(15½ miles N.E. of Cirencester)
The position of Bourton in the angle between the R.
Dikler and the R. Windrush, mostly on gravel, on the
line of the 'Jurassic Way', has favoured settlement since
the Neolithic period. (fn. 1) Within Salmonsbury (1) there
is evidence to suggest continuity of occupation through
most of the Iron Age and Romano-British periods.
In the latter period Bourton became a major settlement—
a town without walls—and the Iron Age defences
ceased to be significant. Attracted by the Foss Way,
where a posting station probably stood near a paved
ford and a footbridge, dense occupation developed in
the area of Bourton Bridge and also along the Foss Way
to S.W. A metalled road forked E. from the Foss Way.
The area occupied by Roman settlement is at least 55
acres. Buckle Street, the road N. from Bourton Bridge,
may be Roman in origin (see p. xlv and map, p. 18).
The accounts below owe much to information kindly
given by Mrs. H. E. O'Neil and Dr. G. C. Dunning.
Monuments in Bourton-on-the-Water and Lower Slaughter.
(1) Salmonsbury (SP 173208), an Iron Age fortified
settlement of hill-fort proportions occupying a gravel
platform between the R. Dikler and R. Windrush,
about 425 ft. above O.D., covers 56 acres and is bounded
by two close-set ramparts, each with an external ditch.
Entrances are in the N.W. and N.E. sides and another
gap probably occurred on the S.E.; little is known of
the S.W. side. Banks, each with external ditch, extend
the line of the outer rampart S.E. from the S. and E.
angles, defining an annex of perhaps 15 acres flanking
a naturally marshy area. An intermittent stream flows
through the interior and out at the S.E. The defences
survive clearly only in parts of the S.E. and N.E. sides;
information about their position elsewhere derives
from close surveillance of chance exposures and from
air photographs. Excavation by G. C. Dunning in
1931–4 indicated that some Iron Age 'A' settlement
preceded the building of the rampart. The enclosure
and main occupation were of Iron Age 'B' culture
with 'Belgic' elements appearing at the end of the
period. Abundant finds include a large hoard of currency bars. The defences were disused in the Roman
period, but much of the interior continued to be
occupied (see (1a)). Saxon objects have been recovered
from Romano-British building sites, and Saxon burials
have been found in or near the ramparts (TBGAS, 56
(1934), 5). The name Sulmonnes Burg, 'ploughman's
stead', is first recorded in 779 (PNG, I, 195). Courts of
the Liberty or of the Hundred of Salmonsbury assembled
traditionally by the entrance in the N.E. side. The
present field pattern indicates that the interior was
largely taken up by arable strip fields before modern
enclosure (C.U.A.P., OAP AJL 48).
The banks where best preserved are up to 3 ft. high.
Excavation in 1931–4 was concentrated on a section
across the defences at S.E. (site I), entrance structures
at N.E. (site V), occupied areas immediately behind the
defences at S.E. (site I), N.W. (site III), and towards the
centre (site IV). Sections were also dug across the bank
and ditch which project from the N.E. angle (sites VI,
VII). At site I the spread inner bank was 60 ft. across and
its ditch was originally 36 ft. wide and 12 ft. deep; the
almost levelled outer bank, immediately beyond, was
40 ft. across and its ditch was 18 ft. wide and 9 ft. deep,
with a notably sharp V-shaped cross-section. The banks
were of gravel and there were indications of a revetment
of Oolite slabs near the crest of the inner rampart.
Other slabs in the ditch fill suggested the possibility of
Roman slighting. In 1881, when the entire circuit was
still traceable, 'masonry' was noted in the main rampart,
then said to be about 5 ft. high. Large worked stones
were seen on its line in 1925. Subsequent observations
by Mrs. H. E. O'Neil have demonstrated the position
of an entrance in the N.W. side, S. of site III. The
excavated entrance at N.E. (site V) was 28 ft. wide
between curved terminal limestone revetments; spur
walls narrowed the entrance on the inside. A storage pit
to one side of the entrance, filled with stones, was crossed
by an entrance track 16 ft. wide and worn to a depth of
2 ft. The entrance was subsequently blocked by a row of
six large posts and by a stone wall.
