20 SHAFTESBURY (8622)
(O.S. 6 ins., ST 82 SE)
The modern Borough of Shaftesbury, covering 1,200
acres, includes land in the E. which formerly was part
of the parish of Cann, and land in the N. W. which
until recently was in Motcombe, itself formerly a division of Gillingham (see above, p. 48). Straddling the
Greensand escarpment and varying in altitude from
over 700 ft. above sea-level in the E. to less than 400 ft.
in the W., the town occupies a prominent position on
the summit of a projecting Greensand spur, with precipitous slopes 100 ft. high on all but the N.E. side
Shaftesbury occupies a strong natural position, and
the name suggests that it was from the beginning a
fortified settlement. Local tradition, embodied in a
stone inscription copied by William of Malmesbury,
ascribes the foundation of the town to King Alfred
in the year 880—more than a decade before the organisation of the chain of fortresses with which Alfred
defended his frontiers against the Danes. A fragment
of this inscription, rediscovered in 1902, shows, however, that it was carved during the period c. 975 to
1050; hence the earliest reliable reference to Shaftesbury as a borough is that of the year 926 in Athelstan's
law about currency. (fn. 1) Asser reports that Alfred also
founded Shaftesbury Abbey for nuns, but nothing
remains of the original nunnery; a few pre-conquest
carved stones have been found on the site, but the most
important appears to come from a cross-shaft. The
present church, represented by little more than foundations, dates from late in the 11th century.
Shaftesbury, Monuments in the Central Part of the Parish
The Saxon borough lay on the W. of the abbey,
where gardens and scattered houses now flank the
street called Bimport. The population at the time of
the Domesday survey must have been at least 1,000. (fn. 2)
In the 12th century a small castle was built at the
western extremity of the spur. The present town centre,
on the E. of the spur, stems probably from a concentration of buildings outside the gates of the borough and
abbey, the broad High Street representing an extramural market place; further growth took place on
the N. and E. where the ground is fairly level. During
the mediaeval period a second nucleus of habitation
developed at the foot of the escarpment, on the S.W.
around St. James's Church. A map of 1615 (Hutchins
III, frontispiece), shows that the town was then beginning to spread S.E. along the Salisbury road, and
that the buildings at St. James's were beginning to
extend E. along the wall of the abbey park. Further
development along the same lines is shown on Upjohn's
Map of Shaftesbury, 1799 (Hutchins, 2nd ed., II,
opp. 391), and also on the Tithe Map of 1848.
The Inscription seen by William of Malmesbury
In 1902 a fragment of inscribed stone was found on the site of
the abbey church. (fn. 3) It has since been lost, but a rubbing is preserved in the Shaftesbury Historical Museum (Plate 58). The
rubbing shows that the fragment had a maximum measurement
of about 5 ins. in each direction and included part of the sinister
margin, 1 in. wide, and the ends of three lines of letters; those
of the middle line, the only ones fully preserved, were 2 ins.
high. The letters, which read as follows,
. . . . . IT.
. . . .NIC
. . ATIO
are regular and evenly spaced, with well-marked wedge-shaped
serifs. The C is square. In the N the oblique stroke joins the
sinister upright well above the base. The O has two crescent
strokes crossed at the top, forming a vesica. Letters of this type
are used as capitals forming the opening line or phrase of a new
entry in a number of late pre-conquest MSS. The forms here
used may be noted in these positions in the late 10th-century
Bosworth Psalter (New Paleographical Society, ser. I, plate 163),
in the early 11th-century Sherborne Pontifical (ibid., plate 111),
and in the late 10th-century Exeter Book of Old English Poetry
(facsimile, London 1933, ff. 55 b, 65 b, 78 a). In the Shaftesbury
inscription the words were separated by triangular stops. The
inscription may be assigned to a date between c. 975 and c. 1050.
The fragment evidently belongs to the inscription seen in the
abbey chapter house by William of Malmesbury, whose account
of Shaftesbury (fn. 4) dates from 1125. His record, not an exact transcript, states that the stone had been brought from the ruins of
a very old wall. The inscription may be restored thus—
In the first line the initial AE was probably ligatured; the uninflected form of the name is normal on coins, with or without
ligature (cf. the CNUT REX of the Newminster Register;
T. D. Kendrick, Later Saxon and Viking Art, plate xviii). The
dating as given by William of Malmesbury is inconsistent, since
Alfred succeeded Ethelred in April 871 and his eighth year ran
from April 878 to April 879. (fn. 5)
A formal inscription of this sort would be set up in connection
with an important stone building; it may be compared with the
inscription commemorating the dedication of the church at
Jarrow (fn. 6) in 685. A secular stone building in Shaftesbury at the
time in question (c. 975–1050) is unlikely to have been anything
but the town wall, and the most probable position for the
inscription would be in association with a tunnel gateway such
as has recently been found at Cadbury (fn. 7) dating from c. 1010.
Asser does indeed speak of the E. gate of Shaftesbury at an
earlier period, (fn. 8) but the grant of Bradford on Avon to the nuns,
as a refuge from the barbarians (fn. 9) in 1001, may imply that
Shaftesbury was not fortified at that time. Domesday Book
records that 80 houses out of the 257 in existence twenty years
earlier, then lay waste (fn. 10) and in 1125 William of Malmesbury
calls Shaftesbury a village (vicus) which had formerly been a
town (urbs). (fn. 11) The combined evidence suggests that the stone
defences of Shaftesbury date from the first half of the 11th
century, and that the 11th-century inscription records the tradition of the foundation of the town, but not necessarily the building of the defences, by King Alfred. That the foundation took
place early in the reign is borne out by Alfred's charter to the
Abbey. (fn. 12) Although this is spurious or at best interpolated in the
form handed down to us, the inclusion among the witnesses of
Eahlfrith, Bishop of Winchester, implies the existence of an
original charter bearing that prelate's name. Since Eahlfrith had
been succeeded by Tunbeohrt by 877 that charter must have
been granted between 871 and 877. The text of the charter, as
preserved, records the presentation to the abbey of Alfred's
daughter Aethelgeofu, who took the veil on account of ill health.
In 877 Aethelgeofu was an infant; she was Alfred's third child
and can scarcely have been born before 871. The date 887 for
the foundation, given by Symeon of Durham, (fn. 13) is no more than
conjecture; he repeats Asser's text verbatim and dates the
passage more closely than is justified by the source.
(1) The Abbey Church of St. Mary and St.
Edward (86182290), now reduced to little more than
its foundations, lies on the E. of the area formerly
occupied by Alfred's borough. Shaftesbury Abbey was
the wealthiest Benedictine nunnery in England; its
foundation is generally ascribed to King Alfred, whose
daughter Aethelgeofu is the first recorded abbess:
Monasterium juxta orientalem portam Sceftesburg, habitationi sanctimonialium habile, idem praefatus rex aedificari imperavit; in quo propriam filiam suam Aethelgeofu, devotam
Deo virginem, abbatissam constituit. (fn. 14) The 15th-century
cartulary (B. M., Harley, 61) (fn. 15) includes a number of
older charters, some of them apparently genuine and
referring to lands later held by the abbey. The oldest,
datable between 670 and 676, is a grant to Abbot Bectun of thirty households at Fontmell; (fn. 16) the grant was
successfully disputed by the neighbouring minster of
Tisbury, (fn. 17) but the property was held by Shaftesbury in
1066. Similar grants to individuals, entered in the cartulary, were attributed to Egbert (802–39), (fn. 18) Ethelbald
(855–860), (fn. 19) Ethelbert (860–865/6) (fn. 20) and Ethelred I
(865/6–871). (fn. 21) The charters of Ethelbald, Ethelbert and
Ethelred may explain Leland's record, (fn. 22) that these princes were co-founders of the abbey with Alfred, their
younger brother. The entry of these charters, especially
that concerning Abbot Bectun, suggests that a minster
church already existed at Shaftesbury in the 7th century,
the property of which descended to the abbey. This
minster may have sustained the charge of a nunnery
(cf. Trans. R. Hist. Soc., 4th ser., xxiii, 51–2).
Asser's record of the foundation of the abbey occurs
at a point in the MS. which indicates the year 887, and
was so understood by Symeon of Durham (see above),
but the passage is clearly recapitulation and its position
in the narrative is not to be relied upon in this way.
As shown above, the foundation charter appears to date
from the years 871–7. Aethelgeofu came to the abbey
in her childhood, and her abbacy is likely to date from
the end of the 9th century at the earliest.
The 10th century saw many munificent gifts to the
abbey. The most highly venerated relic came in 979
when the body of King Edward was brought there
from Wareham minster, where it lay for a year after
the king had been murdered at Corfe. (fn. 23) The original
dedication in honour of the Virgin was subsequently
augmented to include the name of St. Edward. In the
late 11th-century church St. Edward's tomb was on the
N. side of the chancel; the empty grave, lined with
dressed ashlar, was opened in 1861. (fn. 24) William of
Malmesbury, writing c. 1125, records that portions of
the relics had been removed to Leominster and Abingdon, and that the remains of the body at Shaftesbury
had long perished, although a lung, still preserved, could
be seen miraculously pulsating: miraculo sane ostentatur
pulmo, toto dudum consumpto corpore, adhuc integra viriditate
palpitans. (fn. 25) There cannot be much doubt that William
saw the squat glass jar which was rediscovered, probably
in 1901–3, 'under a heart-shaped white marble slab in
front of the high altar'; (fn. 26) probably it was set in this
place early in the 14th century as a focus for the devotion
of the community when the relics were translated to
a newly built chapel on the N. (see below).
Of the pre-conquest church no remains have been
identified, although carved stones preserved on the site
include some that can be dated to the 10th or early
11th century. A few architectural fragments imply that
the church was of stone, but they provide no information as to its form.
Excavations on the site of the church (Plate 60) have
disclosed the remains of a late 11th-century cruciform
building. The eastern arm of three bays had a central
apse and was flanked by chapels with smaller apses, the
latter square externally. Square transepts with eastern
apses extended N. and S. On the W. was an aisled nave
of at least seven bays. A drawing of c. 1553 (Plate 58)
showing the church in a ruinous state soon after the
Dissolution, (fn. 27) depicts the nave arcades with large cylindrical columns; these are unlikely to date from before
1100 and must represent the completion of the church
early in the 12th century. On the other hand, many
fine architectural details of late 11th-century date, preserved on the site, indicate that the eastern part of the
church was complete by 1100; presumably this work
included the eastern bay of the nave, where the footings
of the first pier next to the crossing, on the N. side,
remain; the pier was rectangular with attached shafts,
the chamfered base of one shaft remaining in situ. No
doubt the eastern parts of the church were built under
the rule of Abbess Eulalia who succeeded in 1074; her
name and that of Prioress Agnes appear in the bede
rolls of Matilda of Caen (1113), and of Vitalis the
founder of the Order of Savigni (1122). (fn. 28)
Early in the 14th century a chapel with a crypt
beneath it was built in the angle between the N. chapel
and the N. transept, eliminating the transeptal apse.
Entrance to the crypt was by a canted flight of stairs,
winding down through the S. part of the E. wall of the
transept, no doubt in order to leave the central part of
the E. wall free for a dignified entry to the upper
chapel. A roughly made leaden casket was unearthed
in 1931 from a position which would correspond with
the threshold of this entry; it contained the fractured
bones of a young man, plausibly identified with the
relics of St. Edward, perhaps reburied here in haste at
the Dissolution. The upper chapel may thus be identified as that of St. Edward; presumably it contained a
shrine to which the relics were translated in the 14th
century, a more convenient position for the devotions of
pilgrims than the earlier tomb on the N. of the chancel.
Shaftesbury, the Abbey Church of St. Mary and St. Edward
In the 14th century a large chapel, probably a Lady
Chapel, was added on the S. side of the eastern arm,
replacing the 11th-century S. chapel and causing the
destruction of the S. transept apse. It was of four bays,
heavily vaulted and buttressed. At this period a number
of monastic churches received the addition of chapels
for the celebration of the Mass of the Blessed Virgin.
For convenience of access by the laity they were usually
situated on the side of the church remote from the
cloister, but at Shaftesbury this position was already
occupied by the chapel of St. Edward.
The liturgical arrangement of the 11th-century
church is likely to have had the choir with the nuns'
stalls in the eastern bay of the nave, and extending into
the crossing and eastern arm. On the W. the return
stalls backed against the pulpitum, the foundations of
which traverse the nave between the first pair of piers;
there were screens under the arches behind the stalls.
The rood-screen, perhaps of wood, stood between the
second pair of nave piers, with the rood altar against
the W. face; the screen continued across the aisles in
masonry, dividing the nuns' church from the western
part of the nave, used by the laity. The arrangements
probably evolved gradually; a solid screen of the kind
indicated by the footings in the aisles is not likely to
date from much before 1200.
The remains of the pulpitum and of the screens crossing the aisles show that these features were demolished
to a level below that of the nave floor. Such radical
destruction implies the deliberate dismantling of the
rood and pulpitum while the church was still in use.
