Petergate (Monuments 319–372)
Petergate runs from Bootham Bar to King's Square and
preserves the line of the via principalis of the Roman
fortress. Its name, from St. Peter's Minster, is first
recorded in 1203. Apart from a short part of the S.E.
end, the street lay in the parish of St. Michael-le-Belfrey
and within the Liberty of St. Peter. The distinction
between High Petergate, W. of the junction with
Stonegate and Low Petergate to the E., was made as
early as 1736 but did not become usual until about 1800.
Burials found in the street, at the junction with Stonegate, indicate that the pre-Conquest cemetery excavated
under the S. transept of the Minster extended there.
The distortion of the street from the Roman line, most
pronounced around the junction with Grape Lane, may
go back to destruction caused by the Danish conquest
in 866. The N.E. side of Petergate was occupied by
houses built against the precinct wall of the close of
1283, pierced by the two gateways opposite Duncombe
Place and Stonegate. A dark lane, 60 ft. long, from
Petergate to Minster Yard, blocked in 1300 as a haunt of
criminals, may have continued the line of Grape Lane.
Towards the S.E. end of the street, Hornpot Lane still
exists, leading to Holy Trinity church. Its name, from
pits used by hornworkers, is attested from 1295 and it
was described, but not named, in 1257. Some excavated
hornworkers' pits and the history of the trade centred
here were studied by Mr. L. P. Wenham (YPSR (1964),
23–56). Glover Lane, mentioned in 1285, was apparently
identical with Girdlergate, now Church Street. In spite
of demolition to open up the W. facade of the Minster
and of 18th and 19th-century rebuilding, Petergate
retains several houses which give some idea of its
mediaeval appearance. Nos. 62 and 64 Low Petergate
(344, 345) incorporate parts of the Talbot Inn, described
by Drake as 'one of the most ancient Timber Buildings'
(319) House, No. 4 (Plate 142), of four storeys and
single-fronted, was built in 1782 by Joseph Horner of
Masham, butter factor. An earlier house on this site was
sold in 1743 by Samuel Towell of Cawood, bricklayer,
to William Gibson of York, gardener. Horner bought
the property in 1782 and a deed of 1786 refers to the
demolition of the earlier property. The house bears the
date 1782 on a rainwater head; the elevation has features
in common with No. 18 Blake Street (77), which was
designed by Peter Atkinson senior in 1789.
The front has a plat-band at first-floor level and narrower
bands joining the window-sills of the two lower storeys; at the
eaves is a small block cornice. The entrance, set to one side,
has a timber door-case with fluted side pilasters and open
pediment, enriched with festoons, over a semicircular fanlight.
The hung-sash windows are set under flat arches of gauged
brick. Inside, a transverse staircase, placed between front and
back rooms, has thin turned balusters and open strings. The
principal rooms have moulded cornices; the front room on
the ground floor retains the original fireplace surround and a
square-headed niche with shaped shelves. The brick floor of the
cellars, disturbed for plumbing work, was found to be laid on
a network of brick channels leading to a drainage sump.
(320) House, No. 8, of two storeys and attics, has
brick walls and pantiled roofs. The fabric is basically of
the late 17th century, with many later alterations, but it
contains the remarkable survival of an early 14th-century scissor-braced roof truss, indicating that this is
the site of an important mediaeval building, probably a
hall, aligned along the street. It belonged to the prebendary of Fenton. The interior planning is irregular
and probably of fairly late date; apart from the roof
structure, there are no fittings earlier than the 19th
century. The sole 14th-century truss (Fig. 6b) is 12½ ft.
from the N.W. end of the range, and has a span of about
20 ft., not exactly measurable. Though not complete,
it is quite well preserved and consists of rafters, braces
and collar, all about 5 in. square in section. The braces
and collar are halved over each other and have notched
lap joints with the rafters. The roof to the S.E. of the
truss is of the late 17th century, and the N.W. end
modern. The front wall has a modern shop front, and
sash windows on the first floor. The brickwork is
painted, and contains later and modern patchings. In
the back wall, a large opening the full height to the
eaves was made in the early 19th century, and a new
wall built behind to make a small open area, probably
for Francis Bulmer, a merchant, who converted what
was then a coach-house and stable into a countinghouse and warehouse (YML, wl; wm).
(321) The Board, p.h., No. 10, of three storeys,
attics and cellar, is predominantly 18th-century in
appearance, with front and back walls of brick, but
contains elements of an earlier timber-framed building.
Very little framing is directly visible, but there are
cased beams inside, and the S.E. external side wall is
framed on the first and second floors. The framed
structure, which occupies the S.E. half of the existing
house, is probably of two periods: an earlier range
along the street frontage and a secondary block behind.
No framing can be detected in the N.W. half, though
this has an unusual plan with large closets beside and
behind a large chimney-stack, which may suggest an
earlier origin. A major reconstruction was undertaken
in the early 18th century and fittings survive from this
period, though there has been subsequent alteration,
especially on the ground floor. The property belonged
to the prebendary of Fenton, and the passage along the
S.E. side of the house originally gave access to the
gate-house of the prebendal house.
The front elevation has a slight change of alignment at the
centre; the first and second floors each have three irregularly-spaced sash windows and there is evidence that originally there
were four. The ground floor has arched windows and glazed
brick facing of the late 19th century; the eaves cornice is of the
same date. The back elevation has a projecting wing with a
hipped pantiled roof and modern windows. The S.E. side wall
has a ground floor partly of brick, which corresponds to the
front room inside; the remainder is of magnesian limestone
and contains a blocked window with splayed surround. The
wall above is framed and plastered and has a first-floor jetty
projecting about 1 ft. That part of the jetty over the brick wall
is supported by only four widely-spaced joists and may have
been formed as a later alteration. A post is visible at the front
corner on the first floor. Inside, the ground floor is modernised
but the upper floors contain some early 18th-century fittings.
These include one room lined with fielded panelling on each
of the upper floors, and a staircase with turned bulbous
balusters, square newels and ramped handrails which terminate
with carved scrolls on each flight. A large 16th-century internal
chimney has diagonally-set shafts, now only visible inside the
attic. Beneath the yard, at the rear, is a cellar with an 18th-century segmental barrel vault of brick.
(322) Range of houses, Nos. 12–18 (even), of timber-framed construction, was built in the early 20th century as a
replica of a two-storeyed late mediaeval building which
previously stood on the site. It incorporates some reused
timbers, presumably from the earlier building.
(323) Houses, Nos. 20, 22, form a four-bay range,
three storeys high, of Flemish-bonded stock brick with
hung-sash windows. The two houses were built for the
Dean and Chapter by the Minster stoneyard staff under
the supervision of Mr. Taylor, the head mason, and
were leased in 1840 to Richard Ealand and William
Thackray (YML, H10(2), ff. 202–4; wn, ff. 136–8).
Originally each property had an entrance doorway to
the left of each ground-floor window, one doorway
leading to a through-passageway and one to a passage
serving the staircase. No. 20 has an L-shaped threeroom plan, No. 22 a smaller two-room plan. A cellar
under No. 20 contains 18th-century brickwork.
(324) Houses, Nos. 24–36 (even), and No. 1 Precentor's Court (Plate 8; Fig. 111), forming a group of
seven on a fan-shaped plan, were designed by J. P.
Pritchett in 1838 (plans in YML) and incorporated an
early 18th-century house at each end; the design included a public house, now the York Arms, No. 26, and
a shop. Pritchett's work involved the demolition of the
old Peter Prison and the mediaeval Minster Gate. The
houses are of three storeys and cellars; No. 24 is lower
than the later houses. Nos. 26–36 and the side of No. 1
Precentor's Court facing the Minster are all faced in
uniform 19th-century brickwork. The front to Precentor's Court retains the original thinner bricks of the
18th-century elevation and has flush-framed windows
under gauged brick heads, and a moulded door surround, but a later modillioned eaves cornice. There are
late 18th-century staircases in the two earlier houses and
also, reused, in part of No. 26 and in No. 32 High
Fig. 111. (324) Nos. 24–36 High Petergate and No. 1 Precentor's Court.
