High Petergate, see under Petergate
Hungate curves S. from St. Saviourgate towards the
Foss, but it has been much altered since 1950 by the
formation of The Stonebow and the building of the
Telephone Exchange. It was recorded between 1161
and 1184 as 'Hundegat(e) in Mersch' or 'the dogs' street
in the marsh', and was also called Merske Street.
Excavations in 1950–1 showed that the site of the
Telephone Exchange had been a Roman quay and then
a pre-Conquest flood bank, with gradual mediaeval
reclamation of the marsh beside the Foss (Arch. J., cxvi
(1959), 51–114). The church of St. John the Baptist, near
the S. end of Hungate, was disused by 1519 and sold in
1550. Much of the W. side of the street bounded the
grounds of the Carmelite Friary (22), established here by
1295. In 1427 the mention of selions, presumably of
arable, in Hungate in St. John's parish, indicates that the
area was still open ground. By 1840 the street had
become a slum, lined by poor tenements, cleared in
Jubbergate first appears c. 1200 as Bretgate and by 1280
was called 'Joubrettegat' — 'the street of the British
(Bretons?) in the Jewish quarter' — apparently to distinguish it from the other Bretgate, now Navigation
Road, in the Walmgate area. The part of the street N.E.
of its junction with Peter Lane was known as High
Jubbergate and that to the S.W. as Low Jubbergate.
(240) White Rose Cafe (Plate 117) is now a free-standing building in the market place, though the
position was originally, before the destruction of the
adjoining properties, at the end of Jubbergate at the
junction with Newgate and Little Shambles. It is of
timber-framed construction, two-storeyed with attics,
and formed of two originally distinct structures. The
N.W. block, at the corner of Newgate, with a pantiled
roof, was built in the 14th century as a two-bay range
spanning 18 ft. The upper floor is jettied on the N.W.
and S.W. sides and supported at the angle by a large
dragon-post which is actually formed of two pieces,
post and bracket, jointed together. The framing is of
widely-spaced studs and is characterised by concaveshaped downward braces on the first floor, with
additional straight, upward braces on the gable-end
wall. The first-floor posts do not have jowled heads and
the intermediate one on the S.W. wall has two blocked
mortices for braces up and down, suggesting an original
internal partition below the central truss. The N.E. wall
is a modern reconstruction. An attic floor was inserted
later and the roof construction is modern with no
evidence of the original form.
The S.E. block, roofed with plain tiles, was built in the early
17th century and itself consists of two parts which may not be
exactly contemporary. The larger one is a two-bay range with
a span of 20 ft. and has distinctly higher floor levels than the
earlier block; the first floor is jettied on the S.E. and S.W.
sides and the gable also to the S.W. The attic floor is original
and there is a cellar. To the N.E. and placed transversely is a
narrow range with a span of 11 ft. and which is three full
storeys high. It consists of three unequal bays and contains a
modern staircase in a position where original floor joists have
clearly been removed; the N.E. and S.E. walls of this part are
of modern brick. The 17th-century framing is of fairly
closely-spaced thin studs and has long straight, downward
braces, sparingly used. The roof construction is not visible
internally but clasped-purlins can be seen on the gable-ends. A
large brick chimney-stack had fireplaces to each side, serving
both ranges of the S.E. block on all floors, but the only
original one visible is in the attic, with a plain chamfered four-centred arch. The whole building was extensively restored in
1928–33 (Brierley and Rutherford, architects) when many
timbers were trimmed or replaced with new work; all the
windows are modern and also the internal fittings, though a
plaster cornice in 18th-century style in the large first-floor
S.E. room may have an original basis.
King Street, continuing the line of Coppergate from
Nessgate to King's Staith, is the mediaeval Cargate or
Kergate, a name first recorded c. 1200 and meaning
'marsh street'. In the 16th century it was sometimes
called Hatter Lane and later was First Water Lane. It
was rebuilt in 1851 and renamed: the picturesque
timber-framed houses, known from illustrations, were
entirely removed. They had become notable slums
'occupied by the poorest and most disorderly part of
the population'. The fact that a tenth of those who died
in the cholera epidemic of 1832 lived in the three Water
Lanes was a spur to their rebuilding.