Many monastic and other churches retain evidence of
liturgical rearrangement in the 14th and 15th centuries,
and Shaftesbury Abbey probably supplies another example. The remains of foundations, perhaps part of a
late pulpitum, occur on the E. of the crossing, and an
altar has been added against the W. face of the S.E.
crossing pier. The removal of the choir with its stalls
into the eastern arm of a church was often carried out
in late mediaeval times in order to free the nave for large
congregational services, especially sermons. The rearrangement is often associated with eastward extension
of a church, but of this there is no sign at Shaftesbury;
the boundary of the excavations, however, coincides
with the E. part of the 11th-century apse foundations,
and it is possible that a later presbytery, extending
further E., remains to be discovered.
The rearrangements suggested above may have been
connected with the addition of the 14th-century Lady
Chapel; the two need not be contemporary, although
the removal eastwards of the choir would have made
the Lady Chapel more accessible. The change can
hardly have been made before 1326, when the community numbered more than 120 and was ordered to
admit no more members until the total had been
reduced. (fn. 29) Precise figures are not again available until
the 15th and 16th centuries, when the numbers of nuns
vary between 36 and 55. (fn. 30) The reduction in numbers
probably took place in the earlier part of the interval
and the rearrangement, with its smaller choir, may have
been effected by the middle of the 14th century. Perhaps a closer date is afforded by an ordinance of 1364
transferring the chaplaincy of the rood altar in the abbey
church to the adjacent church of Holy Trinity, where
the incumbent of the chaplaincy became a parochial
chaplain. (fn. 31) This event probably marked the extinction
of parish rights in the nave of the abbey church.
The chapter house, with a fine tiled pavement of the
late 13th century, was separated from the S. transept
by a narrow passage. The cloister lay S. of the nave,
in the usual position; only a small part has been
excavated. The W. walk with the western processional
doorway lay opposite the seventh bay of the nave,
suggesting that the nave extended at least one bay
further west. Twin western towers are indicated on
the 13th-century abbey seal, and perhaps on the Wilton
sketch of 1553, and heavy foundations uncovered at
the W. extremity of the excavated area probably bear
out these indications.
At the Dissolution, on 23 March 1539, the abbey
was surrendered by the abbess, Elizabeth Zouche, to the
King's Commissioner, Sir John Tregonwell (Hutchins
III, 30–2). In 1544 much of the abbey property was
bought by Sir Thomas Arundel and in 1553, after
Arundel's attainder, it was sold to the Earl of Pembroke,
whose descendants still possess Sir Thomas Arundel's
terrier. The sketch in the terrier (Plate 58) proves that
the abbey church was already in ruins by the middle
of the 16th century; in course of time it disappeared
altogether and gardens and houses took its place. In
1816 Charles Bowles started excavations on the site;
at a depth of 6 ft. he found a tiled floor decorated with
griffins, lions, dragons etc., and Purbeck marble monuments (Gentleman's Magazine, LXXXVII (1817), 209).
Researches of a more systematic nature in 1861 resulted
in the clearing of the eastern arm of the church and of
part of the crypt of St. Edward's chapel on the N.
(Edward Kyte, W.A.M., VII (1862), 272–7; Hutchins
III, 32–5); the trenches were filled in again in 1862.
In 1902–5 Edward Doran Webb cleared the eastern
part of the church (Excavations on the site of the Abbey
Church ... Shaftesbury, 1902, 1903, 1904, printed in
Shaftesbury by T. Pinney); the glass jar in which St.
Edward's lung may have been preserved appears to
have come to light during this period. After 1905
Webb's trenches were neglected for many years and
much damage was done by frost. In 1930–2 further
work was undertaken by J. Wilson-Claridge, who
cleared most of the nave; at this time the relics, supposedly of St. Edward, came to light in the N. transept
(Report of Excavations . . . 1930–1, Crypt House Press,
Architectural Description—In the Chancel the eastern extremity of the apse is covered by a modern wall. The northern
quadrant of the apse is represented by the core of the curved wall;
the southern quadrant, entirely perished, has been restored in
recent years. The platform which fills the apse is of mediaeval
origin but trenches have been cut on N. and S. in an attempt to
expose the apse footings. The two W. steps are modern
restorations; the third step retains part of an original chamfered
offset. Between the apse and the crossing, the chancel probably
was of three bays. Immediately W. of the apse the N. wall of the
chancel contains a recess lined with diagonally dressed ashlar,
carefully coursed; the recess goes down nearly 2ft. below floor-level, and about 1 ft. above floor-level the N., E. and W. sides
have offsets 3 ins. wide; this was evidently an important tomb
and originally may well have contained the body of St. Edward.
Adjacent on the W. is the threshold and part of the rebated W.
jamb of a doorway in a narrow passage cut through the wall
between the chancel and the N. chapel; this feature is of
doubtful origin. On the W. of the doorway the lowest course
of the original ashlar wall face is preserved; set upon it are three
stones of a heavy string-course, 10 ins. thick, chamfered above
and below; they appear to be part of a pilaster between the two
eastern bays of the chancel, but are not necessarily in situ. The
second bay seems to have had a wide, shallow recess in the N.
wall, and in the sill of the recess are three dowel-holes, possibly
for the base of a grill. An opening to the N. chapel in the third
bay of the chancel is probably not original. On the S. side of
the chancel, the heavy chamfered string-course noted on the N.
is repeated; to the E. of this feature the S. wall has been razed;
to the W. the wall contains a tomb. Further W., beyond a
narrow opening to the S. chapel, a semicircular foundation projects on the N. side of the S.E. pier of the crossing; it is not
bonded into the main structure and its purpose is uncertain.
If the hypothesis advanced above be true, that the choir was
moved eastwards in the 14th century, the projection could perhaps represent part of a 14th-century pulpitum.
Many fragments of the chancel pavement remain in situ, consisting of terracotta tiles about 5¼ ins. square, with shields-of-arms and various emblems in white slip; the earlier of them
date, probably, from the second half of the 13th century. In
two places straight margins indicate the position of choir stalls.
The chancel floor slopes gently upwards, being about 1½ ft.
higher at the E. than at the W. end.
The North Chapel was of three bays with an apse on the E.
The lowest ashlar course of the internal apse wall-face survives
in situ; on the chord of the apse a step 6 ins. high is rebated on
top for tiles. A few chamfered ashlar blocks in the E. face of the
E. wall are part of the plinth. In the N. wall, incorporated in
the E. wall of the adjacent 14th-century chapel, is an original
chamfered plinth-stone and the base of an 11th-century pilaster
buttress. Inside, the N. wall of the chapel retains the base of the
respond between the first and second bays; when excavated in
1902 this respond had an attached half-round shaft, 1 ft. 4¾ ins.
in diameter, with a moulded base, but these features have gone.
The division between the second and the third bay is marked by
a step 6 ins. high, but the wall responds have gone; another
step leads down to the N. transept. Slight irregularities in the
S. wall of the chapel indicate the position of former responds
between the bays and at the opening of the apse.
The South Chapel, originally uniform in plan with that on the
N., was enlarged to E. and S. and given a rectangular E. end in
the 14th century. The 11th-century chapel is represented by the
footings of its S.E. corner, preserved below the floor-level of the
later building and now exposed. In the 14th-century chapel a
large block of ashlar at the S.E. corner retains the mouldings of
the chamfered vaulting ribs, which evidently sprang at floor-level.
This chapel was of four bays; a projecting stone near the middle
of the N. wall may be part of the base of one of the responds;
straight-joints close to it, on the W., possibly indicate the position of a respond in the original chapel. In the footings of the S.
wall of the chapel a projection near the E. end is perhaps the
substructure of a shrine. Externally, the three eastern buttresses
of the 14th-century S. wall are represented by footings, extensively restored; in the fourth buttress two courses of 14th-century ashlar are preserved and the wall between the third
and fourth buttresses retains a chamfered plinth.
The North Transept has, on the E., the opening to a stair which
winds down to the crypt of St. Edward's chapel (see below).
Adjacent, on the N., is a rectangular recess in the floor, where the
lead box containing bones, believed by many to be the relics of
St. Edward, was discovered in 1931. In the southern part of the
W. wall, one course of the outer wall-face remains in situ and
returns at the angle with the N. aisle; it is of squared ashlar and
stands nearly 1½ ft. high. The Crypt of St. Edward's chapel has
walls of squared and coursed rubble with ashlar dressings, in part
restored. The tas-de-charge of the two-bay cross-vault remain
in situ. The doorway to the stair on the W. has rebated jambs.
In the South Transept the footings of the inner face of the E.
wall are preserved as far N. as the S. side of the S. chapel; the
footings of the S. and W. walls also remain, but the superstructure has entirely gone. At the time of excavation traces of
a doorway were noted at the S.E. corner, possibly giving access
to a stair to the dormitory.
The Crossing is defined by four massive rectangular piers
rising some 2 ft. above the level of the former pavements, but
deprived of almost all facing stones. Masonry extending W.
from the S.E. pier is probably the base of an altar and its footpace. The masonry footing of a semicircular feature built
against the N. face of the same pier has been mentioned above.
The Nave has been excavated as far W. as the boundary of the
adjoining property, revealing six bays and part of a seventh.
On the N., the eastern pier retains the chamfered plinth of an
attached shaft, indicating that this pier was cruciform in plan.
Further W. the positions of the former piers are occupied by
mounds of rubble, presumably lying on original foundations.
The drawing of c. 1553 in the Wilton Terrier (Plate 58) shows
the piers as cylindrical, and unattached ashlar facing stones found
on the site, from a convex cylinder about 4 ft. in diameter, indicate the probable size of the former piers. Foundations spanning
the nave nearly in line with the easternmost piers are doubtless the
substructure of the former pulpitum. A rectangle of rough stones
on the axis of the nave, in the third bay, is presumably the
footing of a platform for the altar in front of the rood-screen.
Of the North Aisle there remain the footings of the N. wall,
a few stones of the lowest course of the outer wall-face at the E.
end, and part of the core of the wall over a length of some 40 ft.
The foundations of a wall or screen separate the two eastern bays
from those on the W. The tiled pavement of the aisle lies some
6 ins. higher than that of the nave.
In the South Aisle the two eastern bays are divided from those
on the W. by the footings of a cross-wall, as in the N. aisle;
a similar feature occurs at the sixth pier. Two openings in the
foundations of the S. wall are not original, but that on the W.
probably indicates the place of an original doorway from the
W. walk of the cloister. The foundations of two buttresses
which project into the N. walk of the cloister are later additions.
In the Cloister, the foundations of part of the N. and W. walks
have been exposed. The foundations of two buttresses near the
N.W. corner of the garth wall appear to be late repairs, but a
buttress which stands 16 ft. S. of the N.W. corner includes
original masonry; beside it, on the N., the wall retains a
chamfered plinth. Some fragments of tiled paving remain in
the W. and N. walks.
The foundations of the N. wall of the Chapter House are seen
some 5 ft. S. of the S. wall of the transept. Adjacent on the S.
are some remains of the chapter-house tiled floor. Further S.
the foundations of the conventual buildings probably exist, concealed beneath a public road.
Fittings, etc.—Carved stone fragments (Plates 3, 59), found
during the excavations and kept in a museum on the site, include
the following: Of pre-conquest date—(1) perhaps part of a crossshaft, with single-strand interlace ornament and, on adjacent
side, 'anglian' beast-head; (2) small fragment with two-strand
interlace; (3) fragment with palmette ornament, subsequently
reused and with billet ornament superimposed; (4) grave slabs,
four, with crudely carved crosses. Of the late 11th century—
(5) volutes, 16 in number, of various sizes,
some retaining pigment; (6) base of
attached shaft (diam. 5½ ins.), of Purbeck
marble, with cable moulding and palmettes (see drawing); (7) large capital
with volute and leaf ornament; (8) volute
capital for shaft 13 ins. in diam., and
some 20 fragments of similar capitals;
(9) sculptured corbel from corbel-table;
(10) bases for shafts about 10 ins. diam.
Of the 12th century—(11) part of twisted
stone shaft, 6 ins. diam; (12) part of
spiral-fluted shaft, 1¼ ft. diam.; (13)
voussoirs with chevron, dog-tooth and
pellet decoration; (14) string-course with
billet decoration; (15) double capital for
coupled shafts of about 7 ins. diam., perhaps from cloisters; (16) leaf capitals for
shafts about 3 ins. and 5 ins. in diam.;
(17) two large corbels with grotesque
masks. Of the 13th century—(18) two
bases with hold-water mouldings for shafts about 5 ins. diam.;
(19) stiff-leaf capital 1 ft. high for triple shaft. Of the 14th
century—(20) vaulting boss with shield charged with two
crossed swords. Of the 15th century—(21) vaulting bosses, 8 in
number, with foliate and heraldic decoration.
Coffins and Coffin-lids: fragments, from six burials, 11th
century, 13th century and of unknown mediaeval date.
