Addenda and Corrigenda, 1976
Royal Commission On Historical Monuments (England)
The City of York , Volume I: Ebvracvm, Roman York
Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 35p net
ISBN 0 11 700846 X
Addenda and Corrigenda 1976
Since this Inventory was published in 1962 many new discoveries have been made and numerous articles have been published which affect the Inventory. References to this new material or summaries of new finds are given below, followed by an addition to the Bibliography and a list of corrections to be made.
|p.1.||Road 2 was exposed near Grimston Bar in 1975, at SE 64665156 (YPSR (1975) 15, 34).
Road 4, nearby sites were investigated in Monkgate 1967 and 1968 at SE 60615243, Groves Lane in 1972 at SE 60705255, and Huntington Road in 1975 at SE 60885285. (YPSR (1967), 17; (1968), 18; (1972), 18; (1975) 15; YAJ, XLII (1968), 118; (1969), 248; XLV (1973), 202; XLVIII (1976), 5; Britannia, VI (1975) 236; VII (1976), 315.
A coin hoard of c. 355 was found in 1965 at SE 62425079 between Roads 1 and 2 (R.A.G. Carson and J.P.C. Kent, 'A Hoard of Roman Fourth-Century Bronze Coins from Heslington, Yorkshire', Num. Chron. 7sXI (1971), 207-25).
General: A.R. Birley, E. Birley, R.M. Butler, B.R. Hartley and L.P. Wenham in R.M. Butler (ed.), Soldier and Civilian in Roman Yorkshire (1971), 81-96, 71-80, 97-106, 55-70 and 45-53.
Severan defences, M.K. Jarrett in YAJ, XLI (1970), 516-23; S.W. defences, L.P. Wenham in Britain and Rome (1965), 1-26.
|p. 16.||Towers S.W.2 and S.W.3 (YAJ, XLII (1969), 399-402).|
|p. 17.||Tower S.W.5 (YPSR (1972), 21; (1973), 17; (1974), 23; (1975) 32; Ant. Journ. LIV (1974) 206-8; Britannia, VI (1975), 236).|
|p. 21.||St. Helen's Square extension of (D), 1964 and 1965 (YAJ, XLI (1965), 335; (1966), 581-4).|
|p. 25a.||Defences, Museum Gardens, at SE 600522 (YAJ, XLI (1963), 13 ; (1964), 177).|
|pp. 26b, 28a.||Tower N.W.1 and the wall over a length of 165 ft. were exposed in 1970-1. The tile cornice of the wall is still partly preserved (RCHM York City II (1972), 111b-115a). The building described as 'the porticus of a 7th or 8th-century church' is now known to be a defensive tower, apparently post-Roman and possibly of the 7th century (YAJ, XLIV (1972), 38-64).|
|pp. 31b-33a.||Tower N.E.6 (YPSR (1971), 15; (1972), 18).|
|p. 35.||Defences, Bedern, at SE 60545207 (YPSR (1974), 23; (1975), 31-2; YAJ, XLVII (1975), 5); Britannia, VI (1975), 236; VII (1976), 314.|
|p. 37a.||Defences, King's Square, at SE 62455196 (YAJ, XLII (1968), 151-64).|
|p. 38.||The Principia. Much of the N.W. end was revealed in 1967-73 by excavations directed by H.G. Ramm and later by A.D. Phillips during restoration of the Minster. The dimensions are estimated as 290 ft. (N.W.-S.E.) by 325 ft. with a cross-hall 215 ft. by 110 ft. having a nave 40 ft. wide and columns 22 ft. high. The original stone building of the early 2nd century was damaged by fire in the late 2nd, late 3rd and late 4th centuries, followed on each occasion by reconstruction. In the 4th century the N.W. end of the cross-hall was sub-divided by stone and timber partitions and a room with painted wall-plaster of which much survives in situ was built out over the N.W. external portico of the principia and the adjacent street. In an adjoining room a hypocaust was replaced with a flagged floor and hearth. Part of a railed enclosure, perhaps for an altar, resembling an enclosure in a similar position found at Caerleon, was found in the nave of the cross-hall. Parts of the principia remained standing, roofed and apparently in use until the 9th century when the columns fell. One column was re-erected in 1971 opposite the South Transept of the Minster. To the W. and N. of the principia remains of barracks and of a building, perhaps the legate's house, were also found. (JRS, LVIII (1968), 182; LIX (1969), 209; Britannia, I (1970) 281; III (1972), 265-6, 309-10; Current Archaeology, II (1969-70),162-6; YPSR (1970),|
|pp. 40a-41b.||Praetentura. Barracks P-S (YAJ, XL (1962), 508-87).|
Within the City Garage, Blake Street, at SE 601520, timber buildings with at least three phases, apparently antedating a hoard of 35 denarii from c. 60 B.C. to Vespasian, and a pit containing much imported pottery were sealed by a N.-S. roadway, barracks and apparently a Tribune's house of the early 2nd century (YPSR (1975) 32).