King's Court (Monuments 241–244)
King's Court is a name now confined to a few properties
on the S.W. side of King's Square. These were described
in 19th-century and earlier deeds as in Coninggate,
presumably a corruption of Coning garth, and the
name was retained when the rest of the area became
known as King's Square (see below). The name 'Kuningesgard' or King's Court, first recorded c. 1270 and
Latinised as 'curia regis', presumably refers to a pre-Conquest palace of the Danish kings. This was perhaps
centred on the remains of the S.E. gateway of the
Roman fortress, approached by a former wide green
between Colliergate and the Shambles. The S. side was
occupied by shops called Le Marcery in 1430 and by
the property known as Hellekeld, 'the dark well',
probably the predecessor of Pump Court.
(241) House, No. 2, of three storeys and cellars,
substantial and double-fronted, with a separate outbuilding behind, was built by Thomas Weatherill, who
was granted a 99-year lease in 1775. By 1812 it was the
Star and Garter Inn and later the Old Turk's Head. In
the 19th century the house was extended at the back and
joined to the outbuilding, which was turned into a bar.
The front had a central doorway with semicircular
fanlight, flanked by engaged timber columns carrying
an open pediment. An additional doorway had been
added at the N. end. The windows were graduated in
size, and the sills of the first-floor windows were joined
to form a continuous band.
The entrance was originally straight into the larger of two
front rooms; the staircase, with original turned balusters, arose
behind the smaller room. Some of the fireplaces retained
original iron grates and timber surrounds. Demolished.
(242) House, No. 3, of three storeys, was built in the
late 16th century as a timber-framed structure gabled
to the street, five bays in depth. In the 17th century a
large brick chimney-breast was inserted in the central
bay. It was extensively altered in the mid 19th century:
the gabled front was replaced by a brick elevation,
roofed parallel with the street, and an elliptical spiral
staircase with moulded and turned balusters was put in
beside the chimney-breast. Much of the timber framing
was then plastered over, but some remained exposed,
especially in the back rooms. The roof over the rear two
bays survived little altered, with common rafters, kerbprincipals under the collars, and two purlins each side.
Demolished c. 1957.
(243) House, No. 4, timber-framed and of 15th-century date, is of three storeys gabled and jettied to the
street, and four bays in depth. On the first and probably
the second floors there were originally no structural
partitions internally. In the 17th century a large chimneybreast, with staircase alongside, was built in the second
bay, dividing the house into two rooms on each floor.
The fireplaces in this chimney-breast had chamfered
brick jambs and wooden lintels, but were altered in the
early 19th century to smaller openings with hob-grates.
The staircase, little of which survives, has splat balusters
and square newels. The roof is of crown-post construction with collar-purlin and collared rafters. The house
was built against No. 5 King's Court, utilising the N.
wall framing of that house as its S. wall, whilst No. 3
King's Court (242) in turn was built against it on the N.
side, using the same technique. Taken down and rebuilt
(244) Nos. 5, 6, two separate buildings, occupy the
site perhaps to be equated with that called Hellekeld,
'the dark well', in 1376 and 1505 (Raine, 43–4; SS, CXX
(1912 for 1911), 9, clxxxvi (1973 for 1969), 225–6).
The front building, parallel to the street, was a four-bay
three-storey, timber-framed structure with at least a first-floor
jetty on the front elevation, which had been remodelled and
refaced in brick in 1755, and had 19th-century ground-floor
shop windows. Rebuilt in brick in 1951, the new building
retains the modillioned and dentilled cornice, and copies the
second-floor band, sash windows and enriched rainwater head,
inscribed H R 1755 for Hugh Robinson (YCA, E94, ff. 230v–
231), of the 1755 remodelling. Internally the ground-floor
ceiling joists and two ceiling beams with mortices for braces up
from posts survive, as does an inserted corner fireplace.