Bourton-on-the-Water. (1) Salmonsbury. Iron Age fortified settlement. Plan and profile.
Pre-rampart occupation discovered at site I included
five apparently shallow pits sealed by the core, 24 ft.
wide, of the inner bank. An iron hook, a bronze loop
and Iron Age 'A' sherds lay in or on the old ground
surface. Early Iron Age sherds were found in the ditch
fill, and a relatively large number of Romano-British
sherds low in the fill indicated that the defences had been
made—or scoured—not long before the Roman conquest.
Two huts at site I, each 22 ft. in diameter, were
defined by rings of post-holes and a central post; both
huts lay immediately within a single curved ditch.
Portions of similar curving ditches were found at site
III, where they had been cut by a 'Belgic' ditch and a
palisade trench, apparently forming part of an enclosure
60 ft. wide. The enclosure ditches had been backfilled
and covered by rough paving on which were at least
two stone-footed round huts, one only 11 ft. across.
Such paving was characteristic of the 'Belgic' phase;
it was found also in site IV where a pattern of successive curved ditches, and at least one round hut, 26 ft.
across, were overlaid by paving.
Pits were found on all sites. The largest number of
storage pits was at site I. There were two skeletons in
pre-Belgic pits at site IV and three at site III.
The bank projecting E. from the N.E. angle was of
clay and gravel, 32 ft. across and 3 ft. high; outside it was
a ditch, presumably once wet, 18 ft. across and about
2 ft. deep, filled with black mud. The present stream
lies 6 ft. beyond. Air photographs suggest that this
ditch was continuous with the outer ditch of the main
enclosure. A crouched burial, thought by the excavator
to be probably of the Iron Age, was found in the bank.
Finds, apart from those mentioned, include Iron Age
'B' pottery, some with incised (not stamped) decoration, from huts and pits. 'Belgic' pottery at site III was
associated with an unusual fluted pedestal vase (TBGAS,
56 (1934), 3–5; Bagendon, 20 and 30). Two stratified
Dobunnic silver coins were found; one belongs to Allen's
uninscribed class 'C', the other, inscribed Anted, was
associated with a Claudian coin and pottery, and perhaps with another uninscribed coin of class 'B' (D. Allen
in Bagendon, 96–7 and 248). A gold quarter stater of
Tasciovanus has now been lost (D. Allen in IASB, 221;
TBGAS, 83 (1964), 15, n). A hoard of 147 currency
bars, of which 40 survive, was found in 1860, buried
as though in a chest in the area of site II. In more recent
years a single currency bar was found at 'b' on the plan,
in an area with Iron Age ditches, and two fragmentary
bars were found in the make-up of 'Belgic' paving
(PPS, XXXIII (1967), 328–9; R. F. Tylecote, Metallurgy
in Archaeology (1962), 210–11; cf. Antiquity, XIV (1940),
427–33). Thirteen brooches of iron and bronze included three of 'Camulodunum' type III. Other finds
were a carved limestone 'idol' (cf. Ant J, XIV (1934),
59–61), saddle querns, a gritstone 'beehive' quern of
Hunsbury type (Antiquity, XV (1941), 20; Trans.
Leics. Arch. Soc., XXVI (1950), 77), iron bill-hooks,
bone needles, ornaments and knife handles, stone spindlewhorls, and bones of ox, sheep, pig and goat.
Finds are in Gloucester City Museum, Corinium and
Cheltenham Museums, Ashmolean Museum, B.M.,
Bristol City Museum, National Museum of Wales,
and in private hands.
N.M.R., OAP SP 1720/3/325–6; 1721/2/319, 327–30.
C.U.A.P., OAP AJL 48–9.
Camden, Britannia (ed. Gough, 1789), 279. Rudder (1779),
303. JBAA, XIX (1863), 104. Playne (1876), 209. Witts (1883),
No. 88, 43–4. TBGAS, VII (1882–3), 16; XLVII (1925), 48–9.
PCNFC, XXIV (1931–2), 145–8. Antiquity, V (1931), 489–91;
VIII (1934), 351–2 (excavation). TBGAS, 56 (1934), 3–5; 57
(1935), 256–9; 83 (1964), 11.
