Newgate (Monuments 289–291)
Newgate continues the line of Jubbergate from Silver
Street to the junction of King's Square and Shambles.
Its name is first recorded in 1337, but presumably it was
a widening or paving of an already existing lane. Most
of its N.W. side is occupied by a row of cottages built
in St. Sampson's churchyard in 1337. At about the same
period a large house with a stone ground floor and
timber-framed upper storey was erected in the angle of
Patrick Pool and Newgate. Part of the S.E. side of the
street was destroyed in 1952–5, when the new market
place was laid out between Shambles and Parliament
(289) House, No. 6, now a shop and cafe, has two
upper storeys of modern brick above a stone-built
ground floor, incorporating some mediaeval masonry.
The original building was of 14th-century date, and a
drawing of 1846 (Proceedings of the Archaeological
Institute (1846)) shows it with a timber-framed and
jettied upper storey. The building appears to have
extended as far as Pump Court, and is shown as two
separate properties on the 1852 OS map. Part was used
in the 18th century as a meeting room for the Methodists, John Wesley preaching here in 1753, 1755 and
1759. It was used as a school between 1813 and 1816,
after which its status declined. The upper storey was
destroyed by fire c. 1880 and replaced by two brick
storeys. Extensive rebuilding took place in 1963.
Fragments of mediaeval masonry and a worn stone bracket
survive in the passageway to Pump Court, and a two-light
window survives in the Newgate elevation. This has shoulderheaded openings in a square frame and ovolo-moulded reveals
with hooks for shutters, beneath a worn hood mould (Fig. 106).
Fig. 106. (289) No. 6 Newgate. Window.
Pre-Conquest Stone: in Yorkshire Museum, found on the site
during building works in 1963. Fragment of cross-shaft
(Plate 23), of magnesian limestone, 24 in. by 12 in. by 10 in.;
flat at top, damaged base and two main sides; each face has a
framing arch to a major carved panel, three carved with animals and the fourth with a human head, each arch grasped by
two small figures, carved at the angles of the stone on adjacent
faces, with volute-ended wings touching above the arch heads;
probably 11th-century (Arch., civ (1973), 211, Plate XLIII).
(290) House, No. 11, on the corner of Newgate and Patrick
Pool, is of early 19th-century date but incorporates fragments
of earlier timber framing. It is three storeys high, of brick
above a modern shop, and has a pantiled roof. Both main
elevations have one hung-sash window at first floor and one
Yorkshire sash at second floor.
(291) Houses, Nos. 12–15, represent the surviving
elements of a row of timber-framed houses built in the
churchyard of St. Sampson in 1337 (CPR, 1334–38,
399), facing S.E. along Newgate. Nos. 12 and 15 each
represents one original tenement, whilst three more are
incorporated into Nos. 13 and 14. There were originally
probably ten or twelve tenements. Each tenement was
self-contained with one room up and one down, the
upper one open to the roof. The upper storey was
jettied on both front and rear elevations, but the front
of Nos. 13 and 14 was cut back and heightened in the
late 19th century. No. 12 also was heightened in the
early 19th century to provide attic accommodation.
Judging from No. 12, which has recently been restored,
each tenement was entered by a doorway at the N.E.
end of the front wall, and a steep straight staircase along
the internal N.E. wall gave access to the upper room.
All the windows are 19th-century or modern.
No. 12 forms a small shop, newly restored. On the S.E.
front the S.W. corner-post remains, carrying the ground-floor wall-plate. This beam now has its soffit exposed showing
only one mortice, which must represent a stud acting as the
S.W. jamb of a doorway at the N.E. end. The first floor,
which has a jetty of 1 ft. 4 in., is stuccoed. The line of the
original eaves level was marked until recently by a band of
lead flashing. The rear elevation has the ground floor masked
by outbuildings. The first floor is jettied and retains its timber
framing, above which is 19th-century brick heightening.
Internally on the ground floor the rear ground-floor wall-plate has mortices indicating framing as on the floor above.
At the N.W. end of the S.W. wall a large 17th-century
chimney-breast with curved wooden lintel to the fireplaceopening has recently been removed. On the first floor the
framing on the N.W. wall is exposed, and that on the S.E.
wall has been uncovered and restored to match. The two roof
trusses have been exposed on the second floor and in the roof,
the N.E. truss being numbered 'III' and the S.W. truss 'IIII'.
They show a type of crown-post construction (Fig. 6d) with
side and collar-purlins, the crown-post being 7 ft. 6 in. high
and the bay width 10 ft. 1 in.
Nos. 13 and 14 have a stuccoed 19th-century front, though
the line of the original eaves plate has been perpetuated by a
stuccoed band. At the rear the ground floor is masked. The
jettied first floor retains the main uprights of each bay and the
original wall-plate, as well as some of the framing in the N.E.
bay. The rest of the framing is replaced by 18th and 19th-century brickwork containing three 19th-century sash
windows, blocked internally. The interior has been greatly
altered and divided, but on the first floor there is a large 17th-century chimney-breast. In the present top floor, parts of the
various roof trusses are visible, each bay being about 10 ft.
