Parish Church of St. Mary
(11) Parish Church of St. Mary (Plates 14, 15;
Figs. 24, 25) stands in a churchyard on the N.E. side of
Castlegate. It consists of a Chancel with North and South
Chapels, Nave with North and South Aisles and West
Tower. The walls are of magnesian limestone, with a
little gritstone, and the roofs are covered with slate and
The church is mentioned in Domesday Book, when
it was held by William de Percy, and evidence of a pre-Conquest church is provided by several Saxon stones,
including a mutilated dedication stone discovered in
1870 in a buttress on the E. wall. The date on the stone
is missing but the inscription records that a church was
built by (Ef)rard, Grim and Aese, and is generally
attributed to the 10th or 11th century (see Pre-Conquest
Stones (6) below). Surviving remains of this church
consist of masonry to each side of the chancel arch,
and also in the E. respond of the N. arcade and
above the E. arch of the S. arcade of the nave, indicating
an aisleless nave about 21 ft. wide and with walls at least
24 ft. high. Foundations of N. and S. walls of an unaisled
chancel, probably of the 12th century, were discovered
in 1975; the W. respond of the N. arcade of the chancel
is of the 12th century, probably for an opening into a
N. chapel, and there is 12th-century masonry in the S.
wall of the chancel. In the later 12th century a N. aisle
was built to the nave, of which the E. respond and two
piers of the arcade survive; the masonry has fine
diagonal tooling comparable with that of Archbishop
Roger's work in York Minster (1154–81). In the early
13th century a S. aisle, probably of four bays, was
added; the two eastern bays of the arcade survive. The
masonry has claw tooling, and the aisle retains the
original width; the S. wall was largely rebuilt later but
one small lancet window remains to the W. of the S.
In the early 14th century, alterations were made to
the N. chapel, possibly connected with the Northfolk
chantry, licensed in 1319, and from this period an arched
tomb recess and a square-headed window with Decorated tracery survive, reset in the 15th-century N. wall.
The nave N. aisle was widened to the present extent in
the 14th century but only the lower part of the N. wall
of this date now exists, including three arched tomb
recesses and a restored door; the arches of the arcade
were also rebuilt. The S. chapel, housing the Graa
chantry, was built in the late 14th century, with an
arched opening into the chancel. A tomb-chest against
the S. wall until the alterations of 1975 was probably
that which Drake mentions as 'a very fair tomb.....
still standing in the south choir of the church' with a
brass of a man and his wife which Dodsworth had
earlier recorded as that of William Graa, mayor in
1367, and to whom a licence for a chantry in the chapel
of St. John the Baptist was granted in 1377. In his will
of 1405 Thomas Graa asks to be buried before the altar
of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist 'in
the south part of the church'. The arch of the middle
bay on the N. side of the chancel was made about the
same time. The exact extent of the chancel at that period
The church was greatly altered in the 15th century.
The chancel was virtually rebuilt, though the 14th-century openings on each side remain, and the N. chapel
was probably widened and extended to the E. The N.
aisle wall of the nave was refaced externally lower down,
with a new plinth, and the whole of the upper part,
including the windows, rebuilt. A new arch was built
across the aisle at the junction with the N. chapel,
springing on its S. side from the earlier masonry adjoining the chancel arch, but carried out in a curious manner
which left the E. respond of the nave N. arcade isolated;
it would appear that there was an intention to rebuild
the arcade further S. On the S. side, the wall of the aisle
and the S. chapel was reconstructed in similar fashion
to the N. wall, with a new exterior facing in the lower
part and complete rebuilding at window level and above.
E. of the S. chapel was a low vestry. The plinth on the
S. wall of the chancel is stopped 8 ft. W. of the S.E.
angle buttress, but the S. wall of the vestry extends to the
full length of the chancel, indicating a modification
In a later 15th-century phase of building, the W.
tower and the W. bays of the aisles were added; this
new work brought the end of the church so close to
the street that the addition to the S. aisle had to be
limited to a half-bay only. The nave arcades were altered
to make a single wide bay next to the tower, where
there had previously been two smaller bays. In 1421 a
chapel 'at the west end of the church' was mentioned;
this must have occupied a position to the W. of the N.
aisle, where a low building, now demolished, abutted
the church and had a doorway and window into it.
