(O.S. 6 ins. aTL 56 N.W., bTL 56 S.W.)
The parish, covering just over 3100 acres, was created
in 1894 from the N.W. half of Bottisham parish. Apart
from a narrow strip of lower chalk in the S., about
20 ft. above O.D., the land is mostly fen, 5 ft. to 12 ft.
above O.D. Modern habitation is concentrated at Lode
village and Long Meadow but the Hundred Rolls
indicate medieval occupation N. of Long Meadow
around Holmes plantation; all three centres may be
regarded as early, secondary settlements of Bottisham.
Two large areas of fen were drained by the Adventurers in the mid 17th century; little further drainage was
undertaken till the early 19th century following enclosure in 1808 and as a consequence outlying fenland farms
were constructed. Lode village lies at the end of the
formerly navigable canal, Bottisham Lode, which
presumably predates the village and may be Roman in
origin. The older houses, none of which is earlier than
the 17th century, are mostly situated in the S. part of
the village; in the N. the buildings are predominantly
19th-century and include dwellings which encroached
on the green after its enclosure in 1808.
b(1) Parish Church of St. James, built in 1853 by Rhode
Hawkins, architect, at a cost of £1784.8.4 (Trinity College,
MSS. box 28), possesses an Altar Frontal of embroidered silk
depicting an altar and crowned monogram, Italian, 18th-century (Plate 65).
b(2) Baptist Chapel, of white brick with slated gabled
roof, was built in 1832 (Gardner's Directory, 1851); later in the
19th century a two-storey porch incorporating a stair was
added on the E. and a schoolroom and other rooms on the S.
and W. On the E., shallow elliptical-headed recesses flank the
porch which impinges against a triangular recess in the low-pitched gable. In the N. and S. side walls are sash windows
separated by pilasters rising to an oversailing eaves course. A
Register of Births starts in 1814 and a headstone in the burial
ground is dated 1826.
Inside, against the W. wall is a high pulpit with bow front
and reeded surround; attached are two tin funnels, possibly
flower vases of the mid 19th century. The box pews have been
rearranged and galleries on N., S. and E. are contemporary
with the porch.
b(3) Anglesey Abbey (Fig. 72), consists of a house,
outbuildings and grounds in a flat landscape adjacent to
Lode village. The house of two storeys and attics is built
of limestone and clunch rubble with 'Barnack' and other
limestone dressings. The gabled roofs have modern tiles.
The buildings occupy the site of the hospital of St.
Mary, probably a 12th-century foundation, which was
endowed in c. 1212 by Richard de Clare, Earl of
Gloucester, as a priory of Augustinian canons (V.C.H.,
Cambs. II, 229). The considerable benefaction of Master
Laurence of St. Nicholas in the years immediately
preceding his death in 1236 enabled much of the church,
cloister, refectory, dormitory and prior's lodgings to be
completed (P.R.O., Ancient Deeds A. 14494). The priory
was dissolved in 1536 and three years later the estate
was granted to John Hynde of Madingley. It passed to
Sir Francis Hynde in 1550, at his death in 1595 to the
Fowkes family, and hence to Thomas Hobson, the
Cambridge carrier, Thomas Parker his son-in-law, Sir
George Downing, Jacob John Whittingham, the
Reverend George Jenyns, the Reverend John Hailstone and Lord Fairhaven. The Hyndes, being occupied
with the building of Madingley Hall throughout the
16th century (R.C.H.M. Cambs. I, 179), undoubtedly
neglected or dismantled much of the priory, but early
in the 17th century those monastic buildings which still
survived were altered for domestic use, possibly by John
Fowkes. A service wing, subsequently altered or rebuilt, was added on the W. by Hailstone in the middle
of the 19th century; between 1926 and 1958 a first-floor
library, stone staircases and a picture gallery on the N.,
were introduced by Lord Fairhaven.
Fig. 71 Lode, Village Map
The N. range of the existing house may be identified
as the prior's lodging referred to in the account of
Master Laurence's endowments in c. 1236. The undercroft of that date survives but details on the upper floor
suggest a refurbishing in the late 14th century. Ancillary
buildings have not remained but architectural features,
either existing or recorded pictorially before 1860, infer
a principal entrance at the N. end of the W. wall,
possibly with a porch having a subsidiary doorway on
the S. through which rose a stairway to reach an upper
doorway (C.A.S. watercolour by Relhan; E. Hailstone, C.A.S. 8vo. Publ. XIV (1873), Pl. opp. 153). The
cut-back surface of the S. bay on the range's E. side
implies either a vanished annexe which projected eastward or a much-rebuilt section between former buttresses. On the N. the springing of a barrel vault denotes a
reredorter range. Post-medieval alterations to the S.
range were extensive and interpretation can only be
hypothetical, but visible evidence suggests a date contemporary with the N. range; it may perhaps be
explained as a hall for prior or guests. The size of the
windows, which had pointed heads, and the height of
the buttresses together show that the range, at least at
the E. end, was always of two storeys. Later alterations
have obliterated the original arrangement of the W.
part but in view of the length of the range subdivision
would be expected. A doorway attributed to William
Reche (Seggewyke), prior from 1515, appears to be
reset and the range's domestic character is probably
entirely early 17th-century.