No. 15 has a 19th-century and modern front, although
retaining the jettied first floor. The rear elevation, masked on
the ground floor, has a jettied first floor which retains its two
main posts and wall-plate. Peg-holes indicate framing as in
Nos. 12–14. The wall was heightened in the 19th century and
given a N.W.-S.E. gabled roof with a window to light an
inserted attic. The S.W. end (Plate 135), originally only a party
wall, is now exposed. It retains all its original framing (Fig. 107)
except perhaps on the ground floor, and both jetties are
clearly visible. Some of the timbers are numbered 'VIII'. The
continuation S.W. of the collar-purlin supported by a longitudinal brace has recently been removed. Internally only parts
of the two roof trusses are now visible.
Fig. 107. (291) Nos. 12–15 Newgate. S.W. end.
Ogleforth (Monuments 292–299)
Ogleforth runs parallel to the N.E. wall of the city and
of the Roman fortress from Chapter House Street to
Goodramgate. The name, 'Ugel's ford' or 'owl's ford',
first occurs in 1109–14. The ford may possibly refer to
a crossing of one of the several king's ditches or open
drains – certainly one ran between the street and the
rampart. The church of St. John del Pyke, sold by the
Corporation to Archbishop Holgate in 1553, lay on the
N.E. side of Ogleforth near its N.W. end; the parish
retained its identity until 1900. One of the gates of the
close crossed the street until c. 1700 when it was demolished and the boundary marked by a stone. Its
position was between Nos. 12 and 14. In the 15th
century, a lane led from Ogleforth to a rear entrance of
St. William's College.
(292) Houses, No. 1, and No. 14 Goodramgate, a
pair, small and of two storeys with cellars and dormered
attics, were built on an irregular site belonging to the
prebend of South Newbald in the second quarter of the
18th century. They incorporate a large chimney-breast
with a wide fireplace opening and some roof timbers
from an earlier house.
The houses have a brick plinth, a plat-band with oversailing
top course to first and attic-floor levels and a plain parapet.
Much of the plinth and the first-floor plat-band are covered by
the late 19th-century shop front of No. 14 Goodramgate.
There were two doors to Ogleforth, one of 19th-century date
and one earlier, but the earlier door has been replaced by a
window in recent alterations. The latter door had a flat arch of
gauged brickwork similar to that of the one ground-floor sash
window; three hung-sash windows to Ogleforth and two to
Goodramgate, all with arches similar to those on the ground
floor, light the first floor. There are two rainwater heads, both
with the date 1774 and initials IH for Jonathan Hopwood,
who acquired the lease in that year (YML, wj).
Inside, both houses have two main rooms on each floor,
although a single-storey wing extends the ground-floor
accommodation of No. 14. The staircases have square newels
with attached half-balusters, turned balusters with vase-shaped
features below the round knop and short columns above, and
square moulded and ramped handrails. They rise to the attic
with close strings around a rectangular well, except in the two
flights between ground and first floors of No. 14 Goodramgate. Here the long first flight rises three-quarters of the way
between the floors and it and the remaining short flight to the
first floor have an open string.
(293) Houses, Nos. 3, 5, 7, of two storeys and attics, were
built c. 1830 as a pair, with a through-carriageway between
them. Later in the 19th century the E. house was divided into
two. An earlier wall, of 17th or 18th-century date, is incorporated into the back. The windows have segmental heads
(Fig. 8g, h).
(294) House, No. 9, of two storeys, is an early 19th-century
reconstruction of an earlier brick-built house. The front is
stuccoed and the central entrance has a pedimented door-case;
a second doorway to E. leads to an open passage to the rear.
Each floor has principal front and back rooms to W. and
minor rooms and staircase to E. Many of the early 19th-century
(295) House, No. 11, of two storeys with cellars and
attics, built of brick and now roofed with Welsh slate,
is of early 18th-century date, extended to the rear in the
19th century and refitted in the late 18th and early 19th
centuries. The S. front elevation, of four bays in randombonded brickwork, has hung-sash windows with shallow segmentally-arched heads of single bricks. The
entrance, in the second bay from E., is of late 18th-century date; the eaves cornice, slate roof and dormers are
of the 19th century.
The house has an entrance passage with rooms to either side
at the front and rear: the N. rear rooms have been extended.
The original staircase, situated at the back, has heavy turned
balusters and square newels with attached demi-balusters, and
rises in short flights from the ground floor to the attics; it is
similar to that in No. 14 High Ousegate (234), built c. 1705.
