4 BISHOP'S CAUNDLE (6913)
(O.S. 6 ins. ST 61 SE, ST 71 sw)
The parish, 960 acres in area, rises gently from the
Caundle Brook in the S., at an altitude of some 200
ft. above sea-level, to a maximum elevation of over
400 ft. in the N.W. The N.W. third of the parish lies
on Forest Marble; the rest is a combination of Oxford
Clay, Cornbrash Beds and Forest Marble.
Bishop's Caundle, the Parish Church of St. Peter & St. Paul
Until 1886 several outlying parts of Bishop's Caundle
were wholly surrounded by the parishes of Caundle
Marsh and Folke; conversely, detached lands of Caundle
Marsh lay inside the bounds of this parish. (fn. 1) While a
few of these 'islands' may result from early enclosure
of the forest most seem to lie in the area of former
open fields. The present parish contains two original
settlements, Bishop's and Wake Caundle. It is not
known whether each had a separate open field system.
Wake Court (5) incorporates a 16th-century farmhouse
and stands in an area where early enclosure is to be
suspected (15). The most important monument in the
parish is the church (1). Part of Cornford Bridge (2)
(1) The Parish Church of St. Peter and St. Paul
stands near the middle of the parish. The walls are of
coursed rubble with ashlar quoins and dressings; the
nave roof is tiled, with stone-slate verges; the chancel
and S. aisle roofs are wholly stone-slated. The Chancel
was largely rebuilt in 1864 but the faculty petition
(Salisbury Diocesan Archives) shows that the original
foundations and probably the lower courses of the N.
and E. walls were reused; the windows are in the 14th-century style but renewed. Original 14th-century work
survives in the E. wall of the nave, including the lower
courses of the chancel-arch responds, and also in the E.
wall of the South Aisle and the eastern part of its S.
wall. The rest of the Nave, the West Tower and the
western part of the S. aisle are largely of the second
half of the 15th century; the N. wall of the nave, part
of the S. wall of the S. aisle and the whole North Porch
were rebuilt in 1864.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (21 ft. by 13½ ft.)
has a pointed E. window of three lights with cinquefoil cusping
beneath moulded external and internal labels. Similar windows
of two lights open in the N. and S. walls, and the S. wall has
a small two-centred doorway. The chancel-arch is two-centred
and of two chamfered orders springing from chamfered
imposts; the lower parts of the chamfered responds appear to
be original. At the N.E. corner of the Nave (40 ft. by 19 ft.)
is a square-set 14th-century buttress of one weathered stage.
The N. side of the nave has, to the E., a 15th-century three-light window with cinquefoil cusping and vertical tracery in
the two-centred head. The rest of the N. wall, the N. doorway
and the N. porch are of 1864; the window to the W. of the
doorway is a 19th-century replica of that to the E. On the S.
side of the nave is a three-bay segmental-pointed arcade of the
late 15th century. The arches, of two chamfered orders, rise
from moulded capitals on chamfered shafts which repeat the
orders of the arches; the bases have polygonal ogee mouldings
on recessed octagonal plinths. A narrow opening, with details
to match the arcade has been formed in the E. respond. The
South Aisle (37 ft. by 10½ ft.) has, in the gabled E. wall, a two-centred 14th-century window of two lights with trefoil cusping
below an ogival quatrefoil. Adjacent, to the N., is a projection
containing the remains of the 15th-century rood-loft vice; it
has a two-centred doorway within which the three lowest steps
are preserved. The diagonal buttress at the S.E. corner of the
aisle is of the 14th century, and 14th-century masonry with a
chamfered plinth occurs below window-sill level in the E. half
of the S. wall. The western part of the S. wall and all three S.
windows are of 1864. The diagonal S.W. buttress and the W.
wall of the S. aisle are of the 15th century but the W. window
is a 19th-century insertion.
The West Tower (11 ft. square) has three principal stages
defined by hollow-chamfered string-courses (Plate 9); at the
base is an ogee-moulded plinth and at the top is an embattled
parapet with crocketed finials at each corner and in the middle
of each side; the finials are supported by shafts which rise from
grotesque gargoyles in the top string-course. Each of the four
corners has a diagonal buttress, diminishing in weathered
stages in correspondence with the tower stages; a fifth buttress,
square-set and of two stages, provides the S. abutment of the
tower arch. The vice turret, to the N., is square in the two
lower stages and octagonal in the top stage. Plinth and stringcourses are continuous around the turret and the buttresses.