A large roofless but hall-like structure, destroyed in
1861, summarily recorded by Hailstone (ibid. Pl. opp.
163), stood in an unrevealed position to the N. or W.;
it contained a number of medieval features but its
original purpose has not been ascertained. Hailstone
also refers to moulded medieval fragments of masonry
being found in the then kitchen garden which was
probably S.W. of the house (ibid. 166 note). The site
of the cloister may be inferred in that general area.
Fig. 72 Lode (3), Anglesey Abbey
The standing remains lie at the N. end of a large subrectangular area covering some 30 acres bounded by
banks and ditches apparently marking the monastic
precinct, within which fishponds and drainage ditches
The mid 13th-century N. range (Plate 68), the assumed
prior's lodging, is at right angles to the S. range and separated
from it by a passage which is echoed externally on the E. by a
recessed section of walling with three-light stone mullioned
windows on the upper floors. The N. end of the range has been
extended in modern times. The E. front is in three bays with
two tall two-stage weathered buttresses of the 13th century,
one at the original N.E. angle and one between the first and
second bays. A jagged set-back of the wall face marks the
S. bay and may reflect a former annexe to the E., or alternatively, removed buttresses. The N. and S. ground-floor windows each have three uncusped lights in four-centred heads
and are set within the jambs and part of the springings of
earlier openings, presumably of the 13th century; the N.
window is modern but copies the S. which is perhaps 17th-century. The central window, also perhaps 17th-century, has
four uncusped lights in a depressed two-centred head within
the blocking of a 13th-century relieving arch with hacked-back
label. The late 14th-century N. upper window has a four-centred head within two cinquefoil-headed lights, plain
transom, continuous casement moulding and label with
grotesque head stops; the four upper windows to the S. of
varying numbers of lights with labels are 17th-century. The
modern N. extension incorporates a small blocked late
medieval doorway with four-centred head in the position of a
former one, inconsistently recorded, beneath a single-pitched
roof. This doorway originally opened into a barrel-vaulted
passage of which the lower springing courses rise from a roll-moulded string-course in the N. face of the N. wall of the
undercroft. Above the doorway a medieval window of two
lights with pointed head is only original internally. The W.
front is masked by a modern wing. At the S. end, four raking
wall arches and one half-arch are set with the lowest to the S.
(Fig. 73). The arches have triple roll-and-hollow mouldings,
continuous roll-moulded label (Fig. 74), and are supported on
five corbels with mask stops, much mutilated. The upper half-arch butts against the springing of a moulded rear-arch, at
right angles. Below these springing-stones is the E. jamb of a
chamfered and rebated doorway. A set-back above the arches
is shown by Hailstone (ibid. 169) as a chamfered weathering.
At the N. end of the W. wall, a first-floor doorway with a
four-centred head is shown by Relhan in 1801 (C.A.S. watercolours) and Hailstone (ibid. Pl. opp. 153) together with the
tusking of a N. wall of a structure returning at right angles.
Inside (Plate 68), the range has an undercroft of three bays
N. and S. and two bays E. and W. Octagonal piers of marble,
possibly Alwalton, with limestone water-holding bases and
moulded capitals, of the 13th century, entirely reworked or
renewed, carry quadripartite vaulting with chamfered clunch
ribs which are taken on triple-lobed wall corbels and singlelobed angle corbels carved as capitals and sub-capitals. The
N. doorway is set within an arched and moulded recess which
until 1939 formed an embrasure to a three-light window
uniform with those in the E. wall, and probably the window
reset in the present N. wall of the range. In the N. bay on the
W. is a chamfered recess with pointed-segmental head, the
survival of an opening shown by Hailstone (ibid. Pl. opp. 153)
and possibly the original entrance to the undercroft; in the S.
bay, a much-restored doorway with depressed four-centred
head with spandrels carved with initials 'P W' and 'R',
apparently for William Reche (Seggewyke), prior from 1515,
and shield of Clare (three chevrons), both against foliage and
branch backgrounds, is reset from a first-floor room
(Hailstone, ibid. 168–9). On first floor, in original N. wall, is
a late 14th-century doorway, with two-centred moulded
head, continuous mouldings, lower part of jambs chamfered,
and splayed jambs on the N.