(1a) Roman Remains Inside and Immediately Outside
Salmonsbury (SP 17022052), represented by abundant
chance finds, include very large numbers of coins
ranging in date from Claudian to late Roman. Structural remains include 'floors' and 'walls'.
A rectangular 'hut' in the centre of Salmonsbury was
about 14 ft. wide and at least 38 ft. long; it lay over a
circular Iron Age hut. Two rubbish pits and two
drainage ditches yielded late 1st-century and early 2nd-century pottery. A floor had 3rd-century pottery
beneath it and 4th-century pottery above.
When a drainage trench was cut in 1946 in the field
S. of Salmonsbury, a series of rubbish pits was observed over 2 acres, reaching the road by the R. Windrush; they varied from 6 ft. to 11 ft. across and were
2¾ ft. to 3¾ ft. deep. In the field S. of this (about
SP 172204) air photographs show a narrow ditch with
a rounded angle, possibly part of an enclosure. Finds,
including a gilt bronze buckle, were mostly of the 2nd
N.M.R., OAP SP 1719/6.
TBGAS, VII (1882–3), 16; 57 (1935), 234–59. Ant J, XXIX
(1949), 85–6. JRS, XXIV (1934), 212.
(2) Romano-British Settlement, Bourton Town
Area, S.E. from SP 161210 and W. of (2), is known
mostly from chance finds. Settlement covers at least 30
acres along the R. Windrush and a tributary, includes
one excavated house site (4) and connects with the
settlement area around the probable posting station (5).
Development along the Foss Way (8) extended S.W.
of this, beyond the river, on Whiteshoots Hill (6).
Burials have been noted only S.E. of the town (7).
A gap of about 250 yds. separates the main concentration of recorded remains, W. of a stream along the
line of the present High Street, from those in Salmonsbury and on its fringes (2).
A branch road ran E.S.E. from the Foss Way in the
area of (5), past the 'Leadenwell Villa' (4), towards
Structures include walls, wells, shallow pits, ovens
and floors, but nothing is known of any town walls.
Coins range from Republican issues to those of Honorius.
TBGAS, 57 (1935), 234–59; 87 (1968), 29–55. Ant J, XXIX
(2a) Roman Buildings, Lansdown ('Leadenwell Villa'
and area) (SP 16212098). A courtyard 18 ft. wide with
adjacent walls and other features, excavated in 1933–4,
lay on gravel just N. of the R. Windrush and 216 yds.
E. of Bourton Bridge, in an area that has yielded
numerous Roman finds. Four phases were recognised,
dating from the 2nd to the late 4th century. There was
a well, 8 ft. deep, an ovoid oven and two tub-shaped
lead tanks of 40 and 65 gallons capacity; the tanks are
now in Cheltenham Museum.
TBGAS, LV (1933), 377–81; 56 (1934), 99–128; 57 (1935),
260–5 (oven). JRS, XXV (1935), 216. Ant J, XXIII (1943),
(2b) Romano-British Settlement (SP 16102105), with
probable posting station (mansio or mutatio), at Bourton
Bridge, covered at least 4 acres immediately around
the Foss Way, N.E. of the bridge. The remains were
observed and diagrammatically planned by Witts in
1875–81, before the 'posting station' was largely destroyed. The adjacent settlement area was investigated
by Mrs. H. E. O'Neil briefly in 1959 and during road
widening in 1967. Occupation appears to have been continuous from the 1st to the early 5 th century. The parish
boundary follows the road and bisects the settlement.
Building foundations over 5 ft. high and perhaps
240 ft. long were noted during clearance for the railway,
as also was the base of a column 9 in. across. The main
part of the presumed posting station appears to have
formed three sides of a rectangle, perhaps 240 ft. by
140 ft., facing S.E. Occupational layers (including
samian as well as 4th-century pottery) together with
a wall which probably bounded the fourth side of
the courtyard, were found in 1967. Other buildings
examined in 1967 were interpreted as providing public
services for travellers; they extended along both sides
of the road, from the bridge to a point 500 ft. N.E.,
where the Roman road changes course to S. by about
5°. Features included forges and ovens. There was one
short length of very massive wall and near it was a
stone column base.
