2 BOURTON (7630)
(O.S. 6 ins. ST 72 NE, ST 73 SE)
This parish, the northernmost in Dorset, was regarded
as part of Gillingam until the 19th century. It has an
area of 922 acres between 350 ft. and 600 ft. above sea-level and falls into two parts. That in the S. is roughly
oval and comprises more than two-thirds of the whole
area; it lies mainly on Corallian Limestone and is
drained by a small tributary of the R. Stour. The
other part, a projection on the N.E., lies mainly on
Greensand; it is intersected by the R. Stour, flowing
The early history of the district is bound up with that
of Gillingham; the name is first recorded in 1212
(Fägersten, 3). It is possible that there were two
original settlements, West Bourton and Bourton, corresponding with the two parts described above. West
Bourton is still a small agricultural hamlet, but Bourton
village (map, p. 4) has grown to occupy much of the N.
and N.E. part of the parish, with a relatively dense
scatter of dwellings resulting from industrial development. Although in Dorset, the parish lies in the area
of the Wiltshire and Somerset textile industry, and the
manufacture of linen was already flourishing early in
the 18th century. Yarn was imported from Holland to
supplement flax, locally grown and spun, and by the
end of the 18th century weaving was the main occupation of the community; in 1811 three-quarters of the
population was so engaged. At first the work was done
on hand-looms in the scattered cottages; the first mill
was established in 1720 and other mills were built early
in the 19th century, some of them drawing power from
the R. Stour. Later in the 19th century the industry
declined in the face of competition from the North.
(1) The Parish Church of St. George (76843030)
stands in the W. part of the village. The walls are of
squared and coursed rubble with Greensand ashlar dressings; the roofs are slated. A church was consecrated
in 1813, but it was entirely rebuilt in 1880, re-using the
old foundations (Faculty, Sarum Dioc. Regy.).
Fittings—Chest: of oak, with wrought-iron angle clasps,
beaded top and moulded base, originally with three locks, inscribed 'BP 1794', recently acquired. Monuments: In nave,
reset on N. wall, (1) of Henry Biging, 1839, marble tablet with
draped urn by Chapman of Frome; (2) of John Burfitt, 1840,
marble tablet by Chapman of Frome. Plate: includes silver
cup, cover-paten, paten and flagon, all of 1810, inscribed 'The
gift of Sir Richard Colt Hoare Bart. to the Chapel of Bourton,
A.D. 1811'. Royal Arms: In nave, on N. wall, painted on small
wood panel, with crowned scutcheon of Hanover, 1814–37
Bourton, Position of Monuments
(2) Chaffeymoor House (76153024) is of two
storeys with attics and has walls of rubble with ashlar
dressings, and slated roofs. The house originated probably in 1700, and it has additions on the W. of the early
and late 19th century. The S. front was remodelled
early in the 19th century.
The N. front of the original range is of five bays, with a central
doorway flanked by casement windows of two square-headed
lights, with moulded stone surrounds and weathered labels, and
with similar windows in the upper storey. The centre bay is
masked by a late 19th-century two-storey porch. At the W.
end of the N. front a wing projecting northwards is probably
of the early 19th century. The S. front of the original range is
symmetrical and of three bays. At the centre, on the ground
floor, is an original square-headed doorway with a moulded
stone surround and a moulded label; it is sheltered by an early
19th-century porch with trellised uprights and a concave lead
roof; set in the wall above the porch are two stones inscribed
respectively 17 and 00. On the first floor, over the porch, is an
early 19th-century sashed window. On each floor, the side bays
of the S. front have early 19th-century bay windows of three
sashed lights. The attic has modern dormer windows. To the
W. is a two-storeyed extension, probably of the middle of the
Inside, the first-floor room at the E. end of the original range
has 18th-century pine panelling with fielded panels and moulded
rails and stiles. In the attic, the roof trusses have plain tie-beams,
and collar-beams with slightly raised centres.
Stables, some 30 yds. to the N., are of the early 19th century.
(3) Chaffeymoor Grange (76223038) is of two storeys and
has walls of rubble with ashlar dressings, and tiled roofs. The
main range is modern, but part of a small 17th-century house is
incorporated at the rear.
(4) Adcroft House (76973018), of two storeys and a cellar,
has rubble walls and tiled roofs with stone-slate verges; it dates
probably from early in the 18th century. The W. front is of
three bays, with a central doorway and with sashed windows
symmetrically disposed in each storey; the N. front has casement
windows informally arranged. The drawing room, in the angle
between the W. and N. ranges, is of the first half of the 19th
century; its doorway probably replaces a former window.