House and Shop, No. 38, see No. 1 Minster Gates
S.W. side (Plate 5):
(325) House and Shop, No. 1 (Plate 5), of three
storeys and cellars, is now in single occupation but was
formerly a pair. It was built in the early 19th century,
probably incorporating some earlier work, and was
altered and refronted in 1834, when foot passages were
made to each side of Bootham Bar (York II, 117). It was
the house of John Tilney, marble and stonemason,
whose yard behind, first entered from the rear lane,
after 1842 had direct access to St. Leonard's Place,
through a gateway designed by G. T. Andrews (YCA,
B2). The house has a front elevation two bays wide with
shop fronts of 1834; at the rear are large glazed doors
giving access to the yard and thence to what was
probably a workshop. Below the eaves is a stone inscribed IOHN TILNEY. Inside, the first-floor front
room in the N.W. part appears to have been a kitchen
and has a stone-flagged floor. The ground floor was no
doubt always devoted to commercial use.
(326) House, No. 3 (Plate 5), double-fronted, was
built of brick in the early 18th century but contains
fragments of an earlier timber-framed structure,
including a large chimney between front and back
rooms. Some alterations were made in the 19th century
but the building was more drastically altered c. 1970. At
the front the house is three storeys high but at the back
the second-floor rooms are attics and the roof has two
The front elevation has plat-bands at the upper-floor levels.
Originally there were five openings to each floor, but the
ground floor has been much altered; on the first floor one
window now replaces two, and on the top floor one window
is blocked. The plat-bands are repeated at the back, where the
windows have also been much altered. On plan the house is
now rectangular but the earlier framed house may have been
L-shaped. At the back of the chimney the original fireplace is
blocked; the opening was more than 9 ft. wide, spanned by a
stop-chamfered timber bressummer. On the first floor, in the
larger front room is a marble fire surround of the early 18th
century, containing an early Victorian iron grate; the smaller
front room is lined with 17th-century panelling in five heights.
The staircase is modern.
(327) House, No. 5 (Plate 5; Fig. 112), originally a
three-storey timber-framed structure of 16th or 17th-century date, with two gables towards the street, was
rebuilt in brick about 1720–30, of three storeys with
attics and a small cellar, with a hipped roof towards the
street, a gable at the rear, and a lower hipped staircase
block projecting from it. In the early 19th century
extensions were added, flanking the staircase block.
The front elevation, of lime-washed brick, four bays wide,
has moulded brick bands between the floors, a moulded
dentilled cornice, and hung-sash windows with flush frames.
Three first-floor windows were replaced in the early 19th
century by a tripartite bow window. The early 19th-century
doorway has a semicircular fanlight, flanking pilasters, and
scroll brackets supporting a dentilled cornice. The rainwater
head is marked MT 1763, possibly for Mrs. Thornhill (YCA,
E101, Jan. 1764; Guildhall, Parcel 448, July 1785). The brick
back elevation originally had flush-framed sash windows with
segmental heads on every floor and lighting the staircase. The
plan is unusual. On the ground floor, the staircase, contained
in the spacious entrance hall (Plate 188), is of the early 19th
century, with plain square balusters. At the back of the house
a smaller staircase, of the late 18th century, with turned
balusters, leads to the second floor. The first-floor front room
is fully panelled and has fluted Ionic pilasters flanking the
fireplace and overmantel.
Fig. 112. (327) No. 5 High Petergate.
(328) House, No. 7 (Plate 5), of three storeys, consists of a small timber-framed part at the front, built
possibly in the 16th century, behind which is a later
addition of 17th or 18th-century origin, but the whole
building was altered and refitted in the early 19th
century. None of the framing is visible externally or
internally, but both upper floors are jettied on the front.
The plan is now typically Georgian, with a central
transverse staircase between single rooms, to front and
rear, which have the fireplaces backing onto the staircase.
The front elevation is rendered and has 19th-century sash
windows, cornice, and hipped, slated roof. The gabled back
wall is of the 19th century and there is a large modern addition
extending further to the rear. Inside, there is a stop-chamfered
ceiling beam in the back room on the ground floor; otherwise,
all fittings are of the early 19th century and include a staircase
with square balusters.
(329) House, No. 9 (Plate 5; Fig. 113), is a large 17th-century double-gabled timber-framed building of three
storeys and attics, with an 18th-century two-storey
brick extension, shared with No. 11, at the rear. Above
a modern shop front, all storeys of the stuccoed N.E.
front elevation are jettied. Canted bays, rising through
the first and second storeys, were added in the late 18th
century. The double gables are lit by Yorkshire sash
windows. The rear elevation has been faced in brick.
The original fenestration, which included moulded brick
reveals, has been altered and now comprises irregularly-spaced flush-framed sash windows. A moulded brick
string between the second floor and attic has been cut
back. The rear wing, which masks the right side of the
rear elevation, has a brick string-course between the
floors and sash windows to the first floor.
There is a large transverse chimney-breast between front
and back rooms of the N.W. portion of the main building,
and a staircase in the S. corner, with a passage to the rear wing
on the ground floor skirting it. The staircase, of the second
quarter of the 18th century, has square-knopped turned
balusters, a close string, and a moulded ramped handrail. There
are some doors with six fielded panels of the same period.
Transverse beams are framed into the main axial beams.
Partition walls are of vertical studding, and the timber-framed
end walls have posts with downward braces and vertical studs.
There is a good Carron-type grate to an early 19th-century
ground-floor fireplace, and on the second floor another
Carron-type grate with a damaged stone surround of the
second quarter of the 18th century in the back room, and a
17th-century fireplace with a three-centred brick arch in the
main front room.
No. 9 Plan overleaf.
Fig. 113. (329) No. 9 High Petergate.
(330) House, No. 11 (Plate 5; Fig. 114), large, has a
seven-bay front of three storeys, with attics in a mansard roof. An earlier house on this site belonged to Sir
Edward Stanhope of Grimston in the 17th century, and
afterwards to Henry Swinburne, an eminent ecclesiastical lawyer. It was purchased by Sir Thomas Herbert
in 1665 and remained in the family until sold to
William Turner of Stainsby in 1723. The present house
was probably built shortly afterwards, incorporating at
the N.W. end an earlier passageway, entered by a doorway with a four-centred head of 16th or 17th-century
date. Alterations in the first half of the 19th century
included the addition of a semicircular projection, two
storeys high, to the back. The mansard roof is of the
late 19th century.
The front elevation is stuccoed and the storeys are marked
by string-courses. The central entrance is flanked by engaged
Doric columns carrying an entablature. The simple hung-sash
windows are of equal height in the two lower storeys but of
less height in the third storey. The back elevation has been
considerably altered. A slight projection in the centre contains
the main staircase, the windows to which are set under three-centred arches enclosing brick tympana. The semicircular
projection of the 19th century has three windows to each storey
with wrought-iron balconies to those on the upper floor.
The interior was extensively altered and refitted in the first
half of the 19th century. The entrance hall and staircase were
rearranged: Doric columns were introduced under a beam at
the foot of the 18th-century staircase, which was altered and
reset. The front room to the S.E. retains original 18th-century
panelling in two heights with dado rail and cornice, and a
fireplace surround enriched with egg-and-dart and scrolls.
Other simpler fireplace surrounds survive, one on each of the
first and second floors. In the attics, the head of the staircase
incorporates reused bulbous balusters of c. 1700.
