GLOSSARY OF THE MEANING ATTACHED TO THE TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THE INVENTORY
Terms for which a sufficient interpretation is given in the Concise Oxford Dictionary, 4th ed. (1951), reprinted
with revised addenda (1954), have not been included.
Achievement—In heraldry, the shield with helm, crest, mantling,
Aisle-ties—In a timber-framed building, a tie beam between wall and
Alabaster—Soft whitish limestone with veins of colour.
Almuce—Fur cape with hood, worn by priests.
'Antique work'—Rennaissance ornament evoking the style of the
Apron—A panel, plain or decorative, below an architectural feature
Arch—Butting—having one complete and one incomplete arc.
Depressed—struck from a centre or centres well below the line of the
Flat—having a horizontal soffit.
Nodding—curved forward in advance of the plane of the springing.
Architrave—Eared—having the framing mouldings extended laterally
at the head and returned.
Basin—An artificial pond for mooring boats.
Bay—The main vertical divisions of a building or feature defined by
recurring structural members as in an arcade, a fenestrated elevation or a timber frame.
Beam—Axial—in a ceiling, placed centrally on the main axis of the
Cross—in a ceiling, placed on the short axis of the related structure.
Dragon—in a ceiling, placed diagonally in a corner of a building to
carry jetties (q.v.) on the adjacent sides.
Intersecting—in a ceiling, combined axial and cross beams.
Benefactor's table—Tablet or panel recording a benefaction.
Billet—In heraldry, upright rectangle.
Blind—Unpierced by any openings.
Bowtell—See Roll moulding.
Brace—Diagonal timber strengthening a framework.
Arch—curved, usually between wall and roof timbers, and often
being one of a pair.
Cross—usually saltirewise, and with a halved joint at the intersection.
Double-bracing—having two braces, one above the other.
Down—between a post and a lower horizontal member.
Passing—of considerable length, passing across other members in
the roof truss.
Up—between a post and a higher horizontal member.
Bracket-moulding—Double ogee moulding.
Brattishing—Upstanding ornamental cresting, particularly of repetitive leaf form.
Break-front—An architectural composition in which the centre part
Hollow—manufactured with centred voids.
Rubbed—of soft fabric, abrased to special shapes after firing.
White—white or whitish-yellow bricks made from gault or other
Brick-work—English bond—a method of laying bricks so that alternate
courses on the face of the wall are composed of headers or
Flemish bond—laid in such a way that alternate headers and stretchers
appear in each course on the wall face.
Tumbled—in a gable, triangular areas of brickwork laid at right
angles to the pitch.
Burin—Small prehistoric flint implement.
Buttress-es—Projecting support to a wall.
Angle—two meeting, or nearly meeting, at right angles at the corner
of a building.
Clasping—clasping or encasing the angle.
Diagonal—projecting diagonally at the corner of a building.
Lateral—at the corner of a building and axial with one wall.
Capital—Cushion—cut from a cube with its lower angles rounded off
to adapt it to a circular shaft.
Stiff-leaf—formed by a number of stylised leaves of lobed form.
Water-leaf—enriched with broad tapering leaves of sinuous form.
Casement—A wide concave moulding in window jambs, etc. Also
the hinged opening part of a window.
Chalk marl—Argillaceous stratum just below the Lower White
Chimney bay—Short structural bay enclosing a chimney stack.
Chip carving—Decoration of a surface formed by chiselling shallow
Cladding—The external covering of a timber-framed structure.
Clairvoyée—Structure designed to frame a particular view.
Clay bat—Large rectangular blocks of unfired clay, used for building.
Close—Enclosure. In earthworks, an area enclosed by banks.
Clunch—Hard stratum of the Lower Chalk used as a material for
building and sculpture.
Common field—Large unenclosed field divided into small strips and
managed communally during the medieval and later periods.
Coprolite—Phosphatized nodules of clay and parts of extinct animals,
dug for fertilizer in the 19th century.
Cotised—In heraldry, when a bend appears between two cotises i.e.
diminutives of the bend.
Crop-mark—Visible variations in vegetation caused by buried or
Cross—In heraldry, a pale combined with a fesse, as the cross of St.
Crosslet—having each main arm crossed by a smaller arm.
Flory—having arms headed with fleurs-de-lis.
Formy—having arms widening from the centre and square at the
Cross wing—In a house, a wing at the end of, and at right angles to,
the main range.
Crossing—In a transeptal building, the central space about the
intersection of the axes of the main range and transepts.
Crown post—In a roof truss, a central post between tie beam and
Cut-out panelling—Carved in low relief, the raised surface remaining
Diamond mullion—Of square section, set diagonally.
Double depth—Of a house the plan of which consists of two parallel
ranges of rooms.
Droveway—In the fens, a wide track giving access to enclosed lands.