Fig. 73 Lode (3), Anglesey Abbey
The S. range (Plate 69), always of two storeys as demonstrated by the level of the original windows, may be mid 13th-century. It has a chamfered plinth and modern reproduction
flush dormers based broadly on those shown by Relhan
in 1801 which had been removed in the mid 19th century; the
parapets of the main gables are modern additions. Early 17th-century alterations included the lowering of the upper floor
and the insertion of new fenestration. The S. front of five bays
is composed of varying masonry. The central two-storey
porch, which does not bond with the main wall, has a round-headed doorway with continuous moulded head, lower part
of jambs chamfered, renewed jewelled keystone, plain raised
spandrels, classical string-course on front only, five-light
mullioned and transomed window on the first floor and
modern windows on the return sides. Over the doorway is
a reset stone figure holding crozier, with mermaid at foot
issuing from a circlet above a shield displaying a bunch of
grapes, possibly medieval and foreign. The porch has modern
strapwork parapet-cresting flanking a mounted figure of St.
George and the Dragon, in Coade or artificial stone, perhaps
late 18th-century; the flanking mullioned and transomed
windows have five lights with relieving arches. To the E. is
a two-storey semi-octagonal flat-roofed oriel with three-light
mullioned and transomed window in the centre and two-light
windows at the sides. At the N.E. and S.E. corners are tall
two-stage weathered angle buttresses. In the E. bay on the S.,
the E. jamb and part of the springing of a pointed window
rise from a string-course now hacked back, below the sills
of the present windows. The gable-end chimney stacks
have stone bases and modern brick shafts. The E. gable wall is
mostly clunch, in blocks of two sizes, with a chamfered plinth.
In the centre, small clunch blocks form the infilling of a
pointed window, of which the jambs, hacked-back label and
N. springing survive. Above, is a small 17th-century two-light
mullioned window. The N. front is partly masked by
ground-floor additions, but in the E. bay, the E. jamb of a
window survives and is, with those on the E. and S., presumably of mid 13th-century origin. The N. front has two upper
four-light mullioned and transomed windows of the early
17th century with labels and relieving arches, and two flush
dormers with gable parapets. A nearly-flush chimney stack
rises to a rectangular base carrying modern brick shafts;
a projecting stack in the W. gable wall is probably 17th-century. Inside, the S. range now consists of two rooms but
the E. was once divided. The 17th-century ceiling beams are
intersecting and although the cross beams are modern that on
the E. is in the position of the removed cross-wall; the beams
have ovolo-mouldings and shaped stops, many of which are
replacements. The doorway to the S. porch is much renewed,
and the depressed four-centred head reversed so that the
original head and spandrel is now on the N. with a modern
replica on the S. The spandrels are carved with the initials
'p w' and 'R' for William Reche (Seggewyke), prior from 1515,
and arms of Clare (three chevrons) impaling Burgh (a cross),
against foliated background. The two-stage limestone fireplace,
of c. 1600, is imported; it has debased Ionic pilasters, gadrooned
panels and an unidentified shield of arms (a bend sinister). The
first-floor rooms have chamfered axial ceiling beams with
roll-and-hollow stops. At the E. and W. ends are 17th-century
off-centre clunch fireplaces with depressed Tudor heads,
continuous mouldings, shaped stops and foliated spandrels.
The 17th-century roof has a double row of staggered purlins
and mid-height collars. Scratchings on mullions of N. dormers
include masons' marks, initials and dates, the earliest being
1650; on N.E. buttress is a scratched circle with compass-arcs,
Fig. 74 Lode (3), Anglesey Abbey
Moulding of wall arches
Miscellaneous objects include: (1), at W. end of service wing,
doorway with some early stonework, said to be reset from
Ramsey Abbey, probably 13th-century; (2), in garden, two
coffins with head recesses, three coffin lids, two with omega
ornament, one with bracketed cross, and a fragment of a lid,
all 13th-century; (3), in garden wall, opening with round-headed oak door with raised battens, central oval in square
device, initials 'H C' in ironwork, said to be from Biggin House,
Ramsey, late 16th-century (R.C.H.M., Hunts. 208, Pl. 160);
