Chapter House Street-Coppergate
Chapter House Street (Monuments 90–93)
Chapter House Street, running N.E. from the Minster
towards the city wall, represents the via decumana of the
Roman fortress. Until the building of Monk Bar,
c. 1330, the main entry to York from the N.E. was
probably through a gate opposite the end of Groves
Lane and along this street. The name first occurs in
1838 and previously the street was regarded as part of
Ogleforth. The grounds of the Treasurer's House and
Gray's Court (35) occupy its N.W. side.
(90) Houses, Nos. 4, 6, of two storeys with attics,
back onto Gray's Court. Built c. 1820 of whitewashed
brick with pantiled roofs, they butt against a Dutch
gable of No. 8. No. 4 is double-fronted with a central
entrance, and No. 6 is L-shaped, with rooms above the
carriageway to Gray's Court, and a wing at the rear.
The front elevation is dominated by the carriageway
to Gray's Court, which is flanked by two quarter-circle
niches. Both houses have round-arched recessed entrance
doorways with fanlights, and flush-framed sash windows with slightly segmental-arched heads.
Internally, both houses show similar features. The staircases
have open strings, shaped cheek-pieces, square balusters and
turned newels. The main rooms have moulded cornices, sixpanel doors, reeded architraves with square corner blocks, and
fireplaces with cast-iron basket grates.
(91) House, No. 8 (Fig. 68), occupies a secluded
position at the corner of Chapter House Street and
Ogleforth. It is two-storeyed with attics, built of brick,
partly rendered, and has roofs covered with pantiles
and plain tiles. It was originally the parsonage house of
the parish of St. John del Pike, later united with Holy
Trinity, Goodramgate (2), and continued in such use
until sold in 1880. There are slight remains of late
mediaeval timber framing internally, but the main
part was rebuilt before 1736 by the Rev. William
Knight (Drake, 570), rector of Holy Trinity since 1721.
After that time, some of the earlier work clearly survived and a terrier of 1778 (YML, K2 M16) describes the
house as 'brick built except for the kitchen and apartments over which are of wood and plaster'. The kitchen
wing at the N.W. end was rebuilt in the early 19th
century, and at about the same time some alterations
were made to the 18th-century house.
The principal front (Plate 148), facing the garden to the N.E.,
is rendered and lined to simulate ashlar; it has a central canted
bay window probably added in the early 19th century, platbands marking first and attic-floor levels, and parapet finished
with a moulded coping. The roof is covered with plain tiles
and gabled to each end. On the S.W. side is a large round-arched staircase window and on the adjacent return wall
a 19th-century canted oriel window. The early 19th-century
kitchen wing at the N.W. end is of stock brick and has a
Fig. 68. (91) No. 8 Chapter House Street.
The surviving timber framing, in the N.W. part of the
house beside the kitchen and only visible in the ground floor,
consists of two posts, with associated beams and one curved
brace; it indicates a range about 13 ft. wide. The Georgian
house has a large entrance hall with a dining room to N.E.
which was probably the parlour described in 1778 as having
wainscotted walls; it was refitted in the early 19th century.
The smaller room to S.E. has a corner fireplace with panelled
overmantel flanked by fluted pilasters. The principal staircase,
rising around an open well, has three turned balusters to each
step and a ramped handrail. On the first-floor landing are
original panelled doors and a coved ceiling with moulded
cornice. The back staircase is of the early 19th century, with
square balusters. The roof over the 18th-century part of the
house is of modern construction. To S.E. is a mid 18th-century
outbuilding, of one storey and lofts, built of brick with hipped,
tiled roof; it is now a garage but formerly housed 'a back
kitchen, turf chamber, necessary house, etc.' (Terrier of 1778).
(92) House, No. 1, a long narrow mediaeval structure, probably of the 15th century, with stone ground
floor and timber-framed upper floor, now cloaked in
brick, was incorporated into No. 4 Minster Yard (see
Monument (275)) when the latter was built early in the
18th century. This mediaeval range is of two storeys
with attics and together with a part of the three-storey
early 18th-century wing of No. 4 Minster Yard now
forms a separate dwelling. It has been much altered at
various periods and most mediaeval features have been
removed or covered up, but the timber wall-plate
remains visible above the brick of the first floor of the
N.W. elevation, and on the N.E. elevation the early
18th-century wing at the back of No. 4 Minster Yard
is built against and partly over the mediaeval roof, but
it leaves the gable-end exposed. This retains a collar and
curved brace, suggesting that the original truss had a
crown-post with curved braces from tie-beam to
crown-post. Inside, a side-purlin has small wind-braces above and below.
The interior planning of the mediaeval range cannot now
be recovered. One of the first-floor rooms is lined with 17th-century panelling and one has a late 18th-century fireplace. A
large chimney-breast of unknown date has been removed. An
oak staircase in the 18th-century part of the building has a
close string, moulded handrail and heavy turned balusters:
it is contemporary with that in No. 4 Minster Yard and was
probably the servants' staircase.
(93) House, No. 3, is a small two-storey dwelling,
comprising two ranges parallel to each other and to the
street. The front range, to N.W., is of mediaeval origin,
timber-framed but incorporating in the lower storey a
continuation of the stone wall which forms the front
of No. 1. The upper floor was jettied out over the stone
wall, but the jetty has been cut back. The back range
was probably built in the 17th century; its N.E. end is
formed by a wall of 17th-century brickwork which
continues across the end of the front range. The upper
part of the back range was remodelled in the late 18th
In the front range is a boldly cambered tie-beam, shortened
by the removal of the jetty. Above is a simple collar-rafter
roof, reconstructed to the narrowed span.
House, No. 5, see No. 20 Ogleforth (299).
Church Street (Monuments 94–104)
Church Street was laid out in 1835 (YG, 14 Feb. 1835),
at the same time that Parliament Street was being built.
Part, to the N.W. of St. Sampson's church, was an
entirely new street, and the remainder from Swinegate
to Petergate was a widening of the mediaeval Girdlergate. Building sites were advertised for sale in YG,
3 Oct. 1835 and 10 Sept. 1836. All the buildings listed
below were probably erected within the next year or
two, and some may have been designed by the York
architects Pickersgill and Oates, at whose offices
particulars of the building lots were to be seen. They
are all of brick, with slated or pantiled roofs, and have
modern shop fronts.