Cross: of stone, brought in 1931 from another part of
Shaftesbury (Wilson-Claridge, op. cit., p. 8) and reset on stepped
base at centre of main apse; inlet in stonework, four original
alabaster carvings, much worn, the best preserved representing
seated figure, robed and crowned; late 14th or early 15th
Glass: many fragments, mainly with grisaille decoration,
14th and 15th century.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: Fragments of broken
effigies include—(1) Purbeck marble mail-clad head of man,
12th-century; (2) fragments of mail-clad stone effigy, 12th
century; (3) part of Purbeck marble female effigy, 13th century;
(4) part of stone effigy of youth, 14th century; (5) part of stone
effigy in priest's vestments, 14th century; (6), (7), parts of two
stone female effigies, 15th century; (8), (9), (10), parts of three
stone figures, 15th century. Floor-slabs: (1) of Alexander Cater,
late mediaeval; (2) of Thomas Scales, 1532, withincised black-letter inscription in square border.
Tiles: of the later 13th and 14th century remain in situ in
several parts of the church (see plan). Others, better preserved,
have been removed to the museum and include those illustrated
on pp. xviii, xxiii.
(2) The Parish Church of St. Peter, near the centre
of the town, has walls of Greensand ashlar and rubble
and is roofed partly with lead and partly with modern
materials. In the West Tower, 14th-century N. and S.
arches indicate a building of that date; the rest of the
tower, the Nave, the North Aisle and the West Porch
are of the late 15th century; the South Aisle was rebuilt
and enlarged in the 16th century. There is no chancel.
Architectural Description—The E. wall of the Nave has a
chamfered plinth, a chamfered string-course below the sill of the
E. window, and a gabled parapet of shallow inclination with
a moulded coping and a hollow-chamfered string-course. The
restored E. window (Plate 7) has five cinquefoil-headed lights
with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The N. and S.
arcades have uniform two-centred arches with wave-moulded
inner orders and hollow-chamfered outer orders; they spring
from piers with four attached shafts alternating with vertical
hollow-chamfers, with capitals with hollow-chamfered abaci
and roll-mouldings, and with moulded bases, much mutilated.
Above each arcade are four irregularly spaced clearstorey windows; those on the N. are of two square-headed lights with
chamfered surrounds; in the S. clearstorey the windows are of
two and three lights with trefoil two-centred heads in casementmoulded square-headed surrounds. The clearstorey walls have
parapets with string-courses and copings continuous with those
of the E. gable.
The North Aisle has an E. window of two trefoil-headed lights
with vertical tracery in a moulded four-centred head with
continuous jambs; over it, a moulded and hollow-chamfered
parapet string-course is inclined in correspondence with the
low-pitched roof. Above, a horizontal parapet, embattled and
enriched as on the N. wall (see below), dies into the sloping
string-course. The N. wall has four windows with moulded
two-centred heads, continuous jambs and moulded labels; each
opening is divided into two lights by a mullion which runs
straight from sill to apex. The N. doorway has a two-centred
head of two chamfered orders with continuous jambs and a
moulded label; the wall is thinner near the doorway than elsewhere, but an internal corbel-table above the doorway carries
the masonry out to its normal thickness. The N. wall has an
elaborate embattled parapet with a hollow-chamfered string-course and a frieze of blind quatrefoils with bosses carved with
heraldic devices including Tudor roses, portcullises, suns and
crescents, crossed sheaves of arrows, and embowed dolphins;
over these is an upper frieze of pierced panels with cusped
diagonal and vertical tracery, and merlons with trefoil-headed
panels and continuous chamfered and roll-moulded coping.
At intervals along the parapet, pinnacles with panelled, trefoil-headed sides and gable-headed finials rise from gargoyles on the
string-course. High up in the W. wall of the N. aisle is a small
window of two square-headed lights; above, the embattled
parapet continues horizontally (Plate 62).
In the South Aisle the masonry of the E. wall appears to be in
two parts, that on the S. resulting from the 16th-century widening of the aisle. An E. doorway with a chamfered four-centred
head, below floor-level in the early part of the aisle, presumably
gave access to a crypt in the 15th-century structure; it is now
blocked. The 16th-century E. window is of four segmental-headed lights in a chamfered square-headed surround. Above,
the plain wallhead is raised slightly at the centre, following the
shallow slope of the double-pitched lead roof. The S. wall has
windows of two chamfered square-headed lights flanking a
buttress of two weathered stages; further W. is a reset 15th-century window of three cinquefoil-headed lights in a chamfered square-headed surround. The W. wall has a window
similar to that on the E., its lower part masked by the upper
storey of an adjacent house (8). The Crypt below the S. aisle is
of the 16th century. The S. wall has square-headed windows,
and a blocked square-headed doorway; at the W. end is a fireplace with a deep cambered bressummer and a chimneybreast
with weathered offsets; it is disused and a modern window
opens in the S. wall. The W. wall contains a blocked doorway
which formerly opened into the house (8).
Shaftesbury, the Parish Church of St. Peter
The West Tower is of three stages. At the base is a moulded
plinth; the stages are defined by hollow-chamfered stringcourses; at the top is an embattled parapet with a moulded
coping and a parapet string-course with corner gargoyles. The
top stage has corner pilasters which continue through the parapet
and end in crocketed finials. The lower stages have weathered
diagonal buttresses on the N.E. and S.E. corners and square-set
three-stage buttresses to N. and S. on the W. side; the S. side
has three square-set buttresses irregularly spaced, that on the
W. being a raking buttress of uncertain date built on the lower
part of a mediæval buttress. The polygonal vice turret on the
N.W. corner of the tower continues through all stages and ends
in a pyramidal stone capping, level with the parapet finials.
The E. tower arch is two-centred and of three orders, the inner
order wave-moulded, the others hollow-chamfered; the
responds have attached shafts flanked by hollow-chamfers and
wave mouldings, with moulded polygonal bases and capitals
similar to those of the nave piers, but enriched with angels (now
headless) bearing scrolls. The 14th-century N. and S. tower
arches are two-centred and of two chamfered orders dying into
plain responds. The S. arch is closed by a wall on the S. and is
reinforced by a pier of rough masonry at the centre; adjacent
to the pier is a blocked window with a chamfered two-centred
head. The W. doorway has a moulded four-centred head and
continuous jambs; above, the W. window has two 18th-century transomed square-headed lights, inserted in a 15th-century opening with a four-centred head and a moulded label.
The second stage has small square-headed openings on the N.
and E. Each face of the third stage has a belfry window of two
trefoil-headed lights with a trefoil tracery light in a two-centred head with a moulded label.
Straight-joints show that the West Porch is later than the tower,
albeit probably of the 15th century; it has a moulded plinth and
a parapet with a hollow-chamfered string-course and a moulded
coping; the string-course has foliate bosses. The diagonal
western buttresses are of two weathered stages and above them
are plain corner pinnacles, formerly with finials, now gone.
The porch archway has a casement-moulded four-centred head
with continuous responds and a label with square stops.
The Roof of the nave (Plate 66) is of 16th-century origin. It
is divided into seven bays by heavily moulded main beams with
raised centres; shafted timber wall-posts rising from moulded
stone corbels support three of the beams and have curved
braces with foliate spandrels. Similarly moulded ridge-beams
and wall-plates intersect the main beams. On each side of the
ridge each bay is divided into four panels by intersecting beams
of lighter cross-section than the main beams; the panels are
filled with plain boarding. In 1965 the roof was rebuilt in concrete, with the moulded 16th-century timbers suspended beneath it. The roof of the N. aisle is similar to that of the nave,
but smaller in scale, having eight bays in its length; in 1969 it
was in process of restoration.
The W. porch has a stone lierne Vault (Plate 10) with moulded
ribs springing from angel corbels (two gone); the rib junctions
have bosses carved with foliage, flowers, a blank shield and, at
the centre, a large rose. Stone-panelled wall-arches extend the
vault laterally to N. and S.
Fittings—Bells: six; treble by Thomas Purdue, inscribed
'A wonder great my eye I fix where was but 3 you may see six,
1684, T.P.'; 2nd inscribed 'When I doe ring prepare to pray,
RA, TB, 1670'; 3rd inscribed 'Wm. Cockey Bell Founder
1738'; 4th inscribed '1738 Mr Henry Saunders & Mr Richard
Wilkins Ch. Wds.'; 5th inscribed 'While thus we join in
chearful sound may love and loyalty abound. H. Oram,
C. Warden. R. Wells Aldbourne fecit MDCCLXXVI '; tenor by
Thomas Purdue, inscribed 'When you hear me for to tole then
pray to God to save the soul, anno domini 1672, TH, RW.
CW. TP'. Brass and Indents: In N. aisle, stone floor-slab with
central plate (17 by 3¾ ins.) with worn black-letter inscription
of Stephen Payne (Hutchins III, 46), 1508 or 1514, and indents
for four shields. Communion Rails: In eastern bay of N. and S.
nave arcades, with stout turned oak balusters and moulded rails,
late 17th century; defining two eastern bays of nave, with profiled flat balusters and moulded rails, 17th century, made up with
modern work. Communion Tables: In S. aisle, of oak, with
plain stretchers, heavy turned legs enriched with acanthus
carving, and enriched rails with escutcheon dated 1631. Near
N. doorway, of oak, with tapering octagonal legs with claw
feet, arcuated rails, scrolled diagonal stretchers with turned finial
at intersection, and beaded edge to top board, c. 1700. Font:
(Plate 12) with octagonal bowl with two trefoil-headed sunk
panels on each face and moulded underside, similarly panelled
octagonal stem and plain octagonal base, 15th century; ovolo-moulded plinth, perhaps 17th century. Font cover, of wood,
low eight-sided dome with moulded rim and ribs, 18th century.
Glass: Five small panels reset in E. window of nave; (1) in a
roundel with indecipherable inscription, shield-of-arms of
Fitzjames impaling Newburgh (Sir John Fitzjames of Lewston,
d. 1539, married Alice Newburgh of E. Lulworth); (2) former
tracery light depicting Virgin and Child, c. 1500; (3) former
tracery light with shield of Five Wounds, 15th century; (4)
shield-of-arms of Eliot quartering another coat; (5) emblem of
Trinity. Graffiti: on communion table in S. aisle, W.K.,
H.R.E.; on lead roof of tower, Jn. Reynolds, 1779.
Monument and Floor-slabs. Monument: In N. aisle, of Robert
Woolridge, 1777, oval tablet with cherub and foliage. Floor-slabs: In nave, (1) of Walter Barnes, 1776, and his wives
Elizabeth, 1729, Frances, 1757, and Mary, 1767, stone slab with
shield-of-arms now indecipherable; (2) of Elizabeth Barnes,
1729, stone slab with inscription in architectural framework.
In N. aisle, (3) of Stephen Payne, see Brass and Indents.
Niches: In N. aisle, in E. wall, with soffit carved to represent
vaulting, formerly with canopy, pinnacles and corbel; in N.E.
angle, with trefoil ogee head, carved enrichment at springing of
soffit, shelf cut back; in N. wall, three ogee-headed niches, one
with cinquefoil cusping, others trefoiled; externally, in N. wall
of N. aisle, with crocketed ogee head and shafted jambs; over
arch of W. porch, with canopied cinquefoil head and shafted
jambs with crocketed finials; all 15th century.
Panelling: In nave, on E. wall, of oak, with moulded and
shaped cornices and fielded panels surrounding tables of Creed,
Decalogue etc., 18th century; in S. aisle, reset fragments with
chip-carving and fielded panels, 17th and 18th century. Plate:
includes undated Elizabethan silver cup by 'Gillingham' maker;
silver paten inscribed 1714; silver stand-paten inscribed 'ex
dono Thomae Hackny 1714'; large pewter flagon inscribed
'Shaston St. Peter's 1770'; with no marks; (some of these
items may belong to Holy Trinity Church, proper attribution
being impossible since the union of the two benefices). Poor-box: of oak, with foliate carving and inscription 'Remember
the poore ', and with three locks, probably 17th century.
Pulpit: of oak, polygonal, with fielded panels and moulded
cornice, 18th century, base gone.
Rainwater Head: on S. wall of nave, of lead, inscribed I.M.,
R.W., 1674, with contemporary down-pipe. Royal Arms: see
(3). Seating: incorporates twenty-three reused oak bench-ends
with traceried decoration, 15th century; also one oak bench
with beaded decoration, 17th century. Stoup: in W. porch,
with bowl cut off, 15th century. Tables of Creed and Decalogue
etc.: In nave, on panelled E. wall, with shaped and gilded
frames, one panel with Creed, one with Lord's Prayer, two with
Decalogue, 18th century.