(331) House, No. 13 (Plate 5), of three storeys and cellar,
was built early in the 19th century with one room on each
floor and the staircase behind. Additions were made in the late
19th and 20th centuries. The front elevation, of one bay, is of
brick in Flemish bond and has a later shop window. Inside,
some original fittings remain including the staircase with
square balusters, but all the fireplaces have been replaced. The
kitchen is in the cellar.
(332) House, Nos. 17, 19 (Plate 5), is of three storeys, built
of brick on a long narrow site in the late 17th century. It was
refronted c. 1840 and refaced at the rear in the late 19th century,
when it was sub-divided and a secondary staircase inserted to
serve the two lower floors at the rear. There is one room at the
front, a transverse staircase, and two rooms at the rear. The
fine late 17th-century staircase, continuous from ground level
to the attics, has a moulded rail, close string, and turned bulbous balusters.
Fig. 114. (330) No. 11 High Petergate.
(333) House, No. 21 (Plate 5), of three storeys with
a five-bay facade, was built in the early 18th century.
The front was altered c. 1800 and again more recently.
The interior has also been much altered: part has been
turned into a shop and part absorbed into the adjacent
Dean Court Hotel. Few fittings remain of earlier date
than the late 19th century.
Fig. 115. (334) No. 23 High Petergate.
The front elevation has a string-course at second-floor level,
above which the walling is recessed on each side of the central
bay. A wide plastered band and a small eaves cornice replace
an earlier deep cornice, under which was set a rainwater head,
still surviving, bearing the initials and date MC 1763, probably
for Matthew Coxen, documented in Petergate between 1746
and 1784. In c. 1800 the ground floor was divided by pilasters.
(334) House, No. 23 (Plates 5, 147; Fig. 115), was
built c. 1779, of three storeys with attics, four bays wide.
The front is in Flemish-bonded brickwork of fine quality,
with narrow, painted stone bands at the sill levels of the
ground and first-floor windows and broader painted
stone bands at the first and second floors. It has a pedimental entrance with fluted composite pilasters, a
lunette fanlight, and applied composition enrichments
to the tympanum and entablature blocks; at its side is an
iron torch extinguisher (Plate 160). The sash windows
have deep flat arches of fine gauged brickwork; those
to the ground floor have shutters with three fielded
panels. Above is a dentilled and modillioned cornice.
At the E. end is a lead rainwater head bearing the date
1780; a similar one to the rear elevation is dated 1779,
with the initials RT for Robert Thornton (YML, Subchanters Book 1752–85, 291), whose town house it was.
Internally, the house is well fitted and an exceptional feature
is the cantilevered staircase, which rises in a continuous curve
between floors, with slim turned mahogany balusters and a
mahogany veneered handrail (Plate 196). The E. side wall is
curved to the shape of the stairs and has round-arched niches
at intervals. Top lighting is provided by a glazed shallow dome,
the base of which is enriched with neo-classical plasterwork
in the 'Adam' style.
(335) Young's Hotel, No. 25, and Houses, Nos. 27,
29 (Plate 5; Fig. 116), of three storeys with cellars and
attics, were built c. 1700 for John Bowes and his son
George. Nos. 27 and 29 were complete by 1701 and
No. 25, of a different build, by 1707 (YML, Subchanters
Book 1698–1752, 25, 51, 72). The houses have been
considerably altered and refurbished, but No. 29 retains
its original staircase and all have original Dutch gables
on the rear elevation. No. 25 is of five bays with the
centre bay breaking forward, No. 27 of two only and
No. 29 of four. Although the plans of Nos. 27 and 29
interlock slightly, they appear always to have formed
The front elevations, of brick, have a rendered plinth, a
continuous plat-band at first and second-floor levels, and a late
18th-century modillioned and dentilled cornice. The doorways
are late 18th or early 19th-century replacements, and all the
houses have been refenestrated. On the rear elevation No. 25
has two curved gables with semicircular terminations and
Nos. 27 and 29 each have an ogee-gable with small triangular
pediment (Plate 136). Some original arches with three-centred heads of header bricks and recessed tympana remain,
but the windows beneath them have all been altered.
Inside, some party walls and partitions are of rough studwork, infilled with bricks set on edge; these are contemporary
with the present houses and not a survival from an earlier
timber-framed structure. Few original fittings survive. The
main feature of No. 25 is the 19th-century staircase with three
simple column-shaped balusters to a tread. In the round-headed window lighting the staircase between first and second
floors is some painted glass, depicting the arms of the City of
York and the Hanoverian Royal Arms, signed by Thomas
Hodgson, 1801. No. 27 was completely refitted in the early
19th century but in No. 29 the original staircase of c. 1700
remains. It rises to the second floor around a rectangular well
and has bulbous balusters and moulded string and handrail.
The square newels have pendants and attached half-balusters;
the acorn finials and the faceted strips on the newels appear to
be additions. The first flight to the attic has balusters like those
below, but the second flight has rectangular balusters and a
heavy square handrail. Two rooms on the first floor have
bolection-moulded panelling which has been modified or
reset. The front part of the houses is roofed parallel to
Petergate but the roofs of the rear range run at right-angles.
The roof construction is of principal rafters with roughly
shaped collars and staggered purlins.
Fig. 116. (335) Nos. 25, 27, 29 High Petergate.
(336) House, No. 31 (Plate 5), incorporates three
timber-framed buildings; the earliest is a 15th-century
L-shaped range, set back about 15 ft. from Petergate.
This area was filled in the 16th century by the addition
of a two-storeyed range, jettied to the street. At the
back of the messuage is a timber-framed block, two
storeys with attic, of late 16th or early 17th-century
date. This was approached by a passageway down the
E. side of the messuage, and was incorporated with the
rest of the house in the early 19th century by the construction of a small linking block. In 1712 Grace
Thompson had her entry fine lowered in consideration
of the great sum her husband, Leonard Thompson, had
spent on the tenement. He acquired the lease in 1693
(YML, Subchanters Book 1628–97, 301; 1698–1752,
101). Between 1724 and 1740 the property was called
The Red Calf (Subchanters Book 1698–1752, 198, 361).
The 15th-century range has one surviving crown-post truss
and an inserted 18th-century staircase. The rear block contains
17th-century run-through panelling.
(337) Houses and Shops, Nos. 33,35, of three storeys
and attics, consist of a long timber-framed range on the
street frontage and later additions with brick walls at
the rear. The framed range was probably two-storeyed
originally, as a cross-beam visible inside the first floor
is cambered, suggesting the tie-beam of a roof truss.
The date of the first build is uncertain, but the additional second floor and attic has a roof structure with
clasped side-purlins indicating a late 16th or early 17th-century date; a small area of framing on the second
floor has straight, downward bracing also characteristic of the latest phase of timber framing. The front
elevation is rendered, has jettied upper floors, and a
pantiled roof. The shop windows are late Victorian but
one early 19th-century door with arched fanlight survives; the upper windows are all sashed and include a
segmental bow on the first floor. The first phase of the
rear additions, built in the early 18th century, doubled
the depth of the range; it has external rendering, later
windows, and the roof is covered with slates. A few
contemporary fittings inside include two and threepanelled doors and the upper part of the staircase in
No. 35, with splat balusters; the lowest flight is of the
late 18th century. A small wing projecting further to
the rear of No. 33 was added in the early 19th century.