(94) No. 1, with No. 12 St. Sampson's Square, has elevations
four bays wide to Church Street and two bays to St. Sampson's Square; some sash windows retain original flush frames.
(95) No. 2 is of four storeys and has a two-bay elevation.
(96) No. 3 is very small, of two storeys.
(97) No. 4, of three storeys, stood at the corner of Swinegate with the longer elevation, three bays wide, to that street.
(98) No. 6, of three storeys, had a plan three rooms deep
with the entrance hall and staircase in a projection to one side.
(99) No. 7 is of three storeys.
(100) No. 10 is of four storeys and has a two-bay elevation;
the third-floor windows have a continuous sill-band and there
is a heavy moulded cornice on large brackets.
(101) No. 11, of three storeys, has two windows on the
first floor, one on the second.
(102) No. 12, of four storeys, has a five-bay elevation which
includes a blocked carriageway with semicircular arch. There
is a splayed corner and short frontage to King's Square.
(103) Nos. 13, 14, of four storeys, have a three-bay frontage
marked by pilaster strips. The windows have recessed frames.
(104) Nos. 15–18, of four storeys, have a widely-spaced
four-bay elevation to Church Street and a three-bay frontage
to Patrick Pool, with a splayed corner of one bay. Some
windows were altered in the late 19th century.
Coffee Yard, see under Stonegate
College Street runs S.E. from the Minster to Goodramgate. Its present name, used from about 1800, refers to
St. William's College (34) on its N.E. side, but it was
formerly called Vicars' Lane from the College of Vicars
Choral in the Bedern; during the 18th century it was
also known as Little Alice Lane, apparently from a local
character. The church of St. Mary-ad-Valvas stood on
the S.W. side and was demolished in 1362 for the
building of the Lady Chapel of the Minster. Some of its
foundations were seen in 1967. A garden on this side of
the street replaces houses demolished between 1905 and
1937. The roadway has more recently been realigned
to the S.W. The area S.E. of St. William's College and
behind Nos. 24–32 Goodramgate was known as Cam
House, No. 2, see No. 5 Minster Yard (276).
(105) Houses, Nos. 8, 9, 10, were built c. 1830, incorporating reused timbers in the roof construction and as studs in
some partition walls. Two early Georgian doors are also
reused in No. 8. The dwellings are of two storeys in randombonded brick; No. 10 is of two bays, the others single. The
remains of 15th and 16th-century kitchens have been found in
the garden behind (YAJ, xli (1965–6), 334, 565). The excavator connected them with St. William's College, but they are
not within the curtilage of the College. Mostly unoccupied
and in poor condition (1977).
Houses, Nos. 11, 12, see Nos. 30, 32 Goodramgate
Colliergate (Monuments 106–129)
Colliergate, named from charcoal dealers by 1303–4,
continues the line of Petergate towards the Foss. Its
N.E. side may have run along part of one edge of a
suggested former wide open space or green with its
apex in King's Square, its opposite edge formed by the
S.W. side of the Shambles and Lady Peckett's Yard,
and with its S.E. end at the river crossing. The churches
of Holy Trinity and St. Crux, at either end of Colliergate and the Shambles, lay across this postulated green.
The statue of Old York or of Ebrauk, which stood at
the corner of Colliergate and St. Saviourgate and served
as a boundary mark in the 15th century, may possibly
have been part of a Roman monument; the inscription
recording its former position is in the Yorkshire Museum.
(106) House and Shop, Nos. 1, 2, of two storeys under a
pantiled roof, is of 18th-century date but has been drastically
altered and partly rebuilt.
(107) House and Shop, No. 3, built c. 1800, is of three storeys
over a cellar. The cellar and the second floor are now only
accessible from No. 4. In the party wall between Nos. 3 and 4
are the remains of a roof of a house earlier than either of the
(108) House, No. 4, was built in the early 18th-century and
heightened c. 1800 to give attic accommodation and to match
the height of No. 3 adjoining. It is of three storeys and attics.
The ground floor has been gutted for a modern shop. The
first floor has one room occupying the full width of the
three-bay front and a second room and staircase behind. The
staircase has a heavy close string and widely-spaced turned
balusters (Fig. 11j). The roof is constructed in two parallel
(109) House, No. 5, now a shop, is of two storeys,
partly timber-framed, jettied and gabled to the street,
and probably 16th-century. The timber-framed part is
now of only two bays, but an extension at the back in
brick may replace an original framed third bay. The
front bay is divided into two storeys by an original
floor, but the floor in the second bay is an insertion and
there is no evidence for original partitions between the
two bays in either storey. The building has been
extensively restored: many of the timbers are new and
some that are old may have been brought from elsewhere or have been moved.
At the side of the modern shop front is a wide doorway with
an ogee-arched head of modern timbers carried by original
door-posts. On the first floor, the corner-posts and one of a
pair of large braces are original; the other brace, the studding,
and the gable above, are modern. The open truss between the
two timber-framed bays has curved struts carrying side-purlins;
the tie-beam is original but curved braces under it have been
renewed and all above the tie appears to have been reconstructed. At the back of the second bay, framing has been removed
from the ground floor but remains in position on the first
floor; the truss above has been reconstructed.
(110) Houses, Nos. 6, 7, of two storeys and attics, were
built in the second quarter of the 18th century, probably as a
single house with a central entrance. The building has been
much altered, but in No. 6 is an original staircase with close
string, square newels and turned balusters, placed transversely
behind the front room.
(111) House, No. 9, now a shop, was largely rebuilt in
brick in the 18th century. It was originally two separate
timber-framed houses. The S.E. house was built in the late
16th or early 17th century; it is of three storeys with a claspedpurlin roof and some of the upper part of its framed N. wall
is visible in the roof of the N.W. house. At the front the
three-storey brick elevation is continuous across the full width
of the building, its upper part acting as a screen wall concealing
the roof of the N.W. house, which is of two storeys and was
built in the 17th century. Part of the timber framing of this
house is visible in the back wall; the roof trusses have purlins
overlapped and passing through the principal rafters.
(112) House, No. 10, of three storeys with a shop now
occupying the ground floor, was built c. 1840 but includes the
side wall of an earlier brick house. The domestic plan survives
on the first floor, with a large square front room, the staircase
placed transversely behind it, and a rather smaller room at the
back beyond which is a small projection to which a third
storey was added later in the 19th century. The staircase has
turned newels and thin turned balusters (Fig. 11w).
