Scratching on E. respond of S. arcade
(O.S. 6 ins. aTL 35 N.W., bTL 35 N.E., cTL 35 S.W.,
dTL 35 S.E.)
The village of Kingston, 1½ m. E.S.E. of Bourn, occupies
a low spur at the N. end of the parish between two streams
flowing N.E. into the Bourn Brook. The church and a
few adjacent buildings, including the Old Rectory
(Monument (3), an important survival), lie on a small
patch of gravel. The rest of the village, and most of the
parish, except for some gault along the E. boundary, is
on boulder clay.
A rectangular green of about 10 acres, some 200 yds.
S. of the church, with roads leading into its corners must
once have been a striking feature. It is clearly reflected
on the enclosure map of 1815 (C.R.O.), when waste
segments at the sides, formed by traffic passing through,
were allotted and subsequently built on. Today hardly
any of the green is left.
The parish of 1907 acres varies from about 80 ft. above
O.D. in the N. along the Bourn Brook to over 250 ft.
in the S. where the Mare Way divides Kingston from
Wimpole. Another old road called Porters' Way forms
the W. boundary, and part of the E. boundary follows
Kingston, as the name implies, was royal demesne at
an early period, and one of the principal manors was still
so at the Conquest. A moated site with the late mediaeval
house now known as Kingston Wood Farm (Monuments (12) and 17)) was equated by the Lysons, but
perhaps not correctly, with this manor. The farm itself
seems never to have formed part of the open fields
(see Monument (20)).
a(1) Parish Church of All Saints and St. Andrew,
at the N. end of the village, stands in a rectangular
raised churchyard bounded by low walls on the S. and
W. and consists of a Chancel, clearstoreyed Nave with
Aisles, and West Tower. Much of the walling is plastered
inside and out; where exposed it is of field stones; the
roofs are tiled.
An entry on p. 27 of Bishop Alcock's register (C.U.L.)
records the granting by him in 1488 of an indulgence
'ad reparacionem ecclesie parochialis de Kyngyston sue
diocesis que ex eventu quodam inopinabili videlicet per
incendium funditus exstitit destructa et ad fabricam campanilis
ejusdem quod similimodo nuperrime ventorum impetu
cecidit'. The church was evidently rebuilt on the old
lines at this time, a considerable amount of older work
being retained or reset in the chancel and aisles. The E.
wall of the tower also seems to have survived, while fire
damage to the S. porch and subsequent repair are apparent. There were restorations in 1894–5 and 1930.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (29¼ ft. by 15¾ ft.)
has plastered walls of varying thickness with features predominantly of the 13th and 14th centuries some of which may have
been restored or reset in the years after 1488. The E. wall has
a 16th- or 17th-century rectangular window of five three-centred lights with sunk spandrels, set in the blocking of a
larger probably 13th-century window, the splays and chamfered
rear arch of which are exposed internally. At either corner is
a single-stage angle buttress. The N. wall has in the E. half
a blocked 13th-century lancet, rebated for a shutter, which is
not visible internally; its splays were probably removed when
the later arched recess was inserted on the inside. The W. half
is occupied by a recess, probably of 13th-century origin, with
stone bench and head of two chamfered arches meeting in a
central corbel; beneath the W. arch and perhaps coeval with it
is a blocked transomed and trefoil-headed 'low-side' window.
In the middle of the wall is a blocked doorway, with continuous chamfered jambs and head, which at one time led into
a N. annexe. The S. wall has at the E. end a 13th-century window of three graduated uncusped lights in a round head with
later wave-moulded rear arch; a second window is modern
save for the rear arch and E. splay which is continued down to
form the E. splay of a doorway with continuous chamfered
jambs and head; a third, 'low-side', window, early 14th-century
of two transomed and trefoiled lights, with moulded jambs, is
blocked below the transom. The W. half of the S. wall has had
a benched recess similar to that on the N. side, but the two arches
of the head have been partly displaced by the rear arches
of the second and third windows. The chancel arch is of two
orders chamfered to the E. and wave-moulded to the W., the
outer continuous, the inner carried on attached shafts with
moulded caps and bases.
The Nave (44¼ ft. by 15½ ft., Plate 97) has arcades of four
arches, each similar to the chancel arch but moulded on both sides.