(4), N. of house, loose fragments of moulded stonework,
medieval; (5), W. of house, against courtyard wall, buttress
of two weathered stages, date unknown; (6), reset in parapet of
W. stair turret, three animal-gargoyles, late medieval.
The modern gardens and avenues are extensively furnished
with statuary and urnage. The provenance or authorship of the
following have been verified: 'Narcissus', marble, signed
'W. Theed fecit Roma 1848'; six caryatids, signed 'Coade,
Lambeth, 1793'; 'Apollo', marble, from Gordon Castle, signed
'F. Harwood fecit 1765'; 'Diana and Actaeon', lead, from
Copped Hall, Essex, signed 'John Cheere 1720' (Plate 118);
four lead statues (Plate 120), corner acroteria from the Temple
of Concord and Victory, Stowe House, Buckinghamshire,
c. 1748–63; four marble vases (Plate 119) from Wanstead
House, Essex, two by P. Scheemakers (1691–1781), one carved
with sacrifice of Iphigenia (after the Medici vase in Uffizi
Gallery), the second with sacrifice of Apollo, and two carved
with Bacchanalian and heroic scenes by Laurent Delvaux
(1696–1778) (R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors, 126, 343,
giving Wanstead House sale prices in 1822); three pairs of
bronze urns from Bagatelle by Claude Ballin (1617–75); lead
urn depicting a Bacchanal from Drakelowe Hall, Burton-onTrent, now mounted on drum-pedestal carved with garlands
and figures, Roman, Continental (Plate 118); pair of stone
obelisks from Copped Hall, 18th-century; ten stone columns
with Corinthian capitals from Chesterfield House, 1748–9.
Sources and authorship of the following objects have not been
verified: two stone statues representing 'Gardening' and
'Fishing', dated1752, from The Hill, Hampstead; two vases from
Canford, possibly French; large porphyry urn from Doughty
House, Richmond; two bronze vases from Campsea Ashe,
Suffolk, possibly French; twelve stone busts of Roman
emperors from Headley Court, Walton-on-the-Hill, Dorking;
'Diana and the stag', bronze, from Ashton Manor, Exeter;
'Samson slaying Philistine', stone, by van Nost the elder;
'Apollo' and 'Diana', lead, style of Cheere, from Copped Hall;
'Apollo', marble, from Ashridge, Hertfordshire; pair of stone
griffins from Park Close; 'Father Time', stone, style of
Rysbrack; 'Father Time' with sundial, stone, from Stowe
House; pair of lead lions, by van Nost the elder; pair of large
stone urns from Stafford House, possibly French, 18th-century;
'Shepherd and Shepherdess', lead, style of Cheere, from Copped
Hall; 'Apollo', sleeping, bronze, cast by Barbedienne. Also in
the grounds or kitchen garden are: 'Hercules and Antaeus',
stone, 18th-century; pair of lead sphinxes, 18th-century; large
stone urn, 18th-century; vase in Coade stone; 'Minerva', lead,
style of Cheere; marble copy of Uffizi 'Apollo', 18th-century;
'Shepherdess', lead, style of Cheere; a pair of terms with figures
of Pan, perhaps 18th-century, Continental. (Connoisseur,
CXIII, (1949), 88; Country Life (1954), 770, 860; Lanning
Roper, The Gardens of Anglesey Abbey (1964))
Fig. 75 Lode (3), Anglesey Abbey
a and b: inlet channels.
c to h: fishponds.
j, k, l: outlet channels.
Entrance gates, rusticated piers with lion finials, subsidiary
side piers and wooden doors, from Admiralty Entrance, Port
of London Authority, early 19th-century re-erected 1926.
Barn, N.W. of house, originally framed, has been reconstructed with a modern masonry E. wall. Original features
include posts, tie beams, crown posts and braces to collar
purlin; perhaps 16th-century.
Associated Earthworks (Fig. 75). The site of the priory and
the extant remains are surrounded by a complex of ditches,
ponds, banks and quarry pits not all of which can be interpreted. Many, and especially those in the region of the house,
have been mutilated by garden landscaping, but their purpose
can be broadly conjectured.
Most of the ditches appear to have been used to carry water
to and from fishponds (Plate 69) and the priory buildings. The
source of water was a stream flowing N.W. from Bottisham.
This was diverted as it crossed Colliers Lane (around TL 527615)
and entered the priory precinct at (a) and (b) on plan. The
water then flowed through various ditches filling a series of
fishponds (c—h) and continued either N. past the E. end of the
priory (j) or N.W. to (k). At the latter point the stream divided,
the surplus water running N.W. and apparently crossing the
line of the present Quy Water; the second branch turned N.E.
towards the priory, presumably passing under or round
the buildings and emptying into a ditch (1) to the N. From
here the water flowed either N. through two sets of ditches,
or through a long wide pond (m) into which ditch (j) also
emptied, and thence northwards towards Lode village.
Pond (m) is now divided into three.
Most of the ditches are up to 20 ft. wide and usually only
2 ft. to 3 ft. deep where not recut. The fishponds, one up to
5 ft. deep, have low cross-banks within them, marking former
divisions. Some of these cross-banks have slight depressions
in their centres which are probably the sites of sluices (Plate 69).
S. of the house is an area of uneven ground, the result of
quarrying stone rubble for roads in the early part of this
century. During this work the stone footings of a small
rectangular building are alleged to have been discovered at (n).