Bourton, Adcroft House
Inside, the arrangement of ceiling beams suggests that the partition on the S. side of the present dining-room is secondary
whereas that between the passage and the kitchen is original.
The staircase has a dado with bolection-moulded panels with
fielded centres, step spandrels with simple scroll decoration, and
columnar balustrades with spiral fluting on alternate shafts; at
the foot of the staircase is a matching dog-gate. The E. ground-floor room has two round-headed niches with moulded surrounds and shaped shelving.
(5)Cloth Mill (77713087), single-storeyed with basements,
has walls of rubble with ashlar dressings, and tiled roofs (Plate
31); it was built in 1820. The main range has a symmetrical E.
front of five bays with segmental-headed openings; the doorway at the centre has 'WIJ 1820' inscribed above the keystone;
below, the basements have segmental-headed windows. On the
W. front the falling ground allows the basement to be open,
with three large round-headed archways and one segmental-headed archway. Adjoining the N. end of the main range is the
former machine-house, with openings for a water-race which
led to an overshot water-wheel, now removed.
(6) Ivy Lodge (77743084), house, adjacent to (5), is of two
storeys with walls of rubble and of ashlar and with a thatched
roof; it dates from the 18th century, with additions probably
of 1834. The original range had a S. front of two bays with
a central doorway, and three-light casement windows. In the
19th century the range was extended westwards and a french
window was inserted in place of an original ground-floor
window. At the same time a new range was built on the N.,
parallel with the first, with a further extension at right-angles;
the date of the extensions is suggested by a lead rain-water head
of 1834. Inside, on the first floor, several 19th-century rooms
have three-panelled doors with enriched beading.
(7) Bullpits (77513117), house, is of two storeys, with walls
partly rendered and partly of rubble, and with tiled and slated
roofs. The main S. and E. ranges are largely of the 19th
century, but incorporated in them, to N. and W., are the walls
of a former Cloth Mill, dating from c. 1720. The 19th-century
S. front has a symmetrical façade of three bays with a central
doorway under a porch with round-headed arches and RomanDoric corner pilasters; originally all the windows had sashed
lights, but some of these have been replaced by modern casements. To the E., slightly set back, is the S. end of the 19th-century E. range, with a Palladian window on the ground floor
and with a pair of round-headed lights above. On the N. the
walls of the former mill are exposed; it appears to have been
L-shaped in plan and to have had rubble walls and slated roofs;
a few large casement windows are preserved. Inside, the house
has been extensively modernised. Documents and pictures
relating to the history of the building are preserved by the
(8) Cottages (76123051), two adjacent, are two-storeyed
and have rubble walls and tiled roofs. The cottage on the S.E.
is of late 16th or early 17th-century origin; that on the N.W.
is of the 18th century. Inside, the S.E. ground-floor room has
a four-panel ceiling with heavily moulded intersecting beams and
(9) Cottages (7633027), two adjacent, are two-storeyed and
have walls partly of rubble and partly rendered; the roofs are
thatched. The building is probably of the late 18th century.
(10) Chaffeymoor Farm (76453020), house, two-storeyed,
with rubble walls and slated roofs, dates probably from the first
half of the 18th century. The original range is of four bays; on
the W. is a late 18th-century extension of one bay; on the E. is
a similar, but slightly lower extension, probably of the early
(11) Grovehouse Farm (76383035), house, is two-storeyed
and has rubble walls and tiled roofs. The main range is of the 18th
century and there are 19th-century extensions on the N. and
N.W. The W. front of the main range has a central doorway
with a flat hood resting on moulded timber brackets. Casement
windows in each storey have timber lintels and wrought-iron
casements with leaded glazing. Inside, at the N. end of the
original range is an open fireplace with a moulded stone surround, probably of the 18th century.
(12) Cottages (76753033), two adjacent, are two-storeyed
and have walls of coursed and random rubble, and thatched
roofs. The building is of the 18th century and has an L-shaped
plan, the N. cottage standing at right-angles to that on the S.
Inside, several rooms have ceiling beams with narrow chamfers.
(13) Marvin's Farm (76923007), house, of three storeys, has
rubble walls and slated roofs; it is of 18th-century origin, with
a late 19th-century third storey. The W. front is symmetrical
and of three bays, with a central doorway and with sashed
windows. Inside, some rooms have panelled softwood partitions.
(14) The Red Lion Inn (76933038), is two-storeyed and has
walls of squared rubble with ashlar dressings, and slated roofs.
It dates from c. 1830.
(15) Cottage (77203059), with rubble walls and thatched
roofs, is of the late 18th century.
(16) Sandway House (77253069), of two storeys with attics,
has rendered walls and tiled mansard roofs; it is said to date
from c. 1795. Extensions on the N. are of the 19th century.