Arcades and chancel arch are presumably post 1488, but may
reproduce work contemporary with the N. aisle windows
described below. The clearstorey has four windows on either
side, each of two cinque-foiled lights with pierced spandrels;
there are suggestions of a blocked E. light above the chancel
The North Aisle (8¾ ft. wide) has a modern E. window similar to those in the E. and S. walls of the S. aisle. In the N. wall
are three late 14th- or 15th-century windows, reset and
restored, each of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil
in the head flanked by vertical bars. Between the second and
third window is a doorway the jambs of which are worked
with a broad chamfer which passes into two chamfered orders
in the head. The W. wall is now blind but retains a lancet, the
N. jamb of which has been obliterated by blocking on the
outer face; the splays and springers of the rear arch are exposed inside but the head has been built up. Above and somewhat N. of this lancet, visible only externally, is a blocked
bull's eye, probably mediaeval but not closely datable.
The South Aisle (9¼ ft. wide) was partly rebuilt in 1894–5,
but some old walling, probably 13th-century, survives. The
E. window and three others in the long wall are each of three
graduated cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head. They and
the W. window, of 14th-century character, together with the
S. doorway of two continuous moulded orders, are almost
The unbuttressed S. porch is of 13th- or early 14th-century
origin and has two small two-light rectangular windows, both
discoloured by burning; the lower quoins and rubble walling
are also affected; the entrance arch of two continuous chamfered
orders is heavily restored.
The unbuttressed West Tower (10¼ ft. N. to S. by 10 ft.),
rebuilt and furnished with a stair turret after 1488, incorporates
most of the E. wall and perhaps part of the N. wall of its predecessor. It is divided into three stages by moulded string-courses
and has an embattled parapet with gargoyles to the N. and S.
The late 15th-century W. window of three graduated cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head is much restored. S. of it is
a small cinquefoil-headed niche with miniature vaulted canopy
and square moulded label; a similar niche to the N. of the
window is modern. The belfry has restored windows in the
N., S. and W. faces, each of two trefoiled lights with quatrefoils in the head; to the E. is a restored quatrefoil. The tower
arch, which looks 14th-century, is of three orders to the E.,
the two outer chamfered and the inmost moulded with a
double wave; on the W. the outer order is omitted and the
middle one dies into the side walls. At the E. end of the S. wall
is a doorway blocked on the outer face in 1894–5; only the
splays and rear arch survive. A square-headed door opposite
gives access to the added stair turret, the top of which has been
rebuilt. The entry from the stair into the ringing chamber has
been crudely contrived by cutting through the old N.E.
corner. Above the tower arch, visible from the nave, is a
blocked opening only the S. splay of which remains inside the
ringing chamber; above it a ragged offset indicates that the
top stage of the tower has been entirely rebuilt; remains of a
weathercourse N. of the blocked opening indicate the line of
an earlier and steeper nave roof.
Kingston, the Parish Church of All Saints & St. Andrew
The Roof of the chancel is in four bays and is ceiled below
the common rafters, but the principals with solid moulded
arch braces and the purlins are exposed. The nave roof, likewise
in four bays and ceiled below the common rafters, has chamfered tie beams with moulded principal and intermediate
rafters and moulded purlins; wall posts rise off defaced stone
corbels. The lean-to roof of the N. aisle has moulded rafters
and purlins. All three are late mediaeval. The roof of the
S. aisle resembles that of the N. aisle but is largely modern.
Fittings—Bells: three; 1st by Thomas Newman, 1722,
recast 1930; 2nd with initial cross and inscribed in Lombardic
capitals 'ave ⋮ maria', 14th-century; 3rd by Joseph Eayre,
17(?6)7. Bell frame: old. Chest: iron-bound, rectangular with
chains at either end for lifting, considerably decayed, perhaps
17th-century. Doors : to N. aisle, of nail-studded planks on
lattice framing; and to S. aisle, similar but with later framing;
both mediaeval, restored. Font (Plate 5); plain octagonal bowl,
perhaps 13th-century; the 14th-century octagonal foot is of the
same diameter and has attached shafts with moulded caps and
bases rising to crocketed gables. Glass: fragments in E. window
include quarries and roundels, one with a white hart sejant, 15th- and 16th-century. Monuments and Floor slabs. Monuments :: in
chancel—at E. end of S. wall, of Dr. Fogge Newton, Provost
of King's and Rector, 1612, tablet with inscription in Latin
iambics flanked by small Corinthian columns supporting an
entablature; above is an elaborate strapwork overpiece with
two shields of arms the lower of which is flanked by terminal
figurines; a third shield is set in a strapwork apron; all of
clunch, originally painted, but the blazon of the shields is now
uncertain; see Floor slabs (1) below. Headstones S. of the nave
include one of c. 1700, shaped and carved, indecipherable;
also a few others, 18th-century. Floor slabs: in chancel—(1) of
Dr. Newton, see Monuments above; (2) of Simon Sayon,
Rector, 1688, with achievement of arms; (3) of Francis Todd,
1703, Jane his first wife, 1661, Theodosia (Nightingale) his
second wife, 1698, and Francis his son by Theodosia, 1669,
with achievement of arms; (4) of Rev. John Lee, Rector, 1778.