(296) Cromwell House, No. 13 (Plate 144), of two
storeys with attics, was built in brick c. 1700. Roughly
square on plan, it consists of a front part with an architecturally ambitious facade rising to one pedimental
gable spanning the full width of the house, and a rather
lower back part, originally under two parallel roofs
with two gables to the rear; the S.E. gable and the roof
behind it were removed in the course of alteration and
extension in the 19th century. Between the two halves
of the back part is an earlier timber-framed partition,
reused or incorporated from an earlier building, and
the roof also includes much reused timber, suggesting
an earlier house on this site. The interior was remodelled
with a new staircase c. 1760 (Plate 193); further alterations and subdivision have destroyed the character of
the interior. The front was restored and the gable
rebuilt c. 1974.
The front elevation, of brick with stone dressings, is of five
bays between end pilasters, one destroyed. Above the second
floor there must have been an entablature across the full width
of the front, but this had been destroyed before the recent
restoration. The central doorway (Plate 159) has a bolection-moulded stone surround. The windows, one converted to a
doorway, are set in shallow brick projections with stone sills
and brick aprons; over the ground-floor openings are stone
cornices. Three small rectangular windows in the pediment
are flanked by an oval window at each end. The surviving
gable at the back has the storeys defined by moulded stringcourses and is finished with tumbled brickwork.
(297) The Dutch House, No. 2, of two storeys with
attics, built of brick with brick pediments over the
windows, is of mid 17th-century date. Two Dutch gables
with dormer windows were added to the front later in
the 17th century. The original purpose of the building
is uncertain but access to the first floor appears to have
been by an external staircase, suggesting that it may not
have been domestic. Many alterations took place in the
18th century and kitchen ranges in both the upper
floors show that by the beginning of the 19th century
it must have been divided into three tenements. By the
mid 20th century its condition was very dilapidated and
it was restored in 1958. Most of the front wall was
taken down and rebuilt.
The original windows were set in hollow-chamfered brick
dressings, not bonded to the walling, and had chamfered brick
mullions and transoms. The front comprised four unequal bays
(Plate 185): to the S.E., a narrow bay of plain walling fronted
the recesses at the side of the end chimney, with a small single-light window on the first floor; in each of the other three bays
was a small projection accommodating the main openings, a
round-headed doorway under an oriel window in the middle,
and windows of two or three-transomed lights in the bays to
each side. The two windows on the ground floor were surmounted by curved brick pediments but the original windows
had completely disappeared in the course of later modifications.
The upper windows were surmounted by triangular pediments
and the oriel in the middle was supported by brick corbelling,
forming an inverted pyramid. The added Dutch gables above
do not correspond with the bays below. The end walls are
finished with tumbled gables and the N.W. end had a doorway
with hollow-chamfered brick dressings to the first floor, which
had been blocked, and an original window to the attic. The
back wall is plain.
The ground floor formed two rooms with a fireplace at the
S.E. end; the fireplace had a segmental head of rendered brickwork. The first floor was one single room with a moulded
longitudinal ceiling beam carrying moulded joists. The walls
rise well above the attic floor and the central tie-beam was in
two parts, tenoned to the posts of a central doorway which rose
to a collar carrying clasped-purlins. Other trusses have collars
but no ties and one of the principals has been cut away for an
(298) No. 8, a three-storey brick building of c. 1820,
with a pantiled roof, may have been offices for Thackray's Brewery. The 1852 OS map shows it bisected by
a ward boundary, and half of the ground floor is only
accessible from St. William's College, whilst the
entrance doorway at first floor is the only access to that
A modern external staircase and balcony partly mask the
lower part of the N. elevation. The two upper floors form a
three-bay composition, with recessed brick panels flanking
and framing the entrance doorway. The elevation shows the
scars of a late 19th-century roof. The side elevations have two
sash windows to both floors on the E. above a ground-floor
tripartite window, and three sash windows to each floor on
(299) Nos. 16–20 (even) (Plate 120), a two-storeyed
timber-framed building, now of five bays but originally
extending further S.E., was built in the 16th century;
the lack of any evidence for partitions suggests that its
original purpose was not domestic. In the 18th century
the external walls were rebuilt in brick, except for the
jettied upper storey on the N.E. side. The N.W. end
was made into two cottages, one surviving as No. 5
Chapter House Street. The rest has been modernised by
the National Trust to form garages with a flat above.
The framing of the jettied front, visible inside, consists of
widely-spaced studs between posts braced from the sill-plate.
Surviving posts at the back show that there was no jetty on that
side. The roof trusses (Fig. 6l) have slightly cambered tie-beams and side-purlins supported by braced struts with curved
braces rising from the struts to the purlins.
Parliament Street (Monuments 300–305)
Parliament Street was built between 1835 and 1840 as
a new market place, and was the most ambitious improvement in central York in the first half of the 19th
By the early 19th century the existing markets in
Thursday Market (now St. Sampson's Square) and
Pavement had become inadequate, and in 1833 an Act
of Parliament was obtained to make a new market
(VCH, York, 488–89). The site was created by opening
up all the land between the two existing markets, which
up to then had been entirely built over, except where
Jubbergate cut across. Messrs. Pickersgill and Oates
won £30 for the best plan for the New Market Place
(as it was to be called) and J. P. Pritchett £20 for the
second best (Drake, Hudson MSS., p. 160). Demolition
of the old properties began in February 1834, and a plan
by Pickersgill and Oates, Surveyors, was issued in
August of that year, specifying how the elevations were
to be controlled; they were to be either three-storeyed
(32 ft. 3 in. high) or four-storeyed (40 ft. 9 in. high) and
the individual window heights were laid down.
