Southwick is a large parish of 1873 hectares to the
W. of the R. Nene. The parish was originally
about 558 hectares but was augmented in 1869 by
the addition of the extra-parochial forest area of
Morehay, comprising 1315 hectares. The village
seems to have been outside the forest, but had
common rights in Morehay. The original
settlement was probably at Perio in the Nene
valley, on the E. edge of the parish from where
occupation spread W. up the valley of the small
brook which formed the axis of the original parish.
Fig. 178 Southwick Village Map
The manor was held by the Knyvet family from
the 12th century, and they lived at Southwick. In
the 14th century Richard Knyvet and his son John
both married heiresses. John rose through ability in
the legal profession, eventually becoming Lord
Chancellor. He rebuilt at least the tower of the
church and built extensively at Southwick Hall (2)
which has continued to be occupied by the lords of
the manor. The copyholds in the village had all
been extinguished by 1834, probably in the 16th or
17th century. The population was fairly low, with
32 families in 1673 and 22 in 1801; few households
were exempted from Hearth Tax in 1673. Early
houses are few and not outstanding. The only
outlying farms before 1850 were at Perio and
Stonepit Lodge, both owned by freeholders. The
forest are of Morehay follows a different pattern
of occupation. The keepers from the early 17th
century were the Earls of Westmorland, and the
only buildings were four keepers' houses. These
became farms during the 19th century as a result of
agricultural reorganization, and all but
Crosswayhand Lodge (9) were rebuilt. Earlier
assarts in Morehay itself are few (RCHM,
Northants. I, Southwick (14) for example).
Fig. 179 Southwick Church
In the N.W. corner of the parish is a chalybeate
spring, the medicinal properties of which were
recognized in the 17th century (13); it is called
King's Cliffe Spa because it was in that part of
Morehay over which the people of King's Cliffe
exercised rights of common.
The former village of Perio lay on the bank of
the Nene, on river gravel, just S. of Perio Mill
(RCHM, Northants. I, (13)). A small hospital was
founded there in 1282. The village was abandoned
by the end of the 16th century but the mill
continued in use, becoming a paper-mill by 1718.
(1) The Parish Church of St. Mary (Fig. 179; Plates 20,
73) stands at the E. end of the village in a triangular
shaped churchyard. It comprises a Chancel, Nave and
West Tower with spire. The walls of the chapel and nave
are of coursed limestone with freestone quoins and
dressings; the tower walls are of larger blocks and the
spire is of fine ashlar. The Church Survey Books of
1605–6 and 1619 (NRO, X622/1, X662/3) show that the
church then had N. and S. aisles, but that on the N. was
ruinous. By 1719 the N. aisle had been demolished
(Bridges II, 470). The tower is mid 14th-century and
bears shields of Knyvet and Basset; John Knyvet,
Chancellor of England, married Eleanor Basset, and died
in 1381. The chancel and nave were rebuilt in the middle
of the 18th century at the instigation of George Lynn
who died in 1758. The chancel arch, probably of the 13th
century, was retained but may have been rebuilt. In 1864
the windows of the nave and chancel were altered from
round-headed to pointed, and a classical pedimented S.
doorway was replaced by one of Gothic design
(Whellan). The present pointed W. window in the tower
is also of this date. The former appearance of the church
was recorded by Flesher in c. 1810, by Clarke in 1846
and by J. C. Buckler in 1858 (NCL). In 1905 the interior
walling was stripped of plaster.
The heraldic evidence for the dating of the tower is of
special interest and the large monument to George Lynn,
attributed to Roubiliac, is an accomplished sculptural
Architectural Description – The Chancel has a hipped
roof covered in stone slates, and plain eaves. Windows in
the E. and S. walls in the Decorated style are of 1864.
On the N. is a recess, lined with ashlar and with a round
head, in which is the Lynn monument. Opposite, in the
S. wall, is a rear arch with a similar round head and
jamb stones continuing to the ground, probably
implying an intention to have a recess corresponding to
that on the N. side; in the event the opening was made
slightly narrower to take a window (see Clarke's
drawings (Plate 73)). The chancel arch, probably 13th-century but rebuilt, has a hollow and plain chamfered
head, semi-octagonal responds with roll-moulded capitals
and hollow moulded bases. The Nave has a plain parapet
and a modern N.W. buttress. The windows and S.
doorway are all of 1864, in the Decorated style. The
former doorway had a round-headed opening with quoins
and voussoirs below a pedimented cornice carried on
brackets. The heads of the 18th-century round-headed
windows are faintly visible in the N. wall.