|p. 42a.||Grain. cf. YPSR (1970), 45 n.15|
|p. 42.||The Bath House, under the Mail Coach Inn, renamed the Roman Bath, was exposed to public view in 1971.|
Other parts of the building and over 150 ft. of a stone-built sewer 5 ft. high and 3 ft. wide with channels to the baths and to latrines, presumably of the tribunes' houses, were found in 1972. The main sewer is approximately parallel to Swinegate. Finds from the silt included jewellery, pins, gaming counters and many organic remains. (Ant. Journ. LIV (1974), 208-11, pls. XXXIII-XL; A. MacGregor, Finds from a Roman Sewer System and an Adjacent Building in Church Street (1976); B.Whitwell, The Church Street Sewer and an Adjacent Building (1976); P.C. Buckland, The Environmental Evidence from the Church Street Roman Sewer System (1976).)
|p. 43a.||Retentura. St. William's College, at SE 604521 (YAJ, XLI (1965), 334; (1966), 565).|
The Fox Inn, No. 65 Low Petergate. One phase of wooden buildings and three of stone buildings were found beside the via principalis. (YAJ, XLIV (1972), 65-113.)
|p. 44b.||Wall fragment and part of street, No. 23 Stonegate (YPSR (1967), 41-4).|
|p. 49b.||Streets etc. Railway Street. A N.-S. road, 31 ft. wide, was excavated in 1971 at SE 605524 (YAJ, XLIV (1972), 221).|
|pp. 51b-52a.||(18). Building under St. Mary Bishophill Senior. The account requires considerable addition and amendment. See Monument (9), RCHM York City III, 30a-36a (YAJ, XLVIII (1976), 3 5-68). An adjacent building, probably also a town house was excavated in 1973-4 at SE 60145144, 60195144. A timber-lined well was found there (YAJ, XLVI (1974), 145; XLVII (1975) 5; YPSR (1974), 24-5; P.V. Addyman, Second Interim Report (1976), 2-11). A building under and near St. Mary Bishophill Junior, at SE 59985144, was excavated 1962, 1967 (YAJ, XLI (1963), 13; XLII (1968), 117).|
|p. 61a. (41).||Midland Bank, Parliament Street (YPSR (1971), 14, 20; YAJ, XLIV (1972), 221).|
(42). No. 3, Coney Street, at SE 60245176 Roman street and possible granaries (YAJ, XLVII (1975) 5; Britannia, VII (1976), 274-6).
St. Mary, Castlegate. Reused Roman column drums (YPSR (1975) 34).
|p. 62.a. (45).||Successful excavations to recover this pavement, started in 1976, revealed another, badly preserved, mosaic pavement in an adjoining room with a polygonal apse. Both rooms belonged to a large suburban house. A Roman inscription (see INSCRIPTIONS below) was found among reused stones in later lime kilns on the site. Clementhorpe Priory church and burials within it apparently observed the same alignment as the house.|
|p. 62b. (46).||Blossom Street (YAJ, XLI (1965) 524-53; XLII (1967), 9; (1968), 118).|
|p. 63.||The Bar Convent, at SE 59755140 (YAJ, XLI (1966), 565).|
The Mount, at SE 59495122 (YAJ, XLI (1964), 176).
|p. 65a.||(55). St. Cuthbert's Churchyard. Debris from pottery and tile manufacture (Ant. Journ. LIV (1974), 213-17; YAJ, XLIII (1971), 195; XLIV (1972), 221; YPSR (1970), 119; (1971), 14).|
Aldwark, at SE 60665213. Fragments of a mosaic pavement with a female bust in a central roundel and a chequer pattern in an adjacent corridor underlay remains of the Saxon and later church of St. Helen on the Walls. An earlier road was founded on debris from tile and pottery kilns. (YAJ, XLVI (1974) 145; XLVII (1975) 5.)
Leadmill Lane, at SE 607513 (YAJ, XLVI (1974), 145).