The rear building, which runs back at right angles to the
front, is a 16th-century, three-storey, timber-framed structure,
six bays long, divided by an approximately central row of
posts into two aisles each with a roof gabled at each end.
Restored in 1951, the surviving framing is fragmentary. The
S.W. side elevation to Pump Court is jettied on each floor and
has moulded bressummers. The ground floor, from a surviving
fragment, had a sill-beam, downward braces and studs.
Nothing survives on the first floor, but the second floor has
downward braces from all principal posts, full-storey intermediate posts, and an interrupted middle rail with studs above
and below. The S.E. wall, built against an existing front
building, had no infilling except in its gables, and the N.E.
wall, set on a low sill wall, has close studding. Internally, the
central posts rose through three storeys to a transversely
thickened head which supported cambered ties. The three
surviving tie-beams have assembly marks and peg-holes for
principal rafters only. The roof has been renewed. Indications
of a few internal partitions survive. The N.W., N.E. and S.E.
walls have upward braces at the second floor, and the central
posts have upward braces, axial on the ground and first floors,
transverse on the second. Other braces are inconsistently placed
and must have been inserted to counter the marked settlement
of the building. A stone-walled basement, under the whole
front building and one-and-a-half bays of the rear building,
has a scarfed axial-beam supported by massive oak posts set on
reused column stones.
King's Square (Monuments 245, 246)
King's Square, at the S.E. end of Petergate, took on its
present appearance only after the demolition in 1937 of
Holy Trinity or Christ Church. Previously that church
and its churchyard, although several times reduced in
size, occupied most of the present square. In 1627 Duke
Gill Hall, 'heretofore called the King's Court', lay on
the N.E. side of the square in the angle with St. Andrewgate. Houses on both sides were often regarded as being
in Petergate and the use of the name King's Square is
first attested c. 1780.
No. 1, see Nos. 85, 87, 89 Goodramgate (202).
(245) House and Shop, No. 2, three-storeyed and of two
bays, dates from the second quarter of the 19th century. It has a
shop front with pilastered surround to the doorway on the
ground floor, and two hung-sash windows with segmental
arches of common bricks on each floor above.
(246) House, No. 5, three-storeyed, timber-framed
and of one bay, roofed parallel to the street, is probably
the 'new builded house' of Richard Hutton, erected
between 1587 and 1593 (YCA, B29, f. 108; Wills, xxv,
f. 1487). In the mid 18th century it was refronted in
brick, and a three-storey brick wing of equal width was
built at the rear. Above a modern shop front, the
elevation is rendered and has two hung-sash windows to
each floor; the roof is pantiled. Inside, very little of the
King's Staith (Monuments 247–249)
King's Staith, York's principal riverside quay since
mediaeval times, extends S.E. from Ouse Bridge to the
former boundary of the Franciscan Friars' property.
The name, meaning 'the king's landing place', may be
connected with royal visits to York in the 14th century,
but was not usual until the 17th century. The three
Water Lanes, now King Street, Cumberland Street and
Friargate, led onto the Staith. A public washing place,
'the Pudding Holes', lay at the S.E. end. The Staith was
extended beside the Friars' Walls in the 17th century
and heightened in 1774. The steps down to it from
Ouse Bridge, known in the mid 15th century as
'Salthole grese' and later as the 'Grecian steps', were
replaced at the building of the new bridge.