Cornices were also to conform to a uniform profile
The new market came into use in July 1836, by which
time building of the new frontages was in progress. The
York City and County Bank (later the Midland Bank)
was started in 1835, but the majority of the smaller
properties seem to have been built in 1836–9, and many
archaeological finds were recorded in the local press.
The properties were mostly four-storeyed, and the
exact dimensions specified for the elevations do not
always seem to have been strictly adhered to. All have
brick walls and slated roofs, unless otherwise described.
There were shops on the ground floor, and usually
living accommodation over, frequently with the
narrow terrace house plan of large room at the front and
smaller room and staircase at the rear. The shops have,
without exception, been modernised and the upper
floors generally turned over to offices, with many consequent alterations; some original staircases remain, and
in many upper rooms moulded plaster cornices survive.
Some blocks of property have been wholly rebuilt.
(300) Nos. 4–12 and 14–21 are nine four-storey buildings,
and comprised eighteen houses and shops. No. 4 was rebuilt
in 1970; Nos. 5–7 form a three-bay composition with central
tripartite windows. Nos. 11, 12 were demolished 1971.
(301) Midland Bank, No. 13 (Plate 155), a three-storey building of brick with a stone front, was built in
1835 as premises of the York City and County Bank to
designs by P. F. Robinson and G. T. Andrews (YG,
30 May 1835). Early in the 20th century a large addition
was made and the interior was remodelled. The bottom
storey was rusticated, with a central entrance recessed
between Doric columns (Plate 161). The two upper
storeys were divided into five bays by Roman Doric
pilasters surmounted by an entablature. An original
staircase remained; it had decorative cast-iron balusters.
(302) Nos. 23, 24, 28–30 are of three storeys.
(303) Nos. 31–9 are of four storeys.
(304) Nos. 44, 45 were built as offices for the Yorkshireman
to designs by J. B. and W. Atkinson. The front was five bays
wide with round-headed windows on the first floor, but only
two bays remain; three bays were demolished between 1950
(305) No. 46 is of four storeys, two bays wide.
Patrick Pool (Monuments 306, 307)
Patrick Pool is now only a short street leading N.W.
between Newgate and Church Street, but the name
formerly also applied to its continuation, called Swinegate since c. 1600. Whether the 'Patrick' is derived from
a personal name or from an earlier dedication of St.
Sampson's church, the 'pool' was perhaps due to subsidence in the Roman bath-house which extended under
the street or to blockage in the sewer which ran approximately on the line of Swinegate. 'Patricpol' is first
recorded c. 1200, described as impassable in 1249, as
needing draining in 1576 and as a place where herbs
could be gathered in c. 1525.
(306) House, No. 2, of mediaeval date, was built as a
timber-framed structure of two storeys. It was refronted in brick in the late 17th century and remodelled
internally by Joseph Hewan c. 1767 (YCA, E94, f.88).
On plan it comprises an entrance hall and front room
with a chimney behind, and a narrow room behind the
chimney. Little of the original framing is now recognisable. The late 18th-century staircase is of simple
Chinese fret design.
(307) Building, adjacent to St. Sampson's church
(Plate 122; Fig. 108), is of three storeys and attics,
timber-framed with the upper storeys jettied on both
the long elevations, and of three bays with no evidence
for any internal partitions or heating. It was probably
built in the late 16th century and its modern use as shops
and warehouse may reflect its original purpose though
its proximity to St. Sampson's church suggests that it
may have had some social or ecclesiastical function. In
the 18th century it was used as stables, later converted
to a warehouse with corn chambers above (YCA, E93,
f. 115; E97, ff. 252–252v).
At the S. end, the ground floor projects to fit below the
jetty of the end tenement of the Newgate range (Monument
290). The walls have been partly rebuilt in brick; the original
framing had ogee down-braces in each bay (Fig. 3j) and
irregularly-disposed windows, two to the W. on ground and
second floors and two to the E. on the first floor. The attic, an
original feature, has a floor of lime-ash plaster. The claspedpurlin roof has the two internal trusses designed to provide
through access: on each side the purlin is carried by a short
horizontal member tenoned into a queen-strut between tie-beam and rafter. The building was restored c. 1960, after a
period of considerable decay.
Pavement (Monuments 308–316)
Pavement, one of York's two ancient market places,
extended between the churches of All Saints and St.