(113) House and Shop, No. 11, was built probably
in the late 16th or early 17th century as a two-storey
timber-framed structure comprising one front and one
back room. In the 18th century it was largely rebuilt
in brick and raised to three storeys, with a chimney
inserted between front and back rooms. It then formed
one unit with No. 12, which has since been completely
Front and back elevations are stuccoed and much altered.
In the back room on the first floor an original corner-post and
a cambered tie-beam and joists are exposed.
(114) Houses, Nos. 13, 14 (Fig. 69), were built
c. 1725 as a single three-storey structure, five bays wide.
Each house is L-shaped on plan, the re-entrant angle at
the back of No. 14 being occupied by the end of the
earlier part of No. 15. The ground floor of Nos. 13, 14
has been converted to shops and a modern single-storey
building stands between the two back wings.
The front elevation is built of red brick with a plat-band
above the first-floor windows. Below the eaves, fixings
remain for a large timber cornice, now removed. On plan
each house has one front room and in the back wing a staircase and a smaller room beyond. Above first-floor level both
the original staircases survive; they are identical, with close
strings, square newels, and turned balusters.
(115) Houses, Nos. 15, 16 (Plate 141), were a pair
formed from a single building. The original house, of
uncertain date, was timber-framed and lay back some
14 ft. behind the present building line with its length
parallel to the street. It was remodelled in the early 18th
century with new brick front and back walls, a new
roof and a new staircase. In the mid 18th century the
house was extended forward to the present building
line. In the second quarter of the 19th century it was
divided into two tenements and drastically remodelled,
parts of the early 18th-century staircase being reused
in the N. tenement. Later in the 19th century shop
fronts were inserted, returning on the S. side.
Fig. 69. (114) Nos. 13, 14 Colliergate.
The front elevation, of three storeys and four bays wide,
was of common brick with red brick dressings, a plat-band at
first floor and gauged brick arches over the windows. The back
elevation was lower, the back range having only two storeys
and semi-attics. The roof of the back range had principal
rafters angled like crucks to carry the wall-plates 2½ ft. above
the tie-beams; above the purlins they were joined by collars
and then reduced in size to match the common rafters (Fig. 7x).
There was no ridge-piece. In addition to the reused parts of
the early 18th-century staircase, the fittings included a bolection-moulded fireplace surround in the back wing and early
19th-century cast-iron hob-grates. Demolished 1959.
N.E. side (Plate 6):
(116) House, No. 17, now a shop, was built in the second
quarter of the 18th century, of brick, with two storeys, basement and attics. The interior was substantially refitted c. 1840
and the street elevation rebuilt when the front part was
heightened to three storeys later in the 19th century. The
staircase, adjacent to the rear room, incorporates original
balusters with fluted columns over complex bases on treads
with shaped, carved ends. Much of the original roof structure,
of kerb-principal trusses, survives.
(117) House, Nos. 18, 19 (Fig. 70), was built not
later than 1748 for Ralph Yoward, attorney, who was
receiver of the archbishop's rents. It was divided into
two tenements c. 1830 and extensively refitted, the
ground floor of the S. part being converted to a shop.
Later a shop front was put in the N. part. In 1963 the
S.E. angle was rebuilt.
The house is of three storeys above a basement. The front
was originally symmetrical, of five bays with a central entrance.
The second floor is marked by a plain plat-band, and the
window arches, of rubbed, gauged brickwork, are interrupted
by double key-stones (Fig. 8e). At the eaves, a timber cornice
projects boldly. A fine rainwater head bears the date 1748 with
the initials of Ralph Yoward. At the back the N. part has been
heightened by the addition of a fourth storey of c. 1830. The
storeys are divided by brick strings and there is a large round-headed window lighting the stairs. The other windows have
segmental heads (Fig. 8f).
The original entrance hall, now lost, led to the main staircase
at the back of the house and to the servants' staircase placed
transversely to the S. and now approached by an entrance
passage taken out of the S. front room. The N. back room was
refitted in the early 19th century with a reeded cornice and a
new fireplace. The main staircase, approached through an
archway enriched with Greek key pattern, has cantilevered
treads with scrolled decoration beneath and carved balusters
(Fig. 71), originally three to a tread, of which every alternate
one has been removed. In the 19th century the staircase was
extended up to the second floor in a copy of the original and
using the balusters taken out from below. The bottom flight of
the servants' staircase was rebuilt c. 1830; the original staircase
remains above and has close strings, square newels and turned
balusters with square knops to the lower flight and round
The basement, under the N. part of the house, contains a
front room with a large fireplace which was evidently the
original kitchen, a central entrance lobby originally approached
from a passageway down the N. side of the house, and rooms
behind. To the S., the servants' staircase originally descended
from ground-floor level, but has since been removed.
Fig. 70. (117) Nos. 18, 19 Colliergate.
On the first floor the Saloon has two doorways with
moulded and eared architraves (Fig. 9k), a moulded dado rail
and a cornice with modillions and dentils. Above the dado rail
the walls are divided into panels by applied mouldings enriched
with egg-and-dart. The fireplace, set between Corinthian
pilasters, has a surround and overmantel modelled on a design
by Batty Langley in The City and Country Builder's and Workman's Treasury of Design (1745) (Plate 177). At the top of the
overmantel is a large shell in a broken pediment and this is
repeated on the opposite wall at the head of a panel flanked by
floral drops, also set between Corinthian pilasters. Most of the
other rooms on this floor and on the second floor were
refitted c. 1830 and have ceiling cornices and fireplaces of that
Fig. 71. (117) Nos. 18, 19 Colliergate. Staircase balusters.
(118) House, No. 20, is small, of the mid 18th century, with
the ground floor converted to a shop. The first floor was
refitted in the early 19th century. On plan the house has a front
and a back room with the staircase placed transversely between
them. The front part is roofed parallel to the street and the front
windows have gauged brick arches. The back part, with platbands at each floor, is roofed at right angles to finish with a
rear gable. The staircase has a close string, square newels and
(119) House, No. 21, of three storeys with ground-floor passage, is built on a narrow frontage with a gable
to the street and was originally timber-framed. The
framing of the N.W. side walls, visible on the second
floor of No. 22 (120), is of three periods within the late
16th and early 17th centuries. Fragments of still earlier
framing survive on the ground floor below. Mason's
Hospital, an almshouse for six poor widows, was
established in No. 21 by the founder's will of 1732. The
front and rear walls were rebuilt in brick with a legacy
granted in 1783 (4th Rep. Charity Comm. (1820), 377),
and in the mid 19th century the floors at the front were
raised to the existing level of those at the rear, and a
transverse central staircase with open string, shaped
cheek-pieces and square balusters was made. The
almshouse was closed by 1958, and the building is now a
shop with flat above.