Kent Street, at SE 608512 (YAJ, XLVI (1974) 145).
|p. 65.||N.E. of the Ouse, to W. and N.W. of the fortress. Minor finds of Roman material were made in Bootham at SE 59765250, 59895233, 60045246, 59955240-59985237;|
in Clifton, at SE 597527 (YAJ, XLV (1973), 202);
in Lord Mayor's Walk, at SE 605522 (Ant. Journ. LIV (1974), 204, 206); in Gillygate, at SE 60215242 (YPSR (1975), 34);
in Union Terrace, at SE 602526 (Ant. Journ.LIV (1974), 204);
and in Wigginton Road, at SE 60345285 (YAJ, XLII (1969), 248).
Burials in general - H.G. Ramm in R.M. Butler (ed.) (1971), 187-96, L.P. Wenham, The Romano-British Cemetery at Trentholme Drive, York (1968).
|p. 70b.||Mill Lane, Heworth. Coffin lid found 1965 at SE 61245260 (YAJ, XLI (1966), 565).|
|p. 84.||Area (e). Three skulls, one with a bone pin, were found in 1968 at a depth of 18 ft. below Platforms 15-16 of York Station (YAJ, XLII (1969), 248).|
|p. 91a.||(I). A pot found in the railway excavations in 1872 was acquired by the Yorkshire Museum (YAJ, XLI (1965), 335, 337).|
|p. 92b.||Area (k). Lion and Lamb Inn at SE 59755132. A burial and a lead ossuarium were found (YAJ, XLII (1967), 9).|
|p. 97a.||(x). This burial is now known to have been made in gypsum (O.G. Ramm in R.M. Butler (ed.) (1971), 194, No. 38).|
|p. 101b.||Two burials were found at No. 147, Mount Vale (YAJ, XLII (1968), 117).|
Inscriptions etc. in general - R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of Britain, I
(1965), Nos. 640-706, pp. 215-37; No. 2372, p. 744; E. Birley, YAJ, XLI (1966), 726-34; R.P. Wright, Ant. Journ. LV (1975), 129-30.
|p. 114b.||No. 28 is unlikely to be Roman since it is identical with a scene illustrating the legend of Cupid and Psyche used as applied decoration by the 18th and 19th-century sculptors Fisher of York.|
|p. 128a.||No. 94 is now known to be modern.|
|p. 131.||No. 115 has been identified as of Egyptian origin and probably of black granite (E. and J.R. Harris, The Oriental Cults in Roman Britain (1965), 86-7, pl. XIX).|
York Minster. Military building inscriptions SEC GAVDENT (JRS, XVIII (1968), 208); COH VIIII OPUS F (Britannia, I (1970), 307) 'The ninth Cohort did this work'.
Tombstones: ... COLEGGI/BP BF GORDIAN/'... of the guild ... the beneficiarii of Gordianus...' and D. M ANT GARGILLIANI EQV/PUBL E[X PR]A[E]F LEG VI VAN LVI/M VI CLA. FLORENTINVS/DEC GENER EIVS 'To the spirits of the departed. (The tomb) of Antonius Gargillianus eques publicus, ex prefect of the Sixth Legion Victorious, aged 56 years 6 months. Claudius Florentinus, decurion, his son in law (had it made)'. This was reused for a late Saxon memorial (Britannia, I (1970), 307-8) and inscribed + ORATE PRO/ANIMA/COSTAVN/CIS.
Altar, Midland Bank, Parliament Street: GEN IO/LOCI Q /CREREI/VS MAR/CVS P[OSUIT] 'To the Genius of the place, Quintus Crereius Marcus set this up' (Britannia, IV (1973), 325, 329).
Dedication-slab, Clementhorpe, from lime-kiln on site of Building (45): ... ET GENIO LOCI/.... L. VIDVCIVS/ ... DVS DOMO/ ... OCAS.. MM/.. N EGOTIATOR/ ... CVM ET AVVIVIT/ ... D.. RATO ET/. This is a provisional reading and only the first and fifth lines, with the words 'and to the Genius of the place, (Lucius) Viducius' and 'merchant' or 'banker' are certain.
Inscriptions on pottery, tiles etc. (JRS, LIII (1963), 163; LIV (1964), 177-8; LV (1965), 225; LVI (1966), 225; LVII (1967), 208, 210; Britannia, III (1972), 361; V (1974), 469; V1 (1975),
289-90; VII (1976), 224-35).