It is of brick in Flemish bond with a pantiled roof;
inside are reeded door and window architraves. The
staircase in No. 33, with square balusters, is of the same
N.E. side (Plate 6):
House and Shop, No. 40, see Nos. 2–8 Minster
(338) Houses and Shops, Nos. 42, 42A, 44, 46 (Plate
6), a range of three, with living accommodation behind
and above, were 'lately rebuilt' in June 1839 when the
owner of the adjoining property to N.W. was required
to rebuild his houses on the same line (YML, H10(2),
They comprise three three-storey single-fronted units with
uniform elevational treatment and are very similar in style to
Monument (273) to N.W. The front elevation has original
pilastered shop fronts to the ground floor and each unit has
one hung-sash window with stone sills and flat arches of
common brick to each floor above. The rainwater gutter,
carried on grooved brackets, is of the same pattern as that on
Monument (273). Inside, some simple fittings typical of the
(339) Houses, Nos. 48, 50 (Plate 6; Fig. 103), were
rebuilt for the Dean and Chapter in 1837–8, at the same
time that Nos. 8, 9 Minster Yard (279) were built, to
designs by J. P. Pritchett (YML, H10(2), 114; M/P Y/MY
594, 597, 1019/1, 1131/2). No. 50 formed one dwelling
with No. 8 Minster Yard and had offices on the ground
floor; No. 48 was a separate dwelling and had a shop at
the front. The two houses, as built, differ in some details
from Pritchett's plans.
No. 48, of three bays and three storeys, has some mediaeval
stonework in the cellar and the disposition of the stone walls
has influenced the shape of the present house. The house also
incorporates some early 18th-century material reused, including the front door, of ten bolection-moulded panels, and the
cellar staircase with bulbous balusters. No. 50, of four storeys,
is also of three bays but the third bay is set at an angle to
(340) The Adams House, No. 52 (Plate 6; Fig. 117),
of three storeys, cellars and attics, was built for the
Dean and Chapter in 1772. This date is on a rainwater
head under the crest of Dean John Fountayne, an
elephant proper (Plate 181). The 'large new house' cost
£1,353. 8s. 10d. and was leased in 1775 to John Smith,
verger, who let it to Silvester Richmond (YML, W2,
f. 82). The ground floor has been converted to a shop
and a former carriageway has been closed in to provide
an entrance to it; otherwise the house has been little
altered. The through-carriageway provided access to
the Deanery, which stood behind the house.
The front elevation, of brick with a stone plinth, has a continuous sill-band to the first-floor windows; at the eaves is a
wooden block cornice with dentils. The original entrance, with
semicircular fanlight under a pediment (Plate 160), has been
matched by a similar entrance in the blocking of the carriageway. Between them is a shop window made in similar style.
Above, the hung-sash windows are set under flat arches of
gauged brick. At the back the eaves cornice is of oversailing
brickwork; the staircase window is round-headed, with
arched glazing bars.
Inside, the ground floor has been somewhat altered. The
main staircase has open strings and turned balusters, the
secondary staircase similar, but simpler, balusters and close
strings. On the first floor the saloon, at the front, has moulded
chair-rails and cornice, and a fireplace with side scrolls and
frieze enriched with paterae and fluting. Many of the other
rooms retain original cornices and fireplaces of simpler design,
with fluting a prominent motif.
(341) House, No. 54 (Plate 6), of three storeys with
cellar and attic, was built in the second quarter of the
18th century. A wing was added at the back and the
house was refurbished in parts in the late 18th century,
at the same time as the adjacent house to S.E. (342) was
built. Both houses were then occupied by Thomas
The front elevation, of brick in Flemish bond, has on the
ground floor a late 18th-century door-case with thin pilasters
and attenuated brackets supporting a flat hood, and two
modern hung-sash windows, the arches of which are hidden
by a band of timber which continues across the house to S.E.
The first-floor windows have also been modified and the sills
lowered; they have flat arches of gauged bricks, which are
repeated over those on the second floor. There is a three-course
plat-band at first-floor level and another band with oversailing courses at second-floor level. The late 18th-century
modillioned and dentilled cornice continues across the house
to S.E. On the rear elevation all openings have been modified;
these originally had three-centred arched heads. The tall
staircase window extends over three half-landings.
Inside, there were two main rooms on the ground floor,
two on the first, where the saloon with late 18th-century
fittings occupied the full width of the building, and three on
the second and attic floors. Some partitions have been inserted
and the house now intercommunicates with the house to S.E.
The staircase, which rises the full height of the house, occupies
the back N.E. quarter. It has an open string and balusters of
a late 18th-century pattern with urn-shaped features below the
square knop to the first floor but from the first floor upwards
the original staircase, with close moulded string and heavy
(342) House, to S.E. of No. 54 (Plate 6), three-storeyed, single-fronted, and of late 18th-century date,
was described in 1786 as 'now taken down and rebuilt'
(YML, W2). It was built by Thomas Brook and
occupied by him in addition to his dwelling house, No.
54. The eaves cornice is continuous with that of No. 54,
and the door-case to the entrance is uniform with that of
No. 54. The plan is a common one, with an entrance
passage at the S.E. side, a room at the front and one at
the back, and a top-lit staircase rising parallel to the
street between the chimney-flue walls of the rooms. A
wing was added at the back in the second half of the
19th century and the back room on the first floor was
partitioned to make a passage to the wing. The house
now intercommunicates with No. 54.
Fig. 117. (340) No. 52 Low Petergate.
(343) Houses, Nos. 56, 58, 60, were built c. 1500 by
Alderman John Stockdale and are mentioned in his will
of 1507 as his new house in Petergate (TE, iv, 257). They
form a three-storeyed timber-framed range, five bays
long, with the upper floors jettied on the street front but
not at the rear. Partitions between each bay suggest
five original tenements but in the early 17th century the
whole range was divided into three houses and two
internal chimney-stacks were inserted, possibly by 1630
when the property, leased to Robert Waller, was
described as a 'messuage divided into tenements, late of
John Stockdale' (YML, S3(5)b, ff. 106–7). Other
alterations at the same period include the insertion of
attic floors and addition of timber-framed extensions
at the rear in the form of a single gabled range to each
house. Those added to Nos. 58 and 60 are contemporary
with each other and of two storeys and semi-attic; that
of No. 56 is of three full storeys and attic and may be a
little later in date. No. 56 was refronted in brick in the
early 19th century and about the same time more additions were made, in brick, at the rear of Nos. 58 and 60.
The front elevation has modern shop fronts. The two upper
storeys of No. 56 are of brick in Flemish bond and have flushframed sash windows and a moulded dentil cornice. The
jettied upper storeys of Nos. 58 and 60 are rendered and have
canted or segmental bay windows of 18th or 19th-century date.
The roofs of Nos. 56 and 58 are plain-tiled, No. 60 pantiled.
The timber-framed rear elevation is also rendered, with a large
brick chimney-stack to No. 56. Some framing is visible inside.
The surviving front walls have posts with downward bracing
and the first-floor jetty has a moulded bressummer, exposed
during repairs in 1974. The cross-walls have downward
bracing to the front posts and upward to the rear. The
original rear wall has upward bracing from posts to wall-plate.
The 17th-century rear additions have unbraced framing. The
roof trusses have crown-posts supporting collar-purlins.
In each house the staircase is placed beside the chimney-stack.
The top part of the staircase in No. 56 is of the late 17th century,
with bulbous balusters, square newels, moulded handrails and
close strings. All the other staircases are of later date. No. 56
contains, on the first floor, a 17th-century plaster overmantel
with an achievement of the Stuart royal arms and there are
several 18th-century fireplaces and doors. Inside No. 58 is a
ground-floor room with early 18th-century fielded panelling
and enriched cornice and on the first floor an overmantel with
floral drops. No. 60 has a first-floor room with early 18th-century panelling in two heights.
(344) House, No. 62 (Plate 140; Fig. 118), now part
of the York College for Girls, was built c. 1725 by John
Shaw, Proctor of the Court at York, on part of the site
occupied in the 17th century by the Talbot Inn (Drake,
319; Hargrove, iii, 376–7). It is large and of brick, with
the main part set back from the street and side wings
coming forward. A sketch of c. 1800 shows two wings,
one with a gabled end (YCL, Evelyn Coll. No. 195),
but both were rebuilt after 1850. A pedimented portico
was added to the central entrance c. 1770 and in the
19th century was reset in front of an added porch.