(120) House, No. 22, originally timber-framed, of three
storeys and attics, was built in the early 17th century; it is now
used as business premises. The gabled front elevation was
rebuilt in brick in the late 18th century and there is a later
addition at the rear. The interior has been much altered but the
original roof structure, with clasped-purlins, survives. Framing
is visible in the S.E. side wall of the second floor, though much
of this relates to earlier periods of No. 21 adjoining.
(121) House, No. 23 (Plate 6), three-storeyed and doublefronted, was built c. 1700. The street front is five bays wide,
with a Victorian shop front, and has flat brick arches over the
windows. At the back, the windows, where original, have
boldly segmental arches. The original staircase, between two
back rooms, has a heavy moulded string, square newel with
turned pendants below, and bulbous balusters. On the first
floor, bolection-moulded architraves frame three-panel doors
(Fig. 9a). On the second floor, the door architraves are moulded
and eared (Fig. 9b). All the fireplaces have been blocked and
the surrounds removed in conversion of the premises into
(122) House, No. 24 (Plate 6), of three storeys and
attics, was built c. 1720 on a double-fronted plan but
has been drastically altered internally to provide a shop
and stockrooms. The front, above the modern shop, is
built of common brick with red brick dressings to the
windows and to a plat-band at each floor level. The
roof rises behind a parapet. A rainwater head is dated
1768. The N.E. side is finished with an ogee-shaped
Internally the house is divided by two partition walls
parallel with the front: the front part had two rooms on each
floor; the middle part is narrower and contains a modest staircase starting at the first floor at the N. end, and may originally
have had a main staircase at the S. end; the back part contained
a further two rooms on each floor. Many of the partitions have
been removed. The staircase has close strings, square newels
with turned pendants, and turned balusters. Some of the rooms
retain original ceiling cornices and, on the second floor, simple
moulded fireplace surrounds. The attics have lime-ash floors.
Behind the house, to N.E., is a small two-storey building,
probably of the late 18th century.
(123) Houses, Nos. 25, 26 (Plate 6), of three storeys, were
built probably in 1768, the date on two rainwater heads, and
formed a pair, seven bays wide in all. The domestic planning
and all the original fittings have been lost in conversion to a
single shop. The attics have lime-ash floors.
(124) House, No. 27 (Fig. 72), was built in the late
16th or early 17th century as a three-storeyed timber-framed range of two bays, parallel to the street. The
front was rebuilt in brick c. 1725 and the building was
enlarged at the back to more than double its original
Fig. 72. (124) No. 27 Colliergate.
The front elevation has been much altered: a shop front
occupies the ground floor; on the first floor are two 19th-century windows; on the second floor two smaller windows
represent two of four early 18th-century windows, but there
are some indications of a third, with mullion and transom
visible inside. The back elevation is gabled.
The middle of the house is occupied by an open-well staircase and a large chimney. The staircase has open strings, one
turned newel at the foot only, and turned balusters. It is continued from the second floor to the attics by a close-string stair.
The upper rooms at the back retain some early 18th-century
panelling and fire-surrounds, one with added decoration
probably by T. Wolstenholme c. 1800. The top floor at the
front retains some of the original timber framing; the roof
over the front part is of clasped-purlin construction; the back
part has simple tie-beam trusses with butt-purlins.
(125) House, No. 28, of the early 19th century, is narrow
and three-storeyed, with one window to each floor above a
modern shop front. The cornice matches the late 18th-century
cornice of No. 27 adjoining.
(126) House, No. 28A, three-storeyed and of the second
quarter of the 19th century, has been adapted for military use,
with a drill-hall added at the back.
(127) House, No. 29, of c. 1800, is narrow and three-storeyed, with the ground floor converted to a shop.
(128) House, No. 30, built probably c. 1845, is of four
storeys, with the ground floor converted to a shop.
(129) House, No. 31, now a shop, is of three storeys. It was
rebuilt as a double-fronted house after road widening in 1830
and incorporates walling of the early 18th century in the two
lower storeys of the side to St. Andrewgate.
Coney Street (Monuments 130–147)
Coney Street, 'the king's street', first recorded in
1153–8, together with its continuations of Old Coney
Street (now Lendal) and Little Coney Street (Spurriergate), preserves the approximate line of a Roman road
between the S.W. wall of the legionary fortress and the
Ouse. The form 'Conyng Street' was the usual one until
the 17th century. This has for long been regarded as one
of York's most important streets and in 1308 was
described as the principal street. It contains the parish
church of St. Martin (10), the 15th-century Guildhall
(36) and the 18th-century Mansion House (44). Most
Jews in the city in 1200, including the wealthiest, Aaron
of York, lived in the central part of Coney Street. Their
synagogue was here and Jubbergate had acquired its
name (Jew-Bretgate) by 1280. The George, the leading
hostelry in York, demolished in 1869 for Leak and
Thorp's department store, was on the site of this Jewish
quarter. On the opposite side of the street was another
important inn, the Black Swan, and somewhere nearby
was the Bull, designated in 1459 as the only permissible
lodging for foreigners. Four of the stations for the
Corpus Christi plays in the 15th century were in Coney
Street. Since it has remained a leading shopping street,
the rebuilding of facades and the insertion of display
windows have obliterated much of its pre-20th-century
Three common lanes, each with its own landing, ran
down to the Ouse from Coney Street. The northernmost, which ran under the Guildhall on the line of the
Roman road approaching the S.W. gate of the fortress,
was the Common Hall Lane; its landing was sometimes
called Stonegate Landing. The middle lane, St. Martin's
Lane, is first mentioned in the period 1170–99, 'vicum
qui dicitur Sancti Martini Lending', and was called 'le
Kyrklane' c. 1390 and Old Lane in 1702. The name was
given to both of two branches on either side of St.
