(O.S. 6 ins. aTL 35 S.W., bTL 35 S.E.,cTL 34 N.W., dTL 34 N.E.)
The village of Orwell takes its name from a spring
about 150 yds. S.W. of the church at the foot of Toot
Hill, a spur from a chalk ridge which runs parallel to
and N. of the river Rhee. On an estate map of c. 1680
(now in C.U.L.) a mound is shown between the spring
and the church on an approximately square parcel of
some 1½ acres inscribed 'Lordship' (Plate 113). This
mound, which may have been a small motte, was
levelled c. 1883 to make way for a school. From this
nucleus High Street runs E. for about 650 yds. to the
parish boundary, with two further springs in line along
it. A second street called Town Green Road, leading
S.S.W. from the church to a brook which is a tributary
of the Rhee, represents the W. side of a green some 550
yds. long. This green had already been reduced in size
by 1680, a 'Camping Close' about 130 yds. by 80 yds.
and some smaller enclosures having been made at the
N. end; the remainder was divided up at the general
enclosure by act of 1836 (Plate 113). Back Street, the N.
continuation of which is comparatively modern, and
some minor lanes and paths lie in the angle between
the former green and High Street.
The parish, containing 2083 acres, varies from chalk,
rising to 240 ft., through gault to the river which flows
at 50 ft. above O.D. at the point where it leaves the
parish. The shape is irregular and parts of the lands of
two lost settlements, Wratworth at the N. end and
Malton in the S.E., have been absorbed (see also
Wimpole (19)). These adjustments may account for the
unusual field system (see Monument (42) Cultivation
Orwell church (Monument (1)) is especially remarkable for its chancel, rebuilt c. 1398 as a memorial to
Sir Simon Burley (d. 1388).
Malton, not separately mentioned before 1200
(Reaney, 'The Place-names of Cambs.', 79), is no doubt
a pre-Conquest settlement. Later the manor formed
part of the estates of the Tyrell family which extended
also into the neighbouring parish of Shepreth. It was
acquired from the Tyrells by the Lady Margaret
Beaufort and given to Christ's College in 1505–6. Malton Farm (Monument (24)) is a 15th-century house,
remodelled in 1509–11, for whose history there is an
unusual measure of documentation (Christ's College
Muniments; building accounts 1509–11 in St. John's
College). Between those dates Malton church, the last
traces of which have recently been obliterated, was
pulled down except for the chancel; as were also
'certen houses not necessarie'. Total expenditure at
Malton for the period was £59. 6s. 8d. out of a grand
total of £269. 10. 8d. disbursed by Christ's. The
foundress had intended that the Malton house should
be used as a refuge 'so that the said masters and scholars
may resort thither, and there to tarry in time of contagious sickness at Cambridge and exercise their learning
and studies'. Later the college appear to have built
themselves a more ambitious retreat nearby which was
demolished during the mastership (1609–22) of Dr.
Valentine Carey (C.A.S. Publs. LIII (1935), 107). No
certain traces of this building remain. By Cole's day
the chancel of Malton church which had served in the
interim as a chapel, was 'employed to profane uses'
(B.M. Add. MS. 5823, 125).
Opportunity has been taken of the existence of the
map of c. 1680 and of a number of contemporary
probate inventories (in C.U. archives) to relate the
houses and closes, marked on the map with names of
their occupiers, to details of the accommodation contained in the inventories. The results, limited but of
some interest, are described under Monuments (3), (7)
Orwell, like its neighbour Barrington, produces
clunch of good quality. The site of an extensive pit at
N.G. TL 364506 is described on the map of c. 1680 as
'Quarriehill Furlong'. In addition to the church, Monuments (5), (10), (17), (22) and (30) are examples of the
use of clunch, probably local, in the buildings of the
Post-enclosure dwellings and other buildings in
Orwell call for little comment, except for three
(Monuments (2), (19) and (23)) put up in 'cottage gothic'
on ground allotted to John Bendyshe and closely
resembling one described in the inventory of Barrington (Monument (19)) where the Bendyshes had their
b(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew (Plate 116)
stands on sharply rising ground on the N.W. edge of
the modern village; the churchyard, which has been
extended to the N. and E., is bounded on the S. by a
retaining wall, part of which has an old stone coping.
The structure, consisting of a Chancel with Sacristy,
Nave with Aisles and S. porch and West Tower, is of
fieldstones, clunch rubble and freestone but includes
some reused material; dressings are of freestone and
clunch; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead.