Corinthian columns forming a screen in the entrance
hall (Plate 188) are also of c. 1770. Turrets were added
to the back in the late 19th century. The house has been
occupied as a school since the late 19th century and by
the York College for Girls since 1907. It now intercommunicates with adjoining buildings and modern
The S.W. front to Petergate has a main block five bays wide,
with the centre bay projecting slightly. The first floor is marked
by a plain plat-band, and at the wall head is a deep Doric
entablature with triglyphs irregularly spaced to follow the
windows below. The portico, reset in front of the later porch,
has Roman Doric columns, fluted frieze and pedjment. Tall
hung-sash windows are set under flat arches of gauged brick.
The dormer windows have pedimented gables. The back is
also five bays wide and the top of the wall was heightened or
rebuilt in the later 19th century with a timber cornice in 18th-century style.
The interior is well finished but has undergone some alteration in the removal of partition walls and the refitting of
rooms. Some of the rooms retain original panelling, but the
back room to S.E. was refitted in the late 18th century. Fireplaces were mostly replaced in the 19th century. The main
staircase is of unusual design (Plate 196): each of the cantilevered
steps carries three balusters, one having an entwined spiral
stem and the main part of each treated as a column with capital
and base, with square cornice above and square sub-base below,
and a turned urn feature at the bottom. At the foot of the
panelled dado is a rich carving of scroll and acanthus leaves
(Plate 200). The ceiling above the staircase (Plate 168) has a
central feature illustrating in low relief Aesculapius and Hygieia
with a child. The secondary staircase was rebuilt in the 19th
century around a square well; it has close strings and turned
balusters. Reset on the half-landing of the main stair is a door
made up with six 16th-century carved panels (Plate 197)
originally in the house of George Gale, in the Bedern. Gale, a
goldsmith, was Sheriff 1532–3 and died 1556. The panels show,
in low relief: (1) St. George and the dragon; (2) bearded man
carrying knapsack, within inscribed border; (3) head of man
wearing hood, within roundel; (4) arms of Gale surmounted
by helm and crest; (5) double grape-vine; (6) bearded head
Fig. 118. (344) No. 62 Low Petergate.
(345) House, No. 64 (Fig. 119), also used by the York
College for Girls, stands on part of the site of the house
occupied by the Talbots in the 16th century and of the
Talbot Inn in the 17th century. The front block of the
present building was erected in 1743 and dated on a
rainwater head, but behind are two timber-framed wings
of earlier date. The S.E. wing has two walls retaining
main posts probably of the 15th century, and against
its N.E. side is a lean-to, the remaining fragment of a
16th-century structure, formerly of two storeys. In the
17th century, the 15th-century walls were largely rebuilt and heightened to accommodate a new staircase,
known now as the 'Talbot stairs'. The wing to the N.W.,
also timber-framed, has been heavily restored but
appears to be of 17th-century origin.
The front block is of brick, three storeys high and five bays
wide. The bottom storey has been converted to a shop, with
modern display windows behind a modern colonnade; the
wall above is rendered and rises to a timber block cornice. The
windows have hung sashes and the lead rainwater head bears
the initials and date JR 1743, possibly for James Roe or Rowe
(1746 Directory; 1741 York City Poll); two pedimented dormers light the attic. At the back, most of the timber framing
visible is either of the 17th century or modern. On the N.W.
side of the earlier wing is a moulded beam, carved with a vine
trail, and on the N.E. side the first floor has a blocked window
of three pairs of lights, each pair divided by a timber mullion
and separated from the next pair by a timber stud. On the N.E.
side of the 16th-century fragment is a moulded first-floor beam.
The 'Talbot stairs' are lit by a round-headed 18th-century
window on the N.W. side.
Above the shop, the interior is simply finished; some of the
fittings were renewed in the 19th century. A small staircase of
1743 leads from the second floor to the attics. In the S.E. back
wing, two main posts of the original build remain. The 'Talbot
stairs' rise around an open well, trapezoidal in shape, and the
irregular angles are reproduced in the solid panelled newelposts; bulbous turned balusters stand on deep moulded strings
and carry a sturdy handrail, the whole having a massive
appearance (Plate 189). The lowest flight has been realigned
with the second flight. There is a carved scroll against the foot
of the first newel, and the underside of each flight is plastered
and panelled. The roof over the front block is carried on purlins tusk-tenoned to the principal rafters of simple collar-beam
trusses (Fig. 7u). There is no ridge-purlin.
(346) The Fox Inn (Fig. 119), formerly on site of
No. 66, was a timber-framed house built in the second
half of the 15th century, standing end on to the street.
The S.W. front was of four storeys, two bays deep,
with one room on each floor. Behind this was a two-storeyed range of at least three bays with a lofty twobayed open hall on the first floor. In the late 16th or
early 17th century a chimney-breast was inserted in the
N.E. bay of the hall. This heated the remodelled rooms
at the N.E. end of the building, which was rebuilt with
a higher first-floor level and a second floor was inserted
to form a semi-attic. The street front was rebuilt early in
the 18th century and subsequently stuccoed. The S.W.
bay of the hall may have remained undivided until the
Fig. 119. (345, 346) Nos. 64 and 66 Low Petergate.
The hall was lit by one or more unglazed three-light windows high up in the N.W. wall, with lozenge-shaped wooden
mullions, and its open truss had fine arched braces under the
tie-beam, springing from moulded and carved corbels cut on
the main posts. Much of the original 'wall-tile' infilling of the
timber framework survived. The roofs of the front block and
of the hall had collared rafters and strutted side-purlins.
Towards the back, to the E. of the main range, were two
small timber-framed buildings. One of these was of late 15th-century date with 17th-century staircase and chimney-breast,
whilst the other was of late 16th-century date, remodelled in
the late 17th century.
The front block, most of the hall, and the two small buildings were demolished in 1957. The hall chimney-breast
(Plate 174) survives up to first-floor level and, with the N.E.
end of the building, now forms part of York College for
Girls (345). (RCHM, Monuments Threatened or Destroyed, 72).
(347) Houses, three, on part of site now occupied by
No. 70, were timber-framed and faced onto Hornpot
Lane, with the gable-end of the oldest to Low Petergate.
This oldest part was a three-storey building of four
bays, built in the mid 14th century, with the upper
floors jettied along Hornpot Lane. On the ground floor
the building was only 9¼ ft. wide. In the 17th century a
chimney-breast and a staircase were inserted in the
middle of the house. In the 18th century the front to
Low Petergate was rebuilt in brick, and a fourth storey
was added to the rear portion in the 19th century. To
the E. were two small houses, originally timber-framed and of two storeys, jettied over Hornpot Lane,
but drastically reconstructed and heightened in the late
18th century. The date of the original framing is
In the earliest house the main elements of the wall framing
survived, with braces upward and downward, many of them
concave in shape. On the ground floor evidence remained for
at least two seven-light windows along Hornpot Lane. The
infilling between the timbers was of rough limestone wasters,
held in position by framing pegs and plastered on both faces.
(348) House and Shop, No. 72 (Fig. 120), of c. 1745,
is of three storeys with attics and cellars, brick-built with
a tiled roof, and has a contemporary wing at the N.E.
rear. In the 19th century an extension was constructed
adjacent to this wing, on its S.E. side, and in 1968
considerable alterations took place, with the formation
of a shop on the ground floor and the removal of the
The four-bay front elevation has hung-sash windows, with
moulded sills, flat arches of gauged rubbed brick, stone double
key-blocks and later plate-glazing, to the first floor and four
similar windows, but reduced in height, to the second floor,
above a plat-band with moulding to the lower edge. The
eaves cornice is not original. Inside, the Saloon, occupying the
whole front of the first floor, was reached by the elegant main
staircase, which continued to the second floor and, in a modified form, to the attics. A servants' staircase was provided
adjacent to the main one, an arrangement unusual in a house
of this fairly small size. The Saloon is wainscotted in fielded
panelling and retains its original simple fireplace, now blocked.