Martin's church. In 1399 Robert de Talkan was granted
the lane with permission to build over it; in 1950 the
upper part of the S.E. branch was stopped up (see
Monument (140)). The third lane, called Blanchard's
Lane in 1702, ran along the parish boundary between
Nos. 43 Coney Street and 2 Spurriergate, opposite the
end of Jubbergate (now Market Street). It has been
replaced since 1852 by a lane 40 ft. to the N.W., and
Waterloo Place, a court to the S.E., has also been lost in
(130) Houses, Nos. 16–22 (even) (Plate 119), a range
of three, standing at the corner of New Street, are of
three storeys and attics, of timber-framed construction
with pantiled roofs. They were built in the 15th or early
16th century, each gabled to the street and three bays
deep; the interior arrangement is not clear but there is
no evidence visible of any original partitions in each
house or of the positions of staircases. In the 18th century
the front was plastered and the windows altered, and in
the 19th century an addition was built in brick at the
rear of Nos. 20 and 22. Nos. 16, 18, which in the 19th
century had been occupied by Henry Sotheran, a well-known bookseller, was renovated in 1927 when the
plaster rendering was removed and period-style
windows inserted in the ground floor, though these
were replaced by plate-glass windows in a second
renovation in 1960. Nos. 20 and 22 have not had extensive modern restorations and retain on the upper floors
many Georgian fittings and partitions.
The framing is exposed externally on the two street frontages
of Nos. 16, 18 (Plate 119); the jettied floors of the gable-end to
Coney Street have lodged sill-plates and the wall framing has
pairs of curved downward braces; on the second floor the
upper braces are exceptional in extending the whole storey
height between sill-plate and tie-beam; the gable has a braced
crown-post on a cambered tie-beam and cross-bracing to the
rafters. The side to New Street, not originally an external wall,
has posts with steep upward braces except for those at the
corner with the jettied front, which have downward braces;
between the posts are widely-spaced studs. The windows have
hung sashes and include a canted oriel on the first floor of the
Coney Street elevation. The interior retains an early 19th-century staircase with square balusters, and a few Georgian
architraves; several chimney-pieces of the latter period were
removed in 1960. One original internal roof truss survives
(Fig. 6f), similar to the one in the gable-end but without the
secondary braces between tie-beam and rafters; the crown-post
supports braced collar-purlins. Though only a little framing is
directly visible inside Nos. 20 and 22, there is enough to
indicate that it follows the same pattern as that of Nos. 16, 18.
The fronts of these two houses have modern shop windows
and otherwise are plastered and have sash windows; the back
wall is mostly rebuilt in brick or covered by the 19th-century
extension. Inside, No. 20 has mostly early 19th-century fittings
but there is one stone fireplace surround of the second quarter
of the 18th century on the first floor; No. 22 has two early
17th-century panelled doors, and the staircase which serves it,
of the mid or later 18th century, is in the adjacent house, No. 24.
(131) House, No. 24, was built c. 1600, possibly incorporating parts of an earlier structure. It was a
timber-framed house of three storeys, jettied on the
street front, some 17 ft. wide and 42 ft. deep, giving
two good rooms one behind the other on each floor.
In the mid 18th century the front of the second floor
was set back to eliminate the upper jetty and to enable
the first floor to be heightened at the expense of the
second. The front rooms were curtailed by the insertion
of a staircase. The front gable was cut back to a hip and
the back part was re-roofed at a lower level, reducing its
three storeys to two and semi-attics.
The front elevation is jettied above a modern shop front; the
wall above is plastered, with 19th-century windows on the
first floor and 18th-century windows above; the hipped roof
rises behind a moulded block cornice with dentils, of late
18th-century date. At the back some original timber framing
is exposed, under-built in brick. Inside, the front room has been
enlarged to its original depth by the removal of the 18th-century staircase at this level. The latter has been reconstructed
with 19th-century newels in the back part of the house. An
encroachment has been made on the N. corner of the room to
provide stairs for No. 22 next door. The ceiling beam support
ing the first floor is cased but in the back room the ceiling beam
is exposed and moulded. A cellar below is in part original but
was enlarged towards the street in the 19th century. On the
first floor in the front room the fireplace has an 18th-century
surround. The 18th-century staircase has no newels, open
strings and turned balusters with umbrella knops. On the
second floor the front part of the house has a decorated plaster
ceiling of the early 17th century, with roses and fleurs-de-lys in
a pattern of quatrefoils and lozenges (Plate 164); the ceiling
is cut short at the front where the wall has been set back to
eliminate the jetty.
Demolition of buildings behind No. 24 revealed a roof truss
(Plate 127) of late 13th or early 14th-century date, incorporated
in later rebuilding. It had a flat tie-beam, common rafters, long
passing braces, raking struts and a collar with tall unjowled
crown-post, all, except for the larger tie-beam, of uniform
(132) Houses, Nos. 26, 28, 30, form an L-shaped range,
three and four storeys high, enclosing two sides of Judges'
Court. These three houses were probably built between 1830
and 1840; they have been converted to shop premises and much
altered. The oldest fittings remaining date from the late
(133) Judges' Court (Plate 141; Fig. 73), behind Nos.
28, 30, a house of two storeys, basement and attics, has
walls of brick and slate-covered roofs. It was built in the
very early 18th century but may incorporate part of a
yet earlier structure around the S. corner room, where
the walls have a slightly different alignment. The rear
range of Nos. 28, 30 Coney Street is built against the
S.W. front of the house and, though modern, it was
preceded by an earlier range (map by Alfred Smith,
1822) which must have been standing when the house
was built, as the exposed front is a three-bay entity,
with a central doorway. By the mid 18th century it had
become the Judges' Lodgings and continued in this use
until 1806, when a larger house in Lendal (Monument
(250)) was acquired; it was also let furnished to suitable
families 'except at the Times of The Assizes and Races'
(advertisements in, for example, YC, 17 Feb. 1767,
4 May 1779). It was announced to be sold in 1819 (YG,
12 June 1819) and in 1841 became the Minister's House
for the New Street Wesleyan Chapel (30), which
abutted it at the N. corner; it is now used as offices. A
number of good original fittings remain, though some
alterations were made in the 19th century.
Fig. 73. (133) Judges' Court, Coney Street.