Crux as a wide street, but its S.W. end has been transformed by the formation of Parliament Street in 1836
and by the extension of Piccadilly in 1912. The name,
with the meaning of a metalled or paved area, is not
recorded until 1329; before then, it appears in documents
as the street of Marketshire, one of the seven shires or
wards of York mentioned in 1086. By this date, All
Saints' church already existed, as did that of St. Crux
at the cross-roads with Colliergate and Fossgate. Both
once had far larger churchyards than now remain, with
rows of houses built upon them in the 14th century. The
row S. of St. Crux church, known as Hosier Row or
Lane, was demolished in 1769, followed by the church
itself in 1887. Houses erected E. of All Saints in 1336
were pulled down in 1671 and replaced by a market
cross, demolished in 1813. The chancel of All Saints'
church was also removed in 1782 and strips of the churchyard to N. and S. were added to the streets in the 17th
century. The parish was wealthy – thirty-nine mayors
of York are said to have been buried in the church – but
only on the S.E. side of Pavement is there one survivor
of a once splendid row of timber-framed houses formerly extending across the end of Piccadilly.
Fig. 108. (307) Building in Patrick Pool.
(308) House, No. 19, was built in the late 18th
century on a wedge-shaped site, probably by William
Wynn, bricklayer, freeman in 1758, who divided a
larger property into two tenements; the adjacent
tenement was No. 26 Shambles (431). The new house
and shop were occupied by Robert Braithwaite, butcher,
in 1773 (YCA, E94, f. 139). The house had a five-bay
wide, stucco-rendered front elevation with later
ground-floor shop, and a slated roof. The staircase had
a close string and a Chinese fret balustrade. Demolished.
(309) House, No. 6, narrow and of three storeys with
cellars and attics, was built at the beginning of the 18th
century with one front and one back room on each
floor. In the cellar are earlier walls, one of stone probably of late mediaeval date and incorporating a carved
stone of the 12th century, which may be a survival from
the late 14th-century rebuilding of the nearby church
of All Saints. Below the cellar floor, excavations by the
York Archaeological Trust revealed a pre-Conquest
timber-framed building used as a leatherworkers' shop
(P. V. Addyman, 'Excavations in York', Ant. J., liv
(1974), 218–24). The house has been much altered for
modern commercial purposes and the ground floor
completely gutted. Behind the house, and originally
free-standing, is a small building of two storeys and
attics, with a large kitchen fireplace in the ground-floor
The front of the house has rusticated stone quoins and eared
architraves to the upper windows, restored in cement. There
are aprons under the top windows and a bold timber cornice at
the eaves. The upper rooms retain some original bolection-moulded panelling. In the rear building, the kitchen fireplace
is spanned by a stone arch; the rooms above have been
(310) House, No. 8, of three storeys with cellar and attic,
was probably built in the second quarter of the 19th century.
At the rear is a small 18th-century wing, which was extended
c. 1800 to give access to a new two-storey structure behind.
The front elevation, three bays wide, is of red brick with stone
dressings and has a modern ground floor. The interior retains
no old features, except some reused mid 18th-century balusters
in the attic stair.
(311) The Herbert House, Nos. 12, 14 (Plate 121;
Fig. 109), consists of an early 17th-century house, A,
facing the Pavement and a mid 16th-century house
behind, B, facing Lady Peckett's Yard, with a mid
17th-century link between the two. The building takes
its name from the family of Christopher Herbert,
merchant, Lord Mayor in 1573, who was the elder son
of Richard Herbert of Tintern and related to the Earl of
Pembroke (Skaife). He came to York some time before
1550 when he was admitted freeman of the City (SS,
xcvi (1896), 271) and in 1557 he bought from the
Company of the Merchant Adventurers a house facing
the Pavement, of which he was already a tenant
(YASRS, l for 1913 (1914), 216). This house stood on
the site of house A, and occupied a plot which was
enclosed at the back by land let to the neighbours on
each side, so that it was necessary to grant an easement
for drainage from the kitchen southwards across the
land rented by John Eyre, the tenant next W. When
Christopher Herbert died in 1590 his will showed that
he had acquired a second tenement, probably that of
George Hall which lay to the E. and S. and would thus
have included the site of the present Golden Fleece and
of house B. Christopher Herbert was succeeded by his
son Thomas, Lord Mayor in 1604, who died in 1614,
leaving two tenements, one occupied by his mother
and one by John Jaques, merchant. According to Davies
(p. 251), Roger Jaques held the property in 1633; he
became Lord Mayor in 1638, was knighted the same
year, and was Member of Parliament for York 1639–45.
By 1647 he had disposed of the Pavement property and
was living in Colliergate. House A was probably rebuilt
by John Jaques after the death of Thomas Herbert in
1614. In 1648 the N. end of house B was pulled down
and the two houses were joined by a new block containing a new main entrance and staircase; this entrance
was reached by a passageway under the W. end of
house A. In the late 19th century a single-storey extension was built in front of this mid 17th-century entrance
but its previous appearance has been preserved in
drawings by Cave of 1810 and by G. Nicholson of
The front of A to the Pavement (Plate 121) was
renovated in the late 19th century and the whole
property was drastically restored after its acquisition by
an insurance society in 1925. The ground floor of
house A has been opened out into a shop, which includes the bottom part of the mid 17th-century link
and its 19th-century extension (YAJ, xxxix (1958),
A. The house fronting the Pavement is of three storeys with
cellars and attics and has a jettied timber-framed front rising
to two gables, and a brick back. A drawing by Nicholson
dated 1827 shows a front with three gables, the third gable
evidently over the tenement occupied by George Hall in the
16th century and replaced by the present Golden Fleece p.h.