The oldest parts of the existing fabric are the lower
stages of the tower and the adjoining two W. quoins of
an aisleless 12th-century nave; there are indications of
a third, S.E., angle of this nave at the junction of the
chancel and S. aisle. The N. and S. arcades with their
aisles were built, probably in that order, at the end of
the 13th and the beginning of the 14th centuries; the
tower was buttressed and increased in height in the 13th
century. The chancel with a sacristy was rebuilt c. 1398,
at the expense of Richard Anlaby, rector during the
previous decade, to the memory of Sir Simon Burley,
who had been impeached and executed in 1388. He had
been lord of the manor of Orwell and tutor to the
youthful Richard II. The evidence is discussed below
with the description of the chancel roof. This roof and
possibly the head stops of the chancel windows are all
that now remain of what must have been an elaborate
The N. aisle was rebuilt at an unknown date during
the first half of the 19th century. There was a restoration
in 1860, and another in 1883 under the direction of
William White at a cost of £949, when the chancel
was virtually rebuilt.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (40¼ ft. by 18 ft.),
of c. 1398, has an E. window, of five cinque-foiled lights with
vertical tracery, largely modern except for the splays and rear
arch. In the N. wall are two, and in the S. wall three, uniform
windows, each of three cinque-foiled lights with an embattled
transom, having vertical tracery in four-centred heads; the
internal labels have inclined head stops of comparatively high
quality (Plate 117). These windows are largely restored
externally. Towards the E. end of the N. wall is a doorway
with continuous moulded jambs and head, leading into the
sacristy; this has an E. window of a single cinque-foiled light.
Between the sacristy entrance and the first window is a second,
blocked, opening resembling a small doorway. The chancel
arch is of two wave-moulded orders to the W. beneath a
moulded label with mask stops; to the E. the orders are
Orwell, the Parish Church of Saint Andrew
The Nave (44¾ ft. by 20¼ ft.) has arcades of four bays with
arches of two chamfered orders rising off quatrefoil piers
with moulded caps and bases and responds uniform with their
respective piers. The caps and bases of the N. arcade have a
different profile from those of the S. arcade; the moulded
label towards the nave mitres over the piers and has mask
stops at the ends; there are rolls between the pier foils. The S.
arcade has head stops (Plate 116) over the piers and responds,
and the foils are separated by small double rolls with intervening hollows. In the E. end of the N. wall of the nave
is a blocked upper doorway to the rood loft. The clearstorey
has three symmetrically disposed restored windows on each
side, of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in the head;
late 14th- or 15th-century.
The North Aisle (7¼ ft. wide) is of white brick and has a
doorway and windows in stone, all 19th-century.
The South Aisle(7¼ ft. wide) is said to have been rebuilt
with the porch in 1883 (Ely Diocesan Remembrancer 1896, 117),
but much of the original walling remains. Three windows
in the long wall, each of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical
tracery in four-centred heads, include a little old work. In the
W. wall is a restored 14th-century window of two trefoiled
ogee lights with net tracery and a moulded label. The S.
doorway, of two continuous chamfered orders, is also 14th-century. The E. wall is blind. In the angle between the aisle
and the chancel, visible externally, is a projecting stone,
presumably part of a coping, the slope of which reproduces
that of the roof of the 12th-century nave. The S. porch has
restored and reset 14th-century windows in the side walls,
each of two trefoiled lights with pierced and cusped spandrels
in the heads. The outer order of the entrance archway may
also be old on the inside.
The West Tower (13 ft. square) is in three storeys with
three-stage angle buttresses at the W. corners rising to the
embattled parapet. Clasping the E. ends of the N. and S. walls
are the quoins of the 12th-century nave, worked as attached
angle shafts with cushion caps; above the caps in each case
are short lengths of moulded string-course. There are lancets
in the N. and S. walls of the ground stage, the former blocked.
Immediately W. of the S. lancet is a blocked doorway. The
16th- or 17th-century W. window is of three lights with
mullions and a transom and has a four-centred head and
moulded label. In the second storey are small lancets to the
N., W. and S., the last masked externally by a clock dial. The
top storey is arcaded on the W. and S. The treatment of the
N. and E. faces is plain and there is a two-light window in
each, that to the E. being set higher, apparently to allow for
a roof ridged at a higher level than the existing one. The
arcading of the W. and S. faces is in three bays each, the side
bays blind and the middle bay framing a two-light window
with a quatre-foiled head; the arches are enriched with dog-tooth and rose off shafts the eroded caps of which, with
slight suggestion of corresponding bases, survive. A string
below the parapet has a gargoyle to the S. The tower arch is
of three chamfered orders on chamfered responds having semi-octagonal attached shafts with moulded caps and bases.