The Tower (Plate 20), in three stages, has weathered
angle buttresses rising into the second stage, those on the
N.W. being masked by massive buttresses possibly of
the 18th century. Large head corbels, in the angle of the
tower, from which spring wall ribs, testify to the
original intention to vault the lower stage of the tower;
comparison may be made between these corbels and
those in Southwick Hall (Plate 44). The tower arch
consists of three wave-moulded orders, the inner carried
on moulded responds with capitals and bases (Fig. 180).
Above is a blocked opening, probably a window, now
divided by the nave roof but originally within the gable
of a roof of steeper pitch. The 19th-century W. window
replaces a rectangular mullioned window of post-medieval date, set within the blocking of an original
pointed window. Below the first string course are shields
of arms in relief: on the N. of Knyvet, on the S. a
variation of Basset, and on the W. two shields of the
same. On the N., S. and W. are small single-light cusped
windows. The belfry windows are of two transomed
lights with trefoil ogee heads, central quatrefoils and
labels with head stops. The plain parapets are pierced
with crosses, possibly 18th-century additions. The
octagonal spire has pronounced crockets and two tiers of
lucarnes, the lower of two lights, the upper of one.
The king-post Roofs of the chancel and nave are 18th-century and were presumably originally ceiled.
Fittings – Bells: (1), with shield bearing initials 'TN'
for Thomas Newcombe of Leicester, probably Thomas
II, active 1562–80; (2), attributed to Henry Penn of
Peterborough, active 1703–29, on the evidence of the
characteristic rough band in the place of an inscription
(inf. R.W.M. Clauston). Bell frame: for three bells, post-medieval. Brass indents: in nave – (1), with floriated cross
and civilian figure, 14th-century; (2), with figures of a
man in armour and wife in shroud, with children,
mutilated, 15th or 16th-century. Coffin lid: in
churchyard, with omega ornament, 13th-century.
Communion rails: oak, turned balusters with square knop,
moulded top and bottom rail, mid 18th-century. Door:
oak in blocked S. doorway of chancel, fielded panels,
mid 18th-century. Font: round bowl on baluster-shaped
stem, 17th-century, now in sanctuary.
Monuments and Floor slabs. Monuments: in chancel – (1),
in recess in N. wall, of George Lynn, 1758, attributed to
Roubiliac (Gunnis, Dictionary, 331), grey and white
marble, shaped inscribed base, obelisk background with
cartouche of arms of Lynn impaling Bellamy, draped
oval portrait medallion with profile of Lynn, seated
figure of his widow mourning and supporting an urn, all
enclosed by railings (Plate 71); (2), of Augusta Lynn,
1827, sarcophagus tablet, by Whiting of Northampton;
(3), of George Lynn, Feb. 1824, also his sons Walter,
1816, George, March 1824, and his daughter Isobella,
1817, as (2) by Whiting. Floor slabs – (1), of Elizabeth
Lynn n.d.; (2), of George Lynn, 1742; (3), of Martha
Broade (Lynn), Feb. 1796; (4), of Elizabeth Lynn, 1737;
(5), of Rev. John Lynn, 1749; (6), of Anne Lynn, Jan.
1756; (7), of Ann Lynn, 1767, black marble with lozenge
of arms of Lynn quartered impaling Bellamy; (8), of
George Lynn, 1758, with the arms of Lynn (Plate 72);
(9), of Rev. Francis Broade, 1791, black marble with
arms of Broade (?) impaling Lynn. In churchyard, gabled
grave slab with central rib and cross, medieval.
Fig. 180 Southwick Church
Tower arch mouldings, mid 14th-century
Panelling: in chancel, in three heights, run-through
panelling, removed from Southwick Hall, 17th-century.
Pulpit: oak, octagonal, moulded base and top rail, fielded
panelled sides, part of a three-decker, mid 18th-century.
Miscellanea: loose in nave – (1), small wheel-headed stone
with incised compass cross; (2), fragment with Agnus
Dei carved in shallow quatrefoil, perhaps once within a
floriated cross; both probably medieval but of unknown
(2) Southwick Hall (Fig. 181; Plates 80, 81), stands in a
small park immediately E. of the parish church. The
house consists of a main range and cross wing probably
of 14th-century origin, which were rebuilt in the late
16th century; to the N. a 14th-century stair turret and a
small vaulted compartment survived this rebuilding. The
south range, a tall block built later in the 14th century,
stands to the S.W. of the main range. This block joins
awkwardly on to the cross wing of the main range, and
is on a different alignment to it, suggesting that it is an
addition, although there may not have been a long
interval between the two building dates. The tall block
itself was built in two phases in the 14th century. A W.
wing was added in the 18th century and a kitchen in the
early 19th century. Across a courtyard to the N., an
early 18th-century range incorporates a 16th-century
detached kitchen. The house is mainly of two storeys, of
coursed rubble and ashlar, with stone-slated roofs.