The reference is earlier than the apparent date of the
existing W. bays; the chapel may have been rebuilt at
the same time as the tower but, if so, it was probably
still on older foundations as the slight remains clearly
indicate a different alignment from the main body of
In 1867–70 there was an extensive restoration by
William Butterfield; much stonework, especially in the
windows, was renewed and there were also new roofs,
seating and other fittings. The church became redundant in the 1960s and was converted to an exhibition
centre in 1974–5.
St. Mary's is a church of great historical interest. The
early dedication stone is especially remarkable.
Architectural Description. The Chancel is of three bays. The
E. wall was mostly rebuilt in 1870 and the three-light window
with Perpendicular tracery is not an accurate copy of that
existing previously (sketch of 1825, YCL, Evelyn Coll., 868);
the gable with battlemented parapet was also added at that
time. In the N. arcade the E. bay has a 15th-century arch of two
chamfered orders on semi-octagonal responds with moulded
capitals and bases. The middle bay is much narrower and has a
moulded arch of the late 14th century, without capitals, under
a moulded label with carved stops and foliage-finial at the
apex. The W. bay has an opening with early 12th-century
square responds with simple moulded capitals, and immediately
above these are 15th-century moulded capitals and a pointed
arch of two chamfered orders. On the S. side the wall of the
E. bay was also much rebuilt in 1870. A blocked door to the
destroyed vestry has a two-centred arch with segmental rear-arch, now external; above it is one jamb and part of the arch
of a blocked window, apparently of the 12th century. The
middle bay has a narrow late 14th-century arch, elaborately
moulded, without capitals and with an ogee-shaped label rising
to a foliage-finial. The 15th-century W. arch, of two chamfered orders, has semi-octagonal responds with moulded capitals
and bases. The chancel arch is of two chamfered orders with
capitals to the inner order only; in the wall over it is the indication of a former low-pitched roof. Beneath the E. end of the
chancel is a charnel vault with a barrel-vault of stone rubble,
probably a later insertion and now inaccessible.
The North Chapel has a restored window in the E. wall, with
three cinque-foiled lights, embattled transoms and vertical
tracery. The N. wall, of three bays marked by buttresses with
three weathered offsets, has a double-chamfered plinth,
moulded string just below window level, and plain parapet;
the buttresses rise up to gabled pinnacles. In the E. bay is a
doorway of 1870, made for the use of a new vestry at this end,
and this bay and the next one have square-headed windows of a
type occurring frequently in the church, the main lights having
cinque-foiled slightly ogee-shaped arches and, above an embattled transom, tracery of trefoil-headed lights. In the W.
bay is a reset early 14th-century window with curvilinear
tracery (Plate 25).
Fig. 24. (11) Church of St. Mary, Castlegate, plan before 1974.
The South Chapel corresponds to the two western bays of
the chancel. The E. wall has a three-light window with arched
head and simple vertical tracery; the lower part was converted
in 1975 to form a wide doorway. Below it is a doorway with
a flat arch of large voussoirs, probably of the 17th or 18th century, which must have been approached by steps down from the
original floor level; previously blocked, it was reopened in 1975.
The S. wall has a double-chamfered plinth, moulded strings
below and above the windows and an embattled parapet; the
deep buttresses each have four weathered offsets and a carved
gargoyle, and rise to gabled pinnacles. The square-headed
windows are similar to those in the N. chapel, but have labels
with restored head-stops. The W. wall has an opening to the
nave S. aisle with arch and responds of two chamfered orders
and simple moulded capitals; beside the N. jamb of the arch,
large blocks of gritstone represent the S.E. quoin of the
The Nave is of three irregular bays. In the E. wall, fabric of
the original aisleless nave, incorporating very large gritstone
blocks, can be seen to each side of the chancel arch. The 12th-century E. respond of the N. arcade is semicircular, with
moulded base and scalloped capital, and is built against a short
length of 11th-century wall which has been detached from the
neighbouring E. wall by 15th-century alterations. The two
piers of the N. arcade are circular, with moulded bases, but
the capitals, though contemporary, have been altered, each
consisting of two different halves; all have square abaci, with
quirked chamfers on the E. respond and first pier. The tall
pointed arches, of two plain-chamfered orders, are probably
of the 14th century, but the W. arch, which was altered when
the tower was built, is wider and of irregular shape; over the
arches are moulded labels with carved head-stops.
