Public Buildings and Institutions
(48) Browne's Hospital (Figs. 41, 42; Plates 66–
69) stands on the N. side of Broad Street and consists of a courtyard with the main range with Chapel
on the S., a cloister on the W., almshouse accommodation on the N. and the warden's house on the
E. The hospital was founded by William Browne,
merchant (see Brass below), and was completed in
1475/6 (Bodl. MS Rawlinson B., 352 ff. 1–2;
quoted in full by P. A. Newton in Antiquaries
Journal XLVI (1966), II, 283). It was endowed in
1485 (Cal. Pat., 1476–85, 505), and after Browne's
death in 1489 new letters patent were obtained by
his brother-in-law, Thomas Stokke, Canon of
York, in 1493.
The hospital provided accommodation for ten
poor men and two women under the supervision
of a warden and confrater. The Chapel was 'beautified' sometime between 1769 and 1785 (Harrod, 11,
370). The porch was rebuilt in 1808 when payment
was made to John Walters, architect, and Harrison,
mason (Hospital account book). A mid 19th-century proposal to rebuild the S. wall with alterations to the elevation, but retaining the gatehouse in
its original position, was not adopted (drawings in
Hospital archives). The buildings were recorded
before the late 19th-century restoration by Buckler
in 1811, by Blore at about the same time (BM Add.
MSS. 36369, 42036), by Dollman (Antient Domestick
Architecture (1858), II pls. 1–4) and in early photographs (Plates 66, 67, 69). The S. range contained
the Chapel, a long dormitory with side cubicles,
and a gatehouse opening into an unroofed external
passage which led, indirectly, into the cloister; on
the first floor, and reached by an external stair
block on the court side, was a hall (Audit Room)
and subsidiary rooms (Plate 67). The original
cloisters had an arcade of three arches, the N. of
which was wider for an entry; the upper floor was
jettied. Accommodation for the warden was in the
E. range and on the N. were service rooms. Beyond
were gardens on to which later outbuildings had
encroached (Fig. 41).
Members of the Browne family to whom references are made in this inventory are tabulated as follows:
Fig. 41 (48) Browne's Hospital
Copy of plan by F. T. Dollman made in 1858 before alterations.
In 1870 James Fowler, architect, of Louth, began
a complete restoration of the main range facing
Broad Street. He replaced the other ranges by
ones in Gothic style further to the N. and E., and
extended the cloisters to the N. The general
arrangement and appearance of the main range were
preserved with the exception of the gatehouse which
was rebuilt as a porch against the W. bay, in line
with the cloister. An octagonal stair turret was
added at the S. W. corner of the main range. The
dormitory ceased to be used as such and the cubicles,
shown by Dollman, were removed. The Hospital,
built on an impressive scale, retains contemporary
glass of special importance in the Chapel and Audit
Fig. 42 (48) Browne's Hospital
Plan as existing.
The main range on the S. has coursed rubble walls
with ashlar dressings, buttresses and parapets; a terrace
on the S. has an ashlar retaining wall, a feature which
existed in one form or another at least as early as the 18th
century (Peck, Forster's Letters, opp. p. 11). On the S.
elevation are four intermediate two-stage gabled buttresses, but on the N. the end of the W. wall of the
former E. range is reflected as a 'flying' buttress. The
E. wall of the Chapel and probably some lengths of
the side walls appear to have been rebuilt by Fowler; the
former three-light E. window cannot be traced in the
present blank wall. The W. wall of the S. range was
probably rebuilt from the ground by Fowler but the
original windows were retained; the lower has four
graduated lights in a four-centred head, and above is a
pair of single-light windows with trefoil heads and
square labels. The S. windows of the chapel, of four and
three lights, have battlemented transoms, cinque-foiled
lights and mullions rising into the almost round heads.
At the W. end of the chapel are opposing doorways on
the N. and S. each with continuous moulded jambs and
head; above, on the N., is a single light with cinquefoil
cusping in a scarcely pointed head, and on the S. a tall
window with a cinque-foiled light above and below a
The screen wall between chapel and Dormitory is
close-studded with intermediate rails and a moulded
bressummer which is coved and embattled on the E.
and carries the jettied upper wall; in the centre is a wide
opening with four-centred head, hollow-and-roll-moulded jambs, caps and bases, but on the first floor
no original openings to the gallery are traceable in the
stud work. The hard plaster infilling is decorated with
compass work. Dollman showed a closed screen at the
front of the gallery but this was probably an addition
(Plate 67). Formerly there were also opposing external
doorways at the W. end of the dormitory; that on the
N. remains in situ (in the later cross passage), and that on
the S. has been reset in the E. wall of the porch. The
dormitory windows have single cinque-foiled lights with
almost round heads and square labels; beneath the stairs
on the N. is a reset 15th-century doorway with depressed head, in the position of a former window.