(247) King's Arms, p.h., No. 1, of two storeys and
attics, stands at the corner of King Street (formerly
First Water Lane). It has walls of brick, stone and timber
framing, all externally rendered, and tiled roofs. It was
built in the early 17th century, the apparent absence of
original partitions and heating suggesting, on this river-side site, a commercial use. J. Farington's view of the
old Ouse Bridge, made in 1783, shows the building with
exposed rubble walls and framing. There was a thorough
modernisation in 1898, which included new doors and
windows, and the rear wing which faces King Street
was probably entirely rebuilt. It was modernised again
in 1973–4, when the old name was reinstated, having
been known previously as the Ousebridge Inn. The
thick ground-floor walls on the S. and W. sides, of
brick and reused mediaeval stone, were probably built
because of the frequent flooding in this area. The N. and
E. walls were originally framed, but later rebuilt in
brick. The framed first floor is three bays long and
jettied on the S. and W. sides, with a dragon-beam at
the S.W. corner. The original lime-ash floor in the
upper storey survives under later boarding. All partitions and fittings are of the 19th century, or later. In
the attic are roof trusses with clasped-purlins (Fig. 7q).
(248) House, No. 7, of three storeys in brick on a high
stone basement, now solid, was built in the second quarter of
the 19th century on a steeply-sloping site. The original entrance
was at the rear, and a passage led to a transverse staircase. The
ground-floor rooms contain moulded cornices.
(249) Cumberland House, No. 9 (Plate 138; Fig. 91),
of two storeys with basement and attic, has brick walls
with stone dressings. It was built c. 1710 by William
Cornwall, tanner and brewer (Sheriff 1700, Lord Mayor
1712, 1725), and was occupied by the Duke of Cumberland on his return from Culloden in 1746. It was
restored in 1950 and later.
On the W. elevation, the basement is above ground; it is
faced with magnesian limestone and has a doorway with
shouldered lintel between round-headed openings. The upper
storeys, of five bays, are in brick with stone quoins and there
is a moulded string-course at first-floor level and bold
modillioned timber cornice at the eaves. The central window
to each floor is emphasised by stone surrounds; the upper one
also has an apron below. The plainer S. side, facing King
Street, has the ground floor stuccoed below a simple plat-band
and a small later eaves cornice; the stucco suggests that the
lower part of the elevation has been remodelled. The entrance
doorway has a bolection-moulded eared architrave between
panelled pilasters with heavy console brackets, and a curved
pediment (Plate 159). A deep recess in the middle of the N. side
has been filled in. Original dormer windows are finished with
curved timber pediments.
Fig. 91. (249) Cumberland House, No. 9 King's Staith.
There is no communication between the house and the
basement, which was presumably built as a quayside store. On
the ground floor, in the middle of the S. side of the house, the
dining room has a stone-flagged floor, suggesting that it was
originally the entrance hall. Two reception rooms at the front,
of unequal size, are both lined with bolection-moulded
panelling. In the smaller room the fireplace is flanked by
panelled pilasters (Plate 178); in the larger room the overmantel has more elaborate panelling, with carved volutes, and
to each side are round-headed niches framed by pilasters
(Plate 171). The main staircase has panelled ends to the steps,
turned and twisted or fluted balusters, and newels in the form
of columns (Plate 191); the ceiling above has a large oval
feature (Plate 167). The service end of the house, to E., had a
secondary staircase, now removed, with close strings and
square newels (Plate 190). To N. is a modernised kitchen and
to S. a small room with a 19th-century fireplace; further
rooms to E. are modern. On the first-floor landing, doorways
are flanked by pilasters and have arched heads. Two large
rooms have been formed by the removal of partitions; one
facing S. was originally three rooms and one facing W. was
two, all with moulded cornices. Three fireplaces retain
original bolection-moulded surrounds.
Lady Peckett's Yard
Lady Peckett's Yard runs S.E. from Pavement and is
connected to Fossgate by a lane at right angles. The
present name, from Alice Peckett, wife of the Lord
Mayor of 1701, who died in 1759, was used by 1782 and
originally referred to the open space into which the
lanes led. Their earlier names may have been Bacus gail
(the N.W.–S.E. lane) and Trichour gail (that leading to
Fossgate), first recorded in 1312 and 1301 respectively
and meaning Bake-house and Cheat's Lanes. One of
these may also have been called Osmond Lane in 1410.