The tower arch is two-centred; it is outlined to E. and W. by
ogee mouldings, continuous on the responds, and has responds
and soffit decorated with hollow-chamfered trefoil-headed
panels. In the N. wall the vice has a small two-centred doorway.
The W. doorway has a two-centred moulded head and continuous jambs; above is a two-centred W. window of three
cinquefoil-headed lights with restored vertical tracery. The
head of the W. window rises into the second stage, the string-course forming a hood-mould. A small two-centred two-light
window in the N. wall of the second stage has incised cusping
on the jambs. The third stage has, in each face, a mullioned and
transomed belfry window of two cinquefoil-headed lights
under a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. Below the transoms
the lights are blocked; above they have perforated stone slabs.
Fittings—Bells: five; 2nd, 1758, 4th, 1627, others modern.
Benefactors' Table: In tower, on N. wall, dated 1833. Font:
Octagonal Ham Hill stone bowl and pedestal; side of bowl
with quatrefoil panels enclosing blank shields and foliate bosses,
splayed base of bowl with trefoil-headed arcading, pedestal with
similar arcading; 15th century. Monuments: In nave, on N.
wall, (1) of the D'Aubeny and Herbert families (Plate 39); oval
panel of white marble with drapery, mounted on splayed black
slate background between white side-scrolls with inverted
cornucopiae; below, gadrooned white marble bracket; above,
white marble cornice over which shaped slate panel forms
background for white marble draped urn, standing on sarcophagus with shields-of-arms of the two families between sprays
of foliage; by King of Bath, 1815. In S. aisle, (2) of William
Claver, 1769, marble tablet with moulded cornice and base;
(3) of Mary Fry, 1830, similar to (2), by Mitchell of Sherborne.
In churchyard, close to N. wall of chancel, (4) burial vault
with rusticated quoins, protruding 2 ft. above ground and
surmounted by stone table-tomb with fluted corner pilasters
and moulded cornice, tomb formerly enclosed in iron railings;
18th-century, inscription obliterated. Plate: includes silver cup
and flagon, both marked BB, with hall-marks and inscriptions of
1734; also silver tray on claw feet, with date-letter of 1713,
used as paten. Royal Arms: In tower on N. wall, painted wooden
panel with arms and cypher of Charles II and date 1661.
(2) Cornford Bridge (69171204), of coursed rubble
with ashlar dressings, carries the road to Holwell across
the Caundle Brook about ¾ m. S. of the village. The
bridge was extensively repaired in the 18th century
and later but it incorporates 15th-century features. The
three segmental-pointed arches have voussoirs laid in
two orders. Between the arches are rubble piers; on the
upstream or W. side these have cut-waters with ashlar
facing, probably of the 18th century; on the E. side
the S. pier has a coursed rubble cut-water while the N.
pier retains a mediaeval weathered buttress of three
stages above a rough plinth. The upstream cut-waters
support refuge niches. The rubble parapets are capped
with bevelled coping-stones except at one point where
a hollow-chamfered mediaeval coping-stone is used.
(3) White Hart Inn, 100 yds. N.E. of the church, is of two
storeys, with rendered walls and a tiled roof with stone-slate
verges. It probably dates from the 18th century. Originally
the doorway opened into a through-passage flanked by plank-and-muntin partitions but the plan has been changed and the
partitions have been reset. The muntins have vertical reeding.
(4) Farm House (69381301), of two storeys with rendered
walls and tiled roofs, has a symmetrical 18th-century S. front
with a central doorway flanked by sashed windows, and three
sashed windows in the upper storey. Low outbuildings to E.
and W. have lean-to roofs masked by wing walls with shaped
copings. A rusticated wooden porch is modern.
(5) Wake Court (69981237), ½ m. S.E. of the
church, is a farmhouse of two storeys with attics, with
walls of rubble, partly rendered, and stone-slated roofs
with tiling near the ridge. The main house, facing E.,
is probably of the first half of the 18th century; it
contains several stop-chamfered ceiling beams and on
the first floor there is at least one beam, evidently
reused, with mouldings for a panelled ceiling. Detached
and running W. from the N. end of the house is a 16th-century range of one storey with an attic; it is now used
as a workshop and storehouse but it must originally have
been the farmhouse itself. According to Coker (p. 96) it
was in ruins in the 17th century.