Small external blockings with relieving arches in the N.
wall at upper floor level coincide with the ends of the
beams. The W. wall of the present room is of 1870; the
reset central door is probably 15th-century but heavily
repaired. The ceiling has old rafters carried on modern
braced cross beams. Reset in the N. wall is a limestone
fireplace with depressed head and moulded jambs;
partly renewed but perhaps 16th-century.
Rooms over the dormitory, known as the Audit Room,
Anteroom and Confrater's Room, are lit by four windows
on the S. and one on the N., each of two cinque-foiled
lights with transoms. The wooden screen partition at the
W. end of the Audit Room (Plate 68), formerly of full
height, was rebuilt in 1870 slightly E. of its original
position; it has hollow-chamfered stiles and muntins,
with coved cornice, and is much restored. On the N. is a
fireplace with moulded and depressed four-centred head,
probably 17th-century. Between the windows is a
wooden cornice with shallow cove with paterae and
pierced cresting, each length terminating on moulded
uprights; a modified version of the cornice returns on
the E. wall. The Confrater's Room at the W. end has an
inserted doorway to the upper part of the porch and a
reset or modern fireplace in the N. wall; access to the
upper room of the original porch must have been by
ladder and trap-door.
The roof over the whole range consists of fourteen
bays with cambered tie beams, moulded ridge pieces
and purlins, and solid arch braces.
The stair block (Plate 68) was probably totally rebuilt
in 1870 when the ground-floor was extended to the E.,
and a medieval window, presumably from the dormitory, reset in the new wall. At the foot of the stairs is a
round-headed moulded arch with an attached shaft on the
N. and corbel on the S. and battlemented capitals. Towards the head of the stairs is a moulded arch springing
from the wall face. The original handrail consists of a
roll-moulding in a hollow recess.
The present porch incorporates some original
masonry, including carved and moulded stonework.
The S. archway has bracket-moulded jambs and head,
with half-round battlemented responds; the doorway
has continuous moulded jambs and head, and between
archway and doorway is cusped panelling. The outer
buttresses are octagonal with moulded and battlemented tops, the inner are simple and gabled. A doorway on the E. with continuous moulded jambs and
head, and label with battlemented stops, is reset. The
two surviving bays of the original cloister each have
twin openings with battlemented capitals and pierced
central spandrels; the third bay, of similar design but
with one arch wider to provide an entry, has been reset
in the northernmost bay. A reset 15th-century doorway at the N. end of the cloister has moulded head
dying into plain jambs. The formerly jettied upper floor
was replaced in 1870 by a battlemented parapet (Plate
Principal fittings, mostly in Chapel or Audit Room
— Altar slab: limestone, with five consecration crosses,
upper part reworked; medieval. Alms box (Plate 55):
maple wood, cylindrical with funnel top, iron-bound,
medieval. Bell: inscribed with names of warden and
confrater; early 19th-century. Brass: at foot of stairs,
plate with black-letter inscription referring to foundation and purposes of the hospital, and bearing shield
of Browne; 15th-century. Chair (Plate 54): oak, plain,
half tub with flat front and one crudely-worked rear
leg; medieval. Chests: (1) oak, front carved with
arcade pattern enclosing lozenges, inscribed 'TE 1629'
(Plate 54); (2) oak, front carved with roundels and chip
carving, 17th-century; (3) oak, rounded top, heavily
bound in iron, three hasps, medieval (Plate 54). Clock:
of chair-frame type, installed 1840 (Mercury, 20 Mar.),
reset in W. turret. Desks: two pairs of bench ends, the
poppy heads carved with confronting eagles, beasts and
foliation (Plate 43); 15th century.