(312) in the 19th century. The N. front was shown plastered in
1827 but the plaster was removed to expose the framing in
1926. The ground floor has a modern shop window, except at
the W. end where there is the passage into Lady Peckett's
Yard and at the E. end where a doorway was inserted in 1925.
Mortices for studs, visible in the wall-plate under the jetty,
show that the entrance to Lady Peckett's Yard is not in its
original form. On the upper floors the framing is exposed; the
ends of the joists forming the jetties are masked by fascia
boards carved with vine-trail and arabesque patterns. The
gables are finished with barge-boards and finials and the finials
are repeated at the bottom of each slope of the roofs. The barge
boards are much restored; the finials are modern reconstructions and enclose triangular panels against the roof slopes.
These are modern but are evidently based on one finial and
panel shown at the W. end by Nicholson. The windows are
all modern but are said to reproduce the original ones.
Fig. 109. (311, 312) Herbert House, Nos. 12, 14 Pavement, and House in Lady Peckett's Yard.
The back is of original brickwork with modern windows;
the bricks are narrow with four courses rising 8½ in. A number
of straight joints indicate the positions of original window
jambs. The ground floor, gutted for the shop, shows only
stop-chamfered ceiling beams. The first floor has one large
room, now divided, occupying the full width of the front.
It is lined with reset 17th-century panelling, some brought
down from the second floor. The fireplace, in the S. wall, is
flanked by tapered wooden pilasters carved with a grape-vine
motif, above which modern scrolled brackets carry Ionic
capitals under an elaborate panelled and jewelled overmantel
(Plate 175) divided into three bays by Corinthian columns
under a frieze of decorated panels, interrupted by a modern
shield-of-arms of Herbert. Ceiling beams and joists are moulded and there are similar beams and joists in the back part of the
house. At the E. end of the front room is a chimney which
must have served the demolished tenement next door. On
the second floor much of the framing is exposed. In the front
rooms two tie-beams have been cut away; in the remaining
tie-beams are slots for ceiling joists showing that the ceiling
has been raised. The two parallel roofs are each divided into
four bays; the third bays from the front are narrow and
accommodate the chimney. The trusses consist of short principals supporting a collar, and not continuing above the collar.
House B, on the E. side of Lady Peckett's Yard, was built in
the mid 16th century. It is of three storeys, timber-framed,
with both the upper floors jettied on the W. front (Fig. 4c), and
was originally of four unequal bays. There were two larger
bays to the N. and two smaller bays to the S. but the larger
part of the N. bay was demolished, except for the E. wall, in
the mid 17th century.
The W. front has the ground floor mostly rebuilt in modern
brick but at the N. end is a four-centred door head cut in the
wall-plate; the framing above is exposed and partly restored.
The N. end is framed with reused 16th-century timbers. The
upper floors are now undivided by any partitions and there is
no evidence for any fireplaces or chimneys. Many of the
structural timbers show carpenters' marks and on the first
floor two ceiling beams are cased in plaster decorated with
fleurs-de-lys and a running pattern of leaves, flowers and
pomegranates. The roof is modern.
The N. bay of this house, mostly pulled down in the 17th
century, was replaced by a link between this house and the N.
house facing Pavement. This link was three storeys high and
contained a staircase approached directly from the yard by an
external flight of steps. The whole of the ground floor has
been absorbed into the Pavement shop and the upper walling
to the W. is carried on iron columns. It is partly of brick and
partly timber-framed, with part of a 17th-century carved
fascia board under the first-floor windows.
(312) House, at S. end of Lady Peckett's Yard (Plate
7; Fig. 109), was built in the mid 16th century. It is of
three storeys with attics and was originally timber-framed with jetties on the S. and E. sides. The E. end of
the house has been cut back and the present E. end is of
modern brick. The S. side has been reconstructed in
brick and the jetties under-built; on the ground floor
the walling is modern, on the first floor late 17th or
18th-century and on the top floor early 19th-century.
The N. elevation was refaced in brick in the late 17th
century when a new wing to the N. was added, probably by John Peckett, Lord Mayor in 1702.
The N. and W. elevations, facing Lady Peckett's Yard, have
a bold brick string-course at the second floor and a heavy
timber cornice with scrolled and foliated consoles at the eaves.
