The Mediaeval Suburbs
The present City of York includes considerable areas that have been absorbed since 1880 but in the mediaeval period the City boundaries already lay mostly well outside the City walls and enclosed extensive areas
of pasture, gardens and orchards. Only between the river and Bootham was the City boundary defined by
the City walls, leaving St. Mary's Abbey and the S.W. side of Bootham in the North Riding. Surviving
stones marking the mediaeval boundaries are at the end of Burton Stone Lane, near Yearsley Bridge on the
Huntington Road close to Rowntree's factory, and opposite the barracks in the Fulford Road (monuments
St. Mary's Abbey stands on a site previously occupied by the palace of Earl Siward, who governed York
and Northumbria from 1041 to 1055, and the church he built dedicated to St. Olaf, represented by the
existing St. Olave's. On the southern side of the town and within the mediaeval boundary the church of
St. Andrew, Fishergate, is recorded in Domesday Book, and All Saints, Fishergate, was in existence before
the end of the 11th century when it was granted to Whitby Abbey. St. Helen's, Fishergate, was also in
existence before 1100; it stood on a site crossed by the modern Winterscale Street. Early grants of land and
buildings confirm the existence of dwellings by the middle of the 12th century in Bootham, Fishergate,
Gillygate and Marygate. In Bootham building was confined to sites opposite the abbey walls or further to
the N.W., and here in the late 12th century the Constable of Richmond had a lodging. There were also
houses opposite the abbey walls in Marygate. The husgable roll of c. 1282 records 19 tofts in Bootham
(YCA, c60). An agreement of 1354 between the City and the abbey confirmed that the abbey should
maintain a ditch between the precinct wall and the street of Bootham provided that no buildings were
erected there (CPR 1354–8, 84–6). At the end of the 13th century a complaint was made that the paving of
Bootham was all broken up and the street was foul with the stench of pigsties and obstructed by loose
pigs. At the City boundary close to the Burton Stone stood the Hospital and Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene,
from which Burton Stone Lane derived its earlier name of Chapel Lane.
In Gillygate dwellings were probably confined to the S.E. side of the street but the church of St. Giles
stood on the N.W. side. References to the street of St. Giles in the 12th century imply the existence of the
church at that time, though the earliest direct reference to it is in a will of 1393. Beyond Gillygate was an
open space called the Horsefair, extending beyond the junction of the Wigginton Road and Haxby Road.
Adjoining the Horsefair were several religious houses: the Carmelites had their first house here before
moving to Hungate in 1295; the Hospital of St. Mary, founded in 1314, stood at the S.W. corner of the
Horsefair and two other hospitals dedicated to St. Anthony and St. Anne respectively probably lay along
its N.W. side. St. Mary's Hospital later became St. Peter's School and was burnt down in 1644. St. Anthony's
Hospital is mentioned in 1401, and was still 'lately founded' in 1420. Excavation by the York Archaeological
Trust in 1972, on the site of Union Terrace, revealed a 12th-century building, enlarged c. 1200, which may
have been a church, possibly used by the Carmelites, and other later buildings, interpreted as the remains
of St. Mary's Hospital.
Lord Mayor's Walk was Goose Lane and undeveloped except perhaps in the immediate vicinity of
St. Maurice's church. Between the Horsefair and Monkgate lay Paynelathes Crofts, later known as The
Groves, an area of small enclosures belonging to St. Mary's Abbey.
Surviving remains of St. Maurice's church include an arch of mid 12th-century date and its existence
argues for some suburban development in Monkgate by that time; the name Monkgate appears in the
form Munccagate in 1080. In c. 1282 the husgable rolls record 50 tofts under the heading of Monkgate
(YCA, c60) including two occupied by millers. Near Monk Bridge stood the hospital of St. Loy established
in the 14th century in a house already standing; a little higher up the Foss were the mills of St. Mary's
Abbey, perhaps opposite the N. end of Grove Terrace.
From Monkbridge the road to Heworth lies across heavy clayland which up to the middle of the 12th
century was included in the Forest of Galtres. Heworth village itself lay outside the mediaeval boundaries
of the City, although the ecclesiastical boundaries of the three City parishes of which Heworth formed part
extended beyond the City boundary, to include the whole township.
At Layerthorpe there was a small settlement E. of the Foss probably in existence by the late 12th century,
served by a small church dedicated to St. Mary. In the 15th century one of the great bells for the Minster
was cast here.
Outside Walmgate Bar the City extended as far as Green Dykes Lane and included, in addition to the
12th-century church of St. Lawrence, churches dedicated to St. Edward, St. Michael and St. Nicholas.
St. Edward's, on the N. side of Lawrence Street, is first mentioned in the 14th century; it was taken down
in the reign of Edward VI. St. Michael's is supposed to have stood between St. Lawrence's and Walmgate
Bar and was united with St. Lawrence's in 1365. St. Nicholas's was a larger building, of 12th-century date,
from which the 12th-century doorways now at St. Margaret's and St. Denys's in Walmgate are both said
to have come. The last remains of the church were removed in 1736; the surviving remains were sketched
in 1718 (Evelyn Collection No. 539) and included a nave, large chancel, and substantial 13th-century W.
tower. Associated with the church was the largest of York's four leper hospitals. No documents relating to
private houses in Lawrence Street of a date earlier than the 14th century have been noticed.
Outside Fishergate Bar, on the site of the Cattle Market, stood the church of All Saints. This may have
been a pre-Conquest foundation as already stated; its foundations were discovered in the early 19th century,
and a rough plan published in the New Guide (p. 38) suggests an aisled church with an apsidal sanctuary.
St. Andrew's church and priory lay to the W. of Fishergate; the pre-Conquest church was given to the
Gilbertine Canons in 1202. A little further S. St. Helen's church stood to the E. of Fishergate; it was a small
church built before 1100 when it was granted to Holy Trinity Priory. St. Helen's Hospital, Fishergate,
must have stood nearby but its site is not known. Also outside Fishergate Bar was a chapel dedicated to
St. Catherine. Houses and tofts in Fishergate figure in a number of 12th-century documents, but it is not
clear how many of these lay outside the walls.
The Suburbs in the 17th century and later
All the suburbs described above were badly damaged or destroyed in the siege of 1644 but their appearance
in the early 17th century was recorded by John Speed whose map of York was published in 1610. Ribbon
development of continuous rows of houses is shown along the N.E. side of Bootham and on the S.W. side
beyond the abbey walls, continuing a little way down Marygate with some further houses nearer the river.
Houses in Gillygate are almost all on the S.E. side. A few houses stand between St. Maurice's church and
Lord Mayor's Walk, representing the mediaeval Newbiggin, (fn. 1) and both sides of Monkgate are built up.