Shaftesbury, the Church of the Holy Trinity
(3) The Parish Church of The Holy Trinity, some
80 yds. N. of the abbey site, has ashlar walls and slate-covered roofs. The Nave, Aisles, North and South
Chapels, and West Tower were rebuilt in 1840–2, to
designs in the 'Early English' style by Gilbert Scott
(Plate 63). The Chancel, by Doran Webb, was added
in 1908. The mediaeval church appears in a sketch in
the Wilton terrier of c. 1553 (Plate 58).
Fittings—Bells: treble, 2nd and 3rd by Mears, 1844; 4th by
John Wallis, inscribed 'Praise the Lord I.W., 1597'; 5th by
William Purdue, inscribed 'God is all my hope, 1641, WP',
with 'John Buckton, John Masters' in smaller letters, the words of
the two inscriptions alternating; tenor by Mears, 1844. Churchyard Cross: S.W. of tower, with moulded square base on two
steps, and tapering chamfered shaft with run-out stops; probably 15th century, cross-head modern. Glass: reset in N.
window of N. Chapel, shield-of-arms of Whitaker, with
rectangular inscription panel 'Good men need not marble wee
dare trust to glass the memory of William Whitaker Esq. who
died the 3rd of October 1646 '.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. chapel, (1) of
Maria Buckland, 1822, marble wall tablet with shield-of-arms,
by Hiscock of Blandford. In S. chapel, (2) of Abraham Gapper,
1733, marble and stone cartouche with scroll-work surround
(Plate 18); (3) of Elizabeth Atchison, 1766, and her mother
Honor, 1769, wall-monument with scrolled cheek-pieces, shaped
cornice and gadrooned apron; (4) of John Bennett, 1676, metal
plate in oval stone cartouche with heavily enriched and gilded
surround, and shield-of-arms of Bennett and Ashlock quarterly,
impaling Hall (Plate 18). In N. aisle, (5) of Christopher Erle,
1817, and his wife Margaret (Bowles), 1807, tablet with shield-of-arms of Erle impaling Bowles, by T. King of Bath; (6) of
John Mill, 1821, sarcophagus-shaped marble tablet with shield-of-arms of Mill, by Osmund of Sarum. In S. aisle, (7) of Henry
Edwards, 1803, and Mary (Ernly) his wife, 1796, marble tablet
surmounted by urn, with shield-of-arms, by Waddilove, London.
erected 1805; (8) of Matilda Mill, 1833, wall-monument with
kneeling figure beside urn, and shield-of-arms of Mill impaling
another coat, by Osmund, Sarum; (9) of William Collins,
1810, marble tablet by T. King of Bath. Reset in S. porch,
(10) stone effigy of priest with hands together in prayer (Plate
15), late 13th century (W.A.M., VII (1862), 261); adjacent,
tablet recording discovery of effigy in 1817. In churchyard,
some 50 paces S. of tower, (11) of Margaret Swyer, 1745, her
husband Robert, 1767, and others of same family, table-tomb
(Plate 19) with balusters at corners and moulded top slab with
dentil enrichment; also, dispersed in churchyard, several 17th-century headstones. Floor-slabs: In N. chapel, adjacent to N.
wall, (1) of William Bowles, 1717, slate slab with shield-of-arms.
In N. porch, (2) of Arundell B[ennett, 1682]. In S. porch, (3)
of George Howe, 1666, with shield-of-arms of Howe.
Plate: the plate listed in St. Peter's church (2) may include
items which belong to this church, proper attribution being no
longer possible; items which belong certainly to Holy Trinity
are—silver cup inscribed 'This chalic belongeth to the holy
trinity of Shaston, 1670 ', with stand-paten designed to act as
cover, foot hanging inside cup; silver stand-paten with date-letter of 1709, donor's inscription of Humphrey Bishop, and
shield-of-arms of Bishop; silver flagon with date-letter,
donor's inscription and arms as on foregoing.
Royal Arms: formerly in (2), painted on canvas, with cypher
GR and inscription 'Ed. Buckland and Willm. Everett Ch.
wardens, M. Wilmot fecit, 1780' (Plate 27). Miscellanea: reset
in ringing chamber of W. tower, 17th-century wood panelling
with moulded stiles and rails.
(4) The Church of St. James, at the foot of Castle
Hill, in the S.W. part of the town, was rebuilt in 1866
to designs by T. H. Wyatt. Reset on the wall of the
N. aisle is a 15th-century stone parapet from the former
church; it is embattled, with a continuous moulded
coping and with a trefoil-headed panel on each merlon;
below the crenellation is a continuous frieze of quatrefoils. The S. aisle wall has a similar reset parapet, but
not embattled. The E. window of the S. aisle is of
three trefoil ogee-headed lights under quatrefoil tracery
in a two-centred head; an old drawing kept in the
church shows that this is the restored 14th-century E.
window of the former chancel. The W. windows of
the S. aisle and of the N. aisle are similar to that on the
E., but of two lights; they also are of the 14th century
and presumably come from the former church.
Fittings—Bells: six; 2nd by John Wallis, inscribed 'I.W. 1597
Praise God'; 3rd inscribed 'Sancte Jacobe ora pro nobis' in
Lombardic lettering, 14th-century; 4th by John Danton, inscribed 'NC, EC, ID, O give thanks unto God, 1629'; others
1875–6. Chest: of cast-iron, embossed 'St. James's Shaston
Register Chest Stn. Burden 1813 C.W.'
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In S. aisle, (1) of
Thomas Naish, 1784, and his wife Lydia (Collier), 1823, marble
tablet with arms, by Hiscock of Blandford. In W. tower, (2)
of Robert Jolliffe, 1731, and Anna (Matthew) Jolliffe, 1732, stone
tablet with rounded top. Floor-slabs: In nave, on N.E., of
Thomas Nicholls, 1793, slate slab divided into two pieces. In
W. tower, several worn Purbeck marble and slate slabs, 17th
and 18th century.
Plate: includes Elizabethan silver cup and cover, without
marks, but of similar design to those of the anonymous 'Gillingham' silversmith; also 18th-century pewter paten and three
pewter alms-dishes. Royal Arms: In W. tower, of painted and
gilt woodwork, with Stuart arms carved in high relief, late
17th century (Plate 27).
(5) The Church of St. John, Enmore Green, has
ashlar walls and slated roofs. It was built in 1843, in
the Romanesque style to the design of G. Alexander,
and comprises Chancel, North and South Transepts, Nave
and Central Tower (Plate 5).
Shaftesbury, St. John's Church
Fittings—Font: with stone bowl with vertical sides, moulded
above and below, square on plan with chamfered corners, with
decoration of two roughly outlined and apparently unfinished
poppy-heads to each side, on square pedestal, 15th century.
Font-cover, of oak, with flat boards with moulded border; at
centre, oak boss in form of square aedicule with ogee-headed
'window' in each side, and pyramidal roof, probably 15th
century. Galleries: in nave and transepts, with timber parapets
enriched with Romanesque arcading, 1843. Glass: in three
chancel windows, each window with two shields-of-arms, 1843.
(6) The Parish Church of St. Rumbold, although
situated in the borough of Shaftesbury, is the parish
church of the adjoining village of Cann (see p. 9).
It has ashlar walls and a slate-covered roof and comprises
a combined Chancel and Nave, a West Tower and a small
South Porch; these date from 1840. A Vestry and Organ
Chamber were added on the N. of the chancel in 1909.
Shaftesbury, St. Rumbold's Church
Architectural Description—The E. window is of three gradated lancet lights under a two-centred label. The N. and S.
walls are approximately uniform and of six bays defined by plain
two-stage buttresses; each bay has a lancet window with a
label. The W. tower is without stages; at the top is a hollow-chamfered string-course and an embattled parapet. The W.
doorway has a two-centred head; above it are three storeys of
lancet windows, the topmost lancet being in the belfry; similar
belfry windows occur in the N., S. and E. walls. The S. porch
has a doorway similar to that of the W. tower; above the door-head is a hollow-chamfered string-course and a plain parapet.
Inside, the W. bay of the nave has a gallery; the roof has tie-beam trusses with curved braces springing from shaped stone
Fittings—Font: (Plate 11) of stone, with circular bowl
scribed with arcs for unfinished or painted decoration, shaft with
reeded capital with flower and leaf enrichment in alternate
scallops, and ovolo-moulded base with spur spandrels, c. 1200.
Inscription: incised on side of font bowl, in a border, 'Iohn
Monde Church worden 1664'. Monuments: In nave, (1) of
Matthew Bowles, 1768, segmental-headed inscription-tablet
with arms of Bowles, in architectural surround, with skull on
apron, and urn finial above; (2) of Henrietta Bowles, 1795,
and two infants, marble tablet surmounted by urn, with arms.
In churchyard, S. of nave, (3) of Margaret Erle, 1807, Charles
Bowles, 1837 and Sara Burlton, 1843, urn with scroll-work, on
Plate: includes silver stand-paten with inscription of 1712, but
no date-letter. Royal Arms: painted on wooden panel, arms of
Queen Anne, with cypher AR.
(6A) Congregational Chapel, in Muston's Lane, was built
in 1858. Fittings—Font: of stone, with gadrooned and fluted
bowl, cylindrical stem with moulded octagonal capping, and
moulded octagonal base (Plate 12), 17th century, said to have
been found during the demolition of (99). Plate: includes two
two-handled cups with assay-marks of 1751.
Friends' Meeting House, see (107).
(7) The Town Hall stands on the W. of St. Peter's
church (2), on the S. side of High Street. Because of
the sharply falling ground it is of two storeys on the N.
and of three on the S.; the walls are of ashlar and the
roofs are slate-covered (Plate 61). The building dates
from 1826 (Salisbury Journal, 5 Aug.) and the clocktower on the N. front was added in 1879; the N. porch
probably is contemporary with the tower.
In the S. front the second floor is marked by a hollow-chamfered string-course, and the parapet rises above a string-course of bolder profile; these features are continuous on the
E. and N. fronts. Until recently the N. and S. fronts had
crenellated parapets, and a stone shield at the centre of the S.
front bore the date 1827; the corresponding part of the N.
front is masked by the clock-tower. The two lower storeys of
the S. front and the lower storey on the N. were originally
open arcades of five bays, with chamfered, elliptical-headed
archways, presumably providing accommodation for covered
markets. The openings have now been filled in, and on the first
floor are fitted with windows of 'Gothic' pattern. In the top
storey, the N. and S. fronts have each five bays of square-headed three-light windows with lozenge glazing, moulded
wood surrounds, chamfered jambs and heads, and moulded
stone labels. Inside, the mayor's seat in the council chamber has
a wooden hood with enriched mouldings, resting on scrolled
Civic Plate etc. Two maces, similar to one another and 1½ ft.
in length, are of iron, silver and gilt (Plate 26). They have
flanges and knob finials of iron, plain silver shafts with central
knops and raised bands with cable decoration, and plain bowl-shaped silver heads with cable decoration on the rims, and pierced
and gilded brattishing; set within the brattishing of each
mace-head is a silver-gilt arms-plate with heraldic engraving.
One has the shield-of-arms of James I with the initials I.R. and
the date 1604; the other, probably earlier, is tierced in pale and
engraved rather crudely with arms: (i) per fess France and
England, (ii) Shaftesbury Abbey, (iii) a lion rampant beside a tree,
in chief a bird.
A silver seal 7/8 ins. in diameter has the tree-and-bird device on
a shield, flanked by the letters B S, with the date 1570 above.
Another silver seal, nearly 1½ ins. in diameter, has the arms of the
town under the date 1570, enclosed in a roped border on which is
inscribed Sigillvm Officii Maioratvs Bvrgi Shaston.
An emblem known as 'The Byzant' (probably a corruption
of besom) is of carved wood, gilded, and about 4 ft. high (Plate
21). It probably is of the 18th century and appears to represent
a palm tree surmounted by a crown with a pineapple finial.
The byzant was borne in annual procession to Enmore Green,
where, until 1830, ceremonies were enacted confirming
Shaftesbury's right to water from that place (Hutchins III, 44).
(8) House, perhaps originally the clergy-house of St. Peter's
Church (2), but subsequently an inn and now in private occupation, is two-storeyed and has rendered walls and tiled roofs
(for plan, see p. 62). The N. bay is of the 16th century; the
S. bay is a 19th-century addition. The W. front retains an iron
inn-sign bracket with sun and moon emblems, probably from
the arms of Bowles. The dwelling formerly extended below the
S. aisle of the church, occupying part at least of the crypt, in
which a fireplace has been noted (above, p. 62).
(9) House and Shop, No. 29, formerly an inn, dates from
c. 1850. Reset in one N. gable is a carved stone, perhaps a vaulting boss, of the 14th century, with the arms of Shaftesbury
(10) House and Shop, No. 39, of two storeys and a basement,
has walls partly of ashlar and partly rendered, and slated roofs.
The basement and ground floor are of the early 18th century;
the upper storey is of the 19th century. Inside, the 18th-century
part of the building has stop-chamfered beams, and one ground-floor room contains some 18th-century pine panelling.