In the W. elevation to the later wing the upper floors have
restored casement windows, each of two transomed lights, and
every floor also has a blocked oval window with raised brick
surround. The N. elevation of the older block is pierced by an
open passageway formerly framed by timber pilasters and
entablature, and each of the upper storeys has a window of
three transomed lights, the upper part of each centre light
being arched (Plate 185).
The interior of the main part of the house has been stripped
of partitions and fittings. Drawings of 1917 show 17th-century
panelling, fireplaces and elaborate overmantels, all now gone.
Some of the original framing is exposed, including the dragon-beams necessitated by the jetties on two adjacent sides, to S.
and E. The roof is divided into three bays by two trusses with
short principals reaching only to the collar. In the N. wing is
a broad staircase with moulded close strings, square newels,
bulbous turned balusters and heavy moulded handrails (Plate
189). The ground-floor room is lined with early 18th-century
panelling in three heights and in the E. wall is a semicircular
display cupboard with scrolled brackets under the shelves.
The fireplace surround has been removed, showing that a
17th-century fireplace, 5 ft. wide with chamfered brick jambs
and arched head, was narrowed to 3½ ft. in the 18th century.
On the second floor there is more early 18th-century panelling
and a fireplace surround of the same period (Plate 178). The
roof is divided into three bays by trusses having cranked short
principals, rising vertically from the attic floor to the wall head
and continuing parallel with the roof slope to collars carrying
the purlins (Fig. 7w).
(313) The Golden Fleece Hotel, No. 16, of three
storeys, built of Flemish-bonded brickwork above a
completely modernised ground floor, has a roof of tiles
above a modillioned cornice. The first and second
floors are each lit by a single tripartite sash window
beneath a stucco head marked with imitation stone
joints. The building probably dates from the second
quarter of the 19th century and must be later than a
drawing by George Nicholson of 1827, which shows a
timber-framed gabled house of three storeys plus attics
on the site, part of a range facing Pavement of three
gables width, of which two now survive to S.W.,
forming the present Herbert House (311). On the OS
map of 1852 the building appears as the Golden Hart p.h.
A covered alleyway along its S.W. side led to a rear
yard, from which a wider covered exit led to Lady
Peckett's Yard. Into this alleyway, now incorporated
into the building as an enclosed passage serving bars at
front and rear, projects the timber-framed jetty of a
building at the rear of the Herbert House complex
(311), house B.
(314) Offices and Shops, Nos. 18–22, of three storeys,
includes a house built in the early 18th century. In 1893 the
property was partly rebuilt and a new front applied to the old
house, with decorated panels in wood framing; the interior
was also remodelled. An 18th-century brick gable remains at
the back and the roof retains original kerb-principal trusses.
(315) House and Shop, No. 24, of three storeys and attic,
was built c. 1800. It occupies a narrow site and is shown in a
painting by T. White of 1802 as having a shop front on the
ground floor. Above are bay windows of shallow projection
with canted sides. The eaves cornice is not original. The
interior has been very much altered.
(316) House, Nos. 26, 28 (Plate 142), now two
tenements of three storeys with attic, was built c. 1700,
incorporating the remains of an earlier timber-framed
structure. Early in the 19th century an L-shaped building was added at the back; this includes a massive
chimney-stack which probably survives from an earlier
building. The front part now has shops on the ground
floor and has been extensively refitted above.
The front is in five bays, with the centre projecting slightly;
it has a stuccoed band at second floor and a later timber cornice
at the eaves. On plan, a through-passageway separates the two
shops; the first floor has two front rooms and, contained in a
back wing, a third room and a staircase with close string and
bulbous balusters, which has been rearranged. A timber post
and a stud are visible on the second floor in the front part.
The later part of the building gives three good rooms on each
House, No. 30, see Nos. 55, 56 Fossgate (178).
Peasholme Green extends from The Stonebow to
Layerthorpe Bridge and is now part of a busy route
showing little sign of its origins as 'a water meadow
where peas were grown'. The name is first recorded in
1269, and in 1420 it was called 'the high street of
Peasholm'. 'Peseholme grene' occurs in 1563. Until the
creation of The Stonebow in 1955, it appears on the
plans of York as an elongated triangle with its apex,
sometimes called Union Street from Union Buildings E.
of St. Cuthbert's church, at Layerthorpe Bridge, and its
base to the S.W. Aldwark and St. Saviourgate led into its N.W. side and from its S. angle opened a square on
the site of the church and churchyard of All Saints, first
mentioned in 1200 and largely demolished in 1590. This
square was used as a hay market during the 18th and
19th centuries but is now a car park. St. Cuthbert's
church (5) and St. Anthony's Hall (39) on the N. and
the Black Swan p.h. (317) on the S. side are the only
remains of the mediaeval past of Peasholme Green.
St. Anthony's Hall, built in 1446–53 for St. Anthony's
Guild, was later used as a meeting place for various craft
guilds, as a house of correction, and as a school. Its
chapel replaced one dedicated to St. Martin in a place
called Hickneld Hackneld, mentioned from 1272 to
1433. The cemetery found to the W., between Aldwark
and St. Saviourgate, was probably associated with St.