The Roof of the chancel (Plate 114), of wagon form in
five slopes, is boarded and arbitrarily divided into eleven
times six approximately square panels by moulded ribs with
alternate carved bosses and painted shields at the intersections.
It was reconstructed by the Rev. John Colbatch, incumbent
between 1723 and 1748, possibly at the suggestion of Cole
who visited the church in 1743. Cole's blazon differs materially
from earlier ones by Richard St. George (d. 1635; B.M.
Lansdowne MS. 863) and by John Layer (d. 1640; C.A.S.
Publs., LIII (1935), 59 and 71–2, etc.). The original scheme has
been further confused, although certain shields may have been
correctly restored, by a repainting carried out in 1883, partly
on the basis of a MS. in Wimpole Hall: six modern coats
including that of Trinity College, the patrons, were then
substituted for older ones, and one or two others transposed.
Layer also described the original glass which survived till his
day in the chancel windows, including a mutilated inscription
asking prayers for the soul of Richard Anlaby, rector, at
whose expense the fabric had been erected. Anlaby probably
died in or about 1396. The windows contained several shields
of Burley, two differenced and labelled 'Roger' and 'William
Burley'; there were also shields of Mowbray, Vere, Lovell(?),
Holland and Scales, and these with others appear in the most
authentic accounts of the roof. The allusion is evidently to
Sir Simon Burley, lord of Orwell manor which had come
into the family by marriage with the Pembridges. Burley,
one of the three magistri charged with the care of the young
Richard II, was impeached and beheaded in 1388. The most
probable date for the erection of the chancel is 1398, when
following on the execution of the Duke of Gloucester and
the Earl of Arundel in the previous year, Burley's sequestered
estates were released, some being made over to Roger Burley
who was his heir, while others seem to have been set aside for
obituary purposes (e.g. Calendar of Close Rolls, 1396–1399
(1909), 349, etc; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1396–1399 (1927), 348
and 384). Something of the sort evidently happened here; there
are heraldic indications that a small chantry set up earlier
in the century by Margaret, relict of (Robert ?) Kendall
(E. Carter, The History of the County of Cambridge (1819), 249)
was re-endowed for the purpose. The bosses (Plate 115) with
which the shields are interspersed, most with traces of old
colour and gilding, include four of large size and high quality
below the ridge; these are all of bareheaded half effigies,
secular in character, the first, at least, apparently female;
missing adjuncts are suggested by the posture of the hands
some of which are pierced as though holding standards, and
by slots and peg holes in the backgrounds or in the cusped
and foliated frames; smaller bosses include lion masks, single
and multiple heads, two with mitres, and an unidentified
heraldic flower. This last is repeated as a patera applied to the
ribbing between all intersections.
The roof of the nave appears to have been rebuilt c. 1600,
on the evidence of some old clunch corbels at the wall head;
it incorporates some mediaeval timber.
Fittings—Bells: five; 1st by Charles Newman, 1694, recast
in 1931; 2nd, 1616; 3rd by Miles Graye, 1665; 4th, 1615;
5th by Toby Norris, 17th-century.Brass indents: in chancel—on
N. side (1) half figure of cleric with attached inscription plate,
invocation scroll and prayer picture, second half of 14th
century or c. 1400; on S. side (2) of rectangular inscription
plate, probably late mediaeval. Clock: in tower, with wrought-iron frame, apparently a modern remodelling of a 17th-century one which is said to have come c. 1740 from Trinity
College. Coffin lids: In chancel—N. of high altar (1) tapered,
of freestone with incised cross elaborately foliated at head
and waist, and with stepped base; S. of high altar (2)
uniform with foregoing, but with palimpsest inscription—
see Floor slab (1) below; 14th-century. In S. porch—E.
side (3) fragment carved with interlace and part of a Maltese
cross, Saxo-Norman; W. side (4) upper part, tapered, with
cross having Maltese head and omega on shaft, 12th-century.
Communion table: with turned legs, plain lower and shaped
upper rail, 17th-century. Doors: to sacristy from chancel
(1) of vertical planking, extended and refronted, c. 1398;
(2) and (3) of N. and S. aisles respectively, each of six ovolo-moulded panels, 18th-century. Font: 12th-century cylindrical
bowl of freestone, with later mediaeval cylindrical clunch
stem having moulded cap and base.Glass: a few yellow-stain
fragments in second window on N. side of chancel, late
mediaeval. Locker: in S. wall of sacristy, with rebated jambs
and continuous two-centred head, the lower part now
accommodating a safe, c. 1398.