The exterior is mostly covered with 19th-century rendering
and has a high plinth containing basement windows. The front,
S.W., elevation (Plate 141), partly obscured by the rear wing
of Nos. 28, 30 Coney Street, has windows of the original
proportions but with later sashes. The central round-arched
doorway has a 19th-century moulded archivolt and is approached by a flight of stone steps of the same date. Stucco
quoins at the W. corner may not be original but they obviously
precede the general rendering of the walls, with which they
are now flush. The rear elevation is of five bays but some of
the windows have been altered; towards the S.E. end is a low
addition. The two side elevations are rather plain with a few
windows, some of them modern. The S.E. side has twin
gables, but the roof is otherwise hipped with a flat in the central
valley, 19th-century box gutters on paired brackets, and
The front entrance leads into a porch with two inner doorways which are part of 19th-century alterations that reduced
the size of the entrance hall. An alcove on the S.E. side of the
hall has a large moulded cornice and contains two doorcases
with bold bolection mouldings. The room in the E. corner is
lined with bolection-moulded panelling above and below a
dado rail and has a corner fireplace with surround consisting
of plain columns carrying a full entablature with triglyphs in
the frieze; the overmantel has two panelled pilasters on
enriched scroll brackets. The S. corner room is earlier in style,
with wall panelling in four heights. The room over this on the
first floor has a large bolection-moulded fireplace, but most
other rooms have early 19th-century fittings. The main
staircase, rising out of the hall, has close strings, substantial
turned balusters, square newel-posts and moulded, ramped
handrails (Plate 190); on the wall opposite is a panelled dado.
The back staircase has been removed below the first floor; the
flights up to the attic have turned bulbous balusters, with splat
balusters at the top around the well (Fig. 11e, f). In the attic,
one room has a bolection-moulded fireplace.
(134) House, No. 32, now converted to a shop, of
three floors and attics, is a brick building with a timber-framed core. The timber-framed building, probably
three bays deep and jettied to front and rear, was built
in the 16th century over a courtyard containing a brick-lined well of the late 15th or early 16th century, now
under the N.W. wall. In the mid 18th century, a transverse staircase was inserted behind the brick chimneybreast serving the front room, and the building was
extended to the rear. About 1820 the building was
refronted and the former jetties were cut back, as is
shown by the curtailed cornices in the upper rooms. The
mid 18th-century staircase has been completely removed, and the lower floors are much altered. The
S.W. front elevation has, above a modern shop front
and below a dentilled cornice, a shallow segmental-headed arched recess in brick framing the first-floor bay
window and second-floor sash window. The attic is
concealed behind vertical boarding. The front attic roof
has principals supporting purlins and nailed arched
collars. Both attics have lime-ash floors. Timber-framed
fragments of the adjacent building are visible in the rear
extension, in the S.E. party wall.
(135) Range of three houses, Nos. 36, 38, 40 (Fig. 74),
of four storeys, was built shortly before the rebuilding
of the adjacent Black Swan in 1790. All three have
modern shops on the ground floor. No. 38 has a normal
town-house plan, with a spacious staircase between
front and back rooms, and No. 40 appears to be similar
but the upper floors are now shut off. No. 36 is of
greater depth, making use of a light-well, and in the late
19th century was joined to a complex of earlier buildings
behind; these include a three-storeyed timber-framed
structure probably built in the early 17th century but
later cased with brickwork, and two small three-storey
brick houses, one of them mid 18th-century, the other
a little later.
(136) The Black Swan Inn, No. 44, was among the
most important inns and coaching houses in York in the
18th century. It occupied a deep site some 60 ft. wide by
208 ft. deep, with the main building fronting the street
and with a yard behind, which in 1850 was entirely
surrounded by buildings. At that time the inn also
included a building to the S.E. on the site of the Yorkshire Bank built in 1923. The inn itself was a 17th-century
structure, wholly refronted and partly rebuilt in 1790
when Mr. Ambrose Batty, the licensee, was paid £90 by
the Corporation as a consideration 'for taking down and
rebuilding in an upright line' the S. part. At this time a
full fourth storey replaced earlier attics. By 1955 the
buildings round the further part of the yard had disappeared; those that remained were mainly 19th
century. The whole was then demolished.
Fig. 74. (135) Nos. 36, 38, 40 Coney Street.
The front surviving in 1955 was of four storeys faced with
good red brick, built in two matching halves, each three
windows wide, separated by a straight joint. It was a plain
front with hung-sash windows and a timber cornice at the
eaves. A door-case to the entrance, comprising timber Doric
pilasters and entablature, has been re-erected at the Castle
Museum. The back had been largely rebuilt in the 18th
century but some 17th-century brick walling remained. The
ground floor had been converted to shops. Some 18th-century
fittings remained in the upper part. Demolished.
(137) Houses, Nos. 3, 5, 7, formerly four dwellings
with No. 5 forming a pair, stand on the site of a 16th-century house belonging to the Darleys of Aldby and
Buttercrambe. The present houses are mainly of the first
half of the 18th century but incorporate parts of an
earlier house, of which three decorated plaster ceilings
survived into the 19th century. The early 18th-century
rebuilding may have been carried out by Francis Taylor,
who acquired the property from the Thompson family,
goldsmiths, in 1722. Taylor left the property to his
nephew Francis Meek, who added a range at the back of
No. 3, but No. 7 is said to have been refronted in 1758
and to have carried a rainwater head bearing a badge of
the Brooke family. Later alterations and additions may
have been carried out by William Siddall, woollen draper
and merchant tailor, or by Robert Sinclair who acquired
the property in 1817. Drastic alterations have been made
in modern times to convert the houses to commercial
use, including insertion of shop windows on the ground
floor and removal of the fourth storey of No. 3 and the
pitched roofs of Nos. 5 and 7. Only a part of one
decorated ceiling is now visible. The heraldry relating
to the Darleys described by Davies has been destroyed
or concealed. (Davies, 57–63; YCA, Acc. 21, Deeds;
G. Benson, Pamphlet on Bishophill).
The front elevations, of brick, have been much altered.
No. 3 originally comprised five bays, No. 5 six, and No. 7 six;
No. 7 has stone quoins. All are now of three storeys, with
modern parapets. Inside, an elaborate plaster ceiling of c. 1600
remains at the rear of the first floor of No. 7 (Plate 165). This
is by no means complete, and could possibly have formed a
part of the heraldic ceiling described by Davies; it has a
heavily moulded cornice, which breaks forward at intervals,
and a background of scrolled foliage with vine, acorns, roses
and birds. At intervals strapwork encloses male and female
heads. The frieze has a similar background, with heads, a
shield, a heart and a double-headed eagle. The fine early
17th-century ceiling on the ground floor of No. 5 (Plate 164),
with a geometrical division formed with moulded ribs and
decorative motifs, and the moulded cornice continued along
the dividing beam with vine enrichment to the soffit, is
covered by a modern underdrawn ceiling. The only other
fittings of note to survive are the staircases of the second
quarter of the 18th century in No. 3 and in the S.E. part
of No. 5.