Houses continue a short distance into St. Maurice's Road and a few more appear in Jewbury. Layerthorpe
is represented by less than a dozen houses; a road running S. leads to a larger house, presumably the house
which gave its name to Hall Fields and Hall Fields Road. St. Mary's church is not shown. Lawrence Street
is built up past St. Lawrence's church and then a few isolated houses lead to St. Nicholas's church. In the
whole Fishergate area only one house is shown, possibly representing a remnant of All Saints' church, and
three windmills. Archer's plan of c. 1680 indicates that houses had been built in Bootham, backing onto the
abbey wall, and shows more houses in Marygate than Speed's plan. In Monkgate however the houses do
not extend so far towards Monk Bridge as formerly. No new development is shown on the S. side of the
Not until after 1760 was there any significant increase in the population above the 17th-century level of
about 12,000. The census of 1801 gives a population of over 16,000, an increase of one third but there was
sufficient space within the walls and the existing suburban areas to accommodate this growth. During the
first half of the 19th century the population was more than doubled. Baines's map of 1822 shows new
development at Bootham Row and some extension of building in Marygate. New houses appear on the
N. side of Lord Mayor's Walk and on the S. side adjoining Monkgate. Continuing eastwards, buildings
are shown in St. Maurice's Road, then called Barker Hill, but little appears at Layerthorpe. Only the
beginning of Lawrence Street is shown and some long buildings to the S. of Fishergate must represent the
glassworks founded there before the end of the 18th century.
By 1851 the population of the City had risen to 36,000 and after 1820 the building of new houses proceeded rapidly, as is shown in the Inventory. The City boundaries were not extended until 1884 when
Clifton, Heworth and an area around the Fulford Road were included, followed by further extension to
the N.E. in 1893 and 1934.
St. Mary's Abbey
Sources. Three mediaeval documents compiled by the monks of the abbey survive to the present day,
and all three have been published. The Chronicle of St. Mary's Abbey, in the Bodleian Library (Surtees
Society, vol. cxlviii, 1934), includes an account of the founding of the abbey, and covers the years 1258
to 1325 except for a gap from 1284 to 1292 and part of 1293; it contains details of the great rebuilding
of the church under Abbot Simon de Warwick at the end of the 13th century and of the building of the
walls a little earlier, but little about the construction of the other monastic buildings. The Anonimalle
Chronicle (V. H. Galbraith ed., Manchester 1927) covers the years 1333 to 1381 but has only four entries
relating to the Abbey; these include an account of the fire in 1377. The Ordinale and Customary, in the
library of St. John's College, Cambridge (Henry Bradshaw Society, vols. lxxiii, lxxv, lxxxiv) records
the usage for the celebration of the Divine Office throughout the year. It was drawn up between 1390 and
1398 and contains many references to the church and other buildings of the abbey from which it is possible
to deduce the uses made of the various parts of the abbey church and of the various buildings whose
foundations have been uncovered by excavation.
Excavations carried out in the early 19th century are described and illustrated by the Rev. C. Wellbeloved
in his Account of the ancient and present state of the Abbey of St. Mary, York, and of the discoveries
made in the recent excavations (1829), which forms Vetusta Monumenta, vol. v.
The Abbey. The 11th-century archbishop of York, Thomas of Bayeux, objected to the foundation of the
monastery so close to the Minster and laid claim to St. Olave's himself. The king however supported the
monks and gave the archbishop another church in lieu. This was the first of a number of differences that
arose between abbots and archbishops as the abbots rose to a position of great importance. The abbey
became extremely wealthy and the abbot was one of the only two in the N. of England to have the privilege
of pontificalia and a seat in Parliament. It was one of only four Benedictine Abbeys in the province of York,
second only to Durham and much more important than Selby or Whitby.
The original foundation of the abbey was the result of a heroic and adventurous undertaking by three
monks who came from Gloucestershire to Whitby to revive monasticism in the N. of England, but St.
Mary's quickly became very traditional and settled in its ways with the result that in 1132 a party of monks
from St. Mary's, dissatisfied with the discipline of the house, seceded to seek a stricter life; they established
Fountains Abbey and were received into the Cistercian Order. St. Mary's was not exempt from visitation
by the archbishop and the records of these visitations show that in spite of the great wealth of the abbey it
was heavily in debt in the early 14th century. In the early 14th century Edward II, when involved in war
with Scotland, moved the government from London to York and the Chancery was accommodated in
Among the more important members of the community were John Gaytrick, who in the middle of the
14th century translated the Catechism into English verse, the so-called Layfolks Catechism issued by Archbishop Thoresbury (EETS, cxviii, ed. T. A. Simmons and H. E. Nelloth (1901)), and Thomas Spofford,
abbot 1404–21, Bishop of Hereford 1422–48, who went to the Council of Constance and helped to organise
the reform of German Benedictines.
Lists of monks total 33 in 1258, 48 in 1285 and 50 in 1539. There were eight dependent cells, including
Wetherall and St. Bees in Cumberland.
The First Abbey Church. Of the abbey church begun in 1089 very little now remains visible but the
general lines of its plan are known from excavation; it was a cruciform building with a short aisled presbytery, transepts with eastern chapels set in echelon, and an aisled nave. At the E. end were seven parallel
apses. The choir aisles ended in apses finished square externally; the transept chapels completed the seven
apses, progressively receding from the centre.
Fig. 7. (4) St. Mary's Abbey. Plan of Norman church.
The plan with parallel apses of varying projection occurs at about half of the known Benedictine abbeys
of the late 11th century, the others having had an eastern ambulatory with radiating chapels. The parallel
apse plan was first used in England at the Confessor's church at Westminster and then at Canterbury. It
was not however confined to Benedictine churches as it was also used at the secular cathedrals of Lincoln
and Old Sarum. These churches were begun between 1070 and 1080; all except St. Mary's had one transeptal apse each side. The only other English churches with two apses to each transept, making seven apses
in all, were St. Albans, begun 1077–88, Binham Priory, a little later but before 1100, and Glastonbury after
1100. The short eastern arm of St. Mary's is similar to that of Lanfranc's church at Canterbury, but was
only about half the length of the eastern arm of St. Albans which was of four bays giving a length of
nearly 100 ft. Like St. Albans, St. Mary's seems to have had the presbytery separated from the aisles by
solid walls. There were also solid walls between presbytery and aisles at Shaftesbury (RCHM Dorset, iv
The fragments of the early church that remain in situ are mostly of dark-coloured gritstone, and fragments of a moulded cornice of the same stone are reused in the base of the W. wall of the present nave.
The most likely source of this gritstone is at Bramley Fall on the river Aire near Leeds, whence the stone
could easily be brought to York by water, but there is no evidence to suggest that any quantity of this
stone was brought to York after the Roman period until the 17th century. The use of gritstone in any large
quantity in mediaeval buildings in York is confined to the Saxon and early Norman periods and the stone
is generally of Roman origin reused; gritstone at the abbey is certainly of Roman origin.