Approximately at (o) two medieval coffins were found in
1857 (O.S. 25-inch map). (See Miscellaneous objects (2) above)
b(4) House (Plate 105), now a pair of Class-S dwellings, of
one storey and attics, framed and plastered, with thatched
gabled roof, is 17th-century. The stack has a recess for panel.
The two N. rooms have stopped-chamfered axial beams and
the two S. rooms each have cross beams, one of which is stop-chamfered; the partial rebuilding of the S. half of the house is
implied. At the foot of the stairs is a 17th-century plank door.
b(5) House, of one storey and attics, framed and plastered,
with thatched roof gabled on the N. and hipped on the S.,
was built in the 18th century on a Class-G plan. It now has a
Class-S plan, the N. section having been rebuilt as a separate
tenement in the 19th century. In the main room is a chamfered
axial beam with wave stops; the smaller room, once a shop,
has wooden lattice window on the W.
b(6) House, of one storey and attics, framed and plastered,
clay-bat E. gable wall, with pantiled gabled roof formerly
thatched, was built in the early 19th century. The plan is now
Class-S, with the W. end divided axially, but a room may
once have existed on the E.
b(7) House (Plate 105), of one storey and attics, framed,
partly plastered and partly weather-boarded, with thatched
gabled roof, is now a pair of Class-S dwellings but has possibly a
17th-century Class-J origin. The central stack has two shafts
diagonally-placed with a small diagonal fillet between.
b(8) House (Plate 105), of one storey and attics, framed and
plastered, with thatched gabled roof, originally Class G or J
of the 18th century. To the chimney stack was added a flue
for the end room in c. 1800.
b(9) House, now two dwellings, of two storeys, framed and
plastered, with thatched gabled roof, perhaps originated on a
Class-J plan in the late 17th or early 18th century. The small
S. room with attic may be an early 19th-century addition;
extensively modernized. (Access refused)
b(10) House, originally Class G or J, of one storeys and attics,
framed and plastered, partly rebuilt in brick, with thatched
gabled roof, was built in the late 17th century. Early in the
19th century the S. room became a separate dwelling. Inside,
each room has an axial stop-chamfered beam. (Demolished
b(11) Watermill, of two storeys and loft, timber-framed, with modern vertical cladding over earlier weather-boarding, plain-tiled and gabled roof, was built in the early
19th century. Sluices, originally in white brick were later
altered in red brick; at least 4100 bricks were used in building
operations by H. and C. Giblin in November 1841 (Ledger in
Lordship Farm, Swaffham Bulbeck (17)). It contains a broad
iron water-wheel and machinery of the 19th century.
b(12) House, of two storeys, white brick with slated roof, is
early 19th-century. Built on Class-S plan with symmetrical
front it was soon converted to Class T by addition of an end
b(13) House (TL 52676312), a pair of Class-S dwellings, of
two storeys, clay bat with brick front wall, pantiled gabled
roof, was built beside a fenland droveway in the second
quarter of the 19th century.
b(14) Houses (TL 54486285), of one storey and attics, framed,
partly replaced in brick, have gabled roofs originally thatched.
The N. house was built in the late 18th century on Class-G
plan, and early in the 19th century a Class-I house was added
on the S. A rough chamfered axial beam survives in the central
room of the first house. (Access refused)
b(15) Cranney Hall (TL 53496366; Fig. 3), Class-J, of two
storeys, timber-frame with clay infill, weather-boarded and
pantiled gabled roof, was built shortly after enclosure in 1808.
The windows have sliding sashes. The N. end room is a very
a(16) Fen Farm (TL 51606528), includes a Class-G or J house
of one storey and attics, framed and plastered, with pantiled
gabled roof, which was built 1808–11 (Enclosure Map; B.M.,
O.S. 2-inch drawings). Of two reused axial beams, that in the
end room has folded-ribbon carving and was originally an
intersecting beam of the 16th century.
a(17) Lode Farm (TL 52176711), of two storeys, white brick
and slated hipped roof, was built soon after enclosure in 1808.
It has an L-shaped plan; two service rooms in the rear wing
were possibly dairies and had floors below ground level. The
upper floor was partially reconstructed and new joinery introduced in the late 19th century.
b(18), b(19) Houses, Class G, of one storey and attics, gabled
and timber-framed, 17th-and 18th-centuries.
b(20) House, Class I, of one storey and attics, timber-framed
and plastered; possibly 17th-century.
b(21), b(22), b(23) Houses, Class S, first half of 19th century.