Paintings: Much of the interior wall surface, except in the
tower, retains painting of the 13th to the 16th or early 17th
centuries, some of which was restored by E. W. Tristram in
1928 (H. H. Brindley, 'The Mural Paintings in Kingston
Church, Cambridgeshire', C.A.S. Procs. XXXI (1931), 146–
149). The following account is based on his identifications. In
chancel—on E. wall (1) roundel in red ochre, disfigured, perhaps a consecration cross; on N. wall, above N. doorway (2)
two foot soldiers (Plate 105) in mail armour facing to the E.
with lances at the ready, perhaps a fragment of a Psychomachia;
also on N. wall, one above and to the E. of the foregoing, the
other to the W. above and between the arches of the bench
recess (3) two fragments of foliage arabesque; on S. wall between 2nd and 3rd windows (4) standing figure in long robe,
incomplete and indistinct; above and to the W. (5) further
fragments of foliage arabesque; all probably 13th-century, but
the arabesque items may be somewhat earlier than the figures.
In nave—above chancel arch (6) against a red background, a
crucifix in silhouette with a kneeling angel either side holding a
cup; beyond them are two standing figures also in silhouette
no doubt intended for the Virgin and St. John, and four more
kneeling angels, two above censing, two below playing instruments; beneath the standing silhouettes are remains of clunch
corbels indicating that the crucifix and the two figures were
images in the round, the crucifix probably suspended; beneath them are remains of a black-letter inscription '(Lo)rde
Jesus'; late 15th-century; above nave arches (7) rectangular
panels framed in strapwork with black-letter texts, not read;
at the apices, related strapwork ornaments; late 16th- or early
17th-century. In N. aisle—on N. wall, towards E. end (8)
figure subject, indistinct and not identified; between first two
windows (9) lower part of a St. Christopher; further W. (10)
further figure subjects, not identified; on W. wall (11) naked
demon with horns, bat wings, tail and genital mask, and
portions of a (tree?) (Plate 105), symbolising the Seven Deadly
Sins; above a wheel, perhaps symbolising the Seven Acts of
Mercy, (propelled by?) an angel; in S. aisle—on soffit of rear
arch of first window in long wall, (12) pattern made up of geometrical and foliated elements; all the items in the aisles are
probably late 15th-century.
Piscina: in chancel, in E. splay of 1st window on S. side, with
continuous roll-moulded jambs and trefoil head, and quatrefoil drain, 13th-century. Plate : includes an inscribed cup,
unmarked, and a paten by Thomas Buttell, both c. 1570.
Pulpit: of seven sides, profusely enriched with gouged ornament, each divided into two heights with long round-arched
panel below, smaller panel and frieze above; 1st half of 17th
century. Scratchings: include a roughly drawn shield of arms
on the middle pier of the N. arcade, and two others on the N.
respond of the tower arch; two more, on the jambs of the
doorway to the stair turret, are perhaps intended for Lisle and
Vere. Screen: in three bays, the middle bay open and having
a head of pierced fretwork inserted in the 17th century; side
bays in two heights, the lower solid, the upper in four lights
with vertical tracery and pierced spandrels below the beam;
main posts worked with attached shafts on the W.; 15th-century. Sundials: two, on either jamb of the S. doorway to
chancel. Miscellaneous : towards E. end of N. wall of chancel,
small recess behind three miniature moulded and trefoiled
arches with panelled spandrels (Plate 7); 14th-century.
a(2) Congregational Chapel, framed and plastered, with
half-hipped thatched roof, divided into three bays by tie beams
and open to the collars; perhaps late 18th-century.
a(3) The Old Rectory, a two-storeyed T-shaped
mediaeval house immediately E. of the church, has
outside walls partly of fieldstones and clunch with
clunch dressings and partly of framing; certain additions
and replacements are in brick. The main, E. and W.,
range incorporates a timber aisled hall (Class A) with
stone outer walls of the 13th or early 14th century.