(138) House, No. 9, of three storeys, basements and attics,
was built in the second quarter of the 18th century. It has
single rooms at front and rear, separated by a transverse staircase. The front elevation is two bays wide, of stuccoed
brickwork, with flush-framed sash windows above a modern
shop front and a projecting cornice supported on brackets
below a slate roof. The S. side elevation is double-gabled, with
the eastern gable stuccoed and set forward. The stuccoed rear
elevation, partly hidden by a single-storey brick extension with
a slate roof of the second quarter of the 19th century, has a
projecting string between first and second floors. Inside, the
staircase has turned balusters with square knops, a swept
handrail, moulded close string, and square newels with
attached half-balusters. Much use is made of three-centred
(139) Row of Houses, No. 11, of which fragmentary remains survived until 1958, was built in the churchyard of St. Martin in 1335 by Robert, son of Giles,
carpenter, for Thomas de Ludham, vicar. The original
contract, preserved in the Minster Library, is published
in Salzman, 430–2. The houses were damaged by fire
and largely remodelled in the early 17th century, and
further alteration took place in the 19th century.
Parts of five main posts and a few joists of the original row
survived into the 20th century, enough to substantiate the
layout as described in the contract. Before the 17th-century
alterations, the houses stood 3 ft. from the N. wall of the
church and were jettied on the N. front facing St. Martin's
Lane. There was a house occupying two bays at the E. end and
six smaller houses of one bay each, forming a range 100 ft. long.
In the 17th century the building was widened to the S., blocking all the openings in the N. wall of the church. Demolished.
(140) House, No. 13, of three storeys and attics, has
walls of common brick with red brick dressings. It was
built in the first half of the 18th century, partly over a
common lane leading to the river. There were alterations in the early 19th century, when a shop front was
probably inserted; more recently the lane below the
house was blocked and the staircase removed completely,
access to the upper floors now being from the adjoining
The front elevation has a modern shop front and a single
window on each upper floor. Originally probably two bays
wide, it was carefully altered in the early 19th century when
the first floor received a shallow bow and the second floor a
window of similar width; the bow now has later sashes and
the window above has been made narrower. The side elevation, facing St. Martin's church, has two small gables with a
straight parapet wall between. A central door has an early
19th-century surround and fanlight. On the first floor is one
original window flanked by blind windows, and on the
second floor a central window with sliding sashes. At the rear
is a projecting wing which retains, on the N.W. wall, a coved
cornice. Inside, the ground-floor shop is entirely modernised,
but on the upper floors are some original architraves and
cornices; the first-floor front room was refitted in the early
The passage to the river now starts at the rear of the building.
It varies from 6½ to 10½ ft. wide and is covered by modern
additions; the N.W. wall is of limestone and probably
mediaeval. At the lower end it is covered by a depressed
barrel vault of the 18th or 19th century.
(141) Office, No. 15, of four storeys and cellars, was
built for the York Courant probably between 1789 and
1809 during the proprietorship of George Peacock. In
1838 it also housed Hargrove's Library, which was at
that time 'recently opened' (New Guide, 64).
The front elevation is of brick in Flemish bond and has,
over a modern shop front, two shallow canted bay windows
with fluted friezes and modern sashes; the windows on the
floors above have flush frames and retain original sashes with
glazing bars. The timber block cornice returns several feet
along the N.W. side wall, and the low-pitched slated roof is
hipped to front and rear.
Inside, the ground floor is wholly modernised, and on the
first floor all the original partition walls have been removed,
though the plan can be partly recognised from surviving mid
19th-century cornices. There are a few original fittings, and
on the third floor, where the plan is better preserved, the
position of the top-lit former secondary staircase can be
(142) No. 17 is a modern office building which retains on the ground floor a stone Tuscan column surviving from the former George Inn, demolished in 1869
(Benson, iii, 61); on the first floor is a reset sashed bow
window taken from the same building. The inn,
originally a mediaeval timber-framed building, was
formerly known as The Bear, later The Golden Lion,
and became The George in 1614 (Davies, 63–5). The
S.E. part of the inn, on the site now occupied by part of
a modern department store, No. 19, in 1716 was given a
new brick facade, supported on stone columns (YAJ,
XIV, 446); it retained a 15th-century timber porch with
a ribbed vault and a boss carved with a Pelican in Piety
(Cave, Plate XXXI) which had probably been brought
from elsewhere and is now in the Yorkshire Museum.
The N.W. end of the frontage, where No. 17 now
stands, was probably built soon after 1614; it had a
jettied and gabled elevation distinguished by ornate
pargetting (Cave, Plate V) and in 1810 was rebuilt in
brick (YCA, M17A), also supported on stone columns,
one of which is that surviving. Inside was a large
panelled room with a decorated plaster ceiling and
heraldic glass of 1661–8.
(143) House, No. 23, of four storeys, was built in the first
half of the 19th century. It has a two-bay front elevation in
pink and grey mottled brick and windows with stone sills and
monolithic arches with simulated voussoirs. Inside, it retains
some reeded architraves, a staircase with shaped cheek-pieces
and slender rectangular balusters, and a king-post roof typical
of the period, but it has been considerably altered, particularly
on the ground floor.
(144) Houses, Nos. 29, 31, of three storeys and attics,
were built in the late 16th or early 17th century as a
three-bay timber-framed range parallel to the street.
A large chimney against the rear wall may be contemporary or a little later; beside it, a staircase was added in
the early 18th century and a brick extension behind may
be of the same date. In the late 18th or early 19th century the original jettied upper floors of the front
elevation were cut back and a new wall built in brick,
which is now rendered and has several sash windows and
modern shop fronts. Inside, the timber framing is
mostly obscured but there are cased transverse and
spine-beams on all floors; part of a beam exposed on the
ground floor is chamfered, with run-out stops, and on
the first floor of No. 29 beams have 17th-century
plaster casings decorated with vine trails. There are few
old fittings except, between the second floor and the
attic, the remaining part of the early 18th-century stair;
it has turned balusters on two flights and splat balusters
on the third. Behind No. 31 is an early 19th-century
three-storey block, built of brick and with sash windows,
forming a separate tenement known as No. 29a.