(11) House and Shop, No. 43, is two-storeyed with attics
and basements, and has walls of ashlar, partly rendered, and
slated roofs; it is of the 18th century, with 19th-century alterations. The N. front is modern, but on the S., facing into a
court, the S. and E. fronts are of ashlar with stone mullioned
windows. Inside, a ground-floor room has 18th-century pine
panelling in two heights, with fielded panels and beaded styles
and rails, and a shell-headed niche with flanking pilasters,
shaped shelves and glazed doors. A first-floor room has an open
fireplace with a cambered timber bressummer resting on moulded
(12) House, No. 45, of three storeys in addition to attics and
basements, dates from late in the 18th century. The N. front,
of two bays, is ashlar-faced with rusticated quoins and has a
modillion cornice above the second storey. The original
ground-floor windows have gone, but the first and second
storeys retain sashed windows with moulded architraves and
fluted keystones. The S. front is tile-hung. Inside, the stairs
have open strings with scrolled spandrels, turned balusters and
moulded mahogany handrails; a cupboard on one of the landings has jambs with fluted pilasters, and a moulded cornice with
(13) House and Shop, No. 49, is three-storeyed and has
rendered walls and tiled roofs. The building is perhaps of late
18th-century origin, but was altered externally in the 19th
(14) House, No. 53, is of three storeys and a basement, and
has rendered walls and slated roofs. It is of 18th-century origin,
but the N. front and the whole top storey are of the late 19th
century; the ground floor is now a shop. Inside, the S. room
on the ground floor and another room on the first floor have
18th-century panelling. The open-string stairs are of oak and
have scrolled spandrels, vase-and-column balusters, moulded
handrails and panelled dados.
(15) House and Shop, No. 55, two-storeyed, with rendered
walls and tiled roofs, dates from the late 17th or early 18th
century. The three-bay N. front retains some original casement
windows with iron frames and leaded glazing. Inside, there are
stop-chamfered beams and an open fireplace.
(16) House and Shops, Nos. 59, 61, are of two storeys with
basements and attics and have rubble walls, partly rendered, and
tiled roofs; they are of 17th-century origin, but were much
altered in the 19th century. Inside, the basement has several
(17) House and Shop, No. 63, of two storeys with an attic,
has walls of ashlar, rubble and brick and a slated roof; it dates
from the 17th century. The ashlar-faced N. front is of two bays
with a central doorway; in the western bay it retains 18th-century sashed windows in each storey; the other openings
have later fittings. The gabled E. wall is of rubble chequered
with ashlar blocks. On the S. wall the level of the first floor is
marked by a hollow-chamfered string-course and above this the
building is tile-hung. Inside, the ground-floor rooms have
chamfered beams; the W. room has an open fireplace, now
blocked, and, on the S. of the fireplace, a wooden newel staircase.
(18) House and Shop, No. 52, two-storeyed with rendered
walls and tiled roofs, is of the early 17th century. In the N. wall,
at the back, is a stone window of three square-headed lights with
moulded heads, mullions and jambs. Inside, several rooms have
heavily moulded beams in which the mouldings are returned at
intervals, to continue on intersecting beams, now gone.
(19) Houses and Shops, Nos. 48 and 50, two adjacent, are
two-storeyed and have walls of rubble and of timber-framework,
in part rendered, and tile-covered roofs; they are of 17th-century origin, but were refronted in the 19th century. Inside,
a common through-passage has walls partly of timber-framework
with brick infilling; one ground-floor room has a stop-chamfered beam.
(20) The Crown Inn, No. 42, was extensively rebuilt in
1862, but it retains part of an earlier structure, possibly mediaeval
in origin. Where seen in a yard at the back, the E. wall is of
rubble in the lower storey and of timber-framework with brick
infilling above. Inside, one room has a 16th-century stone fireplace surround with a hollow-chamfered and cambered head;
it is decorated with trefoil-headed panels and quatrefoils, each
quatrefoil enclosing a blank shield.
(21) House and Shop, No. 38, is two storeyed with attics and
has rendered walls and slated roofs; it dates from c. 1800. The
S. front is of three bays, with Doric pilasters in both storeys.
On the ground floor, the shop-front occupies two bays; the
shop door and flanking windows have glazing with round-headed arcading. On the first floor each bay has a large round-headed sashed window.
(22) House and Shop, No. 36, is three-storeyed with brick
walls and slated roofs; it dates from c. 1850. Behind the main
range is a two-storeyed cottage with rendered walls, probably
of the late 18th century.
(23) House, No. 34, now a bank, is of three storeys with
ashlar walls and slate-covered roofs; it dates from c. 1800.
The S. front is symmetrical and of three bays; the lower storey
has been rebuilt in recent years, but the two upper storeys are
original; the centre bay projects in a shallow bow. Above the
first-floor windows an ashlar plat-band is enriched with roundels
and fluting; above the second-floor windows is a moulded
cornice; at the top is a plain parapet. All the windows are
sashed; those of the first floor are of three lights, the central
window being square-headed while those of the flanking bays
are of Venetian form; on the second floor the central window
is uniform with that below it, but the flanking windows are
square-headed and of one light. Inside, the staircase has open
strings, scrolled spandrels, plain balusters and moulded mahogany handrails.
(24) House and Shop, No. 24, appears externally to be of the
late 19th century but it retains, inside, two intersecting beams
with chamfered edges, probably of the 18th century.
(25) House and Shop, No. 14, is three-storeyed with brick
walls and slated roofs. It is of the late 18th century and has a
W. front of three bays, defined in the upper storeys by four
Tuscan pilasters, each with an isolated architrave and a triglyph
frieze; above is a continuous cornice with an open pediment at
the centre. The sashed windows are square-headed, except for
the middle window of the third storey which has a round head.
(26) House and Shop, No. 10, is three-storeyed and has
brick walls and slated roofs; it dates from c. 1820. The W.
front is symmetrical and of three bays.
(27) House and Shop, No. 8, is three-storeyed and has brick
walls with ashlar dressings and a slated roof; it dates from
c. 1820. In the W. front, of two bays, the shop-window and
doorway have elliptical heads; the upper storeys have square-headed sashed windows. Reset below the sill of the shop
window is a fragment of stonework, perhaps of the 14th century,
with eleven trefoil-headed recesses.
(28) Corridor, in No. 6, with walls of squared rubble and
with a barrel-vaulted roof, extends eastwards, underground,
from the cellar of a modern shop and ends at a 16th-century
stone archway with a chamfered four-centred head.
(29) House and Shop, of two storeys with rendered walls
and a slated roof, dates from the mid 19th century. The S. front
is of five bays, the three bays on the W. comprising the shop-front.
(30) The Grosvenor Hotel, three-storeyed, with rendered
walls and slated roofs, dates from c. 1800. The E. front is symmetrical and of five bays, with the three bays in the centre projecting in the two upper storeys and supported on six Tuscan
columns. The middle bay of the projection stands slightly in
advance of the other two and has a pediment; in the second
storey all three bays have large sashed windows.
(31) Houses and Shops, No. 13, are of two and of three
storeys and have timber-framed walls, in part rendered, and
tiled roofs. The two-storeyed southern part of the range is of
17th-century origin, much altered and with a few reset 18th-century features. The three-storeyed building on the N. is of
the 19th century.
Bell Street and Lanes Adjacent on S. and E.
(32) Cottage, No. 16 Bell Street, is of two storeys with
rendered walls and a thatched roof; it dates from the 18th
(33) Cottages, Nos. 18 and 20, are of two storeys with
attics and have walls of rubble and of brickwork, and thatched
roofs; they are of 17th-century origin with 18th-century
alterations. In the S. front the lower storey is of rubble and the
upper storey is of red brickwork with blue-brick patterns;
between the storeys is a slate-roofed pentice. Inside, one
cottage has a chamfered beam with splayed stops.
(34) Fragment of moulded stone, reset in a wall 130 feet E.
of (33), appears to be part of a 15th-century door-jamb.
(35) Cottages, 44 and 46 Bell Street, are of two storeys with
attics and have walls of rubble, and thatched roofs; they are of
18th-century origin. In each tenement the lower storey has a
three-light casement window in a timber frame; the upper and
attics storeys have two-light windows.
(36) House, on N. side of Barton Hill, is two-storeyed, with
walls of rough ashlar and with tiled roofs; it is of the 17th
century. The S. front, rebuilt in the 18th century, is symmetrical
and of three bays. Inside, one room has a large stop-chamfered
beam and another room has moulded wall-plates and some
(37) House, adjacent to the foregoing on the E., is two-storeyed and has rubble walls, in part rendered and in part tile-hung, and tiled and stone-slated roofs. The main range, facing
the street, is of the 18th century; a range adjacent on the N. is
of 17th-century origin. The two-bay S. front has a reset 17th-century doorway with a chamfered four-centred head. The
W. wall of the 17th-century range retains a stone window of
three lights with chamfered surrounds. Inside, the ground-floor
room of the S. range has moulded timber wall-plates and a
chamfered beam with splayed stops; the adjoining room in the
N. range has a similar beam, and hollow-chamfered wall-plates.
The close-string staircase incorporates heavy 17th-century
balustrades with square newel-posts, moulded handrails and ball
finials; part of the balustrade is formed with planks profiled to
represent balusters. Some rooms have nail-studded doors hung
on wrought iron strap-hinges. A first-floor room has a bolection-moulded fireplace surround.
(38) Barton Hill House is mainly of the late 19th century.
The Stables on the E., perhaps of the first half of the 19th
century, have rubble walls with ashlar dressings, and tiled roofs.
The S. front of the stable range was originally symmetrical and
of five bays, having a rusticated and elliptical-headed carriage
entrance at the centre, and plain round-headed doorways on
either side; above the carriage entrance is a bull's-eye window
and a pediment.
Reset in the S. wall of the stables and of the adjacent house are
two vaulting-bosses similar to those described in monuments
(9) and (46); in one the carving is obliterated, the other represents a flying bird. Inside, some rooms have marquetry fittings,
reputedly from Fonthill Abbey.
The garden contains many fragments of mediaeval carved
stonework brought from (1). At the S. end of the garden is an
Ice House with brick walls and a barrel-vaulted roof; it probably is of the late 18th or early 19th century.
(39) Cottages, two adjacent, on the S. side of Barton Hill,
are two-storeyed and have rubble walls and tiled roofs; they
are of the 18th century.
(40) House, on the corner of Bell Street and Angel Lane, is
two-storeyed with attics and has rubble walls and slated roofs;
it probably is of 17th-century origin, but has been much
altered. The N. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with a
central doorway flanked by three-light casement windows and
with three two-light casement windows in the upper storey.
Inside, several rooms have large beams with chamfered arrises
and splayed stops. The staircase has square newel-posts with
chamfered arrises; part of it is enclosed by plank-and-muntin
partitions. Several rooms have 17th-century panelling.
(41) House, No. 29 Bell Street, is two-storeyed, with rubble
walls and a tiled roof; it is of the 18th century.
(42) House, No. 19 Bell Street, is of two storeys with a
basement and attics, and has walls of squared rubble and a
tile-covered roof; it dates from c. 1800. The N. front is of
four bays, with a plain doorway, sashed windows, a plat-band
at first-floor level and a small moulded cornice under the eaves.
Reset below the cornice at the N.E. corner of the house is a
12th-century capital with acanthus leaves and angle volutes.
(43) House, adjacent to (42) on the W., is two-storeyed and
has rubble walls with ashlar dressings, and slated roofs; it
is of the 17th century. The three-bay N. front has a chamfered plinth; the ground-floor openings are modern, but in
the upper storey are three stone windows of two and of
three chamfered square-headed lights, with iron casements and
leaded glazing. Inside, several rooms have beams with wide
chamfers and shaped stops; one stop has pierced enrichment.
The roof incorporates a chamfered arch-brace.
(44) House, No. 5 Muston's Lane, is two-storeyed, with
rubble walls and tiled roofs; it is mainly of the 18th century
but incorporates earlier walls. The W. front is of two bays
with a central doorway. The E. elevation incorporates a 15th
or 16th-century wall in which is a small doorway with a
chamfered two-centred head. Inside, one room has a large
chamfered beam; another has a plank-and-muntin partition.
(45) Cottage, 25 yds. S. of the foregoing, is two-storeyed
with brick walls and a tiled roof and dates probably from c.
1850. The E. front is symmetrical and of two bays with a
(46) House, in Angel Lane, has ashlar walls and tiled roofs
and dates from c. 1840. The W. front is symmetrical and of
three bays, with a central doorway and sashed windows. Reset
in the W. front are nine carved stones, probably vaulting bosses,
two of them perhaps of the 12th century, the others of the
14th century. The former are decorated with crosses with
leopard masks in the angles. Of the latter, one has a bearded
human face, one has a shield with a letter on it, perhaps T,
one has a shield-of-arms probably of Damory; one has a shield-of-arms probably of Hawnes of Sturminster Newton, the
others have shields-of-arms too mutilated for identification
(see also (9) and (38)).