This, to judge from a trial probe, was erected on the
gravel subsoil without ground sills or footings. On the
W. is an early to mid 14th-century cross wing, at the N.
end of which are two slightly later blocks, the E. block
being the stair, while the W. block was probably the
garderobe. The cross wing was reduced in length to the
S., an upper floor was inserted into the hall and various
other alterations made in the late 16th or early 17th
century, perhaps in the time of Dr. Fogge Newton,
Rector, and Provost of King's College (d. 1612).
The house, which ceased to be a rectory in 1931, was
presumably conveyed to King's with the advowson in
1457. This last had changed hands many times during
the preceding century; in or about 1353 it had belonged
to Robert Mortimer, who inherited it from Thomas
and Agnes de Gyssyng (King's College Muniments,
The vestiges in the main range indicate a hall divided by two
tie-beam trusses into two and a half bays, the half bay being on
the E. The plastered S. front incorporates the S. arcade, the
wall being made out with later framing. The S. aisle no longer
exists but the aisle roof, which was evidently thatched, and the
upper part of the long wall are clearly reflected on the outer
face of the E. wall of the cross wing (Plate 101). The site of the
N. aisle is occupied by comparatively modern outshuts, but
a length of wall with buttress, rebuilt in brick and reused clunch,
stands for the E. half of the original long wall. Surviving mediaeval timbers, examined in the course of recent renovations,
include: (a) the upper part of the first S. arcade post, octagonal
or chamfered square with a moulded cap; also the springing
of the W. brace; the post is morticed for a subsidiary member
spanning the aisle; (b) corresponding tie beam and principals;
the tie beam stop-chamfered between curved braces, one of
which survives in part, notched for raking struts on one side
and morticed for a crown or king post; the principals halved
for collars and notched for raking struts; (c) the capital of the
second S. arcade post, of different design from the first and
enriched with crude gouged work, with the springing of its
E. brace; (d) corresponding tie beam and principals; the tie
beam notched both sides for raking struts, morticed above for
crown or king post and below for full arch braces; the principals halved for collars and notched for raking struts; (e) and (f)
pairs of rafters, one in each full bay, halved for collars; (g)
part of N. arcade plate with mortice for W. brace from second
post. These and certain reused timbers are generally smoke-blackened.
Kingston, Monument No. 3, The Old Rectory
The cross wing with its N. appendages is stone-built except
for the S. wall which is of 16th- or 17th-century framing, now
rough-cast. Its E. wall (Plate 101) was formerly the gabled W.
wall of the hall, heightened when the cross wing was built.
A doorway, presumably coeval with the cross wing, leading
out of the N. aisle, evidently had continuous chamfered jambs
and pointed head, but the N. jamb has been removed to widen
the opening and a wooden lintel inserted. The W. wall
(Plate 101) has a projecting chimney of clunch rubble with
stack rebuilt in brick; it does not look earlier than 16th-century,
but may at least be on the site of a corresponding 14th-century
feature. There are four original windows, or traces of them,
one on either floor to N. and S. of the chimney, where visible
with clunch splays and wooden rear lintels. That to the S. on
the upper floor is well preserved and is in two chamfered orders with pointed trefoiled head; it is grooved for glass. Internally the ground floor of the cross wing is divided by original
stop-chamfered cross beams into three bays; there is some old
red paint on these beams.
The garderobe and stair blocks, both probably rebuilt soon
after the completion of the cross wing, were amalgamated in
the 16th century or later. The rebuilding may have been
necessitated by failure of the original N. end wall of the wing;
a pit in the N.W. corner, recently discovered, may be explicable as an earlier internal or semi-internal latrine. The newel
stair is of clunch and must have been designed for a part circular turret; the treads end on the original circumference and
are discoloured where they were bedded in the original turret
wall; they are now made out with added material and rest
on a bed of inserted rubble. Entry to the stair was from the N.
aisle through a small arch, only the W. springer of which survives. The rebuilt stair house is rectangular with a small reset
window to the E. divided into two elaborately cusped lights
by a transom; a second and larger window, also probably reset,
is divided into three rectangular lights by heavy chamfered
mullions is in the N. wall at a higher level. A pointed N. and
S. arch springs off the N. wall next the E. splay of this window
and off a clunch pier built up on the truncated newel. A similar
E. and W. arch is at the stair head. The garderobe block has a
small rectangular window with chamfered reveal to the W.
on the ground floor; the short link wall connecting the two
blocks on the N. has a similar window, reset and flanked
internally by triangular-headed recesses. In the N.W. corner
of the bedroom to the S. are some clunch dressings which
appear to be the W. jamb of a doorway into the garderobe
from the adjoining chamber; the wall is otherwise a comparatively late rebuilding.