The piers of the S. arcade do not align exactly with those
of the N. The half-round E. respond has a moulded base
similar to those of the N. arcade, but claw-tooled masonry
indicates a 13th-century date. The first pier is octagonal and
has a roll-and-chamfered base with a round sub-base on a
square plinth; both this pier and the E. respond have moulded
octagonal capitals of the 14th century. The second pier is
round and has a base with double roll on a square plinth and a
round moulded capital with nail-head ornament. Both piers
and the respond have several courses of brown sandstone
which may indicate a later heightening. The pointed arches
are of two chamfered orders, with moulded labels with head-stops. Above the E. arch is 11th-century masonry. The altered
W. arch is of irregular shape but incorporates the springing of
the earlier one. The low clerestorey has, in each wall, a single-light window near the E. end and, above the second pier, one
of three cinque-foiled lights. The alterations of 1975 involved
the lowering of the floor, thus exposing parts of the foundations.
The North Aisle has a N. wall which retains some 14th-century masonry below the windows but is otherwise of the
15th century, with a double-chamfered plinth and moulded
string below the window-sills, stepping down at intervals
towards the E. The four-stage buttresses rise to gabled pinnacles above a plain parapet. In the second bay from the W.
is a restored 14th-century doorway with two-centred moulded
arch and chamfered segmental pointed rear-arch; about 5 ft.
to the W. of it a buttress was removed in 1870 and the scar
faced with new stone. Except in the W. bay, the windows are
square-headed, with embattled transoms and vertical tracery
similar to the windows of the N. chapel, but of only two
lights. In the W. bay, the later 15th-century window has
generally similar tracery but under a pointed arch.
The W. wall formerly had a low chapel built against it,
now demolished, though stubs of walling show that it was
on a different alignment from the church generally. It was
entered from the N. aisle through a doorway with four-centred moulded arch, wholly restored and the opening blocked
with brick and stone; immediately adjoining, in the W. wall
of the aisle, is a long window, also restored, with five trefoiled
lights, the two at the N. end grouped together under a round
arch. The window above has three trefoiled lights, without
transoms, and vertical tracery with an encircled quatrefoil
at the top, all under a moulded pointed arch.
The South Aisle preserves the 13th-century width, and the
S. wall has, except at the W. end, masonry of that date below
the windows, but this was refaced externally and the upper
part rebuilt in the 15th century; the appearance is uniform with
the S. chapel, though on a slightly different alignment, and
there are similar buttresses, plinth, windows (Plate 24) and
embattled parapet. The doorway in the second bay from the
W. is 13th-century in style but wholly of 1870 and it is not
known whether it reproduces an original one. The wider W.
bay has some 13th-century masonry with a narrow and unrestored pointed lancet window, set low down in the wall;
otherwise it is of the later 15th-century phase of building, and
has a plain parapet and pointed arched window with tracery
like the corresponding window in the N. aisle. In the W. wall
is a three-light arched window uniform with that in the W.
wall of the N. aisle.
The Tower has a squat lower stage above which is an octagonal stage, and a spire which rises to a height of 154 ft. above
the ground. On the E. it stands on large octagonal piers with
chamfered bases and square plinths, the opening to the nave
being spanned by a pointed arch of two hollow-chamfered
orders. The opening to the N. aisle has a similar but lower
arch, springing on the W. from a semi-octagonal respond.