Glass bowl inscribed .. LVMP.. with mythological scene from Bishophill (Britannia, VI (1975), 289).
Jet Cf. A.J. Lawson, Archaeologia, CV (1976), 241-75.
For references to religion in Roman York see M.J.T. Lewis, Temples in Roman Britain (1966), passim; M.W. Barley and R.P.C. Hanson, Christianity in Britain 300-700 (1968), 52-3, 190-1; A.F. Norman in R.M. Butler (ed.) (1971), 143-54.
For pottery in Roman York see L. Keen, YAJ, XLI (1965), 360-3: B.M. Dickinson and K.F. Hartley in R.M. Butler (ed.) (1971), 127-42; E. King in Ant. Journ. LIV (1974), 213-17.
For short accounts of annual discoveries see also:
Britannia, I-VII (1970-6); Department of the Environment, Archaeological Excavations 1969-74 (1970-5); JRS, LIII-LIX (1963-9) ; YAJ, XLI-XLVIII (1963-76); YPSR (1967-75) and Interim (Bulletin of the York Archaeological Trust), I-III (1973-6).
Addenda to Bibliography
Addyman, P.V., 'Excavations in York, 1972-1973. First Interim Report', Ant. Journ., LIV (1974), 200-31.
'Excavations in York, 1973-1974, Second Interim Report' (1976).
Birley, A.R., 'Petillius Cerialis and the Conquest of
Brigantia', Britannia, IV (1973), 179-90.
Birley, E., 'The Roman Inscriptions of York', YAJ, XLI (1966), 726-34.
Blagg, T. F. C., 'Tools and Techniques of the Roman Stonemason in Britain', Britannia, VII (1976), 152-72.
Buckland, P. C., 'Archaeology and Environment in York, Journ. Archaeol. Sci. I (1974), 303-16.
The Environmental Evidence from the Church Street Roman Sewer System (1976). Fasc. 1 of The Archaeology of York, Vol. 14.
Butler, R. M. (ed.), Soldier and Civilian in Roman Yorkshire (1971).
Collingwood, R.G. and Wright, R.P., The Roman Inscriptions of Britain, I (1965), 215-37.
Davey, N., 'The Conservation of Romano-British Painted Plaster', Britannia, III (1972), 251-68.
Frere, S.S., 'Cities of Roman Britain, 1960-74', Lettres d'Information, III (1975), 7-33.
Hall, J.W., 'Official Survey of the Roman Walls of York' (1851), MS in YPS Library.
Hall, R.A. and Kenward, H.K., 'Biological evidence for the usage of Roman riverside warehouses at York', Britannia, VII (1976), 274-6.
Harris, E. and J.R., The Oriental Cults in Roman Britain (Leyden, 1965).
Hartley, B.R., 'Some problems of the Roman military occupation of the north of England', Northern History, 1 (1966), 7-20.
Hope-Taylor, B., Under York Minster, Archaeological Discoveries 1966-1971 (1971).
Jarrett, M.K., 'Septimius Severus and the Defences of York', YAJ, XLI (1965), 516-23.
Jones, M.J., 'Roman Fort Defences to A.D. 117', B.A. Reports, 21 (1975), 186-7.
Lawson, A.J., 'Shale and Jet Objects from Silchester', Archaeologia, CV (1976), 241-75.
Lewis, M. J. T., Temples in Roman Britain (1966).
MacGregor, A., Finds from a Roman Sewer System and an Adjacent Building in Church Street (1976). Fasc. 1 of The Archaeology of York, Vol. 17.
Phillips, D., 'Excavations at York Minster 1967-73', Annual Report of the Friends of York Minster, 46 (1975), 19-27.
Radley, J., 'A Section of the Roman Fortress Wall at Barclay's Bank, St. Helen's Square, York', YAJ, XLI (1966), 581-4.
'Two Interval Towers and New Sections of the Roman Fortress Wall, York', YAJ, XLII (1970), 399-402.
'Excavations in the Defences of the City of York: an early mediaeval stone tower and the successive earth ramparts', YAJ, XLIV (1972), 38-64.
RCHM, City of York II, The Defences (1972).
City of York III, South-West of the Ouse (1972).
City of York IV, Outside the City Walls East of the Ouse (1975).
Stead, I.M., 'An Excavation in King's Square, York 1957', YAJ, XLII (1968), 151-64.
Wacher, J., The Towns of Roman Britain (1974), 156-77.
Wenham, L.P., 'Excavations and discoveries ... in Feasegate, York, 1955-1957', YAJ, XL (1961),329-50.