Surviving carved architectural fragments of the later 12th century, probably from the church and the
chapter house, show that work of the highest quality was done here at that date, work which is remarkably
like some of the work carried out in the Minster for Archbishop Roger after 1170 and also paralleled in
Durham, in Selby Abbey and at Lincoln both in the Cathedral and in the domestic buildings. Particular
features are the expansion of the chevron pattern by the alternation of straight sections between the angles
of the chevron to give a chain link effect and the enclosing of roll mouldings within a trellis network of
small rolls. Capitals carved with a formalised acanthus leaf are of excellent workmanship and form part of a
series of capitals in the museum illustrating a wide variety of 11th and 12th-century caps.
The Second Church. The rebuilding of the abbey church in 1270–94 was carried out in a period which
covers the finishing of the Angel Choir at Lincoln and the beginning of the new nave at York Minster,
and probably also the building of the Chapter House at Southwell, which was closely connected with
York. Stylistically it provides an interesting link between the 'Early English' of the 13th century, and the
'Decorated' of the 14th.
The Chapter House. The present vestibule occupies the full width of the E. range, and the Chapter House
formed a rectangular projection E. of the range. The building of polygonal chapter houses outside the range
was necessitated by their shape; for a rectangular one to be wholly outside the range was exceptional but
this cannot have been the original arrangement. In the early 12th century the chapter house must have
occupied the space of the vestibule and the remains of its E. wall can be seen under the entrance to the later
chapter house. This entrance is of the late 12th century and must give the date of the building of the new
chapter house, still rectangular but lying outside the range. The only remains of the new building found
in the excavations of 1827–8 were 'the lowest portion of the foundations, built of grit-stone' (Wellbeloved)
and later plans showing a triple E. window must be regarded as imaginative. An understanding of the
character of the chapter house depends on consideration of a series of stone sculptures which are discussed
below; the plan suggests that it was covered by a barrel vault divided by transverse arches into five bays.
The Abbot's Lodging is described under The King's Manor, Monument (11).
Other Claustral Buildings. The remains of the claustral buildings are scanty. The plan of the principal
buildings has been recovered by excavation and reading the records of excavation with the surviving
mediaeval documents it is possible to arrive at a fairly clear picture of the layout. The surviving remains
and the buildings that have disappeared are described together in the Inventory.
The Precinct Walls. The Gatehouse and the Precinct Walls are described in York II, The Defences, and the
description given there is repeated in this Inventory. The wall with its towers forms the most extensive
surviving monument of ecclesiastical defences in England.
Sculpture. I. In the Yorkshire Museum are thirteen life-size figures or parts of figures which form one
of the most important series of English sculptures that have survived from the Middle Ages (plates i, 30–37).
Seven of these figures were discovered in 1834 buried in the S. aisle of the abbey church under a layer of
13th-century window tracery set in mortar that was described as being the same as 16th-century mortar in
the King's Manor. When found these seven figures, which include those in the best state of preservation,
were painted in colour but little or no trace of colour now survives. Three figures were recovered from
other parts of York where they had stood in exposed situations and had deteriorated badly. Two figures,
purchased in 1954, came from Cawood. (fn. 2) The last figure is more fragmentary and its history is not known.
The similarity of the last six to the first seven makes it likely that all the figures belonged to one sequence.
Two of the figures represent Moses and St. John the Baptist; eight with bare feet and holding books are
probably Apostles, but could also include Prophets. The others are too damaged to give any indication of
their identity. All the figures show certain marked characteristics in treatment: the bodies are heavy, the
heads are disproportionately large and the figures are apparently standing balanced on both feet although
the drapery, falling straight over one leg and looped in folds over the other, is designed for figures with
one leg straight and one flexed. The drapery is held up in one hand or looped over one forearm with a
characteristic little swirl. The disposition of the drapery, originally invented to help in the representation
of jointed limbs in varying positions, is here used on stiff immobile figures purely as a linear pattern without appreciation of its real purpose. The figures have vestigial columns emerging from their shoulders, but
they are not true column-figures such as flank the doorways of many French cathedrals, where the figures
are attached to full-height columns.
The figures are Romanesque in their proportions and in their heavy drapery falling to lively little pleats
around the feet, but the Romanesque mannerisms are much less noticeable than in the comparable figures
of the Portico de la Gloria at Santiago de Compostela of 1188. A new feeling of classicism in the York
figures must place them later than the Compostela figures but they have not the simplicity and freedom
from the Romanesque that was achieved at Laon c. 1190 and at Chartres, more strikingly, by c. 1210. The
drapery looped over one leg and falling freely over the other has a longer history in other arts but first
appears in French sculpture at Mantes c. 1175 and occurs commonly during the next thirty years, especially
at Sens. One other detail affecting the date of the figures must be noticed: Moses is represented holding
both the Tablet of the Law and the Brazen Serpent. This occurs in French sculpture only between 1170
and 1215. It seems clear therefore that the York figures cannot be much later than 1200. (See W.
Sauerländer, 'Sens and York' in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association, xxii (1958), 54.)
It has been assumed that this series of figures flanked a great doorway to the abbey. The numerous
French portals of the 12th century normally show the fore-runners of Christ, occasionally with St. Peter
and St. Paul. Not until the end of the century was any French doorway flanked by the apostles. Indeed the
earlier doorways did not provide space for them since they only had three or four figures each side. The
number of figures surviving at York—and there is no evidence that the whole series has been recovered—
make it unlikely that they flanked a doorway of c. 1200. Although some late 12th-century stonework is
reused in the foundations of the later church, there is no evidence for any major building work on the
abbey church at that time. Only if rebuilding necessitated by the fire of 1137 was not completed till c. 1200
could the erection of a portal of this date be explained, but Mr. G. F. Willmot's excavations at the W. end
of the abbey church have failed to find any foundations of sufficient width to carry a portal or portals of
the necessary size.
An alternative solution to the problem of the site from which these figures came is suggested by a group
of earlier figures from the Chapter House at St. Etienne in Toulouse, also including eight apostles. These
have long been displayed in an arrangement based on a figured portal but Linda Seidel of Harvard University has now shown that these figures, standing in pairs, must have formed the bay divisions in the walls
of the chapter house, from which sprang transverse arches under a barrel vault (The Art Bulletin, L (1968),
33–41). The Toulouse figures are carved in pairs with columns between the heads supporting arched
canopies, but the Camara Santa at Oviedo, rebuilt during the second half of the 12th century, also has a
barrel vault with transverse arches springing from capitals and these are supported by true column-figures
of the French type. Earlier, English figures supporting vaulting were erected in the Chapter House at
Durham (c. 1135), which owed their inspiration to Southern France, but in the late 12th century it may not
have been necessary to go so far as Southern France or Spain for examples of chapter houses decorated with
figure sculpture, as numerous chapter houses in Northern France have been destroyed and the small chapter
house at St. Georges de Boscherville shows that column-figures were not necessarily part of a portal. Another
column-figure not forming part of a portal, from the cloister of Saint-Père, Chartres, is illustrated by L.