The otherwise post-mediaeval roof of the cross wing
incorporates a truss immediately N. of the chimney (Plate 103)
consisting of a steeply cambered tie beam with short braces
of full scantling to wall posts, and octagonal crown post with
moulded cap, base stops, and braces to a collar; there are mortices from the post for axial bracing, but the collar purlin has
been cut away either side of the post. Some of these timbers
show traces of red paint.
Post-mediaeval detail in the house is of subsidiary interest.
The late 16th- or early 17th-century framing of the S. wall of
the cross wing includes corner posts with enlarged heads;
two blocked three-light windows with ovolo-moulded mullions have been found on the ground floor. The main range has
an internal chimney inserted in the late 16th or early 17th
century; the corresponding clunch fireplace surround in the
W. ground-floor room has rectangular outer and depressed
four-centred inner head, recently restored. A tie beam at
eaves level at the E. end of the main range is probably of the
a(4) Queen's College Farm, standing on a moated site
(Monument (19)), is of two storeys, framed and plastered, with
some brick underbuilding, and has tiled roofs. The main range
has been an open hall, so that the house, which is late mediaeval,
would appear to have belonged to Class B; but the E. cross
wing is modern. A chimney and ceiling were inserted in the
hall perhaps in 1666; a barely legible date on the S. face of the
inserted stack has been so read.
Kingston, Monument No. 5
Detail of Roof Structure
The original hall roof is divided by a primary and a secondary truss into one larger E. bay and two smaller and equal W.
bays. The primary truss consists of a chamfered tie beam with
chamfered arch braces of full length from wall posts, and
collar; purlins and wind braces are housed into the primary
rafters. The secondary truss has no tie beam. Mortices in the
wall plate a few feet from the ends are for horizontal timbers
of uncertain purpose; cuttings in the plate may indicate windows which would seem to have been of ample dimensions.
Kingston, Monument No. 5
The W., solar, cross wing is divided on the ground floor
into two bays by a cross beam moulded with an ogee and a hollow, unstopped; corresponding joists are ogee-moulded. A
short distance from the N. end is a second moulded cross beam,
reset, possibly from the upper floor, with moulded arch braces
springing off the moulded caps of octagonal shafts worked on
the supporting posts. In the N. gable are traces of an original
window. The roof of the cross wing, of collar-purlin type, is
original, but the tie beam is a replacement; it retains traces of
The inserted 17th-century ceiling in the main range is
divided into four bays by intersecting chamfered beams, but
most of the E., secondary, axial beam has been cut away. The
stops of the chamfered fireplace bressummer are notched.
a(5) House, on edge of former green, two-storeyed, framed
and plastered, with tiled and thatched roofs, consisting of a
single E. and W. range made up of two units, 15th- or early
16th-century. The three-bay E. unit was originally an open
hall; the W. unit, also of three bays, was a solar. A third unit
on the E., demolished earlier in the present century, was presumably the service part, or a replacement on the site of it.
The house thus started as a conventional hall house, except for
the placings of the wings in line with the main axis instead
of across it.
The hall had an upper floor and a brick chimney inserted in
the 17th century, but absence of smoke blackening in the hall
roof and the venerable appearance of the ground-floor fireplace
bressummer with its wide stopped chamfer may suggest the preexistence of a primitive framed chimney or hood on the site.
The floor has been removed from the W. bay of the solar at
some time and it is now open; the roof timbers, consisting of
rafters with collars and collar purlins, are darkened by smoke.
The walls of the hall have been partly rebuilt in brick and
are plastered inside and out. Blocked doors at either end of the
screens passage survive, and there are indications of a third
door, possibly original, at the W. end above the later fireplace
on the ground floor of the solar. On the N. upper floor, above
and somewhat W. of the screens, are remains of a small
window divided into two lights by a diamond mullion. The
hall roof is in three bays and was supported by tie-beam
trusses which have been mutilated; that between the first and
second bay, partly built into the inserted chimney, has a moulded
tie beam, stopped some distance from the ends; shallow mortices
in the adjoining unmoulded faces may be for fitting a cornice
at the wall head; the primary rafters, collar and connecting
braces are also moulded. The other open truss has had the tie
beam cut away, except for stubs at the ends, but was probably
similar. The closing trusses are more simply treated, the tie
beams being unmoulded. The purlins and wind braces where
visible are chamfered.