(21) and (22) are of one storey and attics, timber-framed, with
thatched gabled roofs (Fig. 3; Plate III). (23) is of two storeys,
clay bat with pantiled roof.
b(24), b(25), b(26) Houses, pairs of Class-S dwellings, of one
storey and attics, timber-framed partly brick-cased, are early
19th-century; (24) is entirely brick-built. (26) is at TL 54516278.
b(27), b(28) Houses, Class T, are early 19th-century. (27), of
two storeys and cellar, pink brick, with slated gabled roof, was
formerly an inn. (28), of one storey and attics, formerly plaintiled, now pantiled, is timber-framed faced in white brick.
a(29) Lock (TL 51656513; Plate 117), of 'flash' type, on
Bottisham Lode, has white brick retaining walls, floor paved
with stone flags, timber gate with cast-iron fittings and hoisting
equipment. It was built in 1875 by J. A. Smith of Thetford at a
cost of £294 (Swaffham I.D.B. Minutes, March and Sept.
1875). The walls are 11 ft. 9 ins. apart, 22 ft. long and splay at
the ends. The gate-raising mechanism consists of a winding
drum with ratchetted cogwheels in a braced timber frame; it
had a large manually-operated winding wheel. (Timber
demolished in 1968)
a(30) Roman Buildings (TL 54006325), lie 400 yds. W.S.W.
of Grange Farm, on chalk marl at 15 ft. above O.D. The site,
covering about 2 acres, consists of at least four rectangular
patches of white earth visible after ploughing; each measures
up to 30 ft. long and 15 ft. wide, and is associated with limestone rubble, roofing and box tiles, window glass and pottery.
Between the white patches are small areas in which large
quantities of pottery and lumps of grass-marked baked clay
were found. The pottery appears to be mainly 3rd- and 4th-century, and includes Nene Valley types and some Horningsea
Medieval and later
For earthworks at Anglesey Abbey see (3) above.
b(31) Possible Saxon burial (around TL 530622). A plain
urn of Anglo-Saxon type was found at Anglesey Abbey in
1887. It may be the remains of a cremation burial (C.M.;
Fox, A.C.R., 263).
ab(32) Bottisham Lode (Plate 6), first recorded by name in
1729 (Rot. Hund. II (1818), 484), certainly existed by the late
12th century (Reaney, 'Place-names of Cambs.', 131) although
it is evidently much earlier (see p. lv). It is an artificial
watercourse, some 2¼ miles long, extending in a N.W.
direction across the fens from Lode village (TL 53206285) to the
River Cam (TL 51026581). Nothing is known of its date of
construction but by analogy with Reach Lode (see Swaffham
Prior (74)) it is probably Roman in origin. Only in the 19th
century is there much indication of its use for water transport;
it is recorded in the 19th century that the Lode was inadequate for the larger fen lighters (Swaffham I.D.B. Minutes).
It is considerably narrower than other lodes in the area.
Apart from a distinct southward bend just N. of Lode village,
its general alignment is straight, though in detail all except the
N.W. third is sinuous. The section between Vicarage Farm
(TL 51646516) and the River Cam is straight and has been
re-cut on a new alignment at some time before the late 18th
century, and probably before 1673 (C.R.O., B.L.C. Petitions).
The original winding course is marked by a ditch and the
parish boundary, immediately to the S.W., called the 'Old
Lode' in the late 18th century (Map of Bottisham parish c. 1790,
St. Bartholomew's Hospital records).
At its S. end the Lode terminates in a wide triangular
depression some 4 ft. deep, possibly the site of a former basin
and wharf. Beyond it to the S.W. is a straight cut leading to
the outfall of Lode Mill (11) which marks the end of Quy
Water (Stow cum Quy (26)), and which feeds the Lode. However, there are indications that this straight section is a secondary feature, for the existence of low scarps suggests that the
Lode once extended further S. and then turned S.W. across
the former green to meet Quy Water at Lode Mill.
The Lode which has constantly been cleaned out and
altered, now consists of a deep channel up to 22 ft. wide with
high retaining banks on both sides (C.R.O., B.L.C. R59/31/9/
12 and 11/1).
Fig. 76 Lode (33), Fen Drainage
Immediately W. of Fen Farm (TL 51556528) at the point
where the Lode cuts through the N.E. end of a long ridge of
gault clay, the retaining banks widen out to form a semicircular area of about 3 acres which has a series of ponds
within it, N.E. of the Lode. The ponds were the result of
excavating clay used in the repair of banks of the lodes and
the River Cam from 1845 onwards (Swaffham I.D.B.
Minutes, December 1845).
A lock (29), remains towards the N.W. end of the Lode.
Fig. 77 Lode (34), Site of windpump
(33) Fen drainage (Fig. 76). There is no evidence of drainage systems being constructed in the parish during the
medieval or earlier periods; Bottisham Lode, which is probably of Roman date, was not initially for drainage purposes.
The earliest work resulted from the allotment of two areas of
fen to the Adventurers in 1637 (C.R.O., R59/31/9/1A). These
areas, known as Adventurers' Lands, consisted of 351 acres in
the N.E. (centred TL 530660) and 300 acres in the S.W.