Very large quantities of occupational material recovered in 1875–81 included several hundred coins
ranging from M. Aurelius and L. Verus to Constans,
samian ware with ten different potters' stamps, horseshoes and spurs. A group of 23 minimissimi probably
came from the area.
TBGAS, 57 (1935), 247–59; 87 (1968), 29–55; 91 (1972),
92–116. Num. Chron., 5th series, XV (1935), 275–81, 284–6.
Brit. Num. Journ. XXVI (1949), 11, 25, 340–3 (minimissimi).
(2c) Romano-British Settlement (SP 157206–SP
16032092), on Whiteshoots Hill, has been observed on
both sides of the Foss Way, extending into Aston
Blank parish, over a length of some 500 yds. S.W. from
Bourton Bridge (plan, p. 18). Structures include
masonry walls. Pottery includes amphorae, samian and
late Roman wares. Recorded coins are from Gallienus
to Magnentius. Two large hoards of folles, datable to
307–18, were found (one as though formerly in a bag)
under a deposit of stones. A 'deep trench' is said to run
at right angles, E. from the Foss Way about SP 15732060,
in front of Whiteshoots House.
TBGAS, 57 (1935), 239, 242–3; 87 (1968), 48–60; also
forthcoming; PCNFC, XXVI (1936), 105.
(2d) Romano-British Burials (approx. SP 17102047
and SP 17202055), two, have been reported S.W. of
Salmonsbury, one in a sarcophagus.
TBGAS, 57 (1935), 243.
(3) Foss Way, Roman Road (SP 137175–SP 172222),
generally overlain by the modern road, follows a N.E.
course for 3½ miles on the parish boundary, between
677 ft. and 440 ft. above O.D., on Inferior Oolite,
Cotteswold Sand, Upper and Lower Lias, and river
gravel. The road crosses two streams and the R. Windrush; at the latter (Bourton Bridge) there was a paved
ford and a footbridge. Local deviations appear to be
for topographical reasons. There is a slight deflection
in, or at the E. entrance to, the Romano-British settlement (2b) at Bourton Bridge, the main alignment being
rejoined a corresponding distance S.W. of the bridge.
Excavations by Mrs. O'Neil have shown details of
structure and of disturbance, relationships with structures of the settlement, a road diverging towards
Salmonsbury (2), and a junction with Ryknild Street
('Condicote Lane') immediately E. of Slaughter Bridge
(SP 171222). The road is followed by the parish boundary, which therefore divides the settlement area.
Eight pagan Saxon burials (SP 166217) in the road ¾ mile
N.E. of (5) indicate disuse of the agger.
The agger was built of gravel layers on pitched stones,
but 260 yds. N.E. of the ford it was composed of small
stones and yellow silt on a bed of rammed slag. A kerb
was found in the area of settlement (2b), where also at
least one building impinged on the road. The only
observed width is 22 ft.
The Roman ford, under the present bridge over the
R. Windrush, had a surface of large pebbles with, in
places, two courses of rough stone blocks. The presence of a footbridge on the E. side of the ford was
deduced from the discovery of small piers, possibly
about 2¾ ft. square originally, built of cemented rough
Some 60 yds. N.E. of the ford a branch road led
E.S.E., but the actual junction with the Foss Way was
not observable. Its course was established by excavation 100 ft. from the junction, where buildings lay
beside it on the S. The branch road was 18 ft. to 24 ft.
wide, cambered, and built of pitched stone and gravel.
Samian ware was found below the kerb of its first
phase. It was apparently rebuilt early in the 3rd century.
TBGAS, 87 (1968), 29–55.
(4) Settlement (SP 174194), undated, shows as unclear
crop-marks of interlocked enclosures over some 8 acres
of the Santhill gravels immediately W. of the R. Windrush. The remains of a Roman building with heated
rooms have been noted close to the confluence of the
R. Windrush and the R. Dikler. Hut floors and a well
have also been noted in the area.
N.M.R., OAP SP 1719/1–4 (Baker).
H. E. O'Neil in Studies in Building History (ed. Jope, 1961),