A pair of Cottages, adjacent on the W., is of the mid 19th
(47) Cottages, range of three, 30 yds. S.W. of (46), are
two-storeyed and have rubble walls and thatched roofs; they
date from c. 1700.
(48) Cottages, two adjacent, on the S. of (47), have rubble
walls and slated roofs; they are of the 18th century.
(49) Cottage, adjacent to (48) on the S., has rubble walls
and tiled, slated and stone-slated roofs; it is of the 18th century. Inside, there are some lightly chamfered beams.
Bleke Street and Lanes Adjacent on S. and E.
(50) The Rose and Crown Inn, of two storeys with ashlar
walls and tiled roofs, probably is of the 18th century. The W.
front is symmetrical and of three bays, with a central doorway
and sashed windows. Inside, some rooms have reset 17th
and 18th-century panelling.
(51) The Ship Inn, of two storeys with attics, with ashlar
walls and tiled roofs, dates from the 17th century. The walls
have chamfered plinths; the casement windows are square-headed and of two and three lights with recessed, chamfered
surrounds and weathered labels. The chimney-stack on the
gabled S.W. wall has weathered offsets. An extension which
fills the re-entrant of the L-shaped plan probably is of the
18th century; it has details similar to those described, but the
first floor is marked externally by a modillion cornice. An
extension on the N.W. is of the late 18th or early 19th century.
Inside, the building has been extensively altered, but a 17th-century oak staircase is preserved; it has moulded close strings,
a moulded handrail, profiled balusters formed of planks, and
square newel-posts with shaped and ball-headed finials.
(52) House, adjacent to (51), is two-storeyed with ashlar
walls and slated roofs. The S.E. range is of 18th-century origin,
but it has been remodelled and greatly altered.
(53) 'Belle Vue', a house of two storeys with attics, has
rendered walls and slated roofs and dates from about the middle
of the 19th century. Adjacent on the S.E. is a contemporary
stable building with brick walls, windows with pointed heads,
other openings square-headed, and oval ventilators under the
eaves. Reset in the rubble wall of the stable yard are two
late 12th-century respond capitals with volute decoration.
(54) The King's Arms Inn, two-storeyed with rubble walls
and slated roofs, is of the early 19th century.
(55) House, now a school, on the corner of Bleke Street
and Parson's Pool, is of three storeys, with walls of brick and
of ashlar and with slated and tile-covered roofs; it dates from
the 18th century. The main building, on Bleke Street, appears
originally to have been of brick and two-storeyed, but in the
second half of the 19th century the N. front was refaced in
rubble and ashlar; the third storey was added at the same time.
The brick S. front is symmetrical and of five bays, with a square-headed central doorway and with tall sashed windows in the
two lower storeys. The plinth is of squared rubble and the
level of the first floor is indicated by a projecting brick platband. Inside, some rooms have 18th-century panelling and
moulded wooden cornices; a few doors retain brass rimlocks.
Adjacent on the E., an extension to the school, of two storeys
with an attic, with square rubble walls and with a tiled roof,
dates probably from the early 19th century. The W. front was
originally symmetrical and of five bays, with segmental-headed casement windows of two and of three lights and
with a segmental-headed central doorway; this doorway
has now been converted into a window.
(56) Cottages, two adjacent, are of two storeys with attics
and have rubble walls, in part tile-hung, and tiled roofs; they
appear to be of the late 17th or early 18th century.
(57) Cottages, two adjacent, are of two storeys and have
rough ashlar walls and tiled roofs; they are of the 18th century.
(58) House, of two storeys with an attic, has squared rubble
walls and slated roofs; it dates probably from the latter part
of the 18th century. Inside, one room has a fireplace surround
with simple carton pierre enrichment.
(59) House, of two storeys with attics and basement, has
rough ashlar walls and tiled roofs. It is mainly of the late
18th century, but it appears to retain elements of an earlier
building, perhaps of the 17th century; these include a reset
weathered and hollow-chamfered string-course, and basement
windows with chamfered stone surrounds.
(60) House, of two storeys with rendered walls above an
ashlar plinth, and with rusticated ashlar quoins, is of the early
19th century. The symmetrical three-bay W. front has sashed
windows and a central doorway.
(61) House, of two storeys with squared rubble walls and
tiled and stone-slated roofs, is of the 18th century.
(62) Cottage, of two storeys with rubble walls and a thatched
roof, is of the 18th century.
(63) Cottage, of one storey with an attic, has walls of rubble
and brick, and thatched roofs; it is of the 18th century.
(64) Cottage and Shop, of two storeys with rubble walls,
partly rendered, and with slated roofs, is perhaps of the 17th
century; it has been extensively modernised and the only
early feature to remain visible is a large rubble chimneybreast.
(65) Cottages, range of three, are of two storeys and have
rubble walls and thatched and tiled roofs. The two tenements
on the W. are of the 18th century, that on the E. is of the early
(66) Cottage, of one storey with an attic, has rubble walls
and a thatched roof; it probably is of the 18th century.
(67) Cottage, of two storeys, with walls of rubble and
brickwork and with slated roofs, is of the early 18th century.
Gold Hill is a steep lane connecting High Street with
St. James's Street (Plate 64). On the W. it is flanked
by a high stone wall (75), and on the E. by a number
of cottages. Unless otherwise described the cottages
are of the 18th century and are two-storeyed, with
rubble walls and tiled roofs; the plans generally are
of class S.
(68) Cottage, No. 8, has a wide ledge in the W. wall at
the level of the first floor, suggesting that it was originally
single-storeyed; the roof is partly stone-slated.
(69) Cottages, two adjacent, Nos. 9 and 10, are similar to
(68), but the W. fronts have recently been rebuilt.
(70) Cottage, No. 11 is contemporary with the two foregoing monuments, but larger, having a class-T plan.
(71) Cottage, No. 12, is probably of the early 18th century.
The W. doorway has a cambered stone head with a chamfer
which continues on the jambs.
(72) Cottage, No. 13, is probably of the 17th century since
the front wall is continuous with that of (73).
(73) House, now two cottages, Nos. 14 and 15, has a thatched
roof, but the S. gable has been heightened in brickwork and
shows that the roof-pitch was formerly less steep; the original
roof-covering may have been of tiles or of stone-slates. Inside,
some rooms have deeply chamfered beams and it is reported
that one room has a fireplace with an 'arched' stone surround, now hidden. The building may be of 17th-century
(74) Cottage, No. 17, is probably of the late 17th century,
but much altered. The original building, with a class-S plan,
was extended on the N. and S. in the 19th century; the W.
front has been rebuilt in brickwork.
(75) Stone Wall, bounding Gold Hill on the W., is largely
of ashlar (Plate 64). Although repaired and rebuilt in several
places, much of it dates from the late 14th or early 15th century
and it probably formed part of the boundary of the Abbey
land. It is about 130 yds. in length and, where the height is
greatest, some 35 ft. from ground to coping. The part which
stands nearest the bottom of Gold Hill has been rebuilt, but
original material appears to have been reused. Towards the
top of the hill the original masonry is preserved, with buttresses of two and of three weathered stages, with chamfered
plinths and hollow-chamfered drip-moulds; the buttresses
are set at intervals of about 12 ft.; supplementing them are
later buttresses with inclined faces, probably of the 19th century. Between the original buttresses the bays of the wall
have weathered plinths and string-courses, stepped in correspondence with the hill. About half-way up the hill there is
a blocked round-headed doorway. Near the top of the hill
the wall is strengthened by an additional thickness of finelyjointed masonry which brings the wall-face almost to the
same plane as the buttresses.
Castle, see Monument (138).
(76) Castle Hill House, of two storeys with attics and
cellars, has walls of coursed rubble, and tiled roofs (Plate 28);
it dates from the end of the 18th century. The E. front is symmetrical and of three bays; at the centre on the ground floor
is a square-headed doorway with a segmental hood enriched
with dentils, and scrolled brackets; on each side are Palladian
windows with Tuscan pilasters, dentil cornices and moulded
archivolts. The first floor has three sashed windows with
plain architraves and keystones; above is a moulded cornice
and a plain parapet. Inside, the house has been extensively
altered for conversion to a hospital, but a plain 18th-century
staircase with a moulded mahogany handrail survives. The
plan is of class U.
(77) Ox House, of two storeys with attics and cellars,
has walls of ashlar and of rubble, and tiled roofs; it is
of the late 16th or early 17th century and still retains
some original features although recently modernised;
the plan is of class T, with a wing at the rear.
The S. front, symmetrical and of three bays, has a chamfered
plinth and a weathered and hollow-chamfered first-floor
string-course. The porch at the centre is two-storeyed, but the
upper storey is probably secondary; the string-course does
not continue on the walls of the porch. The windows of the
S. front are uniform in both storeys; each now consists of
two sashed lights separated by a hollow-chamfered mullion,
but it is evident that originally there were four casement lights
in each window. The first-floor windows have weathered
labels with plain stops. The porch has modern openings in
both storeys; a blocked doorway in the E. side may have been
the original entrance. The E. and W. walls of the S. range
are gabled and at the apex of each gable is an ashlar chimney-stack
with a moulded coping. Rubble in the lower part of each E.
and W. wall, as opposed to ashlar in the upper part, suggests
that originally there were contiguous single-storeyed houses.
The N. elevation of the range has stone casement windows
with hollow-chamfered surrounds, and a doorway with a
moulded four-centred head with continuous jambs. In the
E. and W. walls of the N. wing are sashed windows of the
late 18th century; adjacent to that on the E. is an original
doorway with a moulded four-centred head and continuous
jambs. The gabled N. wall of the wing has a two-light stone
window on the first floor; in the gable is a similar attic window.
Inside, the doorway within the porch is uniform with that
of the N. wing; it has an original door of nail-studded oak
planks, divided vertically into two parts, hinged together,
and with ornate original wrought-iron fittings. The small
inner vestibule has a plank-and-muntin partition with chamfered and beaded muntins; similar partitions separate the
staircase from the E. and W. rooms. The kitchen, on the
E., has a ceiling beam with ovolo mouldings and a blocked
open fireplace with a moulded timber bressummer with a
raised centre. The W. room has a similar ceiling beam, resting,
at the N. end, on a chamfered and beaded oak post. The oak
stairs have closed strings, chamfered and beaded newel-posts
with turned finials, turned balusters and moulded handrails.
The parlour in the N. wing has a ceiling beam similar to those
in the S. range. The stone fireplace surround has a moulded
four-centred head and continuous jambs; above is a plain
fascia and a moulded stone cornice. The room is lined with
early 17th-century oak panelling in five heights, with plain
panels, beaded styles and rails, a frieze of carved panels alternating
with brackets, and a moulded cornice. On either side of the
stone fireplace are fluted oak pilasters with Ionic capitals; the
overmantel has panels carved with arabesques alternating with
coupled half-columns; at the top of the overmantel is a
frieze continuous with that of the wall panelling, but more
On the first floor, the partitions generally are of plank-and-muntin construction, chamfered and beaded. The E. chamber
has a fireplace with a moulded square-headed stone surround.
The chamber in the N. wing has a stone fireplace surround and
oak panelling on the walls, both nearly uniform with those of
the parlour below. The plaster ceiling has moulded margins
and foliate enrichments.
The cellar of the N. wing contains a fireplace. A shallow
sinking in the floor may be the blocked opening to a cistern.
(Extensively altered, 1965.)
(78) House, of two storeys, with ashlar walls and slated
roofs, is of the mid 19th century. The E. front is symmetrical
and of three bays, with a central doorway and with uniform
sashed windows in both storeys.
(79) Houses, two adjacent, are two-storeyed and have ashlar
walls and tiled roofs; they are of the early 19th century.
The W. house contains some reset 17th-century oak panelling.
(80) St. John's Cottage, house, of two storeys with ashlar
walls and tiled roofs, dates from the first half of the 19th century; it is said to contain material salvaged from Fonthill.
The porch in the E. front has a reset doorway of c. 1800 with
a moulded four-centred head and continuous jambs, also two
recesses with surrounds similar to that of the doorway, trefoil-headed stone-panelled reveals, and a moulded stone cornice.
A ground-floor room has a reset marble fireplace surround with
a wooden overmantel of heavily moulded panelling under a
pediment on which is carved the date 1600; the walls have
reset 17th-century panelling, in one place inscribed 'ID 1620'.
Another room has a stone fireplace surround of c. 1800 with
cinquefoil-headed stone-panelled enrichment.
(81) 'Edwardstowe', Castle Hill
(81) 'Edwardstowe', house, of two storeys with rubble
walls and tiled roofs, comprises a three-roomed class-F house of
c. 1500 together with two 18th-century cottages, one at each
end of the original range, all combined as one dwelling. The
N. front of the original range has modern square-headed
casement windows in each storey; on the ground floor one of
these windows replaces a former doorway; in the upper storey
are two original stone windows of three square-headed lights
and one of two lights; the other openings have modern casements. The S. front retains two original doorways with
chamfered four-centred heads and continuous jambs; that
on the E. is blocked. Near the middle of the S. front is a
stone window of two square-headed lights, recently restored;
adjacent is a projection of uncertain date containing the stairs.