(centred TL 518638); each was allocated in three lots. Enclosing
and draining was probably started in 1651, when it was
ordered that subsidiary allotments should be separated by tenfoot ditches (C.R.O., R59/31/9/5), and completed in 1655–6
(C.R.O., R59/31/9/6). Both areas were originally drained by
two existing streams known as Crouch Lake and White Lake
(C.R.O., R59/31/11/1) which were cleaned out and altered.
Crouch Lake flowed to the S. of the N.E. block of Adventurers' Lands into Swaffham Bulbeck parish; White Lake,
which was 12 ft. wide, flowed from the S.W. block (TL
52116413) under Bottisham Lode in a tunnel 2 ft. wide and
1 ft. high, across the N.E. block (TL 52806615), through
Swaffham Bulbeck and Swaffham Prior parishes in a new
cut, and thence to Upware (C.R.O., R59/31/9/5). The Bedford
Level Corporation was responsible for this drainage until
1767 and their records show that these drains were frequently
cleaned out and scoured, e.g. in 1717 (C.R.O., R59/31/10/13),
in 1731 (C.R.O., R59/31/10/7) and subsequently.
Before 1700 parts of the fenland N. of Lode village and
N.E. of Long Meadow were enclosed and drained, being
described in 1671–2 as 'Fen ground lately enclosed by Thomas
Parker out of the fen' (St. Bartholomew's Hospital records,
Box 11). By 1709 Lode Moor of 11 acres was enclosed and
drained; by 1800 a further 200 acres of fenland, N.W. of Lode
village, was reclaimed (C.R.O., Map of Swaffham and
Bottisham Fens, 1800).
By Act of 1767 responsibility for drainage passed to the
Swaffham and Bottisham Drainage Commissioners who were
obliged to reorganise the system owing to the sinking of
the ground level. The White and Crouch Lake streams were
abandoned as major drains and replaced by the newly-cut
Mill Drain, which cut across the fen between Bottisham Lode
and the Swaffham Bulbeck parish boundary. The new drain
led to Bottisham Mill (34), a windpump standing on the edge
of the River Cam. Shortly afterwards the drainage of the land
S.W. of Bottisham Lode was linked to the revised scheme by
cutting another Mill Drain from the W. corner of Adventurers' Lands (TL 51536472), under the Lode, alongside the
present Lug Fen Droveway (TL 51656515–52386620), to meet
the earlier Mill Drain (C.R.O., Map of Swaffham and
Bottisham Fens, 1800; Swaffham I.D.B. Minutes, 1767 and
1768). In 1808 the remaining common fenland was enclosed
(C.R.O., Enclosure Act and Award) and the new fields were
delineated by ditches.
The single windpump proved insufficient to deal with the
drainage of an area increased by the new enclosures and
complaints resulted, especially in respect of the land S.W. of
Bottisham Lode (C.R.O., Swaffham I.D.B. Minutes, 1792–
1820). The installation of a privately-owned windpump near
the N.W. end of Bottisham Lode in 1821–2 (35), and of a
steam engine with an Engine Drain which was cut across the
parish (TL 51616324–53516576) in the same year, was only
partly effective. In 1830 the Drainage Commission therefore
erected another windpump on Bottisham Lode, known as
Horningsea Mill (36). Fen drainage in the parish was finally
achieved in 1850 with the construction of a new steam engine
with its Engine Drain, in Swaffham Prior.
The stages of reclamation of Bottisham Fen are traceable on
the ground. The two rectilinear blocks of Adventurers' Lands,
enclosed by continuous drains, contrast with the patchwork
layout of the areas drained subsequently.
a(34) Site of Windpump (TL 51886665), at the N.W. end
of Mill Drove, consists of an irregular mound 30 ft. in diam.
and 2 ft. high standing against the river flood bank (Fig. 77).
Drains leading to and from the site are traceable. These
features are remains of Bottisham Mill, erected in 1768 by the
Swaffham and Bottisham Drainage Commission in order to
drain Bottisham Fen (Swaffham I.D.B. Minutes, July 1767–
Oct. 1768). Soon after its construction it was also made to
drain land S.W. of Bottisham Lode by way of a tunnel under
the Lode and by a channel called Mill Drain alongside Lug Fen
Droveway (ibid., Oct. 1768–April 1769); this was unsuccessful,
resulting in complaints from 1792 onwards of the inadequate
drainage of fenland in Horningsea. The Swaffham Drainage
Commissioners were unable to improve the system due
to financial difficulties, and in 1821–2 landowners in Horningsea installed independently a windpump (35) to drain the area
S.W. of Bottisham Lode. The pump of 1768 was burnt down
and rebuilt in 1800 (ibid., July 1800); it continued in use for
another forty years and was demolished in 1850 when the
Steam Engine (Swaffham Prior (78)) was erected.