Pressouyre in Bulletin de la Société Nationale des Antiquaires de France (Séance du 15 Mai 1968, Plate 10) with
a drawing from the Gaignières Collection. The figure represents St. Benedict.
The surviving fragments of the entrance to St. Mary's Chapter House are elaborately moulded and
decorated and may be dated stylistically to the late 12th century. It is difficult to suppose therefore that the
Chapter House itself was not built in the last years of the 12th century, despite the large projection of the
buttresses shown on Ridsdale Tate's plan of 1912; but the irregularity of those buttresses suggests that they
may not have been original. A date at the extreme end of the century, c. 1200, is suggested by the character
of the abbots in the second half of the century; Abbot Clement (1161–84) was described as 'rapax lupus
omnia vastans' and his successor Robert was deposed by the archbishop at his visitation of 1197. Robert
Longchamp who succeeded him, a man of wealth and power and brother of the Chancellor, is the more
likely builder both of the Chapter House and the Gatehouse.
We are left then with a series of statues of c. 1200 some of which were buried close to the Chapter House
at a time when the Chapter House, of much the same date, was pulled down to make way for new buildings
for the Palace of the Council of the North. Most of the figures appear to be Apostles but two are
certainly not. It appears therefore that the twelve Apostles can have marked the bay divisions of the
Chapter House; Moses, St. John the Baptist, and other unidentified figures would then have marked the
bay divisions of the Vestibule, replaced by moulded vaulting shafts in the late 14th century. The whole
series would then have led from the precursors of Christ in the Vestibule, through the Apostles on the side
walls of the Chapter House to the Christ in Majesty recorded as occupying an elevated position at the E.
end of the Chapter House. This theory is supported by the shape of the backs of the figures, most of which
are flat to stand against a straight wall but others are rounded or angled to stand in a corner where two
walls meet. At Toulouse the eight Apostles formed the bay divisions and four other figures stood in the
four corners of the Chapter House.
2. A group of large-scale fragments appear to come from a Coronation of the Virgin (Plate 40); the
Christ figure is complete except for the right arm but the hand appears placing the crown on the Virgin's
head. This is a late interpretation of a theme in which earlier artists had shown Christ's hand raised in
blessing, and the crown held by angels. The middle part of the figure of Christ was found built into some
late mediaeval repair work of the nave of the abbey, suggesting that the sculpture may have been broken
as a result of the fire of 1377. No evidence has been found to suggest its original position, but it is possible
that it formed a reredos to the altar of the Virgin in the nave, and was damaged in the storm of 1377.
Other Mediaeval Sculpture
The Yorkshire Museum, built on the site of part of the cloister of St. Mary's Abbey, contains remains of
the claustral buildings in situ and a collection of mediaeval architectural and sculptural stone carving. Most
of the architectural fragments derive from the Abbey itself but among the decorative and figure sculptures
there are more pieces from various other sources in York than there are examples in situ in the City outside
the Minster. The principal items from St. Mary's Abbey (4) are listed on pages 23, 24; pieces associated
with surviving buildings will be listed under those buildings; other pieces are listed here.
i. Anglian Cross-head (Plate 25b), probably found in York (YMC), of magnesian limestone, 6½ in. by
6½ in. Listed as No. 12 by W.G. Collingwood in 'Anglian and Anglo-Danish Sculpture in York' (YAJ xx
(1909), 178, 181, 185). On one side, within a medallion 33/8 in. internal diameter, is a pentameter verse in fine
lettering, which reads: 'Salve pro meritis, presbyter alme, tuis'. On the other side is a quatrefoil within a
ii. Cresset (Plate 25a), 9¼ in. high by 5¼ in. diameter at top (Collingwood, ibid, 200, 203, No. 22),
of red gritstone. The shaft is plain up to a necking of two bands enclosing a two-strand twist. The bowl
or cap has stylised leaf-forms growing from the necking in a chevron pattern, with a cable-moulded rim.
This is not a reused baluster shaft, as the cable-mould forms a lip to the upper surface surrounding a hollowed-out bowl. Pre-Conquest.
iii. Fragment, of red sandstone, 9½ in. by 6 in. by 6 in., pattern on one side with interlaced double cable
within a border of rectangular pellets; no provenance. Pre-Conquest.
iv. Top part of Grave-slab (Plate 25e), 23¾ in. by 17 in., 'found under the Mechanics' Institute in Clifford
Street in July 1883'; the arms of the cross covered with tightly plaited interlace, the horizontal arms ending
in animal masks; at the junctions of the arms are incised circles; the panels flanking the top of the cross each
contain an animal with double outline, the hind leg extending as a double strap interlaced with the body;
the panels are enclosed by a raised border treated, at the sides, as pilasters, one retaining a volute capital;
pre-Conquest (Collingwood, ibid, 190, 193, No. 16).
v. Grave-slab (Plate 25c), of sandstone, 3 ft. by 1 ft., found in Parliament Street, with plain incised Latin
cross with incised circles at the junctions of the arms; pre-Conquest (Collingwood, ibid, 162–3, No. 5a).
vi. Grave-slab (Plate 25f), of sandstone, broken, 2 ft. 9½ in. by 1 ft. 2 in., found in Parliament Street, with
cross, cross-head with tapered arms in relief, cross-shaft incised only; the back similarly carved but unfinished; pre-Conquest (Collingwood, ibid, 162–3, No. 5b).
vii. Two Capitals (Plate 27e), carved with faces indicated by oval eyes and marked eyelids, found in a
garden outside Bootham Bar; late 11th-century.
viii. Six Corbels (Plate 26), carved with grotesque or beasts' heads; 12th-century.
ix. Corbel (Plate 26b), of gritstone, carved with a complete animal, perhaps a wolf; 12th-century.
x. Head, damaged; late 12th-century.
xi. Two Label-stops (Plate 27f) carved with heads of a wolf and a bear respectively; late 12th-century.
xii. Fragments of an archway probably from All Saints', Pavement (Plate 28a–e): Nook-shaft richly carved
with foliage; two Capitals, one with two-bodied lion with leaf-shaped tails, one with foliage and small
leaf-tailed beasts; three Voussoirs with isolated roundels containing human figures and a bull; one Voussoir,
from another order of the arch, with foliage on an undulating stem, and a roll-moulding; 12th-century.