On the S. side is a narrower arch to the half-bay of the S.
aisle, and a three-light window. In the W. wall a five-light
arched window has vertical tracery with two embattled
transoms. In the N.W. corner is a stone newel stair. The tower
has a double-chamfered plinth continuous with that of the S.
aisle, and thin buttresses on the W. face only. To each side of
the W. window is a carved corbel, above each of which is a
three-sided canopy with trefoiled ogee arches rising to crockets,
the underside carved with miniature ribbed vaulting. Centrally
over the window is a framed niche with ribbed vault, trefoiled
arch and steep crocketed canopy, housing an original but now
headless statue of the Virgin Mary. The lower stage of the
tower finishes with an embattled parapet with wall-walk
The second stage, set back a little, is of square plan at the
bottom but is immediately changed to an octagon by broaches
out of which rise thin buttresses which extend upwards to
crocketed pinnacles. On the cardinal faces are tall three-light
windows, each with a band of vertical tracery at mid-level,
masking the bell-chamber floor, and further vertical tracery
in the arched head, except for intersecting tracery in the E.
window. This stage finishes with a low, plain parapet behind
which is a narrow wall-walk. The stone spire is octagonal,
with roll mouldings on the angles; on the E. face is a door to
the wall-walk and a slit-opening much higher up.
Fig. 25. (II) Church of St. Mary, Castlegate. Stone Mouldings.
a. Chancel. N. arcade. Late 14th-century.
b. S. chapel. Piscina. Late 14th-century.
c. Chancel. S. arcade. Late 14th-century.
d. N. chapel. Recess. Early 14th-century.
e. Nave. N. aisle, door in W. wall. 15th-century.
f. Chancel. N. arcade, capital. 12th-century.
g. Chancel. N. arcade, capital. 15th-century.
h. Chancel. N. arcade, capital and base. 15th-century.
i. Nave. N. arcade, base. 12th-century.
j. Nave. S. arcade, base. 13th-century.
k. Nave. S. arcade, base. 13th-century.
Pre-Conquest Stones, mostly found during the restoration of
1870 and in excavations in 1975. The stones form two distinct
groups. The first group consists of reused Roman material;
none bears any carving which could give a clear indication of
the date of re-use. The second group, mainly of coarse sand-stone or gritstone but including some limestone, consists of
carvings of the 10th or 11th century, possibly re-using available
Roman masonry. On the evidence of the surviving carvings a
10th to 11th-century date would seem indicated for the original church, but other finds (see Miscellanea), which could be
connected with burials, are all earlier.
In Yorkshire Museum, (1) fragment of arched lintel or
window head, of radius c. 18 in., cut from a Roman commemoration tablet, found in Clifford Street but probably
from this church; probably pre-Conquest.
In undercroft, (2–5) Roman stones from columns, probably
reused in early Saxon period, and found in late Saxon foundations under the chancel arch. (2–4) are roughly moulded as
bases or capitals. (2) 125/8 in. high, 40½ in. diam. tapering to
33½ in. at the top with circular central depression 15¼ in. diam.
by 6 in. deep; (3) 16 in. high, divided into four distinct bands,
33 in. diam. at base wherein are four lewis holes for lifting
tackle, 30½ in. at top wherein is an almost square central
depression 17½ in. by 17¼ in. by 6¾ in. deep; (4) 20 in. high,
divided into four bands, 16 in. diam. at base with depression
5½ in. square reducing to 3 in. square in 4 in. depth, and 28¾ in.
diam. at top with depression 6 in. square reducing to 3 in.
square in 4½ in. depth; (5) 17½ in. high, approx. 25¾ in. diam.
at base tapering to 23½ in. at top with circular depression
14¾ in. diam. by 7½ in. deep.
In N. chancel aisle, (6) dedication stone (Plate 21), incomplete sandstone slab 20½ in. by 15½ in. by 6 in. thick, with part
of plain raised frame forming top and dexter margin and
traces of similar margin at base; inscribed (fn. 1)
SECRATAESTAN[ . . . . .
.]VISINVITAET[ . . . . .
.]OAERIOPEM7[ . . . . . .
. . . ]AERAETSIN[ . . . . . . .
The letters are Roman capitals with AE ligatured shown by AE,
abbreviations indicated by a superscript dash, Thorn shown by
P and Et by a reversed L represented above by 7. The letters
underlined are uncertain. 10th or 11th-century.
Minster need mean no more than church. The name Efrard
is recorded rarely as that of Anglo-Saxon moneyers, but none
can be connected with York. Grim was a common name.