See also Monuments (311) and (312).
Lead Mill Lane
Lead Mill Lane runs from Fishergate Postern to George
Street (the former Fishergate), beside the churchyard of
the demolished St. George's church. Although this is an
old lane, marked on all plans of York after 1610, no
name is recorded for it until after 1852. It received its
present name from the white and red lead manufactory
of Charles Liddell and Co., established by 1816 and
closed by 1838.
Lendal (Monuments 250–254)
Lendal, the continuation of Coney Street from St.
Helen's Square to Museum Street, was originally known
as Old Coney Street ('Aldeconyngstrete' in 1381–4) but
had received its present name by 1641 ('in strato Sancti
Leonardi anglice Lendall Street'). This is apparently a
contraction of St. Leonard's Lending (landing) Hill.
The water-gate of St. Leonard's Hospital stood near the
N.W. end of the street. Until 1538 the S.W. side was
largely occupied by the grounds, extending to the
Ouse, of the Augustinian Friary (21), founded in 1272.
The most notable building is the Judge's Lodging (250)
of c. 1720, built on or near the site of St. Wilfrid's
church, demolished between 1550 and 1587. The main
post office of York has occupied a building on the S.W.
side of Lendal since about 1710.
(250) The Judge's Lodging, No. 9 (Plates 113–115;
Fig. 92), was built by Dr. Clifton Wintringham
between 1711, when he came to York, and c. 1727 when
it was illustrated on Cossins' map. According to Drake
it stands on part of the old churchyard of St. Wilfrid's.
The house stands detached, compact and tall, unlike
any other in the city. A small two-storey service wing
was added to the S.E. in the 18th century. It became the
Judge's Lodging in 1806 and the service wing was
extended from two bays to five, and later in the century
a third storey was added to the whole wing. At the N.
corner of the house is a boundary stone marked St. W.
Inside, many of the rooms retain panelling with a
variety of mouldings (Fig. 93).
The house is of three storeys, raised on a basement, and is of
brick with some stone dressings under a double-span tiled
roof. The front (Plate 113) has a wide central bay projecting
slightly in front of narrower side bays, all defined by plain
brick pilasters; the top storey is treated as an attic with stringcourses below and above. The central entrance is now approached by two 19th-century flights of steps, which replace an
original single flight. The doorway is set in a stone centre-piece,
with flanking windows forming a Palladian motif with Ionic
columns; the arch over the doorway has a large key-block,
carved with a bearded face, and over all are heavy festoons
of fruit under a simple moulded cornice (Plate 113). Both the
central windows above have stone architraves. The other
elevations are plainly treated and the added wing has plain
hung-sash windows and a central doorway with semicircular
fanlight in the open pediment of a timber door-case.
The entrance hall (Plate 115) has the side walls divided by
Corinthian half-columns under a full entablature. The Dining
Room and Breakfast Room (Plate 115) are lined with fielded
panelling under full entablatures and have pilasters flanking
the fireplaces. The study is also panelled. A little room in the
W. corner now contains a modern staircase, leading up from
a small added modern entrance. The main staircase (Plate 115),
which only rises to the first floor, is oval on plan and has oak
balusters in the form of Ionic columns. The stairs are lit by a
Palladian window with Ionic pilasters between the lights
carrying a full entablature (Plate 114). The ceiling has a
central panelled area bordered by groined coving. On the
first floor groined plaster vaulting forms the ceiling to the
corridor (Plate 115). The front bedroom is lined with bolection-moulded panelling above a dado of sunk panels, reused
or partly reconstructed. The Drawing Room has simpler
panelling of applied mouldings. Most of the rooms have
original fireplace surrounds, many containing good early
19th-century iron grates. The secondary staircase has close
strings and simple turned balusters. On the second floor, the
ceilings have unusually large coves. The basement rooms,
including the kitchen, are covered by three-centred vaults.
They have been much modernised.
Fig. 92. (250) The Judge's Lodging, No. 9 Lendal.