The nook-shaft is carved in a different style from the rest.
xiii. Tympanum (Plate 29a), carved with devils seizing the soul of a dead man as it emerges from his
mouth, possibly the death of Dives, from the Hole in the Wall public house which stood on the N. side of
Minster on the site of St. Sepulchre's chapel; late 12th-century.
xiv. Ten Voussoirs (Plate 28f) from an arch of at least three orders, one with beasts etc. in beaded roundels
and other ornament, and a pattern of diagonal crosses on the soffit, a second order carved with formal
foliage ornaments and a moulded soffit, a third order carved with beasts and a moulded soffit; all with roll
xv. Capital to a nook-shaft (Plate 27b), with human head threatened by two dragons; 12th-century.
xvi. Virgin and Child (Plate 41b), headless torsos only, 15½ in. high; the Virgin wears a cloak held by a
brooch secured with a cord, her hair falls in long plaits over her shoulders; late 12th-century.
xvii. Head of Cross carved with Christ in Majesty and, on reverse, Agnus Dei; 12th-century.
xviii. Corbel carved with human head; 13th-century.
xix. Virgin and Child (Plate 41a), both figures headless, 3 ft. high; the Virgin is seated and wears a simple
dress with high belt, and cloak looped over left arm and draped across lap; the Child stands on her lap
against her right arm; 14th-century.
xx. Figure of bishop (Plate 43a), head and legs missing, 20½ in. high, right arm broken, staff in left hand;
xxi. Head of bishop (Plate 42b), with low mitre; probably a label stop, 14th-century.
xxii. Small Head (Plate 42e), bearded, wearing a hood; found in Davygate; 15th-century.
xxiii. Figure, 14½ in. high, with name Maria Salome on base; c. 1500.
xxiv. Figure (Plate 42c), 27½ in. high, St. Margaret with dragon, perhaps from a tomb; the saint stands on
dragon holding cross in right hand; early 16th-century.
xxv. Angle Bracket, 29 in. high, with half figure of angel, wings outspread, probably from the Carmelite
Friary, Hungate; late mediaeval.
xxvi. Head of a man (Plate 43b), face badly damaged but carving of hair in good condition; late mediaeval.
xxvii. Figure of lady (Plate 43d), headless, 14½ in. high, with tight bodice above a full skirt; late mediaeval.
xxviii. Mutilated recumbent effigy of a Knight in chainmail and surcoat, 4½ ft. long, formerly planted
erect at the end of Clifton Village and known as Mother Shipton's stone; 14th-century.
xxix. Recumbent effigy of Knight with crossed legs, in chainmail and surcoat, 6½ ft. long, formerly used
as a boundary stone for the parish of St. Margaret, Walmgate, on the E. side of Neutgate, now St. George's
Street; the head rests on a pillow supported by angels; lion beneath feet; lizard-like creature by left leg
biting shield; shield charged with cross flory and overall a bendlet, possibly for de Vescy (of the family of
William de Vescy who gave the Carmelite Friary a site in Hungate in 1295); 14th-century.
xxx. Virgin and Child with bird (Plate 41c), headless fragment with traces of colour; found in the Ouse
near St. Mary's Abbey; 14th-century.
xxxi. Six Panels from a sequence associated with St. William of York: (a) Birth of St. William in the
presence of King Stephen; (b) Collapse of Ouse Bridge; (c) Edward I falling down a mountain, and the
recovery of a fisherboy drowned in the Ouse; (d) Translation of St. William; (e) Virgin in Glory; (f) The
Trinity with two donors; late 15th or early 16th-century. (G. F. Willmot, 'A Discovery at York' in
The Museums Journal lvii no. 2 (May 1957)).
The bulk of pre-Conquest sculpture in York lies outside the scope of this volume; here, the most important
item is the finely lettered crosshead fragment (i) (Plate 25b) which Collingwood ascribed to the early 8th
century (op. cit. 178, 181, 185). The fragments of a grave-slab from St. Olave's church (Plate 25d) are of
sufficiently high quality to suggest that they may have been from the tomb of a man of the importance of
Earl Siward himself; they are similar to other slabs in York, one from St. Denys's church and others from
the late Anglo-Danish cemetery under the S. transept of the Minster. The grave-slab (v) (Plate 25c) from
Parliament Street is closely parallel to one from the same cemetery under the Minster.
Little is known of early Norman carving in York; capitals such as (vii) probably represent a local vernacular style much less sophisticated than contemporary quasi-Corinthian capitals in the Minster, which
derive from Normandy. The collection includes a number of voussoirs from arches of 12th-century doorways which can be compared with the standing archways in various parts of the town, none of which is
however in its original position. Those in the Museum are in better condition than most of those outside
and the best picture of a complete doorway of this type is now to be derived from a drawing of the doorway
of St. Margaret's church, Walmgate, made in 1791 and reproduced on Plate 44. This was an elaborate
scheme with an archway in six orders. The outer order contains the Signs of the Zodiac and the Labours
of the Months; to a similar series belong the voussoirs probably from All Saints' Pavement (xii). Two
capitals from the same site are similar to capitals from St. Lawrence's and St. Maurice's. The foliage in a
figure-of-eight pattern carved on other voussoirs resembles that on capitals in the crypt of the Minster.
Other Norman carvings include a number of corbels (viii–x), mostly of beasts' heads with open mouths;
other heads probably formed the stops at the ends of hood-moulds.
Dragons appear in a number of carvings, either alone as at St. Lawrence's, where they terminate an order
of the arch carved with foliage, and St. Margaret's, or in battle with men as on a capital probably from
St. Mary's Abbey (Plate 29b, c).
The most ambitious figure composition is the damaged tympanum (xiii) from the cellar of a former
public house which stood close to the N.W. tower of the Minster, found in 1817; the demons portrayed
have their counterpart in a large scene with the mouth of Hell now in the Minster, found in the Deanery
garden (John Bilson, 'On a Sculptured Representation of Hell Cauldron', in YAJ, xix (1907, 435–45). The
scene probably portrays the death of Dives and may be compared with the death of Lazarus portrayed at
Lincoln where Dives and his companions are already in Hell (G. Zarnecki, Romanesque Sculpture at Lincoln
Cathedral, n.d., pl. 11).
The great figures from St. Mary's Abbey, of c. 1200, were discussed above (p. xlii). Of the same date,
are a Virgin and Child from Cawood (Plate 41d), now in a fragmentary state, and a series of voussoirs
from the abbey, carved with scenes from the Gospel story (Plates 38, 39), of a type unusual in England
but in the tradition of the greater French cathedral doorways.
With the coming of the 13th century a gradual softening of features is noticeable. Hair is stylised but the
hard edges of eyes, eyelids and eyebrows become more naturalistic. This is first seen in the St. John the
Evangelist (Plates 1, 30) and is continued in a fragment of a head from the abbey (Plate 43c) and a corbel
head probably from the abbey (Plate 42a).
Sculpture in the monumental tradition of the figures from the abbey is found in the fragmentary
group of the Coronation of the Virgin (Plate 40) where the eyes of Christ have the hard lids of earlier carving but the robes have the jagged crinkly outline of fully-fledged Gothic.
The roof bosses from the abbey include some fine naturalistic carving of c. 1300. Of later sculpture there
is little anywhere in York outside the Minster and the shrines associated with St. William from the Minster,
which are at present in the Yorkshire Museum, but the simple flowing lines of 14th-century work are
shown in the headless statue of a bishop (Plate 43a) and an alabaster Virgin and Child (Plate 41c).
The fragments of panelling in St. Olave's church, carved with angels playing musical instruments, must
derive from a stone screen and most probably come from the abbey (Plate 52).