Dutch gable—A gable wall with parapet having curvilinear profile.
Empark—To enclose land for a park.
Engaged shaft—A column partly attached in its circumference to an
English bond—See Brick-work.
Engrailed—In heraldry, edged with a series of concave curves.
Erased—In heraldry, torn from body leaving jagged edge.
Field stones—Round glacial erratics, occurring in the Drift and
collected from the surface as building material.
Fielded panel—A panel with bevelled margins.
Flemish bond—See Brick-work.
Flush dormer—A dormer window the front of which is flush with the
wall face below.
'Flying' bressummer—Horizontal timber carrying deeply-projecting
eaves in a 'Wealden' house.
Foil.—A leaf-shaped space defined by the cusping in an opening or
Fret—In heraldry, an interlace of diagonal bars.
Furlong—An area of the common field containing a number of
adjacent strips running in the same direction.
Furniture—Accessories, fittings, especially of a window or door.
Gablet—A small gable in the upper part of a hipped roof.
Garderobe—A small room containing a latrine.
Gemel—In heraldry, diminutive of the bar, arranged in couples.
Half-hipped roof; Hipped gable—A roof the ends of which are
gabled in the lower part and hipped in the upper.
Hall—In a medieval house, the principal room which was often open
to the roof.
Head—Flat—having a lintel made up of voussoirs.
Four-centred—struck from four centres.
Hipped gable—See Half-hipped roof.
Hold-water base—A base having a concave moulding, or mouldings,
in its upper surface.
Hollow chamfer—A shallow concave moulding.
Impost—The projection, often moulded, at the springing of an arch.
Indent—Sinking, usually for a brass plate.
Indented quatrefoil—A quatrefoil with dart-like projections alternating with the lobes.
Intercommonable—Subject to the common rights of more than one
Jetty—The projection of the upper storey of a building beyond the
plane of the wall face below.
Jetty bressummer—the sole plate (q.v.) of the jettied upper storey
which rests on the projecting joist-ends.
Jetty plate—the wall plate of the lower storey on which the jettied
upper storey rests.
Jewelled—Prism-like decoration in relief.
Keel moulding—A moulding, a profile resembling the section through
the hull and keel of a boat.
Key-block—Simulated keystone, often of wood.
Kneeler—A corbel or bonding-stone strengthening a gable parapet
Label—In heraldry, a narrow horizontal strip (fillet) across the upper
part of a shield from which hang broader oblong tags (points),
usually three in number.
Lancet—A tall narrow window with arched head.
Linear earthwork—A bank and ditch not returned round an enclosure.
Lode—local name for artificial watercourse.
Lombardic capitals—Letters based on medieval manuscript alphabets
of N. Italy.
Loop light—Small slit window.
Louvre—Either a small lantern-shaped structure on a roof, or an
opening provided with slats, for ventilation or for the escape of
'Low-side' window—In a church, a small window of unknown
purpose, usually once shuttered.
Lynchet—A scarp produced by ploughing.
Negative—formed by cutting into a slope.
Positive—formed by the accumulation of soil on the face of a slope.
Strip—a long narrow field bounded by lynchets usually following
the contour of a hill.
Mason's mitre—In masonry or joinery, a method whereby a
moulding or surface treatment is turned with a false mitre on one
member to continue on another.
Moat—A ditch partly or wholly surrounding an earthwork enclosure.
Mouchette—In window tracery, a curved dagger-shaped opening.
Mullet—In heraldry, star usually of five points.
Nail-head—Ornament, of pyramid form, resembling a nail head.
Nook-shaft—A column shaft in a recess in a jamb, splay or reveal.
Offset—The ledge where one vertical plane of a wall sets back above
Omega ornament—Decoration consisting of two capital omegas conjoined at their heads.
Orders—In arches, concentric rings of voussoirs receding towards the
Oriel window—A projecting window, usually carried upon corbels
or brackets; also the large projecting window lighting a hall.
Outshut—A subsidiary range parallel and contiguous to the main
range of a building, and with a roof of single pitch.
Overdoor—Decorative panel above a doorway.
Overmantel—Decorative feature or panel above a fireplace surround.
Overthrow—Decorative panelling or ironwork spanning an opening.
Pall—In heraldry, robe decorated with three limbs arranged as
Pan—Infilling, usually of plastered clay, in a timber frame.
Pargetting—Plasterwork with relief or incised decoration.
Patera-ae—In Classical architecture, a dish-like ornament. In Roman
archaeology, a broad flat saucer or dish. In Gothic architecture,
a flower or lobed-leaf ornament, often square.
Pediment—Broken—in which the centre part of the raking cornice and
the tympanum are omitted.
Pegging—In a timber-framed structure, dowelling with headless
wooden pegs; hence pegholes.
Plank-and-muntin—Timber wall construction consisting of vertical
planks grooved into stout uprights.