Fig. 93. (250) The Judge's Lodging. Moulded Details.
(a) Front Bedroom.
(c) Drawing Room.
(d) Breakfast Room.
(e) Dining Room.
(251) Range of houses, Nos. 13–23 (odd), of two storeys and
attics in brick, has a dated rainwater head of 1766. It consists of
two 18th-century buildings with a common cornice of dentils
and brackets of late 18th or early 19th-century date. On the
ground floor are six shops, with modern fronts in a late 18th-century style. There is a straight joint in the brickwork of the
upper floor between the two properties. The windows of the
left-hand building are grouped, four and two. The right-hand
building is of lighter-coloured Flemish-bonded brickwork
and has five sash windows, all with flat gauged rubbed brick
arches and stone sills. There are three rainwater pipes with
decorated heads. The roof is of Westmorland slate, with
modern dormers. The rear elevation is completely modern.
Inside, few original fittings remain.
(252) House, No. 8 (Plate 6), which stands on part
of the site of the Augustinian Friary (21), is narrow,
three-storeyed, and mainly of the second quarter of the
19th century but incorporates remains of the 17th-century Lendal House, which was occupied by Sir
Richard Osbaldeston and later by Sir Thomas Widdrington, Recorder (died 1664), and then by Sir Thomas
Rokeby (Davies, 45). In 1704 it was bought by Thomas
Barstow and part of it remained in his family's possession for a hundred years, but part was apparently sold
to Alderman Baines soon after 1704 (see Nos. 10, 12,
14). The ground floor has been modernised for a shop.
The 17th-century remains are of two lofty storeys. The side
wall to N.W., which fronts onto an alleyway, has the lower
part faced with boldly rusticated brickwork. An original
chimney between front and back rooms was removed c. 1950;
heavy stop-chamfered beams and plain floor joists remain. The
roof includes 17th-century timbers, reset.
(253) 'The Boat House' and Stable, behind No. 8, are
both of two storeys in random-bonded brickwork, with
pantile roofs of late 18th-century date. They were leased to
William Hill, who ran Lendal ferry from April 1845 (YCL,
Pedigree of Hill Family). Considerable modern alterations
have been made to the house, and the adjoining stable range
is used as a boat repair workshop. The S. end of the stable is
built on part of the river wall of the Augustinian Friary (21).
(254) Houses, Nos. 10, 12, 14 (Plate 6; Fig. 94),
were built c. 1714 as a substantial pair, of three storeys
with basements and attics, by Henry Baines, alderman
(Lord Mayor 1717, 1732) (see No. 8), and are shown in
a drawing by Samuel Buck before 1725, and also in the
margin of John Cossins' map of c. 1727. Later, No. 14
was occupied by John Goodricke, the astronomer, who
died in 1786. The building was converted to shop and
business premises in the 19th century, and further conversion of the lower part of the N. W. house (No. 12)
from a shop to bank premises was carried out in 1959.
The offices above (No. 10) have been occupied since
c. 1880 by the successors in practice to the 18th-century
architect John Carr, now Messrs. Brierley, Leckenby,
Keighley and Groom. During the 1959 work in the
basement of No. 12, moulded stone jambs of a 15th-century doorway were uncovered, probably fragmentary remains of the Augustinian Friary (21) which
stood on the site.
The houses are each of four bays (Plate 6). A pedimented
stone porch with Tuscan columns dating from the late 18th
century replaces the original entrance to the Baines' house.
Above the ground floor the walling is of fine Flemish-bonded
brickwork with deep plat-bands at each floor, surmounted by
a dentilled eaves cornice, a replacement probably dated to 1774
by a lead rainwater head. The square-section lead fall-pipe,
secured by brackets decorated with a cartouche between two
columns, is of early 18th-century date (Plate 181). All windows
to the upper storeys have segmental arches of rubbed bricks;
those to the first floor were widened slightly in the 19th century. The back elevation was originally of eight bays but the
W. corner has been recessed and some modern single-storeyed
additions adjoin the N.W. house. The basement is above
ground. There are plat-bands of oversailing courses at each
floor level and all the segmental arched openings have red
brick dressings: the deep brick parapet has a moulded stone
capping. Both end elevations have curved gables rising above
Fig. 94. (254) Nos. 10, 12, 14 Lendal.