Glass: Windows in the chapel contain glass (Plate 36)
which is probably contemporary with the building and
so may be dated c. 1475; that in the Audit Room may
be, on the evidence of heraldry, marginally later. The
condition of the glass had deteriorated by the early
19th century and restoration was carried out in 1869
when some additional coloured glass was introduced; it
was cleaned, and to some degree rearranged, by D. King
in 1967. It has been suggested that it is the work of John
Glazier of Stamford on the analogy of glass installed by
him at Tattershall church (J. P. Hoskins, The Hospital of
William Browne with supplement on the medieval glass
by P. A. Newton and D. King where inscriptions on the
glass are given in full). Windows in the chapel depict
large figures beneath canopies, against coloured backgrounds; the method of representing jewelled decoration, by coloured glass individually leaded in settings of
clear and yellow stain glass, is a technical peculiarity. In
the chapel — S. wall (1), above transom: St. James the
Great in pilgrim's dress with hat slung on shoulder
and holding staff; St. John Baptist, in camel-skin cloak,
holding Lamb on book, background diapered with
scrolls inscribed 'Ecce agn(us) dei', and at base modern
device of a stork rising from nest (perhaps a rebus of
Stokke), and inscription '+ me spede'; the Trinity represented by God the Father, Christ on the Cross and the
Dove, with orb and scroll inscribed 'S(an)c(tu)s
(Trini)tas', and modern diapered background; a Royal
Saint, crowned and nimbed, holding sceptre, possibly
St. Edmund or St. Edward the Confessor, but the crown
and head have been amalgamated. Below transom: head
and shoulders of female saint, possibly the Virgin, with
demi-angel above; female saint, lower part missing,
with head-garland of roses and leaves, holding lilies
and roses, possibly the Virgin with symbols of Conception; head of the Virgin with Dove descending; the
Virgin, lower part missing, crowned and holding model
of three-light windows symbolic of the Conception;
male head, bearded, perhaps a prophet; head and
shoulders of crowned saint, probably the Virgin, with
demi-angel above; in tracery are fragments including a
spiked wheel presumably from a St. Katharine scene,
and a closed door perhaps once associated with a figure
of the Virgin. The figures mostly have architectural
borders with niches containing lions and eagles alternately, and canopies incorporating miniature heads;
along the base of the lights are fragments of an invocatory inscription referring to William and Margaret
Browne. Window (2), head of centre light: St. Michael
spearing Devil (Plate 39), with background diapered
with roundels each depicting a sun; other fragments
include the stork device, and sacred monogram 'MR'.
In entrance passage to hospital, W. window (3): shield of
Browne (sable three mallets argent); shield with Browne's
merchant's mark (heart with letter B, surmounted by
cross); shield of Browne impaling Elmes (ermine on
three bars couped sable fifteen elm leaves or) for Elizabeth,
daughter of William and Margaret Browne, and husband John Elmes (Plate 39); roundel with stork device.
In Audit Room — N. wall (4), shield of Elmes (Fig.
40). S. wall (5): King David, with scroll bearing name,
holding second scroll with text from Psalm CXII. (Plate
37); St. Paul, head extraneous, with name on scroll,
holding sword and scroll inscribed with text from
Colossians III.1–2; in tracery, shield of Browne.
Window (6): King David, modern head, with namescroll, holding scroll inscribed with contraction of
Psalm CVI.43; St. Paul, name-scroll, holding scroll
inscribed with text from Corinthians III. 19 (Plate 37); in
tracery, shield of Elmes, impaling possibly Iwardby
(ermine a cross sable) for William Elmes (1465–1504), son
of John and Elizabeth Elmes (see window 3), and wife
Elizabeth Iwardby. Window (7): King Solomon,
name-scroll bearing text from Proverbs XV. 18 (Plate
37); figure composed of unrelated fragments including
a male saint wearing a doctor's black cap (Plate 37), and
a scroll with composite lettering which contains the
name 'Seneca', the classical philosopher. Windows (5)(7) have backgrounds of yellow-stain quarries with
floral designs, and borders with flowers, strapwork, and
merchants' marks and stork devices of Browne family
(Plate 39), some modern, in the heads.
Fig. 43 (48) Browne's Hospital
Misericord in chapel.
Paintings: (1), on canvas, copy and translation of inscription on brass (q.v.), in Audit Room formerly in
Chapel, dated 1662; (2) (Plate 53), flanking (1), two
panels with texts in black-letter in English from Acts
X.1-5; perhaps 16th-century. Piscina: recess, partly
under window jamb, with cinquefoil head, sinking in
projecting shelf on attached pedestal; 15th-century.