Fig. 120. (348) No. 72 Low Petergate.
(349) House and Shop, No. 74, an L-shaped building,
formerly served as the Petergate frontage to the Old
White Swan Inn in Goodramgate (223). The front
range was rebuilt in brick in c. 1800, replacing a three-storey timber-framed range which continued the structure of No. 76. In 1552 both properties were in the
possession of Robert Hall, who also owned No. 78
Low Petergate (351) and No. 82 Goodramgate (224)
(YCA, E23, f. 92v). At the rear is a 17th-century brick
wing of two storeys over a basement. The main staircase incorporates a few reused balusters of moulded
urn-shape, of c. 1750; the top flight is of late 19th-century
(350) House, No. 76, consists of two timber-framed
ranges, each of two bays: one at the front, of three
storeys built parallel to the street, is probably of the
15th century, and one behind, at right angles, of two
storeys, probably of the late 16th century. The front
range has the upper floors jettied to the street, and a
carriageway has been cut through the N end. Little of
the original framing remains, but there is enough in the
front wall to show that there were substantial braces
from sills to main posts, which were crossed by braces
to the stud in the middle of each bay (Fig. 3h). The
back range was built against a 16th-century chimney
added to the front range. Little of the framing is visible,
but one wall retains original studs and braces from posts
to wall-plate. One roof truss remains with kerbprincipals and collar-beam, carrying side-purlins. The
building was renovated in 1971.
(351) House, No. 78, at the corner of Goodramgate,
is an early 17th-century, three-storeyed, timber-framed
building, two bays long, with the upper floors jettied
to Petergate only. A third bay at the S.E. end was probably removed when Goodramgate was widened in 1771.
The elevation to Petergate is rendered and painted but
the S.E. gable wall has exposed brick facing. The ground
floor is used as shop premises and on each of the upper
floors are two rooms with a later chimney between
S.W. side (Plate 125):
(352) House and Shop, Nos. 37, 39 (Plate 156), was
built in 1827–8 when the corner with Stonegate was
improved (YG, 19 Jan. 1828). It is of four storeys, with
an elevation, partly curved round the corner, of fine
red brick in English bond, sash windows with recessed
frames, and a timber Doric cornice; the attractive shop
front is of the later 19th century. The interior, with two
rooms on each upper floor, retains many original
fittings, including a chimney-piece of veined black
marble and staircase with square balusters.
(353) House and Shop, Nos. 41, 43 (Plate 156), consists of an early 16th-century two-bay timber-framed
block parallel to the street, of three floors with inserted
attics, and an early 18th-century L-shaped brick extension at the rear, also of three floors with attics. It may
be the property sold in 1709 by Thomas Hessay, innholder, and his wife Rosamund to Mary Eskritt, when
it was described as 'now rebuilded and in tenure of
George Blanshard' (YCA, Acc. 1). It was a coffee house
in the 18th century, known as the 'Garrick Coffee
House' as late as 1860, and was illustrated as the '"Garrick's Head", Petergate' in 1897 (T. P. Cooper, The Old
Inns and Inn Signs of York (1897), 19–21).
The N.E. elevation has a modern shop front at ground level.
The first and second floors, both jettied, are stuccoed and lit by
closely-set sash windows. There is a bold cornice with brackets
supporting a deep frieze. The roof is pantiled. The rear range,
also with its ridge parallel to the street, has at right angles to it
a closet block with tumbled gable. The brickwork is mainly
in stretcher bond, with three-centred arches and brick tympana
over later casement windows. The front timber-framed range
has posts with enlarged heads supporting wall-plates and tie-beams. The trusses have intersecting braces to the purlins and
crown-post, which supports a collar but no collar-purlin
(Fig. 6k). The purlins have mortices for oblique purlinbraces. The first-floor front room is panelled in three heights,
with 17th-century run-through panelling below arcades with
fluted pilasters. A passage on two sides is partitioned off, with
early 18th-century fielded panelling in three heights on the
S.W. wall. The 18th-century staircase in the rear range
starts at first-floor level, and is built against a large chimneybreast, of earlier date, in the S.E. wall. It has a close string,
turned balusters with round knops, a moulded hand-rail,
and square newels with attached half-balusters, cut by the
intersection of string and rail in adjacent flights. Both second-floor rooms in the rear extension contain reused 17th-century
run-through panelling. Fittings include doors of three and five
panels, and a cornice, all of early 18th-century date. Panes in
the front room windows are scratched with the dates 1769,
on the first floor, and 1761, on the second.
(354) Nos. 49, 51, probably originally consisted of a
timber-framed range of three storeys with attics parallel
to the street. In the late 17th century a brick closet and
staircase block, with the stairs continuous to the attics,
was built at the rear, and a wing was added in the early
18th century. The building was refaced and altered
internally, with the attics heightened to form a full
storey, in the second half of the 19th century, when it
became the Fordham Hotel. It is now a four-storeyed
brick building with a modern flat roof, and has a late
19th-century single-storey slate-roofed extension at the
The front elevation has five segmental-headed sash windows
to each floor, above a shop front and fascia, with a continuous
band at first-floor level and separate projecting sills to the
upper floors. A polychrome effect is given by the use of lighter
bricks. A passage emerges at the rear, beneath an offset with
differing windows on three floors above the opening. The first
and second-floor windows of the main rear elevation were
altered in the 19th century. On the N.W. of the building is a
light-well and a straight joint, corresponding to the staircase
wall, marks the junction of the late 17th-century building with
the 18th-century extension. Inside, the ground floor has been
altered and the bottom of the staircase is modern; above
this, it has turned bulbous balusters, newels with attached half-balusters, and a moulded handrail, all of late 17th-century date.
In the rear wing, between the first and second floors, is a
secondary staircase of late 19th-century date. There are several
19th-century marble fireplaces, moulded cornices and panelled
(355) Printing Works, No. 53, situated behind
No. 55, consists of an irregularly-shaped two-storey
building of the second quarter of the 19th century, with
brick walls, slated roof and large windows with small
panes. A more domestic-looking range of about the
same date, adjoining on the N.E. and built against the
rear wing of No. 55, has sash windows and a door-case
with reeded shafts. The interior is much altered. Earlier
buildings on the site had been used as a printing works
since before 1768 (YCA, Acc. 1) and an adjacent house,
No. 7 Grape Lane (225), was acquired in 1819 by
William Storry as an extension to the works (YCA,
(356) House, No. 55, of three storeys and attic, is
basically a timber-framed range, originally gabled to
the street. In the mid 18th century the front wall was
rebuilt in brick as a four-storeyed elevation, three bays
wide; the top storey is a screen wall in front of the roof
and only the central window, lighting the attic, is
genuine. Above a late 19th-century shop front, the
windows are sashed and have rubbed brick arches and
dressings; on the first and second floors the sills are
linked by stone bands. The gabled rear elevation is
mostly rendered but some restored framing is visible
at one corner; against the wall is a large chimney of the
16th or 17th century, terminating with four diagonally-placed shafts. Inside, the ground floor has cased beams
but is much altered. Permission to inspect the other
floors was not granted; they are said to contain a good
(357) House, No. 57, of three and four storeys, stands
at the corner of Grape Lane. It is now of 19th-century
appearance, but was built in the early 17th century as a
two-bay timber-framed range of three storeys and attic,
jettied at the front towards Petergate. In the early 19th
century, the jetties were cut back, a new front wall of
brick was built, and it was heightened to four full
storeys. In the later 19th century when Grape Lane was
widened, the side elevation was rebuilt and the main
frontage and surviving framing inside reduced to one bay
width. The long, three-storeyed wing at the rear facing
Grape Lane may also contain timber framing but has
been so much altered that it makes no recognisable
The front elevation, of common brick with red brick
dressings, has sash windows with stuccoed heads, a timber
dentil cornice and modern shop front. The side elevation,
though later, is of similar brick; a short length of timber cornice
and two stuccoed window heads were probably reused from
the demolished part of the front elevation. Inside, there is some
cased framing in the first-floor front room, and on the second
floor an exposed post with enlarged head and an axial-beam
with original attic-floor joists pegged to it. The 17th-century
roof has gone except for the foot of one rafter. The fittings are
all modern except for three early 18th-century doors.