Aese is probably an abbreviation possibly for Aeseman or
Aescalf, both mid 10th-century moneyers. For a comparable
mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Latin see the 11th-century
inscription from St. Mary le Wigford, Lincoln (G. Baldwin
Browne, The Arts in Early England, Anglo-Saxon Architecture
(1925), 466–8). See also E. Okasha, Hand List of Anglo-Saxon
Non-Runic Inscriptions (1971), 131.
(7) Cross-head fragment, of light-coloured gritstone, 11½ in.
by 7 in. by 4in., part of wheel-head cross with wheel radius
6 in.; wheel plain and no waist to the cross-arms; panels on
both sides and the end of the cross-arm contain angular
interlaced knots, of single strands on the end panel, double
strand on one side panel and with bifurcating knots on the
other, probably 10th-century (YAJ, xx Part 78 (1908), 203,
In Yorkshire Museum, (8) four fragments, parts of one
wheel-head cross (Plate 22). (a), discovered in 1870, comprises
most of the central boss and a side arm, 16 in. high with wheel
radius 12 in.; (b), (c) and (d), all with traces of paint, are major
portions of two further arms and an unidentified fragment.
At the centre of the cross there is a boss on each side carved
with interlace. The arms of the cross each have on one side a
boss within a square panel bordered with pellet and cable
ornament and on the other side a beast within a continuous
border with pellet and cable ornament. The sides of the arms
are plain but on the ends are further carved bosses. (See
Collingwood, Northumbrian Crosses (1927), 132, Fig. 148;
it now appears that the cross is nearer to that from North
Frodingham (op. cit., Fig. 151) than to Collingwood's suggested reconstruction. YAJ, xx Part 78 (1908), 177; YMH
(1891), 76, No. 10; Interim, III, No. 1 (1975), 21–3; YPSR
for 1975, 34, 36.)
(9) Grave-slab, see York IV, xliv (iv), Plate 25e, and Arch.,
CIV (1973), 209–34; late 10th or 11th-century. (10) Crossfragment of red sandstone, probably a lateral arm with worn
interlaced knots on main face, probably of similar type to (8),
probably 10th-century (York IV, xliv (iii)). (11) Cross-fragment
(Plate 23) of gritstone with double borders and a cable moulding on the arrises, the most complete wide face carved with
an S-shaped bird or winged beast crossed by two double-strand ribbons, the opposite face, less distinct, with perhaps a
large disc and a barbed leaf, possibly either a debased vine
scroll or a spear and shield, the narrower side faces with
figure-of-eight knots (Interim, III, No. 1 (1975), 26–7; YPSR
for 1975, 36), 10th or 11th-century.
(12) Crucifix fragments, two, of sandstone, constituting the
centre and one lateral arm of a free-standing rood with carving
on the two main faces (Plate 22). Found below the Roman
stones (2–5). The cross is curved in at the junctions of the arms
and has a plain border on each side. On one side the mutilated
remains of the crucified Christ, with the head of a beast, an
entwined serpent and three discs filling the vacant spaces.
On the back a damaged carving, possibly Christ in Majesty,
with two-strand interlace on the surviving cross-arm. (Interim,
III, No. 1 (1975), 22, 24, 26; YPSR for 1975, 34, 36.) The
cross is of a late type, 10th or 11th-century.
(13) Grave-slab fragment, 25¼ in. high by 27¾ in. wide,
thickness 9½ in. at centre, 4¾ in. at edge, top right-hand corner
missing. Upper half of coped cross-slab with double-cable
border; the cross, with single-strand outline and semicircular
indentations at junctions of arms, decorated with double-strand chain pattern encircling small central boss; surviving
panels with symmetrical pattern of two rings entwined with
double-strand interlace (Interim, III, No. 1 (1975), 27; YPSR
for 1975, 34, 36), 10th or 11th-century. (14) Grave-slab coped
corner fragment, 7½ in. by 5 in. by 4¾ in., cable-mould on two
arrises, and fragmentary interlace. (15) Grave-slab corner
fragment, 5½ in. by 5¼ in. by 5½ in., of gritstone, with plait
decoration. (16) Hog-back fragment (?), 10¼ in. by 8¼ in.
by 8¼ in., with plait decoration. (17) Hog-back fragment (?),
9¼ in. by 6½ in. by 5¾ in.