(317) The Black Swan, p.h. (Plate 126; Fig. 110), of
two storeys and attics, is partly timber-framed, partly
of brick, and has tiled roofs. The central block is a pair
of framed ranges with gable-ends towards the street,
built in the later 16th century though incorporating
earlier framing in the S. wall; it may have been built by
Sir Martin Bowes in 1560 (Country Life, 11 Mar. 1922,
341). In the early 17th century a framed range of two
storeys and semi-attic with gables facing N. and S. was
built behind, and a further addition beyond was built
in brick in 1670 by Sir Henry Thompson, Lord Mayor
in 1663 and 1672. On the S. side of the original block
is a lower wing, basically 17th-century but much altered.
A wing on the N. side was built c. 1940, and there are
modern outbuildings at the rear. The building has been
a public house under its present name since at least 1850.
The central part of the street front has a jettied first floor and
twin gables. The timber framing, concealed by plaster in the
19th century, is now exposed though heavily restored; it
consists of thin studs only, without diagonal bracing. Two of
the ground-floor posts are reused earlier work. The mullioned
and transomed windows are modern, though reproducing in
general appearance original ones which survived until 1827,
when they were sketched by G. Nicholson (YCAG), and had
been replaced soon afterwards by large sashes with an unusual
number of small panes. The front door has applied mouldings,
forming borders around two squares each containing a
lozenge. The gables have barge-boards, carved with vine trails,
and pendants. The lower wing to the S. has modern imitation
framing on the first floor and a large blocked dormer also with
carved barge-boards and pendant. The gabled N. wall of the
early 17th-century addition to the rear is plastered and has two
jetties, though the floor level of the semi-attic has been raised
leaving the projecting beams at each end of the jetty in the
original position. On the ground floor is a window with
17th-century mullions. The S. wall of the same range was
rebuilt in brick in the 19th century. The N. wall of the brickbuilt addition of 1670 has two windows with rusticated plaster
reveals. The gabled E. wall has pedimented heads surviving
from two windows, segmental on the first floor, triangular on
the gable, though the openings have been reduced in size.
There is a moulded brick string at attic-floor level. The S. wall
has a row of small blind arches in brick on the lower storey.
The back wall of the S. wing is gabled and also of c. 1670, with
a triangular pedimented window on the upper storey.
Fig. 110. (317) The Black Swan p.h., Peasholme Green.
Inside, there are several good features of the late 17th
century. The entrance passage (Plate 188) has three doorcases;
two on the N. wall have plain pilasters supporting entablatures
with pulvinated friezes, and contemporary doors; one on the
S. wall has a bolection-moulded surround with heavy cornice
above and a door of six fielded panels. The staircase (Plate 189),
rising from the same passage, has three flights around an open
well, with heavy rails and strings, bulbous balusters and large
square newel-posts with ball-finials and pierced pendants. The
Smoke Room (Plate 170), on the ground floor, has reset early
17th-century panelling and a late 17th-century bolection-moulded fireplace with painted overmantel flanked by pilasters; the ceiling has a moulded plaster cornice continued along
the crossed beams, and in the E. wall is a fine early 18th-century niche. In the rear wing, the two rooms have large
fireplaces with timber bressummers and the ceiling joists are
exposed. On the first floor, the room above the Smoke Room
has late 17th-century panelling in two heights, painted in
trompe l'oeil depicting raised centres alternately rectangular and
oval; the pulvinated frieze around the whole room is painted
with laurel leaves and the fireplace overmantel has a painted
scene with figures. The roof structure of the original block has
A narrow alley between Market Street and High
Ousegate with two branches at the S.E. end was called
Peter Lane Little from 1327, after the church of St.
Peter the Little. This is first mentioned c. 1125 and was
sold as redundant in 1549, although its tower was still
standing in 1567. It stood to the N.E. of the N. branch
of the lane. The S. branch was known as Pope's Head
Alley in Drake's time. At right angles to Peter Lane and
still traceable from short discontinuous lengths was
another lane continuing the line of that still running
down towards the Ouse beside St. Michael's church,
Spurriergate, and linking it with the alley N. of the site
of St. Crux church and thus to St. Saviourgate. It was
blocked in 1573–4, when known as Haymonger Lane,
and may have been the St. Swithin's Lane mentioned
in 1436, perhaps named from a vanished church with
which the late Saxon cemetery found under Pavement
in 1825 may have been connected.
(318) No. 1 consists of three houses of different dates
now forming one property. The N.W. house is one
surviving bay, about 15 ft. square, of a longer timber-framed range, probably of the 16th century; it is of two
storeys, with a jetty towards the street. Much of the
original framing remains, with curved braces up to the
first-floor beams, and from first floor up to the front
posts and from back posts to tie-beam. The roof is of
collar-rafter construction with purlins low on each side
supported by curved struts. The other two houses, built
of brick in the early or mid 19th century, are three-storeyed.