Inside, the original class-F plan has been modified by the removal
of the partition between the two western ground-floor rooms,
and of that on the E. of the through-passage; their position
is indicated by beams with mortices for former muntins.
The chimneybreast of the central fireplace has a chamfered
wooden bressummer with a raised centre and chamfered stone
jambs. The house contains some reset plank-and-muntin
partitions and also an 18th-century shell-headed niche with
shaped shelves. In the range of c. 1500 the original roof is
partly preserved; it has cambered tie-beam trusses, two rows
of stout purlins, and curved wind-braces. The 18th-century
cottages have no notable features.
(82) Cottages, two adjacent, are two-storeyed and have
rubble walls and tiled roofs. They are of the late 18th or
early 19th century.
(83) Cottage, of two storeys, with squared rubble walls
and tiled roofs, appears to be of the late 17th century. In the
S. front, partly hidden by later buildings, are casement windows
of two and of three square-headed lights with hollow-chamfered stone surrounds. The N. front was rebuilt in 1750;
it has plain square-headed openings with slightly projecting
keystones, and an oval datestone over the central doorway.
(84) Cottage, of two storeys, with rubble walls and thatched
roofs, is of the late 18th century. Reset in the E. quoin of
the N. front is an early 12th-century fragment comprising
two small shafts with cushion capitals and moulded bases.
(85) Cottages, two adjacent, on the corner of Bimport
and Magdalene Lane, are of two storeys with rubble walls and
slated roofs; they are of the late 18th or early 19th century.
(86) Cottages, pair, of two storeys, with rendered fronts
and tiled roofs, are of the early 19th century.
(87) Primary School, single-storeyed, with squared rubble
walls and a slated roof, dates from about the middle of the 19th
(88) School, immediately S. of the foregoing, is largely of
the early 19th century, but appears to incorporate fragmentary
mediaeval walls. On the E. is a late 14th or early 15th-century
window of one light with an ogee head with trefoil cusping,
now blocked. A large stone in the gable above the doorway is
carved with the badge of the Grosvenor family, a garb.
(89) Abbey House, of two storeys with attics and cellars,
has walls of ashlar and squared rubble, and slate-covered
roofs. It incorporates elements of an early 17th-century
building, but in its present state appears to be largely of the
18th century and later. The N. front, originally the entrance
front, is of five bays and was formerly symmetrical, with a
central doorway and with large sashed windows in both storeys;
some of the windows have now been blocked and the former
doorway has become a window. The level of the first floor is
marked by a plat-band and the top of the façade has a modillion
cornice and a parapet. The former E. elevation is masked by a
two-storeyed 19th-century extension, polygonal in plan. The
S. elevation has a large projecting bay containing the stairs;
the lower part probably is of the early 17th century. Further
W. is a small 17th-century basement window.
Inside, the W. room of the main range has a modelled plaster
ceiling of uncertain date, with four segmental panels surrounding
a circular centre panel. The segmental panels are enriched with
fruit, flowers and leaves growing out of sinuous tendrils, in the
style of the 17th century; the centre panel has an 18th-century
flavour. The E. room has an open fireplace with a moulded
square-headed stone surround. The staircase is of the early 18th
century and has cut strings, scroll spandrels, vase-and-column
balusters and column-shaped newel-posts. The plaster ceiling
of the staircase hall has a rich cornice with dentil and egg-anddart mouldings.
Built into the walls of the house and garden are numerous
carved stones, some probably from the nearby abbey church (1)
and others from mediaeval tombs; noteworthy is a late 13th-century stone coffin-lid with a moulded and hollow-chamfered
margin, and a raised cross composed of intersecting circles.
(90) Cottage, of two storeys with attics, has rubble walls
and thatched roofs; it probably is of the 18th century and has
a symmetrical S. front of two bays with a central doorway.
The plan is of class S, with service rooms added on the N.
St. James's and Alcester
(91) Layton House, of two storeys with cellars, has squared
rubble walls and tiled roofs. The house was built c. 1800 and
was enlarged and much altered in the second half of the 19th
century; the plan of the original building probably was of
class T. The S. front of the main block was symmetrical and
of three bays, with large sashed windows on the ground floor
and with slightly smaller windows above; several of these
openings have since been modified. A service wing extends
to the E., its S. front set back from that of the main range. A
late 19th-century range stands on the N. of the original building
and masks the original N. front.
Shaftesbury, Holyrood Farm House
(92) Holyrood Farm (86372226), house, of two storeys with
attics, has ashlar walls and slate-covered roofs; it is of the
second half of the 17th century. The symmetrical E. front has
a plain plinth and a weathered and hollow-chamfered first-floor string-course. The windows in both storeys are of two
square-headed lights with recessed and chamfered stone surrounds and chamfered mullions. The central doorway has a
chamfered head with a raised centre, and chamfered jambs.
The gabled S. wall of the E. range has a string-course continuous with that of the E. front and a similar string-course at
attic level; two-light windows occur in all three storeys.
In the W. wing and on the W. side of the E. range the stringcourses continue, and the windows and doorways are as before.
A single-storeyed addition at the N. end of the E. range is of
the 18th century.
Inside, all partitions are of the 19th century, the chamfered
ceiling beams have been reset and the original ground plan is
lost; it is likely to have been a variant of class T. The original
staircase survives, though not certainly in situ; it has moulded
close strings, turned balusters, square newel-posts with ball
finials, and heavy moulded handrails; the stairwell is lined
with oak panelling with beaded rails and stiles.
About 30 yds. N. of the farmhouse is a 19th-century outbuilding with brick walls with ashlar dressings and with a
slated roof. The doorways in the E. side have elliptical heads.
(93) House, of two storeys with attics and cellars, has squared
rubble walls and slate-covered roofs; it dates from early in
the 19th century. The S. front is nearly symmetrical and of
three bays, with a central doorway flanked by casement windows of two and of three lights, three corresponding windows
in the upper storey, and basement windows of two lights.
The long timber lintel and vertical joints in the stonework
show that the three-light ground-floor window on the E. of
the doorway was originally of five or six lights.
(94) House, with rubble walls with some ashlar dressings
and tiled roofs, is of 17th-century origin, but has been much
altered. The western third of the range, now used as a garage
and store-room, has walls of chequered ashlar and rubble. In
the eastern two-thirds the masonry appears to have been rebuilt,
but the S. elevation contains two original stone windows with
chamfered stone surrounds; a similar window of one light
occurs in the upper storey of the gabled W. wall. Inside, the
eastern part of the house contains, on the W., a ground-floor
room with a deeply chamfered beam and corresponding wall-plates. The western part has been gutted, but visible on the
W. wall are the outlines of a large open fireplace and an adjacent
staircase, both removed. A stone doorway with a chamfered
four-centred head and continuous jambs, communicating with
the adjacent room in the eastern part of the house, is blocked
with rough rubble masonry. Adjacent to the house on the W.
is a pair of 18th-century gate piers with ball finials.
(95) Barn, with rubble walls and tiled roofs, is of 18th-century origin.
(96) House, of two storeys, with rendered walls with ashlar
quoins and dressings and with slate-covered roofs, dates from
c. 1800. The N. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with
a central doorway in a rusticated ashlar surround; above the
doorway is a sashed window of three lights and on either side,
in both storeys, are single sashed windows with plain ashlar
architraves and simple keystones. The doorway has an ogee-shaped iron porch.
(97) House, of two storeys, with ashlar walls and tiled
roofs, dates from the first half of the 19th century. The S.
front is symmetrical and of three bays.
(98) Cottages, range of three, are two-storeyed and have
rubble walls and tiled roofs; they date from the first half of
the 19th century.
(99) Poor Law Institution, of two storeys with ashlar
walls and slated roofs, was built in 1838 (Architectural Magazine,
Dec. 1838, 622). (Recently demolished.)
(100) St. James's Old Rectory, of two storeys and attics,
with walls of ashlar and rubble and with tiled and slate-covered
roofs, is probably of 18th-century origin, but it has been extensively altered. In the main S. range the three-bay S. front
is of ashlar, with a plat-band at first-floor level; in the lower
storey the former central opening has been walled up and those
of the lateral bays have been enlarged to make french windows;
in the upper storey each bay retains a sashed window. A subsidiary W. range with rubble walls was perhaps originally a
separate house, earlier than the S. range. Service rooms on the
N., occupying the angle formed by the W. and S. ranges, are
of the late 19th century. Inside, the house has been extensively
remodelled. In the S. range, which originally had a class-T
plan, the former entrance passage and staircase have been
abolished and the two principal rooms have been correspondingly enlarged, a vestibule and staircase being built on the N.
and the main entrance being transferred to the E. Plasterwork
and joinery throughout the house appear to be of c. 1840, presumably the date of alteration of the plan.
(101) Houses, two adjacent, formerly a school, are two-storeyed and have ashlar walls and tiled roofs; they date from
c. 1850. Doorways and window openings have weathered,
labels with returned stops; the gables have shaped kneelers.
(102) House, of two storeys, with walls of squared rubble
and with roof-covering of corrugated iron, is of early 17th-century origin. The S. front has four bays; in each storey
the western bay comprises a projecting stone window of five
square-headed lights with hollow-chamfered surrounds under
a weathered label; the adjacent bay has a square-headed doorway with a chamfered surround and shaped stops; the two
eastern bays have ground-floor windows of four and of three
lights, and first-floor windows of two lights, all similar in
detail to the projecting window on the W. The gabled E.
wall has been heightened and formerly was steeper than at
present; the chimney-stack at the apex is modern. The N
elevation has two modern windows in the lower storey and a
small original loop with a two-centred head, now blocked;
it is probable that the loop formerly gave light to a stair. In
the upper storey are two three-light stone windows. The
W. wall is masked by the adjacent house. Inside, the plan
appears to be a variant of class F; instead of service rooms on
the side of the through-passage opposite to the central living
room, we have here a parlour. The service rooms were probably on the E. of the centre room, where there now is an
original plank-and-muntin partition with two doorways (one
(103) House, of two storeys, with walls of ashlar and coursed
rubble and with slate-covered roofs, is of 17th-century origin,
but much altered. The S. front is approximately symmetrical
and of three bays, with a central doorway and with sashed
windows in both storeys of the lateral bays; there is no
window above the doorway, but a mezzanine window occurs
between the doorway and the windows on the E. The E.
gable has a stone window of two square-headed lights. The
N. wall has a large chimney-stack in the eastern part. Near the
N.E. corner is a doorway with a moulded four-centred head
and continuous jambs; further to the W. in the N. wall are
square-headed casement windows with hollow-chamfered
surrounds. Inside, the house has been modernised, but the roof
retains some original timbers.
(104) House, of two storeys with attics, with rubble and
ashlar walls and with tiled roofs, dates from late in the 18th
century; an extension on the E. is of the 19th century. The
symmetrical three-bay S. front has a central doorway under a
flat hood on shaped brackets, and sashed windows in both
(105) House, two-storeyed, with ashlar walls and tiled roofs
dates from the 18th century. The S. front has a plat-band at
first-floor level and a moulded ashlar cornice at the eaves.
The façade is symmetrical and of three bays. In the lower
storey a square-headed doorway is flanked by plain sashed
windows; in the upper storey a small elliptical central bull's-eye window is flanked by two sashed windows and by two blind
lights, making five features altogether, as against three in the
(106) Old Pump Court comprises a group of cottages, of the
late 18th and early 19th century, arranged in a quadrangle on
the N. side of St. James's street. All the tenements are two-storeyed, with rubble walls and with thatched or tiled roofs.
At the centre of the courtyard, a small stone aedicule with a
chamfered plinth and a pyramidal capstone contains a hand
(107) Friends' Meeting House, now disused, is of the mid
18th century; it has ashlar walls and formerly had stone-slated
roofs, but is now roofless. The S. front is symmetrical and of
three bays, with a square-headed central doorway and, on either
side, square-headed sashed windows under semicircular relieving
arches; above the doorway is a round-headed window.
In addition to the monuments described above, St. James's
Street and the lanes adjacent to it on the N. and W. contain
seventy-four late 18th or early 19th-century houses and cottages, of two storeys or of one storey with an attic, with walls
of coursed rubble and with roof-coverings of thatch, tile or
slate (Plate 29). The plans of the cottages generally are of
class S; locations are shown on the town plan on p. 56. Typical
of the group is No. 72 St. James's Street, on the S. side of the
street, facing the E. range of (106); it has a symmetrical N.
front of three bays, with a central doorway flanked by three-light casement windows, and corresponding two-light windows
in the upper storey.