Fittings—Aumbries: in S. chapel, in S. wall, (1) with rebate
for door and small chamfer. In S. aisle, in S. wall, (2) with
rebate for door. Bells: (1) 'Gloria in altissimis Deo 1682', by
Samuel Smith; (2) 'Johannes Burne Rector, Jacques Priestley,
Ricardus Corney, Guardians 1730'; (3) 'Olim Campana
Beatae Mariae Virginis Refusa, AD 1718', by E. Seller senior
(AASRP, xxvii Pt. 2 (1904), 638); (4) small plain bell.
Bell-frame: three pits, with posts with enlarged heads and
crossed-braces and supported on tall sub-frame, of four
corner-posts, curved braces and crossed-braces (Fig. 1a),
15th-century with later additional bracing. Brackets: in S.
chapel, on E. wall, two, semi-octagonal, of stone, each with
carving of angel bearing shield-of-arms of Graa (Plate 29),
late 14th-century. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: all now exhibited
on new wall in lower exhibition area on site of chancel, (1)
the Rev. Isaac Grayson, headmaster of the Free Grammar
School, rector of the church and vicar of Warthill, 1831, his
wife Mary, 1831, inscription plate; (2) Ann Curtoys, 1805,
inscription plate, formerly in N. chapel; (3) Sarah, wife of Tim
Wilkinson, 1724, their daughter Margaret, wife of George
Blanshard, 1731, George, son of George and Margaret
Blanshard, 1709, inscription plate in Latin; (4) John Tweedy,
1842, shield, also commemorated on Monument (11) and
Floor-slab (13). Indents: in nave, (1) in black marble slab, for
rectangular plate and two shields, see Floor-slab (3); (2) in black
marble slab, for rectangular plate, three figures and two
shields, see Floor-slab (9).
Coffin Lids: externally, in N. chapel, in E. wall, (1) small
fragment with simple foliated cross, 13th-century; in W.
face of second buttress to N., (2) small fragment with incised
stepped base, possibly part of same slab as (1). Internally, in
S. chapel, in E. wall, (3) small but elaborate lid with foliated
cross and stepped base in high relief, 13th-century. Font:
octagonal, cup-shaped, with locking staples, 17th-century,
with cover of 1870. Glass: in S. chapel, in E. window, sIII,
but temporarily removed (1974). In tracery, mostly fragments
including in (1A) and (1D) some fleurs-de-lys and leopards,
(1B) shield with merchant's mark, (1C) arms of Percy; in
heads of main lights, fragments around heads of (4a) the Virgin
Mary, (4b) Christ, (4c) a king; in upper row, three roundels
containing in (3a) and (3c) a cross, (3b) a lozenge with IHS;
in middle row, figures under arched canopies, (2a) St. John
the Baptist with camel skin and Agnus Dei, head missing,
(2b) figure with hand raised in blessing, head missing, (2c)
St. James holding staff and wearing hat with scallop shell; in
bottom row, three roundels containing in (1a) MR crowned,
(1b) IHS crowned, (1c) a sun; more fragments in borders;
mostly 14th-century but some 15th-century. Image: externally,
on tower, on W. wall above window, within niche, seated
figure of Virgin Mary, now headless, 15th-century.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: in N. chapel, on E.