Plate: cup (ht. 6 ins.), tapering stem with knop, inscribed as gift of Dr. Thomas Cawdry in 1635; inventory of 1677 shows that Dr. Cawdry's gift included a
cover to the cup (Account Book); salver (diam. 6 ins.)
with three scroll feet, inscribed as gift of James Hurst in
1782, engraved with corn sheaf on rim, by Robert
Jones 1781; flagon, (ht. 11¼ ins.), Sheffield plate, by
Thomas Law & Co., 19th-century. Screen (Plate 41): at
W. end of chapel, in ten bays, the centre pair being
doors, each divided into two sub bays with elaborate
crocketed finials against a traceried background, and
coves on each side enriched with miniature vaulting;
late 15th-century. Squint: in N. wall of chapel, at high
level and originally serving warden's lodging, rectangular, blocked; 15th-century. Stalls (Plate 42): six, at W.
end of chapel, with curved backs, hand rests in form of
angels, beasts or birds, and misericords (Plate 43) carved
as (a) mermaids, (b) dragons (Fig. 43), (c) eagles, (d)
beasts, (e) eagle, (f) grotesque head, perhaps modern;
15th-century. Tables: (1) oak, turned legs, inscribed
'1583 PR', for Peter Routh, warden; 17th-century,
apparently re-using some earlier pieces. (2) in former
dormitory, leaves inlaid with diamond and square
pattern; 17th-century, legs and base modern.
(49) Lord Burghley's Hospital, High Street St.
Martins (Fig. 44; Plate 80). The Hospital of St.
John the Baptist and St. Thomas the Martyr was
founded in c.1170–80 for the relief of travellers and
the local poor. In 1548–9 it was described as 'on the
bridge' (Cal. Pat. 1548–9, 358–60). By the end of the
Middle Ages its function as a hospital appears to
have fallen into abeyance; only the chapel continued in proper use (Chantry Cert. XXXV; Val.
Eccl. (Record Commission) IV, 143) and by the
16th century it was called a free chapel. The hospital
was bought by William Cecil in 1549 (Cal. Pat.
(1548–9), 358) and part was maintained as an almshouse by 1595 (NRO, Fitzwilliam Misc., 433), but
the present hospital was not formally reconstituted
until 1597 in which year Lord Burghley endowed it
(Ex. MS, 75/44). There were to be thirteen old men
one of whom was to serve as warden.
The building at the E. end of the site dates from
the late 16th or early 17th century and incorporates
part of the substructure of the 12th-century hospital.
Also in the 17th century a new range was added on
the W. to accommodate ten of the thirteen men
stipulated in the Founder's ordinance. The date
stone on the central gable is eroded but probably
reads 1616. Various alterations were made subsequently and in 1964–5 the rooms were completely
The 12th-century work, in 'Barnack' stone, consists
of a barrel-vaulted tunnel running diagonally beneath
the N.E. corner of the building, between two semicircular arches, each of two unchamfered orders, on the
N. and E. faces of the 12th-century hospital (Plate 4).
There is a clasping buttress on the corner of the 12th-century building, now partly obscured and visible
externally as a pilaster. Above the arches and continuing
across the buttress is a chamfered string-course; a second,
higher, string-course survives only on the buttress.
Reset on top of the buttress is a band of 12th-century
tooth-ornament. On the S., a smaller half-arch spans
the 6 ft. gap between the 12th-century hospital and the
earlier bridge-pier (see mon. 64). The 12th-century
hospital was built partly in the river and the tunnel prevented total obstruction of the S. arch of the bridge.
The present hospital comprises an L-shaped block
next to the bridge, presumably of the late 16th or early
17th century, and a long W. range which was added in
1616. The former, of coursed rubble and two storeys,
has its E. wall built above the parapet of the 12th-century bridge, and its N. wall follows that of the
original hospital. The S. wing, parallel with the street,
has a blocked central doorway with moulded jambs and
head, leading to a cross passage which was the original
entrance to the hospital. The N.E. corner of the building as far as the 12th-century buttress is of pindle and
was rebuilt by Browning in 1849 when the present
bridge was erected. The windows have ovolo-moulded
mullions, but a number of openings have been blocked.
The N. wing has been considerably patched and the S.
elevation much altered with the insertion of new
windows; three wooden four-light windows with
diamond mullions survive on the S. and another on the
N. Inside, there are chamfered cross beams, some with
run-out stops, others stop-moulded. A large window in
the W. gable has been blocked by the later W. range.
The W. range, straight-jointed against the foregoing,
has a chamfered plinth on the N. of reused 12th-century
masonry, and the walls contain a number of blocks of
this date laid in alternating courses with rubble; some
have roll-mouldings. Other reused blocks have masons'
marks. On the N. (Plate 80) six tall chimney stacks rising
from the wall are 18th-century, replacing earlier stacks.