Platband—A projecting flat horizontal band of masonry or brickwork, as distinct from a moulded string.
Post—Haunched—in timber-framed construction, a post with a
bracket-like swelling on one face to carry a beam.
Porticus—In an Anglo-Saxon church, a lateral chapel.
Purlin—Clasped—one that is held in notches in the collar beam and
the principal rafter.
Collar—in a trussed roof, a horizontal beam running longitudinally
beneath the collar beams.
Staggered—one which does not align with its neighbour.
Ragulée—In heraldry, serrated or ragged.
Rail—In carpentry and joinery, the horizontal member of a framed
Reeding—Decoration formed by parallel and adjacent convex mouldings.
Reticulated—Net-like; in tracery, a net pattern composed of circular,
ogee or other shapes.
Ridge and furrow—Remains of former cultivation; initially strips of
tilled land, with furrows on either side, raised by the action of
Riser—In earthworks, the steep face of a lynchet.
Rodden—Fenland name for an extinct natural watercourse.
Roll moulding—A prominent continuous convex moulding, also
called a Bowtell.
Run-through panelling—Panelling having small plain panels framed
by continuous rails and short muntins.
Sash window—Hung—in which the movement of the glazed frames
Sliding—in which the movement of the glazed frames is horizontal.
Scarf joint (see Fig. 4)—Bladed—halved vertically, with mortice and
Splayed—cut diagonally and pegged vertically.
Tabled—halved horizontally, with mortice and tenon joints.
Scarp—In earthworks, the steep face, and counter-scarp, the less steep
face, of an artificial bank or ditch.
Scoop wheel—Large paddle wheel used for raising water, in fen
Scramasax—Short, heavy, one-sided sword; also a dagger.
Scratching—Incised marking, often an inscription.
Screen—In secular buildings, a partition separating the main space of
a hall from the service end. Screens Passage—the space at the
service end of a hall between the screen and the end wall.
Service end or wing—In a medieval house, that part at one end of
the hall, containing the butteries, larders etc.
Shoulders—Of an arch, the parts immediately above the springing.
Skeleton mill—A small windpump (q.v.) without cladding (q.v.).
Sole plate—In timber-framed construction, lowest horizontal member
of a frame.
Spring-line—The line of a geological outcrop yielding springs.
Stages—Divisions of a structure marked by distinct horizontal
Staircase—Closed siring—with the raking supporting member(s)
parallel-sided and housing the treads and risers.
Open or cut-string—with the raking supporting member(s) cut to the
shape of the treads and risers.
Stand paten—A paten with a foot.
Stop—I. Block, often shaped or carved, terminating a projecting
moulding such as a string or label.
Head—carved in the form of a human, animal or grotesque head.
Mask—with a pointed profile and chamfered sides.
2. The feature, at the end of a chamfer or moulding, shaped to
transfer the latter to a square section, hence stop-chamfered.
Bar and hollow—with half roll and concave stop.
Jewel and hollow—with pyramidal decoration on the chamfer, and
Leaf—of foliate form.
Notched—with decorative cuts in the edges.
Run-out—dying out gradually.
Straight joint—An unbonded junction between two structures.
Strainer—In joinery, a longitudinal member between the end rails of
Strapwork—Decoration consisting of interlaced strap-like bands.
String, String-course—A projecting continuous horizontal course
Strip—Long narrow field characteristic of open-field agriculture.
Studs—The common uprights in timber-framed walls.
Studwork—Timber framework consisting largely of studs.
Swag—In architectural ornament, a festoon suspended from two
points and carved to represent cloth or flowers and fruit.
Tower mill—Windmill in which the lower part, the tower, containing the machinery is fixed and only the top or cap is turned to
face the sails into the eye of the wind.
'Town house'—A communal building similar to a guild hall.
Tracery—Flowing—comprising compound curves.
Geometrical—comprising simple curves.
Vertical—with predominantly vertical mullions.
Trippant—In heraldry, when a beast of chase is shown walking.
Truss—An open structural framework, especially of a roof.
Closed—having the framework filled, so as to form a partition.
Tumbled gables—See Brick-work.
Tusk—The jagged end of an unfinished or partly-demolished masonry
or brick wall.
Underbuilt—Addition of a wall beneath a jetty (q.v.).
Wall-anchor—Metal holdfast, often shaped or decorative, used to
secure ends of purlins or floor timbers to a masonry or brick wall.
Wall-post—An upright timber against, or partly in, a wall and
forming part of a roof structure.
Wall-tie—Metal holdfast, used with a tie rod to strengthen a masonry
or brick wall.
Wave moulding—A compound comprising a convex curve between
two concave curves.
Weathering—A sloping surface for casting off water.
Windpump—A device to raise water to an upper level by means of
a wind-driven scoop wheel.