Bishop's Caundle, Wake Court
The walls of the 16th-century wing are of rubble, and all
the window and door openings appear to be secondary. On the
ground floor are three rooms. The E. room has an original
open fireplace with chamfered ashlar jambs and a heavy timber
bressummer with a continuous chamfer and a raised centre. N.
of the fireplace is a spiral staircase to the attic. The ceiling has
a massive chamfered beam with run-out stops. The unheated
middle room is divided from the E. room by an original plank-and-muntin partition with chamfered muntins pegged to
chamfered and grooved top and bottom rails; a doorway with
a four-centred head at the N. end of the partition is chamfered
on the E. face only. The middle room has two chamfered
ceiling beams with run-out stops; in the S. wall a straight
vertical joint and a timber lintel indicate the position of a former
opening, now blocked. The middle room is separated from
the W. room by a plank-and-muntin partition similar to the
first but probably reset. The W. end of the range is probably
of the 19th century; it incorporates an open fireplace with
ashlar jambs, a chamfered oak bressummer and an oven in the
N. jamb. The spiral stair in the E. room leads to an attic chamber
ceiled at the level of the lower purlins but with a central E.-W.
beam exposed. The loft over the middle and W. rooms is
reached by outside steps of rubble, built against the S. wall.
The partition between the E. chamber and the loft is combined
with a framed truss in which the principals rise from a tie-beam at wall-plate level and are collared at half height; a king-post between the collar and the tie-beam is morticed to receive
the tenon of the ceiling beam in the E. chamber; the panels of
the truss are filled with wattle-and-daub to form the W. wall
of the chamber. Three purlins are housed into the principals,
and at the apex is a ridge piece set diagonally. While this truss
and the roof to the E. of it are original, the roof to the W. is
probably not older than the 19th century.
(6) Ryall's Farm (70061268) is an 18th-century farmhouse
of two storeys with a tiled roof and rendered walls. The symmetrical three-bay E. front has a coved eaves cornice. The
central doorway has a moulded stone architrave with a fluted
keystone but all other openings are modern.
(7) Farmhouse (69711283), at the S.W. end of Brown's
Street, now two cottages, is of rubble in two storeys with a
thatched roof. It probably dates from the 17th century and
originally had a normal three-room plan, perhaps with a
through-passage. A single-storied addition extends the range to
(8) Cottages (69611318), two adjoining, now combined as a
single dwelling, stand 20 yds. N. of the church; they have rubble
walls and thatched roofs. The S.W. cottage is of the late 16th
century; it is now two-storied but originally was single-storied
with an attic. The N.E. cottage is of the 18th century and is
single-storied. The 16th-century cottage retains an original
stone winding staircase beside an open fireplace, now blocked.
The following late 18th or early 19th-century farmhouses and cottages are built of rubble in two storeys,
or in one storey with dormer-windowed attics. Most
have thatched roofs. Unless noted otherwise the
buildings are simple ranges with approximately symmetrical three-bay fronts, having central doorways,
casement windows on either side and three corresponding first-floor windows.
(9) Cottage (69411294), of two bays with a central doorway,
stands on a narrow strip of land, perhaps part of a former
(10) Farmhouse (69641325), 100 yds. N. of the church, has a
rendered S. front. The roof is tiled and has two dormer windows.
Each gabled end-wall is crowned by a chimney-stack.
(11) Cottages, two adjoining, stand 30 yds. E. of the foregoing.
Both have symmetrical S. fronts; that to the E. is of three bays,
that to the W. is of two bays with a central doorway.
(12) Manor Farm (69801325), 200 yds. N.E. of the church,
repeats the characteristics of (10) but has been extended to the
W. in two storeys and to the E. in one storey. Further two-storied extensions occur to the N.
(13) Cottages (70011308), two adjoining, have been converted
to a single house and modernised.
(14) Cottages (69161210), pair, 50 yds. N. of Cornford
Bridge, have doorways coupled at the centre of the S. front,
each with one casement window beside it; the two tenements
have now been converted into one dwelling.
Early 19th-century monuments include Cottages near the church
(69591317), in Holt Lane (69201317) and (69031353), in Milburn
Lane (69261280), in Giles's Lane (69481282), and in Caundle
Mediaeval and Later Earthworks
(15) Cultivation Remains. Nothing is known of the open
fields of the parish or of the date of their enclosure. Field names
on the Tithe Map of 1841 perhaps indicate former North and
West Fields. Air Photographs (R.A.F. CPE/UK 1974: 2192–94)
reveal faint traces of ridge-and-furrow in the N. and N.W. of
the parish (693135 and 686127); it is arranged in curving
furlongs and may be the remains of the open fields.
Ridge-and-furrow, 5 yds. to 9 yds. in width, occurs in the
existing fields around Wake Court (5) and is clearly of postenclosure date.