Between them are flush gabled dormers, formerly with
finials. The windows have ovolo-moulded mullions
with labels, but one has been enlarged. The S. elevation,
considerably altered in 1964, is dominated by three large
flush gabled dormers. In the apex of the central gable is a
slab carved with figures '1 . . 6', probably for date 1616,
although the third digit might be a 4. The windows
have moulded mullions but many are modern. Before
the recent changes there were eight doorways but five
were not original; an old plan reproduced by Peck
shows only a central and end doors (Peck, Desiderata
Curiosa, I (1732), pl. opp. p. 14 of lib. 5). These additional doorways were probably inserted when the
interior arrangement was altered from one with a long
corridor and rooms leading off, to one with larger
rooms each with separate outside doors (Fig. 9).
Formerly, alternate partitions terminated against the
central mullions of windows in the rear wall, and each
stack served fireplaces in adjacent rooms. A stair at the
E. end led to a long semi-attic lit from both sides. It
was probably originally without divisions. On a jamb
of a ground-floor window is a metal plaque inscribed
'Easter Flood in the year 1640 the water came up to this
Fig. 44 (49) Lord Burghley's Hospital, before recent alterations
Plan at ground-floor level
and of N.E. corner at river level.
(50) Fryer's Hospital, Kettering Road (Fig. 45;
Plate 160), one storey, coursed rubble walls with
freestone dressings, was built in 1832 to designs by
George Basevi following bequests in the will of
Henry Fryer. The accommodation originally comprised six single rooms entered from three shared
lobbies but recent alterations have closed these
entrances and access is now from the back.
Fig. 45 (50) Fryer's Hospital.
The main elevation in the Tudor style is divided
into three identical units by buttresses. Each unit has a
central doorway with four-centred head beneath a
parapeted gable with Gothic pinnacle, and windows
from which the transoms have been removed. In the
three gables are carved mullioned panels: 1, arms of
Truesdale, inscribed in raised Gothic letters 'Thomae
Truesdale insig:'; 2, arms of Fryer and crest of Hurst,
inscribed 'Hen. Fryer Fundatoris insig:' and 'Iacobi
Hurst. Benefactoris insig:'; 3, arms of Burghley, inscribed 'Gul: Dni: de Burghley. insig:'. Above the W.
buttress is an inscription 'Geo. Basevi: Archt. 1832'.
Low gate piers with cusped panelled sides have been
reset from a central position.
(51) Hopkins' Hospital, St. Peter's Street (Fig.
46; Plate 160), was founded on the initiative of
John Hopkins who opened a subscription in 1770
when he was Alderman. The Corporation gave the
site which was on the Town Walls, and the Earl of
Exeter the gardens on the W. The proceeds of a
special performance by Mr. Whitley's Company at
the Theatre (Blore, 221–2) were donated, and subscriptions were received in 1770 from the Town
Council and Alderman Hopkins, and in 1772 from
the Earl of Exeter (Chamberlains' Accounts;
Exeter Day Books). By 1773 the hospital had been
built (bequest of James Hurst). In 1962 the rooms
were replanned and several doors blocked.
The almshouse, of two storeys, has ashlar walls and is
built in the Gothic style with two-light pointed windows, embattled parapets and depressed four-centred
doorways. Two upper windows are blind to preserve
a regular design, and between the central windows is a
scrolled cartouche with the arms of Stamford above
which is a reused and recut gargoyle of a crowned head
against a background of a traceried window-head
(Plate 119). On the parapet are openwork pinnacles.
Each floor had four rooms which were entered separately from the outside, those on the ground floor from
the W. and those on the first floor from a raised platform
on the E.
Opposite, on the N. side of St. Peter's Street, is a projection with a false gable which reflects the N. gable of
the almshouse; it was built c. 1770 and replaces the
medieval gate in the Town Wall. The Council's gift of
£70 in 1770 was for repairing the gate as well as for
building the almshouse (Chamberlains' Accounts). The
gable feature was reset early in the present century when
the road was widened.
Fig. 46 (51) Hopkins' Hospital.
Fig. 47 (52) Snowden's Hospital.
(52) Snowden's Hospital, Scotgate (Fig. 47).
The almshouse was founded under the will of
Richard Snowden who died in 1604. He left all his
land for the benefit of seven poor widows who were
at first housed in a building he owned on the site
of the present almshouse. In 1822 the hospital received the interest on £1,000 by the will of Henry
Fryer, which probably led the way towards rebuilding (PRO, PCC, 17 June 1823). The new
almshouse, entirely replacing the old and providing
for eight widows, was built at a cost said to be £450
(Burton, Appendix 11–13; contracts advertised in
Mercury, 18 Apr. 1823). The architect was Thomas
Pierce (Chamberlain's Accounts, 1822). Recently
accommodation was reorganized to house three
The hospital, of one storey, slate roofs, with red brick
stacks of 1877 (Municipal Charities Treasurer's Book),
is built in the Tudor style. The ashlar street front has
a central doorway with depressed four-centred head
between two-light side windows. Across the front,
below the eaves, is inscribed 'Snowden's Hospital rebuilt 1823 H.P. West Esq. Mayor'. The dwellings have
rubble walls; doors and windows have Tudor heads.
