upper rails with acanthus-ornament in
middle, late 16th-century. Consecration Cross: Re-set
over S. doorway—formy cross (Plate 18) in circle,
pre-Conquest or later. Font: In S. aisle—barrelshaped bowl (Plate 52) with double roll-moulding
round middle, band of crude scrolls and foliage
above, and of cheverons below, late 12th-century,
stem and base modern. Monuments: In chancel
—on S. wall, (1) to John Baynham, 1636, Elizabeth,
his wife, 1655–6, Edward, eldest son, 1652–3, and
Mary, his wife, 1650, John, sixth son, 1671, and
Frances, his wife, 1683, also to Anthony Baynham,
1698–9, alabaster tablet with cherub-heads and shield-of-arms. On outside face of E. wall—(2) to Mary,
wife of Christopher Capper, 1686, stone slab. On outside face of S. aisle—E. of S. doorway, (3) to Thomas
Barnes, vicar, 17th-century, slab. Piscinæ: In N.
transept—in N.E. angle, recess with pointed head,
projecting rounded drain carved with low dog-tooth
ornament and human head, 13th-century. In S.
transept—in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head, projecting rounded drain with defaced enrichment, early
14th-century. Plate: includes stand-paten of 1677,
inscribed with that date. Recesses: In N. transept—in
N. wall, (1) with moulded segmental-pointed head,
c. 1330. In S. transept—in S. wall, (2) with moulded
segmental-pointed head and foliated stops, early 14th-century; on outside of same wall, (3) with chamfered
jambs, segmental-pointed head and moulded label,
early 14th-century. In N. aisle—in N. wall, (4) with
moulded segmental-pointed head, 14th-century, modern
label; (5) with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed
head, 14th-century, label modern. In S. aisle—in S.
wall, (6) with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed
head, enriched with pateræ, late 14th-century; (7) with
round chamfered head, probably 14th-century, modern
label; on outside of same wall, (8) with moulded
jambs and segmental-pointed head, with defaced
paterae and moulded label, 14th-century. Miscellanea:
Re-set above S. doorway—figure (Plate 18) of St. Peter
in relief, with book and keys, date uncertain, 11th or
12th-century. In E. wall of tower, stone with
cheveron-ornament, 12th-century. In splay of E.
window, stone with moulding forming round arch
a(2). Almshouse, at the S. corner of Cruxwell Street
and Rowberry Street, is of two storeys; the walls are
of rubble and the roofs are tiled. It was founded in
or about 1656 by Phineas Jackson, vicar, and consists
of seven tenements forming three sides of a courtyard.
The entrance is on the N. front, and has chamfered jambs
and four-centred head; the windows are each of two
pointed lights. Inside the building the ceiling-beams
and some timber-framing are exposed. The roof is
of king-post type.
b(3). Tower House, house (Plate 28), on the E. side
of Pump Street, 180 yards S. of Broad Street, is of two
storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. It was built in 1630
on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards
the N. and E., and a porch on the W. front. There
is a modern addition between the wings. The fairly
close-set timber-framing is exposed in the two main
storeys, and above is a range of ornamental framed
panels with a further series of ornamental panels in the
N. gable. The porch has plain posts and head-beams,
moulded on the W. side and supporting the upper
storey; the gable has moulded barge-boards and a
pendant, dated 1630. The barge-boards of the N.
gable of the house are also moulded. Inside the building are exposed ceiling-beams and framing. The
ground-floor rooms in the main wing have ceilings
with moulded geometrical panels, some enriched with
bay-leaves, and one retaining a moulded pendant; the
plaster-work is not complete. The first-floor rooms
also retain some of the original ceilings with plaster
panels. One room has also some original panelling
with fluted pilasters flanking the fireplace. The two
S. rooms have early 18th-century bolection-moulded
panelling. The roof has queen and king-post trusses.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys;
the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tile or
slate-covered. Most of the buildings have exposed
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
High Street, S.W. side:
b(4). Bay Horse Inn (Plate 22), 25 yards S.E. of New
Road, is of three storeys. It was built c. 1620, and
the N. side has most of the original timber-framing
exposed. At the E. end of this front is a projecting
bay with moulded framing; the close-set framing,
to the W., may possibly be part of an earlier building.
Inside the building, the middle room on the ground-floor has an early 17th-century plaster frieze with
fleur-de-lis and roses. The staircase has an original
moulded hand-rail and string, and a square newel with
a moulded top.
Bromyard, Plan Showing the Position of Monuments
a(5). Houses and shops, 25 yards N.W. of New Road,
are of three storeys. The upper storeys project on the
N.E. front with two curved brackets at the first-floor
level. Both fronts have been re-faced.
a(6). King's Arms Inn (Plate 22) and shop, N.W. of (5),
is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The S.E. wing
is of early 16th-century date, but the front block was
re-built early in the 17th century. The upper storey
projects on the N.E. front on curved brackets, but the
front has been largely re-faced; the 17th-century door
is of nail-studded battens with ornamental strap-hinges.
The main chimney stack has grouped 17th-century shafts
with diagonal nibs on the outer faces. Some timber-framing is exposed at the back. Inside the building is
a considerable amount of 17th-century panelling. The
S.E. wing has original moulded ceiling-beams, and the
shop has chamfered and moulded ceiling-beams.
a(7). House and shop, at the corner of Cruxwell
Street, has been re-faced in brick.
a(8). Queen's Arms Inn, opposite New Road, is of two
storeys with cellars and attics. It was built probably
late in the 16th century, but has been entirely re-faced.
Inside the building the staircase has an original round
newel-post and steps.
b(9). House and shops, 60 yards S.E. of (8), has a
modern front, but the N. end has some exposed timber-framing. Inside the building, in the S.E. corner of the
cellars, is the round-headed entrance to a passage or
drain; it is now blocked.