a(35) Site of Windpump (TL 51086571), S.W. of Bottisham
Lode near the junction with the River Cam, is indicated by a
rectangular pond partly in Horningsea parish (Plate 11). The
pond, 100 ft. by 35 ft., is connected with drainage ditches at its
S.W. end and served as a reservoir. At the N.E. end are two
modern culverts carrying the water under the Lode. A windpump on this site was built in 1821–2 by Horningsea landowners to drain land S.W. of Bottisham Lode after the pump
(34) erected by the Swaffham Drainage Commissioners had
proved inadequate. It was described as the 'Fan Tail Mill' on
account of the device, unusual in windpumps, which enabled
the direction of the sails to be maintained correctly without
supervision; as the pump was privately-owned the dispensing
with a miller may have been a consideration. The pump, which
was probably abandoned in 1845, was finally removed in
1849, the materials being used in the building of the new
Engine House (Swaffham Prior (78)). (Swaffham I.D.B.
Minutes, June 1845 and July 1849)
a(36) Site of Windpump (TL 51636511), W. of Bottisham
Lode, is indicated by a pond, 180 yds. square and 4 ft. deep,
fed by drains and formerly emptied by the pump into the
Lode. The pump, known as Horningsea Mill, was installed
to drain the fen S.W. of Bottisham Lode when the Bottisham
Mill (34) became inadequate. The ineffectiveness of Bottisham
Mill, already noticed by 1792, led to the construction of the
'Fan Tail Mill' (35) in 1821–2. However, by 1830 the windpump at Upware, built in 1768, had been superseded by the
Steam Engine (Swaffham Prior (77)). The mill was consequently re-erected on the present site, at that time in Bottisham
parish (Swaffham I.D.B. Minutes, March and Oct. 1830, Jan.
1831). It underwent a number of repairs including the replacement of the scoop-wheel by one from Swaffham Mill (Swaffham Prior (76)) demolished in 1844 (ibid., Sept. 1844). On the
construction of the Steam Engine (Swaffham Prior (78)) in
1850, Horningsea Mill was pulled down.
b(37) Remains of Brick Works (TL 542649), lie 1½ miles
N.E. of Lode village immediately S.W. of Swaffham Bulbeck
Lode, on gault clay at 12 ft. above O.D. The site consists of the
remains of Brick Kiln Farm, an early 19th-century house with
outbuildings, recently demolished; abandoned clay diggings,
spoil heaps and brick rubble cover an area of about 5 acres
to the S.; a large rectangular water-filled clay pit lies to the N.
The date of these workings is not known for certain. They
did not exist in 1808 (C.R.O., Enclosure Map of Bottisham)
and were not shown on Baker's Map of Cambridgeshire (1821),
but were there by 1834 (1st ed. O.S. 1-inch map). The remains
are one of a series of early 19th-century brick fields lying along
the fen edge which produced the pale pink and white bricks
commonly found in the contemporary dwellings of the area
(see Lode (38) and Stow cum Quy (27)).
b(38) Remains of Brick Works (TL 529633), lie ½ mile
N.N.W. of Lode village, immediately S.W. of Bottisham
Lode, on gault clay at 12 ft. above O.D.
The site, now ploughed, consists of very uneven ground
from which brick wasters of early 19th-century date have been
recorded. The workings did not exist in 1808 (C.R.O.,
Enclosure Map of Bottisham), but may be identified with a
brick kiln described as 'newly erected' in 1812 in Lode (C.U.L.,
Ely Diocesan Records, Sale Catalogue 175694). The workings
are shown on Baker's Map of Cambridgeshire (1821).
b(39) Cultivation Remains. Slight traces of ridge and
furrow can be seen only on air photographs on the edge of
the Fen on chalk marl at about 12 ft. above O.D., three
quarters of a mile N.N.W. of Long Meadow. There is no
evidence that this area was ever part of the open fields of
Bottisham. (Commercial air photographs in N.M.R.; C.R.O.,
Enclosure Map of Bottisham, 1808)
a(40) Miscellaneous Finds (TL 52296694), 230 yds. S.E. of
Lode Farm on peat at about 4 ft. above O.D. Much pottery and
other material has been recovered over the years; finds include
some Roman coarse wares and a considerable amount of
pottery dating from the 13th to the 18th century. In addition,
bones of horse and cattle, 18th-century wine bottles, oyster shells,
small triangular pieces of limestone perforated near the apex,
limestone rubble, lumps of baked clay and slag have been
found. The site is an improbable one for an early settlement
and the finds were probably in rubbish brought from elsewhere perhaps in the late 18th century. There is no documentary evidence for a settlement before the 19th century.
The finds are limited to a small area which in 1808 was a oneacre field whose boundaries are still visible as low banks
(C.R.O., Enclosure Map of Bottisham).
Lode (3), Anglesey Abbey