Fig. 48 (53) Truesdale's Hospital.
(53) Truesdale's Hospital, Scotgate (Fig. 48;
Plate 160). Thomas Truesdale, attorney, died in
1700 leaving land in Morton and Boston, Lincolnshire, and a house in Scotgate, for the benefit of six
poor men. By 1831 accommodation for eight men
had been provided but in that year George Basevi
reported that the building needed replacement and
proposed a hospital to house twelve men. Building
began in 1832 to designs by Basevi, and was completed the following year at a total cost said to be
£3,300. In addition to the twelve almshouses a
committee room and two rooms for a nurse were
provided (Burton, Appendix 45, 47, 48). Richardson was contractor, stone carving was by W. G.
Nicholl and iron railings were by W. and S.
Summers at a cost of £47.10.0. The rooms at the
S. end of the E. range were added in 1844 by
Richardson, continuing Basevi's design, for £447,
and coalhouses were rebuilt (account book at
Kelham's, 9 Broad Street; Knipe's map).
The building is in the Tudor Gothic style with parapeted gables over archways all having four-centred
heads with square labels; the windows have mullions
and square heads. The single-storey dwellings are
arranged in two confronting rows behind a street block
with a central through-archway. The forecourt is
flanked by gable walls against adjoining properties. The
ashlared street block has angel-stops to the entrance
archway, probably supplied by W. G. Nicholl, and in
the spandrels are the letters 'Th' and 'T' for the founder.
In the central gable is a cusped quatrefoil containing a
quartered shield for Truesdale; in the side gables are
quatrefoils enclosing blank shields. The string-course
is inscribed 'G. Basevi Archt. 1832'. Chimney shafts are
either octagonal or rectangular set diagonally, in groups
or in pairs, the pair above the entrance linked with
cusped arches. The entrance passage is vaulted and
flanking it are lead rainwater heads inscribed '1832'.
The almshouses, in coursed rubble, consisted of single
rooms entered from shared open lobbies, but recent
alterations have amalgamated the rooms into larger
units. Over the entrances are square panels with blank
shields. On the W. an almost central cross passage leads
from the yard to ground behind Snowden's Hospital;
in the gable over the archway is an inscribed panel
recording the hospital's rebuilding and enlargement. A
tall retaining wall with two-stage buttresses closes the
yard on the S.
For Williamson's Almshouses see mon. (398).
(54) Stamford School stands on the N. side of
St. Paul's Street and incorporates part of the former
church of St. Paul. The school was founded in 1532
and perhaps in c.1548 moved into the church of St.
Paul, the parish of which had recently been amalgamated with that of St. George. The church was
probably shortened at this time, the E. end remaining in use as a schoolroom until 1930 when it was
restored as a chapel. A second schoolroom was
added on the N. in 1833. (Deed, History of Stamford
School, 14, 42–6.)
The Chapel (Fig. 49; Plate 6) is a rectangular
building with a combined Nave and sanctuary, and
a N. aisle.The walls are of 'Barnack' stone, coursed
rubble with ashlar dressings and some pindle. The
roofs are lead-covered. Of the present building
(65 ft. by 29 ft.) only the E. half is of early date, the
W. half being added in 1930 by Messrs. Traylen
and Lenton, architects.
The two E. bays of the S. wall are of the first half
of the 12th century, but the plan of the church of
this date is not known; it may have been rectangular
without a chancel. In c. 1200 a N. aisle was added,
and the present arcade of four bays seems to be an
authentic restoration of the aisle's original length
although only the two E. bays are ancient. The E.
wall also dates from c. 1200 and either replaced an
earlier E. wall or, alternatively, a chancel arch.
Larger windows were added to the S. wall during
the first half of the 14th century. Late in the 15th
century new windows were introduced into the E.
walls of the sanctuary and aisle. The date of the
demolition of the W. part of the church is not
known, but a wall built across it just W. of the
second pier (Plate 6) may date from the conversion
of the building into a schoolroom in the 16th
century. Excavations in 1902 (Deed, op. cit., 66)
revealed the 'original floor level'. In 1929–30
excavations were carried out ahead of the restoration of the building as a chapel. Two pier bases,
fragments of medieval carving and window tracery
were found (Stamfordian, no. 8, 4, 5).