(17) Cottages (77243071), two adjacent, have walls of
coursed rubble, and thatched roofs. Originally single-storeyed
with dormer-windowed attics, they have recently been
heightened to make two storeys and they have also been combined as one dwelling. The building appears to be of 18th-century origin.
(18) Dovehayes Farm (77423089), house, is two-storeyed
and has walls of coursed rubble and tiled roofs; it dates from the
late 18th century. The S. front of the main range is symmetrical
and of three bays, with a central doorway flanked by sashed
windows of three lights and with corresponding openings in the
upper storey. Adjacent on the W. is a single-storeyed outbuilding, contemporary with the main range; on the E. is a
somewhat later addition.
(19) Dovehayes Farm Cottages (77323085), two adjacent,
are two-storeyed and have rubble walls and slated and tiled
roofs; they are of the 18th century.
(20) Cottages (77583076), pair, are two-storeyed with
rubble walls and tiled roofs; they date from late in the 18th
century. The W. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with
coupled doorways at the centre and with casement windows of
three and of four lights arranged symmetrically in each storey.
(21) Malthouse Cottages (77883079), range of three and
one adjacent, are two-storeyed and have rubble walls and are
roofed with tiles and corrugated iron; they date from early in
the 18th century. Inside, the middle cottage of the range has
a ceiling with reset fragments of moulded plasterwork of late
16th-century origin (cf. Gillingham (75)).
(22) The White Lion Inn (77863093), of two storeys, comprises a row of three former houses of c. 1800 and, at the back,
a cottage of c. 1750. The walls are of coursed rubble and the
roofs are slate-covered. The southernmost house of the row
has a symmetrical E. front of three bays with a central doorway;
on the N. is a pair of two-bay houses. The cottage of 1750
stands adjacent to that first mentioned, on the N.W.; it is
roofed with pantiles.
(23) Cottage (78193121), single-storeyed with an attic, with
rubble walls and a thatched roof, dates from early in the 18th
century. Adjacent on the S. is a two-storeyed extension, with
walls of coursed rubble, probably of the late 18th century. The
S. gable has an ashlar coping with shaped ashlar kneelers and, at
the apex, an ashlar chimney-stack.
(24) Manor Farm (76592927), house, is two-storeyed and has
rubble walls with heavy rubble quoins, and tiled roofs. It
is probably of the 18th century and a moulded stone label over
the E. doorway is presumably reset. All windows have casements and are spanned by timber lintels. The plan is L-shaped.
(25) West Bourton Farm (76632923), house, is two-storeyed and has rubble walls and tiled roofs with stone-slate
verges; it is of the 17th century. All windows have casements
and the openings are spanned by rough timber lintels. The S.
doorway has an 18th-century lead-covered segmental hood resting on scroll-shaped timber brackets. Inside, the plan is of class
F, with two original open fireplaces, now blocked. A plank-and-muntin partition flanks the through-passage on the side
opposite the central chimneybreast. The bressummer of the
E. fireplace is cambered and deeply chamfered. The first floor
rests on deeply chamfered beams, one with shaped stops.
(26) Blackwater Farm (76442925), house, is two-storeyed
and has rendered walls and a slated roof. The symmetrical E.
front is of two bays with a central doorway and with casement
windows in each storey; to the S. is an added bay. The N.
gable has a date-stone inscribed 'RP 1738', probably the date of
(27) Farmhouse (76582935), is two-storeyed and has rubble
walls and a tiled roof; it dates from about the middle of the
18th century. The E. front is symmetrical and of three bays,
with a central doorway and casement windows. The N. and
W. elevations retain original casement windows of two, three
and four square-headed lights, some of them blocked. Inside,
one room has an open fireplace, now blocked.
(28) Cottages (76632937), two adjoining, are two-storeyed
and have coursed rubble walls and tiled roofs; they are of the
18th century. In each cottage the W. front is symmetrical and
of two bays, with a central doorway and with sashed windows
in each storey.
Dispersed in the village of Bourton, as shown on the
map on p. 4 are twenty-five small two-storeyed
houses, similar to one another in character. They date
from the late 18th or early 19th century and have
coursed rubble walls and thatched or tile-covered roofs.
The façades are of three bays, each with a central doorway and with symmetrically disposed windows; a few
have casements, but in most the windows are sashed.
In several of these monuments, notably (53), (Plate 30),
the three-bay façade is designed to mask two independent dwellings (cf. Milton Abbas (7), Dorset III, 197).
Monuments of the first half of the 19th century include
fifteen Ranges of Cottages, of two, three or four tenements, and
four isolated Cottages; the location of these monuments is
shown on the map on p. 4.