Broad Street, N. side
b(10). House and shop, opposite Pump Street, is of
three storeys, and is said to have been dated 1616. The
front is modern, and the back wall is of stone. Inside
the building, the staircase has original moulded newels,
with shaped tops, moulded hand-rail, and some flat
b(11). Lion Inn, 10 yards E. of (10), is of two storeys
with cellars and attics. The front is modern, but
at the back, W. of the chimney-stack, is an original
window of three lights, with moulded mullions and
now blocked. Inside the building, the S.E. room has
an original plaster ceiling with moulded panels enclosing
fleur-de-lis, rose sand birds. At the stair-head is re-set
an elaborately carved acanthus-bracket.
b(12). House and shop, adjoining (11) on the E., is
of three storeys with cellars. The walls have been
re-faced in brick, except for part of the W. wall.
b(13). House, adjoining (12) on the E., is of two
storeys with attics. The long back-range is original,
but the front block was re-built c. 1700 and is faced with
brick. The timber-framing of the back-range is
exposed. Inside the building the S.E. rooms on both
floors have a moulded plaster border to the ceilings.
A fireplace, at the back, has a moulded surround and a
panel above of c. 1700, and there are two panelled doors
of the same period.
b(14). House and shops, 25 yards S.W. of Market
Square, is of three storeys. The front has been re-faced.
b(15). Houses, three tenements and shops, at the
corner of Market Square, are of three storeys with
cellars, and have been re-fronted. Some timber-framing
is exposed at the back. Inside the middle building
is an original staircase (Plate 75) with flat shaped
balusters, square newels with moulded tops, and
moulded hand-rails; it has been reconstructed.
b(16). House and shop, 85 yards E. of Pump Street,
is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls
are of rubble and brick. Inside the building is an
early 18th-century staircase with turned or twisted
balusters and moulded hand-rail.
b(17). Falcon Hotel, at the E. corner of Pump Street,
is of two storeys with attics. The front has been
re-faced. Inside the building, the first-floor rooms on
the N. and W. sides are lined with 17th-century
panelling, partly with a frieze of jewel-ornament.
b(18). House and shop, on the S. side 10 yards W. of
Sherford Street, is of two storeys with attics. The
exterior has been re-faced.
b(19). House, on the E. side, is of three storeys with
cellars, and has a front of modern brick, and a back of
stone. Inside the building, the staircase has original
turned balusters and square newels with moulded tops.
b(20). Bible House and shop, 12 yards N. of (19), is
of two storeys with cellars and attics. The N. front
has been partly re-faced in brick, but retains some
exposed timber-framing. The upper storeys project at
the E. end of the front, on moulded bressummers, and
the gable has a shaped pendant with the inscription
M. 1685. The W. and E. sides have been re-faced.
a(21). Dumbleton Hall, on the E. side of Church
Street, 120 yards S.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan
with the wings extending towards the E. and S. The
walls are of stone, and on the S. side of the E. wing
are two original windows with chamfered jambs and
b(22). House, now offices, on the N. side of Rowberry
Street, 160 yards S. of the church, is of H-shaped plan
with the cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The W.
cross-wing is of 16th-century date, but the rest of the
house was added or re-built early in the following
century. Much of the timber-framing is exposed.
The upper storey projects at the S. end of the W. wing
on a moulded bressummer and curved brackets.
b(23). House and shop, on the S. side of Rowberry
Street, S.W. of (22), is of L-shaped plan with the
wings extending towards the E. and S. The walls are
partly of stone, and there is a late 17th-century extension
to the S. wing. The passage at the W. end of the
building has a round arched doorway, and above it a
window with diamond-shaped bar-mullions. Some
timber-framing is exposed in the gables.
a(24). House and shop, on the N.W. side of Cruxwell
Street opposite (7), is of late 16th or early 17th-century
date. The upper storey formerly projected in front,
but has been under-built. Some timber-framing is
exposed on the N.W. side.
Sheep Street, N.W. side
a(25). House, 10 yards W. of (24), is of two storeys
with attics. It was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan
with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The
front formerly had a series of carved wooden figures,
but these have been cut away and the front plastered.
Some timber-framing is exposed at the back and sides.
Inside the building is part of an original bressummer
carved with a series of round enriched arches with a
a(26). House, two tenements, 100 yards S.W. of (25),
has some exposed timber-framing.
b(27). Cottage, 75 yards S.W. of (26), has exposed
b(28). Cottage, 150 yards W.S.W. of (27), has exposed
b(29). House, 140 yards S.W. of High Street, has some
a(30). House, two tenements, 45 yards N.E. of (29),
has some exposed framing. The upper storey formerly
projected, in front, on a moulded bressummer, but has
a(31). House, two tenements, 30 yards N.E. of (30),
was built in the second half of the 16th century. The
timber-framing is exposed and the roof has king-post
b(32). Store Shed, on the S.W. side of Hereford Street,
30 yards N.W. of New Road, has exposed timber-framing.
b(33). House, on the W. side of Sherford Street, 270
yards S.S.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the
wings extending towards the N. and W. The E. front
has been re-faced in brick.
b(34). Bridge House (Plate 22) and outbuilding, at the
S. corner of Sherford Street and Back Lane. The House
is of two storeys with attics, and was built late in the
16th century. The W. part is a later rebuilding. The
upper storey formerly projected on part of the N. front,
but has been under-built; the upper storey and gable has
exposed timber-framing partly set herring-bone wise;
the gable has a moulded bressummer with shaped and
enriched brackets at the ends; the barge-boards of the
gable are carved with scrolled arabesques.
The Outbuilding, W. of the house, has exposed timber-framing.