Monuments and Floor slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N.
wall (1) of Wulfran Stubbe (d. 1719) n.d., Rector and Master
of Trinity College, inscription panel of veined marble with
flanking pilasters, pediment surmounted by an achievement
of arms, and apron; on S. wall (2) of Jeremias Radcliffe, 1623,
Rector and Vice-Master of Trinity College, of painted
clunch; in a recess flanked by Ionic pilasters and with four-centred head is a frontal half effigy of the deceased, hands
folded in prayer; above him is a shield of arms between two
books, and there are further shields of arms in foliated spandrels below the frieze, either side of a base inscription panel
and adorning the shaped apron; the pilasters are enriched with
strapwork and there is a strapwork overthrow with central
panel bearing the date 1623; the frieze and base panel are
painted with inscriptions, the former with a Latin elegiac
quatrain. In N. aisle on N. wall (3) of Edward Cannon,
1700/11 round-headed panel with inscription in crude cursive.
In churchyard—S. of chancel (4) of John Wootton, 1682
(Plate 15), shaped and carved head and foot stones into which
is framed a cambered slab carved with a skeleton; (5) without
legible inscription, but probably of James Wootton, 1701,
similar to foregoing but smaller and less well preserved; E. of
chancel (6) probably of John Wootton, 1704, similar but slab
missing; also fragments of further 17th-century and some
18th-century memorials. Floor slabs: In chancel, S. of high
altar (1) of Honor Wootton, 1694, palimpsest on Coffin lid (2);
(2) of Silvester Martin, 1676; (3) of Ambrose Aglionby, 1651,
with shield of arms; (4) of Thomas Butler, 1658; (5) of John
Colbatch, 1748, rector, with achievement of arms; (6) of
Charles Mason, 1770, rector, with shield of arms; (7) of James
Law, 1846, and his wife Hannah, 1840; (8) of John Henry
Renouard, 1830, Vice-Master of Trinity, and his sister Rachel
Elizabeth Renouard, 1822, by Gilbert of Cambridge. In N.
aisle, partly masked by seating, (9) of Mary Hunt, 1756 and
her husband William Hunt, 1775. In S. aisle (10) of Ann Watts
or Walls, 1826. Piscina: in chancel with depressed ogee
cinque-foiled head beneath a crocketed and finialed label,
moulded jambs and projecting drain with moulded fore
edge, c. 1398. Plate: includes an inscribed alms dish, London
1741. Pulpit: with front of three sides each of two fielded panels,
first half of 18th century. Recesses: In chancel, N. of high
altar (1) with moulded jambs, projecting trefoiled head and
label with crockets, spires and a finial, heavily whitewashed,
apparently restored or modern. At E. end of S. aisle (2) with
moulded jambs and ogee trefoiled head, label cut back,
traces of colour; early 14th-century. Reredos: fragment, now
in Recess (2) above, of clunch with figure of Christ crucified
and of St. John, traces of original colour (Plate 13); set in the
opening for a stoup, immediately E. of S. door, are further
fragments of an architectural surround possibly corresponding
to the figures, elaborately carved with foliage beneath a
length of embattled cornice; both mid to late 14th-century.
Royal Arms: in S. aisle, of James II, dated 1686, on canvas in
moulded frame. Scratching: extensive inscription on E. splay
of doorway from chancel to sacristy, obscured by whitewash,
late mediaeval. Seating: in N. aisle, five benches and a front
incorporate some old ends and other late mediaeval material.
Stalls: in chancel, eight on either side with corresponding
desks having ends rising to finials; the stalls themselves have
shaped and moulded divisions and capping; eleven simply
carved misericords; late mediaeval. Table: with turned legs
and shaped brackets to top rail,late 17th-century.
b(2) House (Class L), two-storeyed, stucco perhaps over
clunch, in a cottage idiom with wooden casement windows,
thatched roofs gabled and dormered, and a prominent chimney stack in white brick at the junction of the two ranges
terminating in four conjoined flues. The N. gable end of the
shorter range, facing the street, is dated 1841. The plot was
allotted to John Bendyshe under the enclosure act of 1836.
b(3) House, T-shaped, two-storeyed, framed and plastered,
with tiled and gabled roofs, mid or late 17th-century. A
chimney at the junction of the main range and S. cross wing
has a rebuilt stack of three diagonal shafts.