Architectural Description — The Nave and sanctuary
has an E. wall, probably of c.1200, with a low central
pilaster buttress flanked by areas of 19th-century pindle
facing; not exactly in line with the arcade is a taller
pilaster buttress. Above the facing are lengths of string-course, chamfered above and below, some enriched
with saw-tooth decoration; these decorated pieces are
probably 12th-century, reset, the remainder contemporary with the wall. The wall was thickened internally in the 15th century and the E. window inserted; the
window has four graduated cinque-foiled lights in a
triangular head with external label and grotesque headstops. The two E. bays of the S. wall have a corbel-table
with miniature arches and rounded corbels, supporting
a later battlemented parapet. The lower part of the
wall has a refacing of pindle. In the E. bay the corbel-table is lower by about 18 ins. than in the adjacent bay,
and in a different plane, indicating the rebuilding of the
E. bay in the 14th century when a window of that date
was inserted. Only one pilaster buttress is 12th-century,
that at the S.E. angle being replaced by a long projecting
buttress perhaps in the 14th century; a former pilaster
between the two bays is shown by Peck but is now obscured by a wide projecting area of ashlar of unknown
origin. In the E. bay a short length of chamfered string
course with saw-tooth and billet ornament survives and
continues in the W. bay. Early 14th-century windows
with rectangular heads and demi-reticulated tracery are
in each bay, one with a grotesque head-stop, the other
with one light blocked internally; the windows interrupt the string-course which is reset below the sills.
Reset between the bays is a 15th-century doorway with
continuous moulded jambs and head; it was formerly
internal and is now solely decorative. In the S. wall is a
doorway to a former rood loft stair; it has a chamfered
ogee head without rebates and is 14th-century. One
jamb of the upper opening to the loft is original.
Fig. 49 (54) Former Church of St. Paul.
The N. aisle has a N.E. buttress of slight projection,
presumably of c. 1200; against it is a later buttress with
a reset chamfered string-course. The E. window of three
trefoiled lights is 15th-century. The N. arcade, comprising two original and two modern bays, has an E.
respond capital with leaf and volute-type decoration;
the capital incorporates a further lobe on the S., supported on a long conical corbel, but it was apparently
not designed to carry an arch (Plate 9). This respond is
partly hidden by the 15th-century thickening of the E.
wall. The two round piers with chamfered, square
sub-bases, water-holding bases and stiff-leaf capitals
(Plate 8) carry double-chamfered arches; the E. part of
the third arch is original. The third pier and W. respond
have original square sub-bases, presumably in situ. The
aisle wall is early 19th-century and modern.
The Roof, over the E. part of nave, is flat-pitched and
comprises tie beams, short king posts, and purlins,
probably of the 17th century. The second tie beam is
supported on a later projection with moulded corbelling.
Fittings — Coffin lids: (1) (Plate 33), under first
recess on S., limestone slab with black-letter inscription
arranged cross-wise. 'Henri Elyngton jadiz Parson de sa
glysc gyt iscy; dieu de sa alme eyt mercy amen;
Katerine & Margarete preie: p li; a vost chapel il fut
pour: amy'; Elyngton was rector of St. Paul's between
1384 and 1400; at end of inscription is incised floral
decoration. (2), under second recess, miniature lid
(2 ft. 1 in. long), tapering sides with central ridge and
fish-tail motifs indicating crosses, probably 13th-century. Images: (1, 2) found in 1930, probably a facing
pair; lower half of draped figure, and another similar
but less damaged, both medieval. (3), over W. door,
male head, perhaps 17th-century. Monument recesses:
(1), in S. wall, with chamfered imposts, double chamfered arch, medieval, much renewed; (2), adjacent to
(1), with moulded imposts, continuous roll-and-hollow
moulded jambs and head, and a second chamfered arch
at back of recess, 14th-century; (3), reset over W. doorway, formerly on N. side of church, segmental-arched
string-course, chamfered below, with Lombardic
inscription in two lines, the letters misleadingly ac-centuated in paint, '+HIC IACET . . . IUSTACIUS
MALERBE . . . . . . . N. . . IS STAM(orN)FORDIE
CUIUS ANIME PROPICIETUR DEUS AMEN'.
The eroded words after the name have been read as
' . . quondam burgensis . .'; Malerbe was Parliamentary
representative for Stamford in 1322 (Parl. Writs, II,
1134) (Plate 33). Piscina: in S. wall, three recesses, the
central with trefoil drain, modern projecting shelf, 13th-century; the side recesses, probably credences, with
chamfered ogee heads, 14th-century. Miscellanea: (1),
reset in N. wall, window head found in 1930, 14th-century but much restored; (2), over first recess, a keystone with rectangular decorative panel containing an
oval or heart within looped branches, perhaps 13th-century (Fig. 50).