The Knyvet family, established in Southwick by the
late 12th century, came to hold the manor in the 13th
century with the Earls of Warwick as their feudal
superiors. Richard Knyvet, who died in 1352, and his
son Sir John, who died in 1381, were probably
responsible for all the surviving early medieval work in
the house as well as for the church tower. Richard first
appears in 1324 when he was appointed Keeper of the
Forest of Cliffe; he served on Commissions of the Peace,
was engaged in other aspects of local government, and
appears to have traded in wool. Sir John had embarked
on a legal career by 1347, rising to become Chief Justice
of the King's Bench in 1365 and Lord Chancellor in
1372; he was the most distinguished member of the
Sir John Knyvet's son and grandson both served in
local administration but in 1442, the grandson being held
prisoner in France, Southwick was sold by Sir John's
great grandson to his brother-in-law John Lynne,
apparently as a family arrangement. The Lynnes were
merchants based in London who invested their profits in
land. Southwick became the inheritance of John Lynne's
younger son William and remained in the hands of his
descendants until the early 19th century.
The 14th-century house probably consisted initially of
a hall and cross wing on the site of the present hall and
dining room. In the third quarter of the 14th century Sir
John Knyvet added a two-storey tower containing the
so-called Gothic Room which was used as an inner
chamber and entered from the S.W. corner of the cross
wing. This tall block was extended to the W. later in the
same century by the building of a three-storey addition
which contains the so-called Priest's Room. A stair turret
and vaulted lobby, entered from the N. side of the hall,
gave access to the first floor of the cross wing. As the
ground floors of all the surviving 14th-century rooms
have vaulted undercrofts, it is probable that the cross
wing had an undercroft also. The first-floor Gothic
Room was entered from the solar in the cross wing, and
has a fireplace, but an E.-facing oriel with a piscina in
the S. flank suggests a liturgical use for the room. If
these features are in situ, this room was perhaps an inner
chamber with an oratory rather than a permanent chapel.
The first-floor room in the W. addition, the Priest's
Room, is reached only from the Gothic Room; the small
vice on the S. served only the second-floor room. The
Priest's Room had a door in the N. wall opening
outwards into a narrow, apparently timber-framed
structure, probably a garderobe. The upper room in the
cross wing, the Gothic Room and the Priest's Room
therefore formed a suite of rooms.
In the late 16th century the hall and cross wing were
rebuilt by George Lynne, apparently on the line of the
former building. This work, dated 1571 and 1580, is in
contemporary style and provided a newly-fashionable
ceiled hall. The main entrance must have been on the N.
of the hall by way of a medieval doorway which was
retained; the S. doorway is apparently later and may
have replaced a window. At the E. end of the hall is a
small room which was an office by c. 1800 and was
called the Justice Room in 1873. If it was not originally a
service room it may always have had an administrative
function, representing the removal of manorial
administration from the hall itself. The 16th-century
kitchen was in a cruck-roofed building in a separate
range on the N. side of the courtyard, perhaps
perpetuating the medieval arrangement.
No further major work on the house is known until
the time of George Lynn who inherited in 1742 and died
in 1758. On his monument in the church he is said to
have 'improved' the house, and to him can be ascribed
the refitting of the cross wing to provide a Dining
Room, and the heightening of the N. stair turret to serve
the improved attics. The hall may also have been refitted
at this time but the present panelling is probably 19th-century; however the passage on the E. has mid 18th-century fittings. A blocked opening in the cross wing
implies the existence, or intended existence, of a range to
the W. but the present stair and Breakfast Room are now
largely of a date later in the 18th century.
With the death of George Lynn's sister, Martha
Broade, in 1796 the direct line of the Lynns came to an
end, and the history of the building's occupation is
obscure. The present kitchen was built in the early 19th
century, but when the house was advertised for sale in
1834 it was described as 'much neglected'. In 1840 it was
bought by George Capron, the solicitor-son of Thomas
Capron of Stoke Doyle. In 1872 an ambitious
remodelling of the house and garden to plans by E.F.