The interiors have been greatly altered, especially at the
ground floors, but the N.W. house retains the original staircase
with turned balusters, ramped handrail of oak and matching
dado; each step has a marked overlap and has panelled soffits
and ends (Plate 191). The ceiling above has leaf and paterae
enrichment to the coved surround (Plate 167). The saloon,
occupying the full width of the front, was refitted in the late
18th century in the 'Adamesque' style, including window
architraves, ceiling and cornice, and a fine entrance door in
mahogany with enriched surround (Plate 163). The second
floor is reached by a 19th-century staircase. The attics have
lime-ash floors. In No. 14, some of the rooms retain original
fielded panelling. The original stair to the first floor has been
removed: that to the second floor is similar to the lower
staircase in No. 10. In the basement of No. 12 is a staircase with
splat balusters (Fig. 11g).
Little Shambles, leading off (Great) Shambles at the
N.W. end and formerly continuing to the end of
Jubbergate, was truncated by the creation of Newgate
Market in 1955. Its name is first recorded in 1373. The
hall of the Butchers' Guild stood in an area called Gail
Garth at the end of Little Shambles. It was demolished
in c. 1813 and the site is now occupied by the market.
(255) House, No. 1, of three storeys and timber-framed,
with a pantiled roof, was built in the 15th century but has been
heavily restored. It has a gabled street front, with both upper
floors jettied out, and was probably originally two bays deep.
The original crown-post roof structure has been entirely
replaced, except at the gable-ends.
Little Stonegate (Monuments 256–258)
Little Stonegate, so-called since 1810, is the former
Swinegail or Swinegate, taking a right-angled course
from Stonegate to Swinegate (the former Patrick Pool).
Its line is said by Raine to be due to the former churchyard of St. Benedict. The old name, first mentioned in
1276, is from pigs sold or kept near the market place.
Ebenezer Chapel (26), on the S.W. side, was built for
the Primitive Methodists in 1851 but became a printing
works in 1901.
(256) House, No. 2 (Fig. 95), of three storeys with
cellars and attics, has walls of brick in Flemish bond, and
slated roofs. It is probably the house built between
1804 and 1823 by John Thompson (Chester Record
Office, EEB 9448).
On the front to the street are twin arched entrances, one for
a passage leading direct to a rear yard, the other to the house
doorway, which is deeply recessed and has panelled reveals.
The first and second floors each have two original sash windows
in flush frames. The interior is mostly original, but the single
ground-floor room has been opened out towards the N.W.
and incorporated into the modern restaurant adjoining. The
upper floors each have two rooms at the front; the staircase,
which is placed behind, is top-lit because of a building immediately to the rear, and has square balusters.
Fig. 95. (256) No. 2 Little Stonegate.
(257) Houses, Nos. 8, 10, of brick, were built as a pair
c. 1820–30, three storeys high with pantiled roofs, and with a
central through-passage serving a two-storey brick workshop
block at the rear. Each house has a transverse staircase between
front and back rooms.
(258) House, No. 1, of two storeys, has a front wall of
18th-century brickwork in Flemish bond, but has otherwise
been completely modernised.
Low Ousegate (Monuments 259–266)
Low Ousegate, divided from its continuation of High
Ousegate by the crossing of the main N.W.–S.E. street,
shows little sign of its antiquity. It was formerly much
narrower and there were houses standing between St.