The W., solar, wing is built up against the hall and is slightly
narrower than it. The first two bays form a single room on
either floor, that below having a quadripartite ceiling formed by
a chamfered primary cross beam and stop-chamfered axial
secondaries, the former rising off richly moulded intermediate
brackets worked on the mainposts. The upper room has closing
trusses of crown-post type but only the tie beams and some
crown-post bracing are visible. The middle truss has a low
collar in place of a tie beam, to give head room; a short crown
post can be inferred.
The end bay of the solar is now open to the roof and the
timbers are completely exposed inside. The framing is downbraced and includes swell-head posts and intermediate rail.
A blocked window divided into four lights by diamond mullions remains in the upper part of the N. wall at the W. end.
Symmetrically placed doorways now blocked remain at
either end of the party wall on the ground floor, and there are
remains of a third door at first-floor level, all original.
c(6) Pigeon House, 17th- or 18th-century, converted to a
two-storey house, framed and plastered, with hipped tiled
roof rising to gablets.
a(7) Town Farm, at S. corner of former green, consists of
an 18th-century Class-J house of two storeys and attic built in
red brick with a platband; the roof is tiled. Incorporated at the
rear are parts of a 17th-century framed house of two storeys.
The fenestration is modern. Inside are a few original features
including a fireplace surround with side pilasters, frieze enriched with paterae and central panel with a somewhat larger
patera and a swag. At the rear of the main range is a shuttered
hatch into the yard, perhaps for dispensing commons or wages.
a(8) House, now divided, L-shaped, framed and plastered,
with thatched and tiled roofs, consists of an E. and W. range
along the street of one storey and attic, half-hipped to the W.,
with two-storeyed E. cross wing gabled to the S. The building
is sub-mediaeval and of uncertain date, the middle part of the
main range having probably been open to the roof. A floor
carried on a reused beam and a chimney, to which a bread
oven was later added, have been inserted. A small service room
at the W. end was later enlarged at the expense of the 'hall'.
The cross wing has on the ground floor a S. and smaller N.
room with stopped axial beams, respectively moulded and
chamfered. The short original axial beam at the service end is
also stop-chamfered. Little of the roof is exposed.
a(9) House, L-shaped, consisting of two elements; an E. and
W. main range, of two storeys with attics, facing the former
green; and a shorter and lower two-storeyed wing at right
angles. The main range probably originated as a 17th-century
Class-J framed house, but was cased inside and out and
heightened in the early 18th century, all in red brick. The
front door is set in a shallow projection opposite the internal
chimney; this projection is required to provide a passage
between the rooms on either side of the chimney, which
would otherwise have been obstructed by the internal casing.
The wing is of the 16th or earlier 17th century and was
originally jettied at the S. end and along the W. side but the
jetties have been under-built in red brick.
A number of structural timbers are exposed inside, including
the dragon beam to the S.W. corner. Reused material includes
a 17th-century door divided into six panels by applied muntins
a(10) House (Class K), of two storeys and attics, framed and
plastered, with half-hipped thatched roof; probably late 17th-century, but modernised and extended. Some doors with
linenfold and other panelling are made up.
a(11) Pigeon House, 17th- or 18th-century, converted to a
dwelling of two storeys and attic, framed and plastered, with
hipped tiled roof rising to gablets.
c(12) Kingston Wood Farm (Class B; N.G. TL
328540), standing on a moated site (Monument (17))
in the S.W. of the parish, is of the early 16th century,
but was modified and enlarged piecemeal during the
next hundred years. The structure, predominantly of two
storeys with attics, is now mostly brick with tiled roofs
and consists of a main range fronting W. of S. with a
kitchen block and other subsidiary parts on the N.
Originally the house, which was that of one of the
two principal manors in the village, was of mixed construction, with some ground-floor and certain other
walls of brick or rubble and the remainder framed.
The plan resembles, although on a small scale, that of
Madingley Hall (Madingley (2)) when first built, but
subsequent alterations to the interior has obliterated
evidence to show the original form of the hall. An
estate map of 1720 (C.R.O., Plate 29), made about the
time the manor passed to Lord Oxford, depicts the
house from the S. with symmetrical projections of full
height which were presumably a porch and an oriel.
These seem to have been removed, presumably by
Lord Oxford, soon after the map was made. The front
was then re-roofed and almost completely refaced and
a number of other changes made.