Law of Northampton was begun by Rev. George
Capron who inherited in that year. The work included
the rebuilding of a range on the E. of the courtyard. The
plans for a complete remodelling, were abandoned on the
death of Capron's wife in 1875. A two-storey stable
range in Gothick style was built to the N. of the house
in the late 19th century. Since then the only alterations of
importance have been the creation of a new entrance on
the ground floor of the Gothic Room block in about
1909, and an internal remodelling of the early 19th
century kitchen in 1962 (A. Oswald, Country Life, 24, 31
May, 7 June 1962).
A small park was created in the 18th century, with a
lake to the E. formed by building a dam across a stream.
The lake is now drained and the park curtailed, but the
road still crosses the valley on the dam.
Architectural Description – The S. Range is of two
builds, the two-storey tower containing the Gothic
Room on the E. and the three-storey Priest's Room
block with staircase on the W. (Plates 80, 81). The
Gothic Room block has on the E. a shallowly-projecting
bay with stone roof; the ground stage was originally
blind but now has a cusped window with square label
and head stops removed from the S. wall in 1909.
Above, is a two-light window with label and head stops
and renewed Geometric tracery. To the S. of the bay is a
cusped window with square label. On the ground stage
the wall is continued N. under a weathering to join the
cross wing; above this the masonry is 18th-century with
an ogee window at first-floor level and a pointed
window in the finialed gable. At ground level is a
square-headed door inserted in the late 16th or early 17th
century, and blocked since 1872. The S. elevation has at
ground stage a Tudoresque doorway inserted in 1909,
and above, an original two-light window with pointed
head, all much restored. On the N. wall at first floor is a
similar window retaining original tracery, mullion and
transom, the label having mask stops.
Fig. 181 Southwick (2) Southwick Hall
The Priest's Room block is of later 14th-century date.
The stair, built at the same time has an elliptical-headed
doorway with continuous double-ogee moulding,
inserted in the early 16th century; it was lit by small
loops and a small square traceried opening. There are
two medieval sundials on the S. face, one with numbers.
The windows on the adjoining S. wall are 17th-century.
In the N. wall is a single-light ogee-headed window at
ground and first floors, and at first floor is a blocked
door below the scar of an asymmetrical pitched roof.
The absence of other scars suggests that this covered a
timber-framed structure, possibly a garderobe. The W.
wall has three windows similar in design to that in the S.
wall of the Gothic Room. These appear on Clarke's
pencil sketch of July 1846 but in their present form may
all date from alterations of 1873 or 1909. Above the
gable is a 14th-century octagonal chimney of ashlar with
cusped openings on each face (Plate 83); it is probably
reset and its spire is missing.
Internally, both blocks have undercrofts with
chamfered ribs. The E. undercroft, now an entrance hall,
has head corbels in each corner and a boss carved with
two faces of a green man (Plates 44, 81). In the N. wall
is a single-light window with iron glazing bars and to
the E. a doorway with two-centred head, both being
original. A chamfered doorway with bar stops leads to
the W. undercroft which has a vault springing from plain
shield-shaped corbels, and a chamfered doorway to the
On the first floor the E. room, the Gothic Room
(Plate 82), has an oriel window on the E., in the sides of
which are two round-headed plastered recesses of
uncertain date; in the S. recess is a cusped piscina with
quatrefoil sinking. On the W. wall is a restored fireplace
with two human head-corbels supporting the hood. The
N. and S. windows are rebated for shutters and have
window seats; in the tracery is 14th-century glass with
the arms of Montfort of Beaudesert on the N. and
Bohun on the S. A 14th-century doorway with bar stops
leads to the W. room; the 16th-century ceiling with
moulded ribs is almost entirely concealed. The Priest's
Room, on the W., has an original doorway, now
blocked, on the N., and a modern doorway from the
stairs. In the W. wall is a blocked fireplace beneath the
window. On the second floor is an original doorway
from the stairs. The roof is modern; an ogee-headed
doorway leads to the parapet from the stairhead.
The circular Stair Turret to the N. of the main range,
has a weathered string, small rectangular loops and a slab
pierced with a cross. The 18th-century heightening is
timber-framed and hung with stone slates, and capped by
a conical roof of the same date. The staircase is now of
wood and is approached on both floors by short flights
with ramped handrail and turned balusters, of c. 1740–50.
Adjoining on the E. is a three-storey block gabled on the
N. At ground floor is a single-stage buttress, and a
square panel pierced with a quatrefoil, now blocked; on
ground and first floors are 17th-century mullioned
windows. The top stage was heightened in the 18th
century and is slate-hung on the E.; in the original gable
is a blocked round-headed window of uncertain date.