(145) Cottage, behind No. 31, was built in the early 18th
century but was altered internally and enlarged in the early
(146) House, No. 33, of three storeys and attics, was built
in the early 18th century, but refronted in the 19th century and
subsequently much altered internally. The plan probably
consisted of rooms to the front and rear of a transverse staircase, with a projecting closet block at the back. The N.E. front
elevation is two bays wide above a modern shop front,
stuccoed with simulated stone joints, and with hung-sash
windows in recessed frames and a simple eaves cornice. The
rear elevation, also stuccoed, is gabled, and there are stringcourses between each floor. Few original internal fittings
remain. The N.W. party wall in the attic incorporates reused
(147) House, No. 39 (Fig. 75), is formed of two
dwellings of different dates, later combined into a
single property. The N.W. house, of four storeys, was
built in the mid 18th century. The front is two bays
wide; on plan the house has one front room, a central
open-well staircase, one back room and a projecting
closet behind. The ground floor has been opened up to
form one modern shop together with the ground floor
of the S.E. house.
The front elevation, above the shop front, is rendered in
modern cement and refitted with new windows. The roof rises
behind an original cornice with shaped brackets and dentils.
At the back, original windows remain in the closet wing set
under boldly segmental brick arches. The interior is well
fitted. On the first floor, the Saloon at the front (Plate 173) has
door architraves and wall-panelling enriched with egg-anddart ornament and a fireplace surround of the late 18th
century, in Adam style, with applied composition ornament.
The back room, lined with plainer panelling, has a pedimented
overmantel over a fireplace of c. 1800 with decoration from the
Wolstenholme workshop (Plate 179). The staircase (Plate 193),
lit from a lantern over the well, has open strings and turned
balusters with square knops; there are no newels. The fireplaces
on the second and third floors have original simple moulded
Fig. 75. (147) No. 39 Coney Street.
The S.E. house, of three storeys, was built probably c. 1710–
20 as one of a pair; the other half of the pair, No. 41, was
rebuilt in the mid 19th century leaving only a fragment of
original walling at the rear. The front elevation, three bays
wide, has been refitted with modern windows. The roof rises
from a late 18th-century cornice. At the back, plat-bands
mark the floor levels and the windows are, or were, set under
boldly segmental brick arches. The plan is generally similar to
that of the N.W. house, with the stair hall placed between
front and back rooms and a projecting closet wing, but the
house is of less depth, much less space being given to the staircase. Up to the first floor the staircase has been completely
removed but it occupied a stair hall, the full width of the
house, with the ceiling divided into panels by simple plaster
mouldings. In the upper storeys, the staircase occupied a
cramped position along the side wall of the house, and an
internal room with only borrowed light was formed over
part of the stair hall below. The top flights of stairs remain;
they have close strings, square newels and turned balusters
with square knops. On the second floor, the front room is
lined with bolection-moulded panelling in two heights, with
dado rail and cornice (Plate 172). The back room is lined with
a miscellaneous collection of early 17th-century panelling,
reused. Modernised and extended 1975–7.
Coppergate (Monuments 148–151)
Coppergate runs N.E. from Nessgate to Pavement. Its
name, from coopers or joiners, is first recorded in
1120–35. It has been suggested that its S.E. side was
once the edge of a wide open space or green stretching
from the Ouse to Pavement which was gradually filled
with houses, churches and lanes. By the 12th century
both Coppergate, with its continuation of Cargate (now
King Street), and the parallel Ousegate, had been
formed and the churches of All Saints (1) and St.
Michael (13) had been built. The S.W. end of Coppergate was widened in 1900 and few old buildings remain.
Excavations on the site of Nos. 18, 20, started in 1976,
have revealed 11th-century timber buildings.
(148) Former Yorkshireman, p.h., No. 10, built in the first
half of the 19th century, is two storeys high, of brick, with
hung-sash windows and a slate roof.
(149) Three Tuns, p.h., No. 12, of two storeys with an
attic not now accessible, is of timber-framed construction,
rendered externally and with a tiled roof. It was built possibly
in the 16th century but has been very much altered. It consists
of a short range, roofed in two bays, with a lean-to addition
at the N.E. end and a large modern wing to the rear. The
front elevation has a jettied first floor, 19th-century windows,
and a large gabled dormer for the attic. Inside, the framed
walls of the ground floor have been mostly removed; an axial-beam was originally braced to posts at each end, suggesting
a range gabled to the front. Little of the present roof structure
can be seen. The interior has been modernised and there are
virtually no old fittings. In the wing at the rear is a stone wall
about 8 ft. high, possibly mediaeval.
(150) The Market Tavern, No. 26, comprises a small front
block, timber-framed and of three storeys, built probably in
the 16th-century, and a longer back wing of two storeys,
built in brick in the 18th century. The upper storeys are
jettied to the street but the facade has been entirely renovated.
The interior has been much altered but the original plan
probably provided for one or two rooms on each floor with
a large chimney on the back wall.
(151) Houses, Nos. 28, 30, 32 (Fig. 76), now divided
into two shops, are contained in a large timber-framed
building erected in the 15th century. It has an unusual
plan, consisting of two conjoined ranges parallel to the
street. The front range, with a span of 15 ft., is three-storeyed, three bays in length, and has jettied upper
floors. The range behind, spanning 20 ft., is of the same
height but originally contained a first-floor hall open
to the roof, now divided by an inserted floor and ceiling.
The hall was of two very unequal bays (14 ft. and 5 ft.)
and the third bay of this range, at the N.E. end, was
three-storeyed. The ground floor of the rear range
appears to have been open through the whole length,
probably for a shop. Numbering of the roof trusses
indicates that there were originally two more bays to
the N.E., now demolished. The front elevation is
plastered and has 18th and 19th-century windows; the
first floor of No. 32 has been later extended out as far
as the second-floor jetty. The unjettied rear wall has
exposed framing on the two upper storeys. Inside,
some framing is visible within the former hall (Fig. 77)
and a little more in the top storey of the front range;
it is noteworthy for the large scantlings used. The roof
of the front range has side-purlins only but the rear
range has also a collar-purlin supported by crown-posts
(Fig. 6h). Two large chimney-stacks were inserted
probably in the 17th century and there are a few 18th-century fittings
Fig. 76. (151) Nos. 28, 30, 32 Coppergate.
Fig. 77. (151) Nos. 28, 30, 32 Coppergate.