Michael's church and the street frontage; one of these
houses was rebuilt in 1734 to widen the junction with
Spurriergate, and in 1769 the S.E. side of the street was
set back. In 1810–20, during the reconstruction of Ouse
Bridge, the whole of the N.W. side, which had consisted of timber-framed houses (Cave, Plate 4), was
demolished and rebuilt further back to double the width
of the street. A drawing for the new bridge by Peter
Atkinson junior (Brierley, Leckenby, Keighley and
Groom) shows a design for the facade of a range of
houses and shops on this side, but though the buildings
erected bear a general resemblance, being four-storeyed
and each two bays wide, they may not necessarily have
been designed by that architect. No. 2, immediately
beside Ouse Bridge, has recently been rebuilt.
(259) Houses and Shops, Nos. 4, 6, 8, a pair, are of stock
brick in Flemish bond. The windows have hung sashes in
flush frames, but most of the glazing bars have gone.
(260) Houses and Shops, Nos. 10, 12, a pair, are of facing
brick in Flemish bond, but No. 10 has been overpainted. The
windows have hung sashes in recessed frames and flat arches
of gauged brick. Between the shop fronts is a central doorway
with moulded architrave and half-round fanlight with radial
(261) House and Shop, No. 14, of facing brick, is very
similar to Nos. 10, 12, but the windows are of slightly taller
(262) House and Shop, No. 1, was built probably between
1810 and 1820 when Ouse Bridge was rebuilt. It is of three
storeys and a basement, which gives a four-storey elevation
over the lower river bank. There is a plain three-bay elevation,
with sashed windows above a modern shop front, to Ousegate,
and a five-bay elevation, with round-headed windows lighting the central secondary staircase, towards the river. The
main staircase, in the middle of the building, has stone steps
rising round an open well.
(263) Houses, Nos. 3, 5, are contemporary with No. 1 and
of the same height but comprise four storeys where No. 1 has
three. They have plain brick fronts above modern shops.
(264) House, No. 7, was built in the first half of the
18th century but incorporates early 17th-century
panelling. When Ouse Bridge was rebuilt in 1810–20,
the approach roads were heightened, and the front of
the house, originally of three floors with attics, was
rebuilt, lining through with Nos. 1, 3 and 5, with floor
heights related to the increased height of the new
pavement, and short flights of steps linking the front
rooms to the original staircase. At ground level, the
original staircase and chimney-breasts have been
removed to form a modern shop interior.
The front, of white-washed 19th-century brickwork, is
four storeys high, with two hung-sash windows to each floor
above a modern shop front, and a slate roof supported by a
modillioned cornice. The rear is of three storeys, partly masked
by a modern single-storey extension, with a closet wing
rising to first-floor level. The 18th-century brickwork incorporates a projecting band between first and second-floor
levels. The plan consists of single rooms at front and rear on all
floors, with chimney-breasts backing onto a transverse staircase. Cornices and fireplaces are of 19th-century date, but
early 17th-century panelling has been reused in the first-floor
back room and at the head of the stairs. The staircase, with
turned balusters and a close string, dates from the first half of
the 18th century.
(265) House, No. 11 (Fig. 96), with ground floor
converted to a shop, comprises a front block of three
storeys with attics, facing the street and built at the beginning of the 18th century, with a projection at the back,
containing a staircase, which joins it to a three-storey
block, rebuilt in the 19th century and incorporating an
earlier timber-framed structure, probably 17th-century.
The front block was refronted in 1776, the date on a
rainwater head, and contains two rooms on each floor
with corner fireplaces, now blocked. The front room
on the first floor is lined with bolection-moulded
panelling. The staircase has close strings, square newels
and turned balusters. The rear block has one room on
each floor, with intersecting ceiling beams, mostly
plastered over, and some other fragments of framing.
Fig. 96. (265) No. 11 Low Ousegate.
(266) House, No. 13, single-fronted, of three storeys and
attic, was built in the first half of the 18th century. The front
elevation has been drastically altered. Inside, the two lower
floors have been gutted for commercial use. The top floor
retains the original plan of front and back rooms with fireplaces backing against a central transverse staircase, as well as
some original fittings.