Inside, the ground stage is vaulted, the chamfered ribs
descending to floor level except on the S.W. where a
door in the W. wall causes the rib to spring from a
moulded corbel. There are two doors with shouldered
heads in the W. wall; both have been altered. In the S.
wall is a blocked door formerly leading to the hall; on
the N. wall is a moulded and embattled bracket of 15th-century date, perhaps a light sconce.
The Main Range (Plate 80) has a T-shaped plan
representing the hall and cross wing of the original
house. To the E. of the hall is a narrower but
contemporary continuation of the range, of two storeys,
with ashlar S. wall and rubble E. wall. The three-light
windows have transoms which have been removed on
the first floor; below the upper window is a slab
inscribed '1571'. The hall is faced in ashlar; it has two
finialed gables, that on the E. having a bell-cote above the
kneeler. The ovolo-moulded windows are set
symmetrically but not centrally below the gables and
resemble those to the E. On the ground floor is a
doorway with ovolo mouldings, which cuts the plinth.
The cross wing, of two storeys and attics, projects on
the S. where it is gabled on the S. and E.; it is of ashlar
with rubble in the upper parts. The three-light windows
are transomed at ground stage, and above the first floor
S. window is a slab inscribed 'GL 1580 ML' for George
Lynne and his wife. The W. wall of the cross wing has a
large stack rising in four weathered stages above a plinth.
On the first floor is a mid 18th-century elliptical-headed
doorway with triple keystones, now blocked. An attic
level is an 18th-century gable with circular window. The
N. wall is mainly timber-framed hung with stone slates
and has a pointed window at attic level, all probably
18th-century. Surmounting the roof is a wooden
Inside the hall a passage is partitioned off the E. end; it
is spanned by an 18th-century round arch with key block
above which are the arms of Lynn on a baroque shield.
At the N. end is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered
head and segmental rear arch. The hall has a large fire
surround and doorcases with pulvinated friezes, all
apparently 19th-century copies of 18th-century work. To
the E. of the hall the Justice Room has an 18th-century
stone fireplace with eared surround and fluted frieze
flanked by scrolls. Above the hall are two parallel rooms
with barrel ceilings behind the gables. That on the W.
has scratch-moulded panelling with carved frieze, and a
stone fireplace with rectangular opening and stone shelf.
The E. room has an 18th-century stone fireplace with
egg-and-dart enriched eared surround. The W. room is
approached by a lobby in the compartment W. of the
stair turret but the original access to the E. room is
On the ground floor of the cross wing is the Dining
Room with mid 18th-century skirting, dado-rail and
enriched cornice. The ornamental wooden fireplace
surround has a central panel with head and sunburst
(Plate 113). On the first floor are two rooms and a
passage, all with fielded panelling in two heights. The
larger, S., room has a fireplace with wooden eared
surround and enriched frieze (Plate 113), and above is a
plain panel for an overmantel. The attics were
remodelled in the 18th century and have a barrel-vaulted
ceiling and plaster floors. The S. of the two rooms has a
Fig. 182 Southwick (2)
Southwick Hall, Old Kitchen roof truss
The W. Range (Plate 80), running W. from the cross
wing, was built in two stages in the 18th century. The
narrower E. section is earlier. Inside, a 19th-century stair
and panelling apparently imitates an 18th-century
original; some panelling is 18th-century. The W. section,
of one storey and attics, has a wooden bay window of
Gothick design with a frieze enriched with quatrefoils.
On the first floor are three pointed-headed windows of
the late 18th or early 19th century. The ground-floor
room, called the Breakfast Room in 1872, has 18th-century fielded panelling and a half-domed cupboard.
The kitchen to the N. of the Breakfast Room was built
in the early 19th century; it is of two storeys with hipped
roof and sash windows. A first-floor triple sash window
with Gothick glazing bars leads on to a terrace with an
iron trellis balustrade.
On the N. side of the courtyard is an early 18th-century range which in 1872 was used as a brewhouse
etc.; it is of two storeys except for the lower single-storey E. end of 16th-century origin, which in 1872 was
called the Old Kitchen. Inside the Old Kitchen is a wide
fireplace, now blocked, to the N. of which is an
elliptical-headed doorway, also blocked. The roof is
supported on a cruck truss and is smoke-blackened (Fig.
182). The cruck has a saddle, ridge-piece, and a collar,
the ends of which project to carry the purlins. The
curved feet of the blades rise above modern doorways.