(358) Houses, Nos. 59–63 (odd), two, of four storeys
with modern shops on the ground floor, were built
shortly after January 1746, when the property was
owned by Thomas Marfitt (YCA, BC). In 1766 the
property passed to his nephew, also called Thomas, who
was a glass dealer.
The two houses, forming one block seven bays wide,
occupied three and four bays respectively. The front, at
ground floor, has been entirely replaced by modern shop
windows. The walling above is of common brick with red
dressings and projecting bands between the storeys. At the
eaves is a heavy timber cornice with modillions, and a rainwater head with the initials TM (Plate 181). The windows have
hung sashes under flat arches of gauged brick, the top windows
being shorter than those below. The sills of those in No. 63
have been lowered and, on the top floor, the hung sashes have
been replaced by casements. The side of No. 59, facing onto
Grape Lane, is continued by a small back wing. The stringcourses are carried on from the front, but the eaves cornice is
The interior is plainly fitted, with ceiling cornices to the
principal rooms; staircases have open strings up to the second
floor and close strings above. No. 59 demolished 1963.
(359) House, No. 65 (Plate 125), was built in the
very early 19th century, probably with a shop on the
ground floor. It has a very narrow frontage to the street
and is four storeys high; a steep-pitched mansard roof
enables the attic to be virtually a complete fifth floor.
The front elevation is one bay wide, of common brick in
Flemish bond, with red brick dressings to the windows and
angles. Only the window on the third floor retains the original
sash. There was originally a bow-fronted shop window, of
which only the fascia remains, with applied ornament of garlands and oval paterae. Above the timber cornice, the mansard
roof is slated towards the front, but has pantiles on the sides.
Inside, the ground floor has been gutted, but the upper
floors each have a single room front and back, with central
transverse staircase. Many original fittings survive, but all the
fireplaces have been boxed in.
(360) House, No. 67 (Plate 125), of three storeys, is
probably of late 14th-century date. It represents a
surviving internal bay of a house of three or more bays
roofed parallel with the street and extending to both
S.E. and N.W. A two-storeyed extension was added at
the rear c. 1600, and later in the 17th century brick
chimney-stacks were inserted into both ranges. Con
siderable alteration and rebuilding took place in the
19th century, and the whole building was renovated in
1955, when the chimney-stacks were removed.
On the N.E. front the upper two storeys are jettied, but the
studding and bracing were removed in the 19th century. On
the ground floor is a bowed shop window; above are Yorkshire sashes. In the front range the joists carrying the jetties do
not extend to the back wall, but are housed in substantial
spine-beams; that carrying the second-floor joists has recently
been removed, revealing the double-tenon construction.
The S.W. wall has been considerably mutilated and the N.W.
wall wholly rebuilt, probably not on its original alignment.
The original framing of the S.E. wall remains intact. On the
ground and first floors some of the original framing of the
next bay to S.E. can be seen from the back range. The roof
truss to the S.E. wall, the only one to survive, is of crown-post
construction with collared rafters. The crown-post is flanked
by cross-bracing carrying side-purlins; it has no enlargement
to the head and no collar-purlin is visible.
The extension at the rear, now under a pent roof, is only
one room in depth, and has been much altered. On the
ground floor some moulded ceiling beams remain.
(361) House, No. 71 (Plate 125), a late timber-framed
building of three storeys and attics, has a typical early
17th-century plan, with the staircase at the side of a
chimney-stack set in the middle of the building between
front and back rooms; the house was refronted in brick
c. 1800. A four-storey range at the back, which has
probably always been used as workshops, was built in
the 19th century.
The front elevation, of good red brickwork in Flemish
bond, has a shop front at ground floor, a shallow curved
tripartite bow window to the first floor and two hung-sash
windows with flat arches of gauged rubbed brick above. The
rear elevation is also of brick but the S.W. corner-post of the
timber-framed structure remains, covered with rendering.
The 19th-century range behind is of three bays to the W. and
one to the S. Inside, the ground and first floors are featureless
but on the second floor timber posts with enlarged heads and
a wall-plate survive from the original structure.
(362) Houses, Nos. 73, 75, 77 (Plate 125; Fig. 121),
of late 16th-century date, are three-storeyed with
attics, of timber-framed construction. Each storey of
the street front elevation is jettied, and the facades are
stucco-rendered; no original fenestration remains, and
the ground floors were converted to shop premises
during the 19th century. The main roof is ridged parallel
to the street, with gables to the attic storeys; those to
Nos. 73 and 77 appear to be original but the twin
gables to No. 75 were added in the 17th century. Parts
of the original flights of staircases leading from the
second floor to the attics remain in all three houses.
Fig. 121. (362) Nos. 73, 75, 77 Low Petergate.
Inside, the timber framing is mostly exposed in the upper
floors; it is of modest scantling with close-set studding and
limited use of pegs. The most complete framing is exposed in
the second floor of No. 75, with a clasped-purlin roof. The
plans of the houses differ one from another due to the variation
in size; this particularly affects the locations of the staircases.
Various later extensions have been added to the rear.
(363) House, behind Nos. 75, 77 (Fig. 123), of two
storeys and attic, is a four-bay unjettied timber-framed
structure of 16th-century date, with its main elevation
facing S.W. towards Swinegate. The S.E. bay of the
house is now incorporated in an adjoining building and
The ground-floor layout is now lost, but on the first floor
the house had a two-bay living-room at the N.W. end, lit by
two oriel windows in the S.W. wall. There were two further
rooms to the S.E., that next to the living-room, probably a
parlour, having a large opening in the S.W. wall which was
probably constructed to house a shop-made window. The
attic was unlit, and access to both this and the first floor was
probably by an internal stair.
In the 17th century extensive modernisation took place.
The S.E. bay of the living-room was half-filled with a brick
chimney-breast, and its oriel window blocked. The chimneybreast heated both the surviving N.W. bay of the living-room
and, on its S.E. side, a new room created by the removal of the
stud wall between the living-room and the parlour. At the
same time a new external timber-framed staircase annex was
built against the middle two bays on the N.E. side, the stair
leading up to a doorway cut in the wall of the chimneybreast bay. This staircase was carried up to the attic where the
two end bays were given transverse gables to provide lighting.
In either the 17th or 18th century the N.E. and S.E. stud walls
to the parlour were removed and replaced by unpegged widely-spaced studding. The house was restored in 1975.
The original framing is of a type not common in York, the
studs being 7–8 in. wide and the same distance apart. They are
grooved on the vertical faces as a key for the mortar, and the
infill was of brick cut down to fit the required width. The roof
contained five kerb-principal trusses carried on flat tie-beams,
with two purlins each side (Fig. 7p).
(364) House, No. 79 (Plate 125), of three storeys and
attic, gabled to the street, was built as a three-storey
timber-framed house in the second half of the 14th
century. It had a three-bay roof with crown-posts,
crossed-braces and side and collar-purlins, the crownposts, about 8 ft. high, supported on cambered tie-beams. In the mid 16th century it was extensively
modernised. A floor was inserted at eaves level and, to
provide circulation in this new attic, the two internal
trusses were removed and replaced by two kerbprincipal trusses (Fig. 7n). In addition the two jettied
upper storeys of the street elevation had their front walls
modernised by the removal of most of the framing,
and the insertion of close studding with mullioned
windows. The timber-framed front elevation has
recently been restored and covered with plaster. At the
S.E. end is a rainwater head with the date 1763.