wall, (1) the Rev. Richard Coulton, 1713, sometime rector
of the church, Elizabeth his wife, 1731, white marble tablet
with recessed side panels and shaped apron recording that it
was made by John Coulton their grandson in 1732; (2)
eight children and one grandchild of Thomas and Frances
Barker, white marble tablet, erected 1725; (3) Richard Sowray,
Bachelor in Physick, 1708, cartouche with drapery, cherubs'
heads, surmounted by urn; on N. wall, (4) Thomas Beckwith,
(date illegible), Frances his wife, Catherine their daughter, both
1773, tall tablet with Gothic-style framing of trefoiled shafts
to each side and pointed arch above; (5) Ray Beckwith, M.D.,
1799, white marble oval tablet; (6) Benjamin Fletcher, 1834,
Mary his wife, 1829, Ann their daughter, 1829, white tablet
on black backing, signed Walsh and Dunbar, Leeds; (7) Lewis
West, 1718, Dorcas his wife, 1732, white marble tablet with
segmental head. In S. chapel, in S.E. corner, (8) tomb-chest
of limestone, not in original position and possibly reassembled
incorrectly, four quatrefoils within squares on N. face, one on
W. face, 14th-century, probably of William and Joan Graa;
on S. wall, since removed to lower exhibition area on site of
chancel, (9) Amos Green, 1807, slate tablet; on W. wall, (10)
Anne Lloyd, 1830, white marble tablet surmounted by urn,
lozenge-of-arms of Lloyd below, on shaped slate backing,
signed Fisher, Sculpt., York; (11) John Tweedy, 1842, Elizabeth
his wife, 1811, parchment scroll in white marble with Latin
inscription, surmounted by urn, shield-of-arms of Tweedy
impaling or a fesse between three griffins' heads gules below, on
black marble backing. In N. aisle, on N. wall, (12) William
Mushet, M.D., 1792, white marble tablet in frame with scrolls
to each side, enriched frieze and base, and surmounted by
shaped chest with serpent entwining pole on front, obelisk-shaped slate backing, signed Fisher, Sculpt., York. In S. aisle,
on S. wall, (13) William Mason, 1708, Jane his wife, stone
tablet with flanking pilasters and curved pediment surmounted
by urn; on W. wall, (14) William Scott, solicitor, 1840, Jane
his wife, 1844, white marble tablet on slate backing, signed
Walsh and Dunbar, Leeds. In churchyard, against N. and S.
boundary walls, about twenty headstones, mostly 19th-century but including, (15) Martha Smith, 1787; (16) William
Haden, 1788, Thomas Haden, 1792, William Haden, 1800.
Floor-slabs: the majority have been moved in the course of
the church's adaptation, and their original locations are
uncertain. Only (19) was visible prior to alterations. In chancel,
(1) Thomas Smith, 1830, . . . . his wife, 1787. In nave, arranged
in three rows running E. to W.: in N. row, (2) Martha, wife
of William Staveley, 1804; (3) the Rev. John Bourn, rector
of the church, 1741, reused mediaeval black marble slab with
indents; (4) Richard Oglesby, . . . ., Margret his wife, 17 . .;
(5) William Wrightman, Sheriff of York, 1724; (6) William
(no surname given), limestone slab with Lombardic inscription
'+ WILLIAMVS GIST ICY DEV DE SA ALME EIY
MERCY AMEN +', 14th-century; in central row, (7) Wilkinson Blanshard, 1743, Elizabeth his wife, 1789, George his
youngest son, 1741, inscription partly in Latin; (8) Elizabeth,
wife of George Brown, 1832, Ann Wray her mother, 1805,
her four children, William, 1796, Elizabeth, 1796, Marianne,
1806, Elizabeth, 1835; (9) probably John Blakburn, 1426–7,
Katherine his first wife, black marble slab with incised corner
quatrefoils and marginal inscription framing indents, identifiable from description given by Johnston (Bodleian, MS. Top.
Yorks. C14, f. 104); (10) Thomas Barker, 1724, commissioned
by relative Edmund Laycon, lengthy inscription in Latin;
(11) John Richardson, 1786, his wives Mar . ., Jane and Elleanor,
Thomas and John his sons, his grandsons Thomas, 1787, and
John, William Richardson his brother, 1817; in S. row, (12)
James Simpson, Hannah his wife, two of their sons and six
daughters, Joseph Simpson another son, 1724, Joseph Simpson,
1769; (13) John Tweedy, 1842, E. T. (his wife Elizabeth), 1811,
see also Brass (4) and Monument (11); (14) Elizabeth Bulmer,
1745, Thomas Dalton, 1806, Phebe his wife, Cordelia Bulmer
Dalton, 1828; (15) William Cartwright, 1833, Mary his wife,
1820; (16) Francis Richardson, 1828, Phebe his wife, 1802,
their children and grandchildren. In N. aisle, (17) Thomas
Norfolk, 1778, Elizabeth his wife, 1772; (18) Aldcroft Waller,
1808. Under W. tower, (19) Sir Henry Thompson, once
Lord Mayor of the city, 1692, Ann his wife, 1696, their sons
Will, 1665, and John, 1690, stone slab with arms of Thompson
impaling Dobson, formerly in S. chapel.