St. Olave's is the only complete church recorded; it is largely a building of the 18th century, retaining little
mediaeval work undisturbed except for the tower, and it shows no trace of the church founded by Earl
Siward in the 11th century. The chief interest lies in the way the church was integrated with the adjoining
monastic structures, the parochial west tower being structurally one with the monastic chapel of St. Mary
and the north wall of the church being built up on the base of the precinct wall of the abbey.
Of the other suburban churches only the tower of St. Lawrence's still stands; 12th-century doorways
supposed to come from St. Nicholas's have been re-erected at St. Margaret's and St. Denys's, Walmgate,
and from St. Maurice's at the church of St. James, Acomb Moor.
Some of the monuments at St. Olave's are to men of importance. William Thornton, joiner and architect,
who died in 1721, showed considerable engineering ability in the restoration of the north front of Beverley
Minster under Hawksmoor; he also worked under Colen Campbell on a house in Beverley, at Castle
Howard under Vanbrugh, at Wentworth Castle for the Earl of Strafford, and at Beningbrough, N. of
York, where he may have been the architect. The Wolstenholmes were of local importance in the field of
carving and decoration (see p. lvi). William Etty, R.A., was very distinguished in his day as a painter of the
nude and of history pictures; it appears that he was not connected with the Etty family of carpenters and
builders who practised in York in the 18th century.
The King's Manor
The King's Manor, developed from the 13th-century lodging of the abbots of St. Mary's Abbey, is a
building of great historical and architectural importance. A separate house for the abbot in the 13th century
is to be expected at an abbey of the importance of St. Mary's. Abbot Samson at Bury St. Edmunds built
himself a house c. 1200 and the abbot's house at Westminster and the prior's house at Ely, both rebuilt in
the 14th century, include the remains of structures going back to the late 12th century. The surviving
remains giving the most complete plan of an abbot's house of the 13th century are to be found at Battle
where the house erected for Ralph of Coventry, 1235–61, lie on the W. side of the cloister (Sir Harold
Brakspear, 'The Abbot's House at Battle', in Archaeologia, lxxxiii (1933), 139–66). The house at St. Mary's,
as rebuilt in the late 15th century, stands partly on 13th-century foundations but the complete layout of
the 13th-century house has not been preserved.
The rebuilding in the last years of the 15th century was carried out in brick, a material that had been used
in York for the Merchant Adventurers' Hall in the middle of the previous century and in Hull c. 1320 for
the building of Holy Trinity church, and then for the town walls at Hull and the gates at Beverley. Brick-work was not new to the area in the late 15th century but the use of terracotta for the windows is exceptional and is as early a use of this material for structural work as any that has been recorded in England;
other examples are to be found in Norfolk and Essex. The rectory at Great Snoring may be the earliest of
the southern examples, probably c. 1500 but not exactly dated; the work at East Barsham followed c. 1515
and at Layer Marney c. 1520. The great hall on the first floor with a flat ceiling hiding the roof timbers is
remarkable, though not the earliest in York. The construction of the roof itself, with king-posts, is not in
the local tradition of houses in the City but is akin to work being done in the upland areas of the Pennines
and the Lake District.
As the late 15th-century work has affinities with the brick and terracotta of East Anglia, so too the remodelling of the house in the 16th century as a palace for the Council of the North also shows affinities
with contemporary work in Essex and the south-east. A particular connection with Essex may be attributed
to Thomas Radcliffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, President of the Council from 1568 to 1572, who was connected
with the Fitz Walters of Essex and built himself a house at Boreham in Essex in 1573. The new wing begun
in 1560 by the Earl of Rutland was mainly built of reused stone with stone-mullioned windows but the
new windows inserted in the old building were made with brick jambs and mullions plastered to simulate
stonework. This device was not uncommon in Essex and S.E. England but in the York area the only
other example recorded is at Heslington Hall, just outside York, which was built by Thomas Eynnis,
Secretary to the Council of the North in 1568. A plaster frieze at Heslington has been identified as coming
from the same mould as one at Albyns in Essex (Jourdain, Fig. 10).
The use of plaster to simulate stone was a more reasonable economy in Essex where stone is not available
locally. In York it appears to be less justifiable but the imitation of more expensive materials in cheaper
substitutes is a regular feature of the royal buildings of Elizabeth I (E. Mercer, 'The Decoration of Royal
Palaces 1553–1625' in Arch. J., cx (1954), 150).
Justice in a Triumphal Car beneath the Arms of the City. 1753.
Self Portrait, c. 1770.
(13) City Art Gallery. Stained glass panels by William Peckitt.
The new range completed by Radcliffe was built without attics whereas Sheffield's range built against it
some forty years later, c. 1610, had the roof space used for rooms from the start. Sheffield's range is contemporary with college buildings at Oxford and Cambridge which, for the first time, were being built
with attic storeys, although attics had been contrived in the roof space of Corpus Christi College,
Cambridge, for instance, as early as Henry VIII's reign, and had been added to existing buildings at
Oxford after c. 1570 (Exeter College, St. John's College and New College. VCH, County of Oxford, III
(1954), 116–17, 261).
The decoration of the Huntingdon Room, carried out for Lord Huntingdon c. 1580, is among the most
interesting features of the Manor, and the windows of this period are notable for the early use of the
ovolo (quarter-round) moulding on jambs and mullions instead of a hollow chamfer. The earliest known
uses of the ovolo form occur during the previous decade at Kirby Hall, Northants., and Leicester's buildings
at Kenilworth Castle.
Among the early 17th-century features a number of surviving stone doorways are remarkable; the great
semi-circular bay windows erected by Lord Sheffield are known only from drawings and a few fragments of
stonework reused in various buildings. Later in the century the contemporary use of brickwork is illustrated
on the pilastered upper storeys of the central N. block and in the S.E. gable added to the mediaeval building
with oval bull's-eye windows and tumbled brickwork for the coping.
The development of the abbey site is completed by the former headmaster's house of 1899 and the City
Art Gallery, monument (13), which contains a collection of topographical prints and drawings, important
for the study of the buildings of York. It includes some three thousand items within the period c. 1680–
c. 1900. The core of this collection was presented by Dr. W. A. Evelyn of York in 1934. Local artists who
are represented include Francis Place, William Lodge, John Haynes, Joseph Halfpenny, Henry Cave and
George Nicholson; visiting artists include Hollar, the Buck brothers, Rooker, Marlow, Girtin, Cox and
John Varley. The gallery also owns works by several artists who worked in York c. 1727–78, such as Drake,
Hauck, Doughty and William Etty. A self-portrait in the Art Gallery must be considered among the
best work of William Peckitt, the York glass-painter, whose work is also to be seen in the church of St.
Martin-cum-Gregory (York III, 24), in the Minster, at New College, Oxford, and at Stamford (Lincs.).