'Excavations and discoveries ... in Davygate, York, 1955-8', YAJ, XL (1962), 507-87.
'Blossom Street excavations, York, 1953-1955', YAJ, XLI (1965), 524-53.
'The South-West Defences of the Fortress of Eboracum' in: Dobson and Jarrett (ed.), Britain and Rome, (1965), 1-26.
'Two excavations', YPSR (1967), 41-60. 'Discoveries in King's Square, York, 1963', YAJ, XLII (1968), 165-8.
'Fourteen Roman Finds from York', YPSR (1968), 38-48.
The Romano-British Cemetery at Trentholme Drive, York (1968).
'Excavations in Low Petergate, York, 1957-58', YAJ, XLIV (1972), 65-113.
Whitwell, J.B., The Church Street Sewer and an Adjacent Building (1975). Fasc. 1 of The Archaeology of York, Vol. 3.
Wright, R.P., 'A Roman-Christian Monogram from York Minster', Ant. Journ. LV (1975), 129-36. 'Tile-stamps of the Sixth Legion found in Britain', Britannia, VII (1976), 224-35.
p. xxix, note 8; for 107 read 102.
p. xxx, note 7; for contumelia read contumelias.
p. xliib, line 7; OS (1853) ... published 1853; in this and all subsequent references to the 5 ft. to 1 mile O.S. plan of York for 1853 read 1852.
p. xliv, col. 1 ; for 71 read 69.
p. 3b, line 2; for 35 read 33.
p. 3b, line 33, for 30 read 31.
p. 13b, line 15; for 156-7 read 56-7; for 56-7 read
p. 21b, lines 13-14; for XLV read XLVI.
p. 29b, line 6; for 60475232 read 60485230.
p. 35a, last line; for 14 June 1876 read June 1876, 14.
p. 42a, line 20; for 60365192 read 60345192.
p. 44b, line 5; for 4½ ft. read 3-4 ft.; for 7 ft. read 5 ft.
p. 44b, last line; for 89 read 90-4.
p. 47b, line 5; for 180 read 380.
p. 51a, line 7; for 1929 read 1926.
p. 63a, line 21; for Diciknson's read Dickinson's.
p. 64a, line 9; for XXXIV (1939) read XXV (1943).
p. 70a, line 23; for 61205270 read 61205275
p. 71b, line 25; for Huntingdon read Huntington.
p. 76a, line 10; for 59055342 read 59055344.
Plates 26 and 27; for L P. Wenham read R.H. Hayes. p. 97a, line 28; for 18 read 10.
p. 98b, line 8; for 1863 read 1864.
p. 100a, line 44; for 288 read 287.
p. 100a, line 50; for 294-5 read 293-5.
p. 100a, line 53; for 295 read 299.
p. 100b, line 2; for 283 read 291-3.
p. 100b, line 6; for 286-7 read 285-7.
p. 101b, line 39; for 1½ read 1¼.
p. 107, under V.S. REGION, line 4; for Bishopsgate read Bishopgate.
p. 112a, line 43 ; for graffiiti read graffiti.
p. 118a, line 1; for Huntingdon read Huntington.
p. 130a, line 18; for 182 read 82.
p. 130b, line 9; for EVOC(ATVS) read EVOC(ATIS).
p. 130b, lines 14 and 17; for evocatus read evocatis.
p. 131a, line 6; for FX, f. 137 read F.x., f. 121 (old 137).
p. 131a, line 24; for 316 read 310.
Plate 68, caption; for (H. 230. 1) read (H. 320. 1).
p. 142, line 8; for XXXIV read XXXIX.
p. 159b, Governor's Residence; for (No. 42) read (No. 142).
p. 161b, line 15; for Huntingdon read Huntington.
On the folding map in the pocket at the end of the volume the blocking-in of Road 10 (N.G. 59025038) should lie immediately N.E. of its present position, i.e. over the lane and not over the gardens. The reference for this find, omitted from the text on p. 3, is YAJ, XXXIX (1958), 280-1, but the evidence there given for the width of the road at this point, based on probing and not on excavation, should be treated with great caution.
Note. Photographs of Roman sites in York taken by the Commission's photographic staff since 1962 and available at the National Monuments Record include as subjects the E. angle tower, the defences behind the Central Public Library, the altar from Parliament Street, the principia and many details of the excavations under the Minster, and the Lunaris altar from Bordeaux, which is mentioned on p. xxxvi, note 2.
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