The S. front is in five unequal bays, symmetrical except for
the entrance which is still on the line of the screens passage in
the fourth bay. The brickwork is relieved by a platband and
the hipped roof has coved eaves. The windows are sashes,
three being set in pedimented dormers. The entrance doorway
(Plate 9) is original, with elaborately moulded jambs of
stuccoed brick and continuous four-centred head; an inner
and an outer square label form two spandrels framing blank
shields; above is an 18th-century cornice enriched with
acanthus. The door, of twice four linenfold panels, is also
original. Straight joints flanking the doorway reflect one of the
vanished projections and between them a little old diapered
brickwork survives. The E. end (Plate 100) is mostly of 18th-century brick on the ground floor, but there is some fieldstone
walling, possibly original; on the first floor the wall is in
closely spaced vertical framing, the top rail being pegged for a
former gable, while absence of pegging on the lower edge of
the bottom rail is conclusive evidence of mixed construction.
Existing openings are 18th-century or later. The N. extremity
of the wall contains the side of a garderobe flanking the solar
chimney, also in vertical framing above, with old diapered
brickwork below. The solar chimney has been largely rebuilt;
lapping it is a small wing, somewhat lower than the main
range, which may be of 16th- or early 17th-century origin.
Immediately W. of this wing is the external chimney of the
hall, probably original, though part of the stack has been
Kingston, Monument No. 12.
The W. half of the N. side is occupied by the square kitchen
block, which would appear to have grown up by stages. It is
made up of two parallel N. and S. ranges, that on the E. being
the narrower, but is roofed as a whole in two equal spans with
gables to the N. The construction was at one time mixed, like
that of the main range, but there has been much patching
and casing. The lower part of the N. wall is uniform and
has a continuous plinth with chamfered offset. On the ground
floor are two stone windows divided into two and three lights
by ovolo-moulded mullions; above the first is another, of
four lights. The E. wall of the block, some of which is diapered,
has on the ground floor a comparatively early 16th-century
window of stuccoed stone or brick, of two round-headed
lights in a square outer head. This window and a mutilated
doorway to the S., now internal, with four-centred head,
appear to be inside out—as if the wall of which they are features
had been built for a wing on the N. side of the hall. On the W.
in the upper floor is a four-light wooden window with roll-moulded mullions of the 16th century.
Inside, the door from the screens into the service end has
moulded jambs on a high chamfered base rising to a four-centred inner and square outer head with sunk spandrels, and
having a segmental rear arch, probably all in brick but now
plastered. Immediately W. of the doorway at the N. end of
the screens, are remains of a shallow projection of uncertain
function in brick and clunch with chamfered arris and chamfered plinth. Against this projection is a reset timber upright
with moulding on one side, elaborately stopped at the base,
and with provision for a horizontal return at the top, probably
from the hall screen.
Later detail includes a clunch chimney piece in the ground-floor room E. of the hall with moulded four-centred inner and
square outer head and overmantel divided into four bays by
panelled pilasters rising to a richly moulded break-front cornice;
scratchings read '1520' and 'I.P. 1734', the former of which
can hardly be genuine. On the first floor are two other
simpler, fireplaces with ovolo-moulded and chamfered jambs
respectively, and some run-through panelling. The early 17th-century staircase has a closed string and rectangular balusters
in two heights separated by a rail; the balusters, of stunted
classical form with inclined orders, reduce in size as they meet
the upper floor. The mid 17th-century landing balustrade,
which returns against a square newel post with shaped finial
and has turned balusters and moulded handrail, continues as a
gate at the head of the stairs.
S. of the house is a brick bridge across the moat, of two
arches, late 17th- or 18th-century. Outbuildings to the S.E.
partly of brick and partly framed are of similar age.
c(13) Kingston Pastures Farm (N.G. TL 329529) consists of
a fairly lofty range of two storeys and attics with lower wing
to the N. at the E. end, and is built of red brick with a platband at first-floor level and another across the gables between
the eaves. The roofs are tiled. The house appears on the 1720
map of Kingston Wood (C.R.O.) as 'Pain's Home', but
cannot then have been long built. There are chimneys at either
end, and a third, internal. The fenestration has been altered.