Other Public and Institutional Buildings
Ingram's Hospital (23) and Wandesford House (26) are two pleasing ranges of almshouses in simple brickwork of the 17th and 18th centuries respectively. The early mental hospitals of York are of considerable
interest to the social historian but Bootham Park Hospital (21) is also of architectural importance, having
been designed by the leading York architect, John Carr. In contrast to Carr's Palladianism, the Greek
Revival of the early 19th century is represented by the Yorkshire Museum (12) with its Doric portico,
designed by William Wilkins, R.A. This was followed ten years later by St. Peter's School (29) where John
Harper dressed a building of classical symmetry in Tudor gothic with a multiplicity of turrets and pinnacles.
The houses recorded are all of fairly late date: one (monument 76) retains a fragment of timber framing
perhaps of the 16th century but there is no complete domestic structure earlier than the second half of the
17th century. In the Bootham and Monkgate areas this no doubt reflects the damage done in the siege of
York in 1644. A few houses survive from the late 17th century, brick-built and mostly of two storeys; the
arrangement of these houses on plan falls into two types: those with a main range parallel to the street
giving two front rooms with subsidiary wings at the back, and those that are built end-on to the street with
one front room and one back room and a massive chimney-stack between the two rooms. In No. 21
Bootham (37) there is an interesting survival of late 17th-century painted wall decoration.
There are a few 18th-century houses which are only one room deep; the great majority of house plans
of this period are based on a through passage with a staircase, and front and back rooms either on one side
only or on both sides, corresponding to the Class U plan identified in RCHM West Cambridgeshire (xlvii)
and RCHM South-East Dorset (lxiii). The same plan types continued in use through the first half of the
19th century and the later houses in the Inventory, not described in detail, generally conform to them
(see also York III, xciv–xcvi). The larger houses in Bootham show a considerable variety of layout developed
from the basic four-square Class U plan, while a small 19th-century house in Clarence Street (monument
60) shows how an ingenious designer can introduce interest into the same basic plan in a very confined
space. As in York III a number of houses have a staircase placed transversely between front and back rooms
either as the only staircase in the house or as a secondary staircase for servants.
Kitchens seem generally to have been on the ground floor. Basements in Bootham were suitable only for
storage; the basement kitchen at No. 56 (57) was replaced by a kitchen above ground very soon after the
erection of the house. The same house has an important reception room on the first floor (in 1972 the
Council Chamber of Flaxton Rural District Council) showing that the first-floor saloon had not been
abandoned even after 1840. Some of the larger houses in Bootham were built with small projecting
wings for closets but how these were fitted remains conjectural. The development of the indoor water
closet is illustrated by Fishergate House (105) of 1837, where the plan is designed to accommodate original
water closets, and the small houses in Penley's Grove Street where one has an original internal water closet
for which the plan is not adapted, but others still rely on privies at the far end of a low back wing, beyond
scullery, coalhouse, etc. The original names of rooms in these houses have been reproduced in Fig. 81 from
the architects' plans.
The external appearance of the 18th-century houses depends on good red brick with stone bands, and
timber cornices carrying concealed gutters at the eaves. Parapets hardly exist in this area. Stone is used in
the form of plain string-courses or bands dividing the storeys and sometimes also joining the window sills.
The combination of wide storey bands and narrower sill bands was a Palladian feature used frequently by
John Carr and continued by other architects. In few houses do the corners receive emphasis: at Nos. 39 and
45 Bootham (41) appear the unusual rusticated quoins in which alternate stones project with long faces on
both sides of the corner (see York III, fig. 14, p. lxxx); a more usual type of quoin appears on No. 49
Bootham (43). Windows are simply treated, without architraves; the window arches are usually of rubbed
brick, only occasionally interrupted by stone keys. No. 47 (42) and Nos. 53, 55 (45) Bootham have stone
cornices above the brick arches without the support of brackets, frieze or architrave, an idiosyncratic
treatment used also at No. 56 Skeldergate (York III, (117) 103, pl. 189) which can probably be attributed to
Fig. 8 (opp.). Staircases.
a. (40) No. 35 Bootham, late 17th-century.
b. (249) St. Olave's House, No. 48 Marygate, late 17th-century.
c. (41) No. 39 Bootham, 1748.
d. (39) No. 33 Bootham, 1754.
e. (38) No. 25 Bootham, 1766.
f. (128) No. 28 Gillygate, 1769.
g. (127) Nos. 16–20 Gillygate, early 19th-century.
h. (280) No. 42 Monkgate, early 19th-century.
Fig. 9. Timber Mouldings, 18th-century.
a. (39) No. 33 Bootham, door architrave, 1754.
b. (128) Nos. 26, 28 Gillygate, door architrave and door, 1769.
c. (241) No. 29 Marygate, door architraves and door, c. 1780.
d. (117) Nos. 3, 5 Gillygate, door architraves and doors, 1797.
Fig. 10 (opp.). Timber Mouldings, early 19th-century.
a. (40) No. 35 Bootham, window architrave.
b. (263) No. 49 Monkgate, door architrave.
c. (263) No. 49 Monkgate, door.
d. and e. (109) Fulford Grange, door and window architraves.
f. (258) No. 15 Monkgate, door architrave and door.
g. (254) Almery Garth, Marygate Lane, door architrave.
h. (258) No. 15 Monkgate, door architrave and door.
i. (263) No. 49 Monkgate, fireplace surround.
j. (280) No. 42 Monkgate, door architrave and door.
House design of the later 18th century owes much to the influence of John Carr and his partner Peter
Atkinson. Among the builders of the time whose work is represented in this area, Robert Clough stands
out. His houses in Gillygate (Nos. 26 and 28, monument (128)) are rich in plasterwork, which was presumably executed by his son Robert who was a plasterer. Only one house in this area shows the use of
decorative plasterwork around the staircase window; this is at No. 33 Bootham (39) also built by Robert
Clough, but the plasterwork shows none of the profusion of decorative detail seen in the best houses in
Micklegate described in York III. None of the Bootham houses have the richness of interior appointments
found in some Micklegate houses; the most important features are generally the staircases which follow the
same development discussed in York III, lxxxvii–xcii.
In 19th-century exteriors moulded architraves to windows make an occasional appearance (Nos. 51
Bootham (44) c. 1804 and 56 Bootham (57) c. 1840 and No. 44 Heworth Green (167)) but plain brickwork
without dressings is more usual. The early years of the century produced little new building, but in the
second quarter of the century there was extensive development of new streets of terrace houses, and
the same period also saw the erection of a number of villa residences for the successful tradesmen and the
professional class. The sale of the de Grey estate in Clifton in 1836 provided land for some of the larger
residences but the biggest house to be erected at this time was Fishergate House (105), on the southern side
of the City, built for a Mr. Laycock about whom no information has come to light apart from the bare
record of his death. Fishergate House, designed by Messrs. J. B. & W. Atkinson, the grandsons of John Carr's
partner Peter Atkinson, is a severe building of grey gault brick with brick pilasters at the angles. It is one
of a number akin to the rather earlier grey gault brick houses of Cambridge, which have been noted for
their originality, uncompromising severity, and bold articulation (RCHM, City of Cambridge, I, xcv).