(108) Cottage, at the N.W. end of Salisbury Street, is of
two storeys with cellar and attics; it has brick and rubble
walls and tiled and stone-slated roofs. It dates probably from
the 17th century but has been much altered from its original
state. The N.E. front and the N.W. gable are of the 19th
century; the gabled S.E. wall is of rubble and perhaps includes some original material; the S.W. elevation has been
refaced in brickwork and tiles. Inside, some rooms have
intersecting ceiling beams, now cased. The cellar has a stone
window of two square-headed lights with chamfered and
(109) Cottages, three adjacent, Nos. 5, 7 and 9 Coppice
Street, are two-storeyed and have rubble walls and slated and
thatched roofs; they are of c. 1800.
(110) Cottage, 30 yds. E. of the foregoing, is two-storeyed,
with rubble walls and a thatched roof; it is of the second
half of the 18th century.
(111) Cottage, No. 15 Coppice Street, is two-storeyed,
with ashlar walls and a tiled roof; it is of the 18th century.
(112) Wall, on the N. of Coppice Street, about 100 yds.
long and 5 ft. high, is of ashlar and squared rubble. Incised
on one stone is a cross and the inscription 'Parish Boundary
(113) Cottages, eight, of mid and late 18th-century date, are
located in the N.W. part of Salisbury Street in the positions
shown on the town plan (p. 56). They are two-storeyed, with
brick, rubble and rendered walls and with tiled or slated roofs.
Also in the N.W. part of Salisbury Street and shown on the same
plan are eighteen dwellings of the first half of the 19th century;
of them, one group forms a range of ten dwellings, another a
range of four, and another a range of three.
(114) House, of two storeys with an attic, has rendered walls
and slate-covered roofs and appears to be of the second half of
the 18th century; it was partly refronted in the 19th century
and has casement windows with moulded labels.
(115) Almshouses, founded in 1655, have been rebuilt and in
their present form appear to be of the first half of the 19th
century. Reset in the central gable is a stone tablet with a shield-of
arms of Spiller of Laleham and an inscription now largely indecipherable; it probably is of 1805 (Hutchins III, 44).
(116) Cottage, No. 53 Salisbury Street, is two-storeyed,
with rubble walls heightened in brickwork, and with a tiled
roof. The date 1791 roughly carved above the doorway is
probably the date of erection.
(117) Cottages, two adjacent, immediately S.E. of the foregoing, are two-storeyed, with rubble walls and slated roofs and
are probably of the 18th century.
(118) Cann Rectory, of two storeys, with walls of squared
rubble and ashlar and with slate-covered roofs, is of the 18th
century, with later additions on the S.E. The N.E. front is of
four bays, with sashed windows with moulded architraves and
plain keystones. The second window from the E. was originally
the doorway and has a rusticated architrave and pediment. The
N.W. elevation has a gable with a plain coping on shaped
kneelers. The S.W. elevation is rendered. Inside, some rooms
have fielded panelling. The stables on the S.E. of the house are
(119) Cann Cottage, three-storeyed, with rendered walls
and slated roofs, is probably of c. 1800.
(120) The Mount (86892266), of two storeys, with ashlar
walls and slated roofs, is of the first half of the 19th century.
(121) Cornley Villa (86972261), of two storeys, with
rendered walls and slated roofs, is mainly of the late 19th century,
but it incorporates an older building, possibly of 17th-century
origin. Inside, a circular staircase has timber treads radiating
from an octagonal newel-post.
(122) School (87032259), with ashlar walls and slated roofs,
was built in 1845. It has large windows with mullioned and
transomed square-headed lights and, at the centre of the S.W.
front, a doorway, now blocked, with a two-centred head. The
inscription 'National School 1845' is painted above the doorway.
(123) Belmont House (87142261), now an hotel, is of two
storeys with attics and has ashlar walls and slated roofs; it dates
from the late 18th or early 19th century. The S. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with a first-floor plat-band and a
moulded cornice. The middle bay projects slightly and continues in the attic storey, being capped with a low gable. The
central doorway has a round head, jambs with composite
capitals, pilasters and free-standing columns with similar capitals,
and a barrel-vaulted porch. The side bays of the lower storey
have late 19th-century three-sided bow windows. In the second
storey the side bays have plain sashed windows and the middle
bay has a large segmental-headed window. The E. and W.
elevations have each three bays of plain sashed windows. The
building was extended to the N. late in the 19th century and
the interior has been entirely remodelled.
(124) The Half Moon Inn (87192248), of two storeys, with
rubble walls and tiled roofs, is probably of 18th-century origin,
but it has been modernised and much altered.
(125) Toll House (87222250), standing in the fork of the
roads to Salisbury and Melbury Abbas, is of two storeys, with
ashlar walls and slated roofs, and dates from about the middle of
the 19th century. The windows generally have square-headed
lights with chamfered stone surrounds and moulded labels.
Projecting from the N. and S. elevations are small bow windows.
(126) Pensbury House (23558634), on the northern
outskirts of the town, is of two storeys with attics and
has ashlar walls and slated mansard roofs; the S. part
of the house dates from the middle of the 18th century;
The N. range is of the 19th century.
In the 18th-century range the W. front is symmetrical and of
five bays, the central bay being accentuated by a pedimented
projection; the first floor is marked by a plat-band and above
the second storey is a cornice and parapet. The round-headed
doorway at the centre of the W. front has a stone surround with
architrave, pilasters, entablature and pediment of the RomanDoric order. The sashed windows in both storeys have moulded
stone architraves. The plat-band and cornice continue on the
S. elevation; reset in the parapet is a date-stone of 1654. The
E. elevation is asymmetrical; near the centre it has a pedimented
projecting bay, with a square-headed doorway with a moulded
architrave under an open pediment which resets on scrolled
consoles, all of stone. Above and to the N. are sashed windows
similar to those of the W. front; the plat-band, cornice and
parapet continue, as before.
Inside, the drawing room has an 18th-century fireplace surround with scrolled cheek-pieces, an eared and enriched architrave, a richly carved frieze with acanthus scroll-work and flower
festoons, and an enriched cornice. Some rooms have plain
(127) Drinking Fountain (85952340), near the junction of
the roads from Gillingham and Sherborne, comprises an ashlar
wall with a stone recess with a four-centred head, and a cast-iron
spout and trough; it is dated 1844.
(128) Wall, flanking Tout Hill, includes ashlar and squared
rubble masonry of mediaeval origin. For part of its length the
wall on the S. side of the road has a chamfered and roll-moulded
plinth, stepped to follow the slope of the ground. The rebuilding of another part of this wall is recorded in an inscription
dated 1817. A much eroded 12th-century capital has been reset
in the wall on the N. side of the road.
(129) House, of two storeys, has walls of rubble and brickwork, in part rendered, and tiled roofs. The mid 19th-century
N.W. range is added to an earlier building, probably of the
18th century. At the N.E. end of the earlier range is a large
projecting chimneybreast with several weathered set-backs.
(130) Cottages, two adjacent, are two-storeyed, with ashlar
walls and tiled and thatched roofs; they are of the early 19th
(131) The Fountain Inn, of two storeys with squared
rubble walls and tiled roofs, comprises a small 18th-century
house and a larger addition of 1816 on the E. (Salisbury Journal,
23 Dec). The addition has a symmetrical N. front of two bays
with a central doorway, and sashed windows in both storeys.
The earlier house also has a symmetrical two-bay N. front with
a central doorway, but the windows are casements. Adjacent
on the W. is a long stable range. Inside, one room of the W.
house has a shell-headed niche.
(132) House, of two storeys with ashlar walls and tiled
roofs, is probably of c. 1800.
(133) Cottage, of one storeys with attics, has walls of rubble
and brickwork, in part rendered, and a thatched roof; the plan
is of class J. It is of the late 17th century.
(134) Cottages (85302322), range of four, of two storeys
with rubble walls and tiled roofs, are of the early 19th century.
(135) Cottages (85032332), pair, of two storeys with
ashlar walls and slated roofs, are of the early 19th century.
(136) Cottages (85812335), two adjacent, of two storeys
with rubble walls and thatched and tiled roofs, are of the early
(137) House (86412367), of two storeys with ashlar walls
and a thatched roof, is of late 17th-century origin. The S. front
is symmetrical and of three bays, with a central doorway flanked
by three-light casement windows, and corresponding two-light
windows in the upper storey. A moulded string-course traverses
the S. front a little below first-floor level. In the 18th century
the building was divided into two tenements, and two doorways
were made in place of the original entrance. Recently the house
has been remodelled as a single dwelling.
Mediaeval and Later Earthworks
The Saxon Borough has no positively identifiable
remains. Asser's record that the Abbey was established
'juxta orientalem portam Sceftesbury' (De rebus gestis
Alfredi, 98, 2) indicates that the borough lay westwards
from the abbey church, and military considerations
confirm such a location, for it is there that the steepsided Greensand spur would be most easily defended.
Seven hundred hides (Birch, 1335—the oldest text
omits the entry) point to a wall 960 yards long (Robertson, A–S. Charters, 246–9). The borough probably
occupied the end of the spur with a rampart across
the neck, perhaps on the line of Magdalene Lane. A
slight but continuous rise in the level of the ground
immediately N.E. of this lane may be a vestige of the
rampart. Camden records 'a tradition that an old citie
stood upon the place which is called the castle greene'
Shaftesbury. (138) Earthwork Remains of former Castle.
(138) Ditch and Platform (856228), remains of a former
castle on the N.W. extremity of the Greensand promontory,
occupy a small triangular spur a little below the 700 ft. contour.
To the E. the ground rises to the plateau of the presumed
borough; elsewhere it drops precipitously (plan, p. 75).
In 1947–9 the site was systematically examined by trenching
(Dorset Procs., 71 (1949), 54–7). Fragments of three tripod
pitchers of the 12th or 13th century, a small bronze chain, and
a 'cut' halfpenny of Stephen's reign were found; a paved
floor of the early 18th century came to light, but no trace of any
other structure. The slender evidence available suggests that the
castle was a temporary fortification dating from the period of the
12th-century civil war.
The site is overgrown and disturbed by former excavations;
several old trenches still lie open; near the middle is a rectangular pond (P) about 10 ft. deep. A crescent-shaped ditch up
to 65 ft. wide and 15 ft. deep separates the spur from the higher
ground on the E. Earthworks within the area include a low
bank on the S.W., a roughly rectangular mound about 1½ ft. high
on the E., and some roughly rectangular platforms of varying
size; the triangular area is artificially scarped above the natural
slopes of the spur.
(139) Building Foundations (85752281), discovered in
1947 (Dorset Procs., 71 (1949), 54–7), lie about 150 yds. E. of the
castle (138). They comprise fragmentary footings, 2 ft. wide and
some 9 ins. high, of poor stone buildings; the best preserved of
these were circular and some 13 ft. in diameter. Associated
pottery was of the 13th century.
(140) Site of St. John's Church, some 200 yds. S.E. of (80)
is an uneven area of ground in the S. part of a disused churchyard, at one time a burial ground for St. James's church, and still
containing a few 18th and 19th-century monuments. St. John's
parish was united with St. James's in 1446 and the church may
already have been disused at that date. Hutchins (1st ed., II, 32)
records marks of the foundations of a little church and chancel,
visible in his time, but today there are no traces of a building.
(141) Barton Manor House (86752316), site, was excavated
in 1951 (Dorset Procs., 76 (1954), 67). The floors of two yards
with associated drains were revealed; they were of 18th-century
date, but 12th and 13th-century pottery, floor-tiles and glazed
ridge-tiles indicated mediaeval occupation. The manor house
appears to have been the centre of a mediaeval estate which extended N. and N.W. In the 16th century the estate had
gardens, paddocks, a house, a barn, an ox shed and a pinfold, in
all covering 2 acres (Survey of Lands of William, Earl of Pembroke,
ed. C. R. Stratton, Roxburghe Club, 1909, II, 502).
(142) Occupation Site (869225), with 13th and 14th-century
pottery, was discovered in 1949 on the S. side of Hawkesdean
Lane (Dorset Procs., 71 (1949), 60).
(143) Abbey Ponds (864226). Near the head of a wide
valley, 320 yds. S.E. of (1), are the remains of fishponds belonging
to the nunnery; they are now dry, but in the middle of the 16th
century they were repleta cum piscibus vocatus carpes et tenches
(Stratton, op. cit., 504). The earthworks comprise two depressions, roughly rectangular and 2 ft. to 3½ ft. deep, lying side
by side; immediately N. of the E. depression and joined to it
by a narrow channel is a third depression, smaller and roughly
square. Mediaeval and later pottery and other objects, found
immediately W. of the depressions, are preserved in the
Shaftesbury Museum (Dorset Procs., 71 (1949), 67).
Shaftesbury. (143) Abbey Ponds.
Coins of Commodus, Diocletian, and Constantine
are reported from Barton Hill (868231); 'Roman
pottery' found with mediaeval sherds S.S.E. of Layton
House (864227) could be connected with this site
(Hutchins III, 80; Dorset Procs., LXXI (1949), 67).
It is claimed that 'architectural remains of the Doric
order' were found here (W.A.M., VII (1862), 252).