A length of stair from first floor to the attics, with square
newels, turned balusters and close string, is 18th-century.
c(14) New Farm (N.G. TL 338527) consists of a farm house
and buildings, all of. c. 1840. The House (Class U), two-storeyed,
of white brick with hipped slated roof, in a Georgian idiom,
forms the S. side of a square yard. The Buildings form the remaining sides and are mostly of the same materials.
a(15–16) Houses (Class I), two-storeyed, originally framed
and plastered, both much altered, of 17th- or early 18th-century origin.
c(17) Moated Site (Class A 3; N.G. TL 328540, part
only on O.S.), on level ground 210 ft. above sea level
in the S.W. of the parish. The remains consist of a moat
with outer enclosure and a group of ponds. The moat
seems to be a mediaeval defensive site altered when the
present house (Monument (12)) and gardens, occupying
the interior, were made; the ponds were perhaps
constructed as fish ponds but have been much altered.
It was probably the site of the manor of Kingston.
The moat is an irregular hexagon, about 220 ft. in diameter;
its sides measure internally 152 ft. N.W., by 84 ft. N.E., by
133 ft. E., by 100 ft. S.E., by 105 ft. S., by 98 ft. S.W., and are
straight except for the N.E. and E. which curve outwards.
The wet ditch, partly filled on the E. and S.E., is 35 ft. to 40 ft.
wide and 4 ft. to 6 ft. deep, but the S.E. side has been widened
to 60 ft. and the S. and S.W. sides have been re-cut to a V shape.
The S. side of the moat is crossed by a late 17th- or 18th-century brick bridge 20 ft. from its E. angle. There is a well
to the N. of the house.
To the W. of the bridge an outer quadrilateral enclosure
is attached to the S. and S.W. sides of the moat. The enclosure
is 260 ft. W. by 204 ft. S.; the N. side projects some 80 ft. W.
of the W. angle of the moat. On the E. and S. the ditch of the
enclosure is now only a hollow 15 ft. to 30 ft. wide and 6 ins.
to 1 ft. deep, but the W. side and the W. part of the N. side
are formed by a stream which flows N. to fill the moat.
Within the enclosure is a rectangular pond 80 ft. by 30 ft. and
2 ft. deep.
A group of marshy ponds lies 500 ft. S.E. of the moat. Three
are rectangles, 80 ft. by 40 ft.; a fourth, larger and irregular,
has perhaps been made by amalgamating further rectangles.
c(18) Moated Site (Class A 1 (a); N.G. TL 341532, not on
O.S.), in Eversden Wood, consists of a square island with sides
72 ft. long contained by a ditch 30 ft. wide and up to 6 ft. deep.
a(19) Moated Site (Class A 1 (a)), at Queen's College Farm
(Monument (4)), on boulder clay occupying the S.E. lip of a
broad valley. Probably the site of the manor of Kingston St.
George. The interior has been recently levelled and, with
the N.E. and N.W. sides of the moat, is used as gardens. The
roughly rectangular enclosure measures 234 ft. N.E. by 172 ft.
N.W. The ditch is 25 ft. to 30 ft. wide, 1½ ft. to 5 ft. deep, and
10 ft. to 16 ft. wide across the bottom. Only the S.E. and S.W.
sides are wet and the W. angle has been altered to form a pond.
Outside the N.W. side a bank 40 ft. wide and 4 ft. high seems to
be partly natural. Entrances in the S.E. and S.W. sides are 42
ft. and 84 ft. wide respectively, but it is impossible to say which,
if either, is original.
(20) Cultivation Remains (not on O.S.). Ridge and furrow
with ridges 60 yds. to 180 yds. long, 7 yds. to 13 yds. wide and
9 ins. to 1 ft. high with headlands of 7 yds. to 9 yds. exists in
fields around the village, e.g. N. and N.W. of Queen's College
Farm at N.G. TL 342554 and 345555; all have straight or slightly
curved ridges, and were formerly in old enclosures. Ridge
and furrow of the former open fields, 100 yds. to 260 yds.
long where complete, 6 yds. to 12 yds. wide and 9 ins. to 1 ft.
high, exists in the N. of the parish along the Bourn Brook, e.g.
at N.G. TL 349558, and in the S. of the parish N.W. of Kingston
Pastures Farm at 326530.
The traces of ridge and furrow visible on air photographs
over most of the rest of the parish are arranged in curving
furlongs and formed part of the open fields, called 'Low',
'Middle' and 'West' Fields. Kingston Wood Farm, which was
a separate manor, was already enclosed by 1720. The boundaries
of its fields and the woodland areas were then much as at
present; most of the former had presumably been enclosed
directly from wood or waste.
(Ref: map of Kingston Wood 1720 (C.R.O.); enclosure
map 1818 (C.R.O.); air photographs: 106G/UK/1490/4023–5;