Piscinae: in chancel, in S. wall, (1) almost entirely of 1870.
In N. chapel, in E. wall, (2) with two-centred arch, cusping
broken off, 15th-century. In S. chapel, in S. wall, (3) with
moulded and trefoiled ogee arch, late 14th-century. In S.
aisle, in S. wall, (4) with simple two-centred hollow-chamfered
arch, 13th-century. Plate: now at St. Michael, Spurriergate,
includes two flagons of 1724, altered to look like mediaeval
flagons, inscribed (1) 'The Gift of John Hutton Esq. to ye
Church of St. Maryes Castlegate York, in memory of Barbara
his wife daughter to Thomas Barker Esq. objit December ye
14th 1723', and (2) 'Given to ye church of St. Maries Castlegate York in memory of Eliz. Daughter of Thomas Barker
Esq. objit February ye 4th 1717' (Fallow and McCall, 1, 19–20).
Pulpit: existing pulpit of 1870; previous pulpit, from which
John Wesley preached in 1768, removed to New Connexion
Chapel, Peckitt Street, York, thence to Lidgett Grove Chapel,
Acomb, and now at Ebenezer Methodist Church, Bailiffe
Bridge, Brighouse; hexagonal, with single fielded panel on
each face and pedimented sounding-board, early 18th-century.
Recesses: in N. chapel, below window of third bay,
(1) arched tomb recess with filleted roll moulding, early
14th-century, reset. In N. aisle, (2–4) three arched tomb
recesses, 14th-century. Scratchings: on N.E. tower pier, IHS
and also 1655; on S.E. pier, 1647. Seating: in chancel, misericordes, two (Plate 39); on N. side, (1) carved with bearded
and hooded man, arms raised, flanked by lion-masks; on S.
side, (2) carved with lion-mask, oak leaves and acorns; both
15th-century, incorporated into stalls of 1870. Sedilia: in chancel, in S. wall, three stalls each with cinque-foiled ogee arch,
15th-century but heavily restored 1870. Stoups: in N. aisle,
(1) plain, round-headed, bowl destroyed. In S. aisle, (2) arched
opening with hollow chamfer, bowl destroyed. Table: not a
communion table, with four fairly slender turned legs, plain
framing, 17th-century. Weather-vane: on spire, date unknown.
Miscellanea: objects found in the neighbourhood of the
church at different times, and now in the Yorkshire Museum,
may come from a burial ground or from the church itself,
although all are earlier than any of the pre-Conquest stones
discussed on pp. 33, 34. From the Quaker Meeting House,
Clifford Street, (1) lead cross impressed with obverse and
reverse of styca of Osberht (847–67) on one face and pierced
for suspension, 2 in. by 1½ in. (Waterman, Arch., xcvii (1959),
77, Fig. 6, 80), late 9th-century; (2) bronze bowl with two
moulded drop handles, foot ring and three small legs, incised
concentric circles on inside of base, 13½ in. diameter, 4½ in.
high (Waterman, Arch., xcvii (1959), 60, Fig. 1; YMH (1891),
218), identical to bowls from a 7th-century grave at Kingston
Down (No. 205) (Antiquity, vi (1932), Fig. 8) and grave 31
at Uncleby (Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, xxiv
(1911–12), 151), 7th-century. From Castle Yard, (3) bronze
hanging bowl, embossed silver point on inside and outside of
base, wide flattened rim, three elongated pear-shaped escutcheons with snout-shaped hooks clasping the rim and holding
a ring (Romilly Allen, Reliquary, 12 (1906), 60; VCH, Yorks.
II, 104; YMH (1891), 214), dated to 6th century (Kendrick,
Antiquity, VI (1932)) but much later date also suggested
(Haseloff, Med. Arch., II (1938), 83), and compared with
7th-8th-century manuscripts (R. Cramp, Anglian and Viking
York, 6), 7th-century.