The range to the W. has openings with flat arches and
triple keystones. In the S. wall is a large lunette window
with a seven-light wooden-framed window above.
Internally, there are heavy beams with wave stops, and
the roof has two tiers of staggered purlins. On the first
floor is an original fireplace of ashlar with a segmental
arch, projecting keystone and moulded shelf; the stair
and plaster floors are contemporary.
(3) House, two storeys, modern pantiles, the E.
section with parapeted gable, probably late 18th-century;
the W. section, of the early 19th century, has a large
window suggesting use as a shop.
(4) Eden Cottage, one storey and attics, parapeted
gables, thatched roof, leaded glazing, class 8 but with
stair in turret at rear, opening out of an end room; 17th-century. The interior, sub-divided into two cottages in
the 19th century, has axial beams and a chamfered
fireplace bressummer with bar stops.
(5) Shuckburgh Arms, two storeys, thatched, class 2,
17th-century; addition on the E. and alterations internally
when the house became an inn in c. 1840. A chamfered
fireplace bressummer has bar stops.
(6) House, one storey and attics, parapeted gable, class
4a. 18th-century. Described as a public house in 1834
(Sale Catalogue, Southwick Hall) and said to be the Bill
(7) Park Cottage, one storey and attics, thatched, now
class 5 with an extra room at the S. end, incorporates a
17th-century beam with multiple stops in the N. room.
(8) Towns End Farm, two storeys, parapeted gable,
thatched, sash windows, early 19th-century. L-shaped
plan, four-bay main front. In 1834 the house was
occupied by Isaac Knighton who farmed 240 acres (100
hectares) (Sale Catalogue, Southwick Hall). (Not entered)
(9) Cross Way Hand Lodge (SP 996921; Fig. 183) was
built for a forest keeper in the early 18th century and
payments for oak boards and plaster in January 1729
suggest it was finished soon after that date (NRO, W(A)
4.III.4). The five-bay front is of three storeys with a
cellar but the building is of one storey only at the back,
the rear rooms being roofed by a catslide. The walling is
of carefully coursed rubble with flush quoins and the
gables are parapeted. On the front elevation the windows
have plain projecting architraves under rubble relieving
arches and wooden mullions and transoms and the
central doorway has a moulded architrave and pediment.
Windows on the rear elevation have flush architraves,
wooden frames and leaded lights; the western has square
stone mullions. A small gabled dormer is secondary.
Inside the two main rooms and the kitchen behind have
chamfered cross beams with differing stops. Original
fittings included a round-headed corner cupboard with
shaped shelves, panelled doors and a key block, and
some simple fireplace surrounds. In 1979 the front wall
of the house was rebuilt.
Fig. 183 Southwick (9) Cross Way Hand Lodge
(10) Tottenhoe Lodge (SP 995912) was built in the
early 19th century in the former Morehay Walk, and
includes a barn of five bays; the adjoining cow houses are
(11) Stone Pit Lodge (TL 039931), two storeys and
attics, banded masonry front wall, parapeted gables.
Class 3 a main range with original lean-to wing. The
house is early 19th-century in its present form but may
incorporate an earlier building.
(12) Perio Lodge (TL 044924) is at the N. end of the
site of the deserted medieval village of Perio (RCHM,
Northants. I, Southwick (13)). By the early 18th century
the mill, which remained in use after the settlement
became depopulated, was a paper mill (Guildhall Library,
MS 11936/9, p. 167) and remained as such until at least
1851; by 1871 it was again used for corn (Census). The
present buildings consists of a long range which is of
17th-century origin at the W. end and which has the
former mill at the E. end. The house had become
cottages by the 19th century (Scottish Record Office, GD
(13) King's Cliffe Spa (SP 996959; Fig. 184). A
chalybeate spring rises from the ferruginous Cornbrash
on the boundary with King's Cliffe. Its potential as a spa
was first exploited in about 1670 by Dr. Brown, a
physician of King's Cliffe, who 'publicly recommended
it' at that time. By 1712 there was 'a fit cistern of stone
at a convenient distance from the spring, to take in water
for the use of those who have cutaneous diseases or
ulcers' (Morton, 274). The remains consist of a
rectangular tank with ashlar walls and a flight of steps in
the centre of one side. The tank was fed through a
complex of deep channels in the S.W. corner, which may
also have been used for immersion. Both tank and
channel are bordered by paving. Graffiti on the upper
courses of the ashlar date from 1747 to the end of the
Fig. 184 Southwick (13) King's Cliffe Spa