The pilastered treatment is also to be seen at No. 54 Bootham (56), No. 37 Monkgate (261) and Heworth
Croft (164), and is repeated at Bootham Grange (80) where a certain grossness of scale makes it less acceptable. Internally Fishergate House owes much to the influence of Sir John Soane: the plan appears to derive
from Tyringham and the elaborate three-dimensional design of the central arcaded light-well, with its
interplay of arches without imposts, leaves little doubt as to the Atkinsons' source of inspiration. The
arrangement of the staircase at Fishergate House is echoed on a smaller scale at No. 54 Bootham (56)
where there is a similar lobby leading off the half landing to give access to a closet.
These severe houses carried out in gault brick show no detail which can be described as Greek, but the
style may be derived from the ideas of simple architectural massing practised by such architects as Soane,
Henry Holland and William Wilkins. Belle Vue House (145) seems to owe its gothic decoration to the
trade of its owner as sculptor and monumental mason rather than to any general trend in architectural
fashion. The only romantic house of any size, Glen Heworth (149), has been pulled down. Smaller buildings
designed to be picturesque are illustrated in Plate 101.
In their interior fittings these 19th-century villas display an imaginative use of rather coarse modelling
in ceiling cornices (Plate 122), while a number of doorcases and fireplaces are decorated with modelling
from the moulds of Thomas Wolstenholme. Included in Wolstenholme's repertoire were a number of
rectangular panels of mythological figure subjects and other decorative features which appear repeated in
different houses (Plates 110–15). Throughout all the early 19th-century houses the most common form of
architrave moulding is reeding butted against rectangular blocks at the angles, a motif used by Soane as
early as 1790 (Stroud, 19) and incorporated into many of Wolstenholme's designs. Thomas Wolstenholme
had achieved sufficient success by 1790 to purchase property at the junction of Gillygate and Bootham, on
which he built houses. He died in 1812 and the business was carried on by his brother Francis who died in
1833 and his nephew John who died in 1865. They continued to use Thomas's moulds, with the same
figure panels and the same idiosyncratic use of segmental shapes, after Thomas's death.
A striking feature of the larger 19th-century interiors is the number of staircases with decorative cast
iron balustrades. Those at No. 37 Monkgate (261) were certainly supplied by the firm of John Walker of
Walmgate (Design Bk. 1, YCM 365/41) and those at No. 61 Bootham (48) and Bootham Grange (80) are
so close to one of Walker's designs as to leave little doubt that they too came from the same works. The
firm specialised in railings, many of which are still to be seen in York, and their work went to many
country estates, to Sandringham, Kew Palace and the British Museum, as well as overseas (VCH, York,
273). Cast iron was also used as ceiling decoration for the centrepieces from which gas chandeliers were
suspended; one at Burton Cottage (82) has ventilation ducts behind the foliage (Plate 121).
Much of the 19th-century development comprises terraces of small houses. New Walk Terrace (290)
is of a quality above the average both in the size of the houses and in the standard of finish. At Grove
Terrace (202) the designer has used a central pediment and end pavilions to compose a row of houses into
one architectural unit, now obscured by trees in the front gardens. Elsewhere the terrace houses show
considerable uniformity in design, and the planning of a block of the humbler class of dwelling is shown in
Fig. 71 illustrating Redeness Street and Bilton Street, both now demolished.
The only surviving industrial building in the area erected before 1850 is the former flax mill in Lawrence
Street (209). Advertised as of fireproof construction, it appears to have vaulted brick floors similar to those
in Bootham Park Hospital (21). For the early history of fireproof construction see H. J. Johnson and S. W.
Skempton, 'William Strutt's Cotton Mills 1793–1812' in Transactions of the Newcomen Society, xxx, for
Architects, Builders and Craftsmen mentioned in the Inventory.
John Carr, architect, born 1723, son of a mason and quarry owner, practised in York from 1754, served as
Lord Mayor in 1770 and 1785, and died in retirement at Askham Richard, near York, in 1807 (Colvin,
Peter Atkinson, senior, born 1735, trained as a carpenter, became assistant to John Carr and carried on the
latter's practice after his retirement. Died 1805. (Colvin, 45.)
Peter Atkinson, junior, born c. 1776, son and pupil of the above, became his father's partner in 1801. Died
1842. (Colvin, 45.)
John Bownas Atkinson (1797–1875) and William Atkinson (1811–86) succeeded their father Peter in the
architectural practice founded by John Carr. This practice is now carried on in York by Messrs. Brierley,
Leckenby and Keighley.
Thomas Atkinson (c. 1729–98), architect, of York, was not connected with the above family (Colvin, 46).
John Harper, architect (1809–42), was born in Lancashire, became a pupil of Benjamin and Philip Wyatt,
and practised in York (Colvin, 266).
Robert Clough, master builder, 1708–91, was the son of Robert Clough, bricklayer, who died in 1712.
He owned the houses he built in Bootham and Gillygate (monuments 39, 128), as well as other properties.
At the time of his death he was living in Low Petergate.
Robert Clough, plasterer, 1736–1800, son of the above, free of York 1758.
William Abbey Plows, sculptor and stonemason, 1789–1865, was the son of Benjamin Plows of Acaster
Malbis (Gunnis, 308), who set up his own business in 1811 after 27 years as a journeyman (YC, 25/3/1811).
William carried on his father's business at Foss Bridge after the latter's death in 1824, offering monuments, chimney-pieces and side tables in stone, marble, alabaster, Roman cement, etc., as well as copings,
ridges, troughs, flaggings, etc. (YG, 1/5/1824). Designs for funeral monuments are preserved in YCL
(Y718 Plows). He lived at Belle Vue House (145), decorated with gothic detail presumably from his own
workshop, from c. 1834 till 1852. (See also York III, lvii, lviii.)
John Walker, ironfounder, apprenticed to the firm of Gibson of Walmgate 1815, became partner 1829 and
sole proprietor 1838. Succeeded c. 1847 by his son William Thomlinson-Walker, who later owned
Clifton Grove (monument 84).
Thomas Wolstenholme, joiner carver and maker of composition ornaments, born c. 1759, acquired
property at the corner of Bootham and Gillygate 1790, died 1812 leaving his 'business in Composition
ornaments ... with all the stock in hand, moulds ...' etc. to his brother Francis. Francis was succeeded
in 1833 by his son John (1794–1865) who worked as a carver in the Minster. His signature appears on some
of the bosses in the nave.
Fig. 11. (11) The King's Manor.
Carving from 18th-century staircase.
Map 2. Monuments in the Clifton area.
Map 3. Monuments in the Bootham area.
Map 4. Monuments in the Gillygate area.
Map 5. Monuments in the Monkgate area.