(365) House, No. 81 (Plate 125), is a timber-framed
15th-century building of three storeys and of two bays
depth. A narrower timber-framed range of three
storeys was added to the rear and was originally longer
than the present single bay. Its S.W. rear gable end,
rebuilt in brickwork in the 18th century, incorporates
posts to the angles with evidence for continuation of the
The stuccoed and painted N.E. street elevation has both
upper storeys jettied above a modern shop front, and at the
side is a through-passage. A large 19th-century window lights
the first floor and there is a Yorkshire sash window above. The
S.W. rear elevation has stucco-rendering to the original gableend, and the added wing, of slightly less height, is in brick with
brick coping. At the western angle of the gable is a post with
enlarged head and below the shortened wall-plate is a mortice
for a brace. Modern outbuildings cover the ground floor and
part of the first floor. Internally little remains, apart from an
exposed cambered tie-beam with a curved brace to the central
truss at second floor.
(366) House, No. 83 (Plate 125), was built c. 1600 as a
timber-framed dwelling of three storeys with attics; it
was drastically restored c. 1880 and the back wall was
largely rebuilt a little later. It forms one of a group of
seven houses with gables to the street.
The front elevation has a modern shop window at ground
floor; the upper floors are jettied and have hung sashes of the
late 19th century. On plan, the house has on each floor one
front room and one back room with a chimney-stack between
them, and a staircase at the side of it. Little of the timber-work
is exposed, but the roof trusses appear to be of kerb-principal
type, suggesting that the attics are original features. The staircase is of mid 18th-century date, with close string, turned
balusters, and square newels with attached half-balusters.
(367) No. 87 consists of three main blocks, marked
'A', 'B' and 'C' on the block plan (Fig. 122). At the N.E.,
the forward block A (26 ft. by 16 ft.) runs parallel to
Petergate and its two upper storeys are jettied towards
the thoroughfare. The building has been greatly
altered by conversion to shop premises, and most of the
S.W. wall has been removed to connect the buildings
at the rear and form a large shop area. Little timber
framing remains exposed and it is, therefore, difficult to
ascribe a firm date to the building, but it is probably of
the late 16th or early 17th century.
Block B (55 ft. by 12 ft. 4 in.), adjoining the rear of block A
at the N.W. end, is of five bays and three storeys, though not
as tall as the forward block. It is probably of late 15th-century
date, as the roof structure has a crown-post and collar-purlin
(braced). Most of the walling has been rebuilt in brick and many
of the cross-beams and posts are cased, but in the S.E. corner,
at the S.W. end, some of the timber framing remains visible
internally. The S.W. end truss has been modified, but appears
to be an 'open truss', built against an earlier structure, block C.
At the S.W. end of the complex, block C (20 ft. by 16 ft.),
known as The Old Racket as early as 1694 (Deeds), is the most
interesting building of the group and probably dates from the
late 14th or early 15th century. It also has been considerably
altered and is now of two storeys and one-and-a-half bays,
but was originally three-storeyed and extended further towards
the S.W. by a bay or more. The first floor is jettied towards
the S.E. side.
(368) Londesbro Arms, p.h., No. 89, of three storeys
with attics, was built in the late 17th century. Although
much altered externally and on the ground floor, it
retains on the upper floors one fully panelled room, the
original staircase and some doorways. It was called
Baynes' Hotel between 1813 and 1826, Tomlinson's
Hotel until 1839, Jackson's Hotel until 1852, was then
known as The Grapes Inn, and had received its present
name by 1882.
The front elevation was drastically altered in the late 19th
or early 20th century, but its original four-bay arrangement is
recorded in an early photograph of Petergate. The brickwork
is now stuccoed. The rear elevation, also of four bays, originally had windows set beneath three-centred arched heads
typical of the period, but they are now mostly blocked or
altered. Internally, the plan affords one main room at the front
and one at the back, with the staircase and landing occupying
the space between. The ground floor has been modernised and
the original staircase to the first floor removed. The first-floor
front room is fully wainscotted in bolection-moulded panelling and has a bold bolection-moulded door architrave. The
staircase, rising in three flights with quarter-landings to the
second floor and to the attics, has a moulded close string, bulbous balusters and square newels with attached half-balusters.
The doorway to the second-floor rear room has an architrave
similar to that of the first-floor front room and an original
door with three bolection-moulded panels and large Lhinges with ogee terminations.
Fig. 122. (367) No. 87 Low Petergate.
(369) House, Nos. 91, 93, was built of four bays and
three storeys with attics in the fourth quarter of the
18th century, incorporating parts of an earlier structure
at the back. At the S.E. end of the back wall is a 17th-century semicircular gable with moulded brick bands.
An early 18th-century wing projects at the N.W. end.
A large three-storey block, with a shallow segmental
bow rising through the ground and first floors, was
added at the back in the 19th century but has some
18th-century brickwork in its N.E. wall.
The front elevation originally had a large stone door-case
with elaborate decoration of late 18th-century date, but this
was removed to allow for the insertion of a second shop front
and now stands in the garden of No. 41 Beckfield Lane, Acomb.
The first-floor plat-band visible in early photographs was also
removed, but the continuous sill-band at the first-floor windows remains. The heavy moulded cornice has modillions and
dentils. Inside, the spacious staircase hall has an apsidal N.W.
end and two round-arched semicircular niches between each
floor. The staircase has cantilevered stone treads with square
cast-iron balusters and a slim mahogany handrail.
(370) House, No. 95, was built in the early 18th
century and considerably altered in the late 19th century,
when it is possible that shop premises were formed on
the ground floor. Recently, a more drastic conversion
of the ground floor was carried out by the removal of
all partition walls and fittings, and a single-storeyed
extension was added at the rear.
The house, of three storeys with attics, built in brick with a
tiled roof, has a front of five bays. The ground floor contains
a modern shop front, but at the N.W. end there is a round-arched opening of gauged brick to a through-passageway
known as 'Ayre's Yard'. Over a plat-band at first-floor level
is a central blocked window with a canted bay window each
side replacing the original fenestration. At the third storey,
above a moulded plat-band, are five windows with flat arches
of rubbed gauged brick and moulded stone sills. The eaves
cornice is not original. The interior has been greatly altered
but the saloon and drawing room, at the front of the first
floor, retain much of the original bolection-moulded panelling;
the bold moulded cornice of the drawing room breaks forward over pendants.
(371) House, No. 97, of two bays and three storeyed
with cellars and dormered attics, was built in the early
18th century; it has been considerably altered and most
of the original fittings have been removed, with the
exception of the unusual staircase and some doorways in
the attics. It has a simple plan with a room at the front
and one at the back, both with a corner fireplace, with
a staircase rising parallel to the street between them. The
ground floor was converted to a shop in 1821 (YCA,
Fig. 123. (363) House behind Nos. 75, 77 Low Petergate.
The front, of brick, has been heightened by several courses
and refenestrated, and a shop front inserted on the ground
floor. The rear gable has been partly rebuilt, openings blocked
and earlier windows replaced by late 19th-century hung-sash
windows. Internally, the lower part of the staircase has been
removed and the flights between first and second floors boxed
in, but those from the second floor to the attic remain unaltered, having close strings and square newels with attached
half-balusters. The balusters, of an unusual pattern with three
distinct members between capital and base, are similar to those
of c. 1705 in No. 13 High Ousegate (234).
(372) House and Shop, No. 99, of three storeys, was built
c. 1840 of brick in Flemish bond. It has elevations of two bays
to Petergate and of one bay to Church Street. The flat roof is