Framing exposed inside is rather light and rough. Most
of the ground floor of the cross wing is occupied by a room
with ceiling divided into two larger and two smaller bays
by intersecting ogee-moulded and stopped beams, apparently
of soft wood. From a probate inventory of Richard Barnard
of 1694 it would appear that this was the 'parlour'. W. of it is a
The main range contained a 'hall', and a 'kitchen' which
was presumably the unheated room at the N. end. There were
three 'chambers' upstairs.
b(4) House, originally L-shaped, with main N. and S.
range open to the roof and N. cross wing of two storeys,
framed and plastered, with tiled roofs, 17th-century. In the
late 17th or 18th century the main range was heightened and
divided into two storeys; at the same time an annexe was
built beyond the cross wing.
b(5) House, a long framed and plastered range, perhaps
originally open, now with attic in the thatched roof and three
dormers two of which are gabled and tiled, facing the former
green. Of two end chimneys that on the N.E. is clunch built.
There is a modern two-storey extension at the S.W. end. The
house may have originated as a special-purpose building of the
17th or 18th century.
d(6) Store, perhaps a granary, two-storeyed, framed and
boarded, with tiled and gabled roof, in two bays with jetty to
the N.E. The scantling is heavy and the structure is probably
16th-century. The main truss has a tie beam, with arch braces
to the corresponding posts, and a collar. The roof has wind
b(7) House and Barn on the S.E. side of a green, now enclosed. The House, L-shaped, two-storeyed, framed and
plastered, with thatched roofs, of 16th-century origin extensively modernised. The roof spaces were not examined.
The main range, which is gabled and jettied at the N.W.
end towards the now enclosed green, was extended to the
S.E. in the 17th century and ends in a half hip; the internal
chimney is coeval with this extension. The secondary range,
at right angles, was detached until comparatively recent times
and has a jetty and gable to the N.E. The plan is unusual and
may reflect a special purpose.
Vertical studwork is exposed on the outside, and a number
of structural timbers are visible within. The subsidiary range
is in two bays with shaped haunches carrying a stop-chamfered
cross beam on the ground floor; above this on the upper
floor is a sharply cambered tie beam supported by, and
formerly braced to, posts with enlarged heads.
Probate inventories in Cambridge University archives
include one of John Godfrey, 1700, who must have lived here.
He was perhaps a coal merchant, as the subsidiary range is
described as a 'coal house' and contained 30 bushels of coal; the
chamber over had a bedstead.
The framed and boarded Barn is in five bays; on the inside
of one of the barns are inscriptions 'F. Mille(r?)' and '1776'.
The house is still occupied by the Miller family.
b(8) House (Class J), of one storey with attic, framed and
plastered, with gable-ended roof now clad with asbestos
sheeting. Some of the exposed ceiling beams and two fireplace
bressummers are stop-chamfered. Evidence from a probate
inventory of Elizabeth Adams, 1680, suggests that there was
only one upper room at that date.
b(9) Houses, a range of three, plastered over a carefully and
solidly constructed frame, with tiled roof; in origin a specialpurpose building, perhaps a warehouse, of the 16th or 17th
century; in two storeys and four bays. Conversion seems to
have taken place in the mid 19th century. Structural timbers
exposed internally include axial, cross and tie beams, posts,
wall plates and principal rafters; most if not all of these are
carefully chamfered and stopped.
b(10) House (perhaps Class D), late mediaeval, partly of two
storeys, partly of one storey and attic, framed and plastered,
with some replacement in brick and roofed with sheet metal.
The S.E. cross wing is jettied at both ends. A floor and a
clunch chimney with diagonal shafted stack of brick were
inserted in the hall in the 17th century. The N.W. part of the
house has been largely rebuilt.
Inside the cross wing on the ground floor is an 18th-century
painted clunch fireplace with panelled side pilasters and lintel,
fluted keystone and modillion cornice. Above this remains of
a recently discovered painted black-letter inscription 'I goo ...
.. But Lorde .....' and border of guilloche and rosettes, have
been covered up again. A second area, adjoining the stairs to
the S., painted with flowers in a more naturalistic idiom, is
also now masked.
b(11) House (Class S), of a single storey and attic, framed
and plastered except for the W., chimney, end which is of red
brick; to this last is attached a low shed or brew house, also
framed and plastered. The roofs are thatched and gabled. The
heated room on the ground floor has a 17th-century ovolo-moulded and stopped axial ceiling beam, probably reused,
although it is possible that the house, which is of 18th-century plan type, is of 17th-century origin.
b(12) House, formerly that of Town Farm, consisting of a
two-storeyed range with half-hipped tiled roof; partly framed
and plastered, partly of brick; 17th-century or earlier. Access
was refused. A service annexe at right angles to the S.W. side
has been reduced in height; a chimney at the junction of this
annexe with the range has a tall rectangular stack with a
narrow vertical recess in each face.
b(13) Town Farm, buildings, includes a three-bay boarded
barn aisled in the middle bay to the S.E. On a post is a carefully
executed representation of a post mill and inscription 'IonAnthan M Mulbary 17(65?)'. To the N. is a brick granary
with tiled roof, perhaps c. 1800.
b(14) House (Class J), of one storey and attic, framed and
plastered, with half-hipped roof covered in sheet metal, 17th-century. The chimney has a diagonal shafted stack in red
brick and there are two dormers on the S.E. side towards the
road. Some at least of this dwelling was originally open to
the roof, as the cross beam and supporting posts in the heated
room at the N.E. end are evidently inserted.
b(15) House, apparently that marked 'Town House' on the
map of c. 1680, two-storeyed, framed and plastered, with
thatched and tiled roofs, gabled and half-hipped. The building
which is of mediaeval or 16th-century origin now consists of
an E. cross wing, formerly with jetty S. to the street, and an
E. and W. range which may at one time have been or included
an open hall; but this range has been partly heightened and
lengthened or rebuilt on the W. in the 17th or 18th century.
In the cross wing is a centre truss with steeply cambered tie
beam and short braces to posts with inclined heads.
b(16) Quarry Farm is a 17th-century house, framed and
plastered, of Class-J plan-form, two storeyed except the E.
part beyond the chimney which is lower and was originally
open to the roof. The ground-floor room at the W. end has
an ovolo-moulded and stopped axial ceiling beam.
b(17) House, Pigeon House and Wall (Plate 86) on the S.
side of High Street. The House, framed and plastered, consisting of an E. and W. main range of a single storey with
attic, and a two-storey E. cross wing, is of 16th-century origin.
The roofs are partly thatched and partly tiled, gabled to the
N., hipped to the S. and half-hipped to the W.
On the N. side of the ground floor in the main range is
a chamfered post with ogee stop and the lower part of a
corresponding hollow-chamfered brace; these are probably
the vestiges of a tie-beam truss between two bays of an open
hall. The cross wing is in two bays. On the ground floor some
down bracing is visible and the ceiling beam is stop-chamfered. Upstairs, above this last, is a cambered tie beam with
arch brace to E. post. The roof has wind braces.
The Pigeon house, to the S., square on plan, framed and
plastered, with thatched roof now fully hipped, bears the date
'1775' in flint flakes set in the plaster. The nesting boxes
are made of clay bat in pre-cast units. The Wall, 94 ft. long,
fronting High Street to the E. of the house, of clunch rubble
plastered, with a capping of thatch, is probably 19th-century.
b(18) House and Barn along the N. side of High Street, 18th-century. The House (Class 1), now two dwellings, is singlestoreyed with an attic, thatched and gabled. Attached to the
W. end of the house is a small aisled Barn, in three bays,
boarded and thatched.
b(19) Houses (Plate 33), a pair treated as a single cottage
orné, of one storey and attics, framed and plastered, with tiled
roof. The design is the same as that of Barrington (19). The
building is on a plot allotted to John Bendyshe under the
enclosure act of 1836.
b(20) House, consisting of a 19th-century range, framed and
plastered, with an E. cross wing jettied at both ends; at the
rear of the range are further survivals of an older structure;
both perhaps early 17th-century. The S. bedroom of the cross
wing retains a short length of original fluted and enriched
frieze affixed to the chamfered fireplace bressummer, and
there are a few simple 18th-century fitments.
b(21) House, of Class-J plan but jettied at the E. end, two-storeyed, framed and plastered, with thatched gabled roof;
16th- or early 17th-century. Traces of pargetting on the N.
front include part of a band of geometrical ornament at
first-floor level and a moulded and shaped date or inscription
panel, now blank. Inside are chamfered ceiling beams, but
none is stopped at both ends; also some swell-headed posts.
In the ground-floor room at the E. end exposed joists are stop-chamfered and the corner posts are down-braced.
b(22) West Farm consists of a house and buildings. The mid
18th-century House, of two storeys with some attics, has an
original N. front in six bays, of red brick, with sash windows
under flat arches and a front door in the fourth bay. The
cornice is of moulded brick. The irregular S. elevation and
the E. end are faced with later brick.
The Buildings include a mid 18th-century barn of clunch
ashlar in nine bays, aisled on the E. side, with thatched roof;
a scratching has the initials and date 'VCM 1747'. Others,
also clunch built, have been more altered.
b(23) House, cottage orné dated 1843, one storey and attic,
framed and plastered, now with roof of asbestos sheeting;
on a plot allotted to John Bendyshe under the enclosure act
d(24) Malton Farm (N.G. TL 373483), consists of a
house and buildings in association with a moated site
(Monument (41)). These are virtually all that remain of
the former village of Malton (see parish introduction).
The House (Class B; N.G. TL 37344830), partly two-storeyed with some attics and partly three-storeyed,
is in general framed and plastered and has tiled and
slated roofs. It is that of the Manor of Malketon alias
Horne's which the Lady Margaret Beaufort acquired
from the Tyrell family (C. H. Cooper, Memoir of
Margaret Countess of Richmond and Derby (1874), 101,
note 2), and gave to Christ's College with other endowments in 1505–6 (J. Peile, Christ's College (1900), 37).
The original house was probably put up in the 15th
century, perhaps by William Horne (d. 1469) citizen
and draper of London, or by his son Thomas. The
foundress in her will directed that 'the said manor of
Malton . . . should be sufficiently builded and repaired
at her cost and charge' (C. A. Halstead, Life of Margaret
Beaufort (1839), 248). This was evidently done, as the
building accounts in St. John's College mention 'the
reparacions . . . upon Tirelles Hall for the fermor to
dwell in and upon all the chambers ther to belongenge
and the makyng of a new kechyn'. The foreman was
John Nicholson who also worked as a carpenter and
bricklayer; John Scott, clerk of works, submitted his
final account to John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, who
was Lady Margaret's executor, 15 Feb. 1511. The lofty
ceiling of moulded beams and stop-moulded joists
(Plate 38) inserted in the hall can be safely attributed to
the rebuilding of 1510. Its insertion evidently involved
the heightening and re-roofing of the range and
probably the building of the S.E. chimney. The
extensive additions on the S.E. side may in part be
coeval, though ostensibly of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The S.W. cross wing was remodelled in 1906–7.
Orwell, Malton Farm, Monument No. 24
The elevations give little indication of the building's
architectural character. The front is to the N.W. with doors
and windows of the 19th century and later. Jetties to the
cross wings have probably been removed. Irregularities in the
plaster reflect the dimensions of the hall, including the original
Inside, the middle ground-floor room on the N.W. is
dominated by the ceiling referred to, which is divided by a
primary cross beam and axial secondaries, all three richly roll-moulded, into four bays, the mouldings being returned as a
cornice applied over the earlier studwork. The roll-moulded
joists have leaf stops and frame into this cornice. A passage at
the N.E. end of the roof is divided off by a partition on the line
of the screens. Four joist lengths at the S.E. extremity of the
passage are unmoulded.
The framing on the ground floor of the N.E. cross wing
is exposed internally and includes indications of two original
windows. The wing is in two and a half bays; the half bay, at
the S.E. end, appears to have been designed for a stair, although the stair now in it is modern. The cross beam between
the two full bays is morticed for an original partition; of two
original doorways with three-centred heads either side of the
S.W. end of this beam, that to the S.E. has been blocked while
the other has been mutilated. The ceiling joists are of heavy
A few timbers are exposed in the remaining rooms on the
ground floor; a cross beam near the S.E. end of the S.W.
cross wing suggests an original jetty. The middle room at the
back of the house has a quadripartite ceiling the beams of
which are cased.
Upstairs, the N.E. end of the S.E. wall of the hall range
is exposed both sides: a rail some 12½ ft. above ground reflects
the eaves of the mediaeval hall; the adjacent, E., corner post
is spliced at this level, above which the studwork is presumably
of 1510. The tie beam of the truss between the two full bays
of the N.E. cross wing is cambered and morticed for braces to
the posts. The exposed S.W. post is notched on the N.W. side
to receive one of the secondary beams of the ceiling inserted
into the hall, the moulded end of the beam being also visible.
The S.W. wall between the cross wing and the hall range has
been strengthened by crude iron bolts which should perhaps
also be ascribed to the rebuilding of 1510. The upper room
of the cross wing retains an original window at the S.E. end,
visible from the outside, divided into four lights by diamond
mullions. The room is ceiled at tie-beam level, but the remnants of the mediaeval roof can be seen in the roof space:
they include a stop-chamfered crown post braced to the collar
purlin and some collars.
The roof of the hall range, raised in 1510 and subsequently
reconstructed, retains some ten smoke-blackened rafters and
the tie beam of an open truss morticed for a crown post, all
doubtless from its 15th-century predecessor; the rafters are
halved for collars.
The Buildings include, to the S.W. of the house, two
aisled barns, framed, boarded and thatched: one of five bays
with porches either side in the middle bay, 17th-century; the
other of seven bays with porches in the third and fifth bays on
the W., and in the third bay only on the E., 18th-century.
Some 40 yds. N.E. of the house is a framed and boarded
pigeon house, rather poorly constructed, perhaps 18th-century; no nesting boxes survive. These buildings all have
plinths below the frames of red brick and stone, much of
which is reused.
b(25–39) Houses. Monuments (26) and (27), the former an
inn, are Class-U, two-storeyed, framed and plastered except
for the front of (27) which is of white brick, with hipped
slated roofs; mid 19th-century. The remainder are probably
all internal-chimney houses of the 17th, or in a few cases of
the 18th century, Class J greatly predominating; usually of a
single storey and attic, framed and plastered, with thatched
or in some instances tiled roofs; a number have been reduced
or extended in size or otherwise modified. With Monument
(30) are some 18th- or 19th-century buildings in clay bat and
clunch, also a wrought-iron gate recently reset from Jesus
Lane, Cambridge (R.C.H.M., Cambridge, 351, Monument
b(40) Mound (N.G. TL 36475068; not on O.S.), above the
200 ft. contour line near the summit of Toot Hill, on chalk
marl capped with boulder clay. The mound, 60 ft. in diameter
and a mere 6 ins. high, now under plough, has a windmill
shown on it on the enclosure map of 1837; the relevant
furlong was already known as 'Old Mill Hill Furlong' c. 1680
(map in C.U.L.).
d(41) Moated Site (Class A2(a); N.G. TL 373482), consisting
of two contiguous rectangular enclosures immediately E.
and S. of Malton Farm (Monument (24)), on alluvium with
the river Cam forming the longer E. side. The N. moat
measures internally 325 ft. N. to S. by 150 ft. with a wet
ditch 25 ft. to 30 ft. wide and 5 ft. to 12 ft. deep, now partly
filled on the N. and N.W. The entrance was probably on the
N. The S. enclosure is 230 ft. N. to S. by 130 ft., with a wet
ditch 25 ft. wide and 4 ft. to 7 ft. deep partly filled on the S.W.
The ditches are overgrown; the interior of the N. enclosure
is a garden and the S. enclosure is a pig run.
(42) Cultivation Remains (not on O.S.). The only remaining ridge and furrow is around the village e.g. at N.G. TL
366503, where it is straight, 130 yds. to 180 yds. long, 7 yds.
to 9 yds. wide and 1 ft. high with headlands of 6 yds. to 7 yds.
All these remains fit the boundaries of fields which were old
enclosures in 1836; and most of these fields had already been
enclosed by c. 1680.
The traces visible on air photographs are of curving furlongs of the open fields, best seen around N.G. TL 362517.
Here are the remains of an access way called Sloe Croft Balk,
a scarp 170 yds. long and 1 ft. high. Two smaller balks,
now destroyed, lay 120 yds. to the S.E. Two other access ways
can be traced: one is S.E. of New Wimpole around N.G.
TL 352495, running S.E. and S. for 400 yds.; the other, called
Great Potters Way in 1837, runs parallel to the river from
N.G. TL 354482 to 369483.
Orwell, Monument 41
Before the enclosure of Orwell in 1836 the former parish
of Malton to the S. had already been enclosed and united with
it. There had been enclosures in Malton of two aratra, probably
about 140 acres, before 1517 (W. E. Tate, 'Cambridgeshire
Field Systems', C.A.S. Procs. XL (1944), 62; I. S. Leadam, 'The
Inquisition of 1517', Royal Hist. Soc. Trans. N. S. VIII (1894),
305). The enclosure map gives five open fields—'High', 'Hill'
and 'Oatland' Fields to the N., 'Aycroft' and 'River' Fields
to the S. The names of furlongs, closes and some access ways
are given on the 17th-century map.
(Ref: map of c. 1680 (C.U.L.); enclosure map 1837
(C.R.O.); air photographs: 106G/UK/1718/4149–51; CPE/UK/
1993/31505–8, 4104–8; CPE/UK/2024/3047–50.)
Arms on Floor Slab (5), (Diam. 1 ft. 9 ins.)