The Schoolroom, built in 1833, necessitated the rebuild-of most of the north wall of the church. The walls are of
pindle with freestone quoins. The foundation stone is
inscribed, 'Erected by Public Subscription. This first
Stone was laid IX Oct MDCCCXXXIII John Roden
Esq Mayor'; in truth £373 of the total cost of £522
was contributed by the Rev. F. E. Gretton, recently
appointed headmaster (Deed, op. cit., 45). The style is
Tudor; the windows at each end have cinque-foiled
lights and doorways have four-centred heads in rectangular frames. The open roof has tie beams, curved
braces secured to king posts, and shaped pendants.
Reset in room N. of schoolroom is a stone panel with
scroll surround, inscribed 'Donum M: Tho Bellot
Stamfordiae Gymnasi Archis Ano Dni 1609', referring
to the gift of the master's house to the school by Bellot
Fig. 50 (54) Former Church of St. Paul
(55) Former School and Schoolhouse, Wharf
Road, built in the early 19th century as a Girls' National
School. The schoolroom of six bays has walls of coursed
rubble and the openings have flat arches in brick. The
detached schoolhouse with coursed rubble walls, class 10
plan, has wooden ovolo-moulded mullioned windows
with iron casements, of two and three lights; it was built
in plain Jacobean style in 1851 (Mercury, 2 May).
(56) Former Congregational School, behind No. 7
St. Paul's Street, opened in 1821 (Burton, 200). The
walls of coursed rubble have round-headed windows in
red brick surrounds; above are small dormers. The
school consisted of a single room. The church accounts
for 1821 record only repairs by Lamford, a carpenter,
suggesting that the school may have been formed out of
a previous structure.
(57) Town Hall, St. Mary's Hill (Fig. 51; Plate
117). Since the Middle Ages a room over the gateway on the bridge had been used as the Town Hall,
but the gateway became an impediment and the
Wansford Road Turnpike Trustees approached the
Council in 1774 over the resiting of the Town
Hall so that the building could then be demolished
(Hall Book 4, f. 26). Agreement was reached with
the town in 1775 (Hall Book 4, ff. 30–1) and the
Council chose a site on St. Mary's Hill. The Trustees
obtained an Act in 1776 enabling them to demolish
the Town Hall and build a new one (16 Geo. III,
c. 74). The foundation stone was laid the same year
(Mercury, 16 May) and the building was completed
in 1779 (Hall Book 4, f. 81); plans for seats and other
woodwork were made in 1780 by John Dixon,
carpenter. Payments for improvements and maintenance are recorded in 1807 and 1819 (Hall Book 5).
In 1819 Thomas Pierce, surveyor, reported on the
state of the roof, suggesting its replacement for £158
(Hall Book 5, f. 152). A sum of £250 was said to be
necessary for work on the Hall. However, bills
amounting to £330 were presented including £159
from Jas. Richardson, carpenter (Chamberlains'
Accounts). Following the Municipal Reform Act
of 1835 improvements were made to the Hall and to
the Gaol behind it. In 1838 the kitchen was partitioned to form a Town Clerk's office which contained a safe; Richardson received £75 for both
plans and workmanship. Sometime in the early 19th
century, possibly in 1819, the entrance hall was remodelled and the present stair installed. Later, perhaps in c. 1836, a wing was built in the angle at the
rear, originally of two storeys but later heightened.
Further buildings were added at the rear in 1891.
Although no designer is known it is recorded that
Henry Tatam, cabinet maker, 'explained' the proposed plans to the Council in 1775 on behalf of the
Turnpike Trustees (Hall Book 4, f. 40). It may be
suggested that the small-scale architectural details
evident on the main elevations may be due to
Tatam's involvement with the proposals for the
new building (see also mon. (97)).
Fig. 51 (57) Town Hall.
The building has almost identical N. and W. elevations of ashlar; the remainder is of coursed rubble. It has
three tiers of windows but the front range is two storeys
high over a basement and part at the rear has three
storeys. The symmetrical W. elevation of seven bays rises
above a terrace with two modern flights of steps and
railings, the central three bays breaking forward slightly.
The ground stage below a platband is rusticated; all
the lower openings have round heads but the window
tympana are solid. The central doorway is emphasized
by projecting rustication and a keystone. The two
upper tiers of windows, in plain ashlar walls with
rusticated quoins, have keystones and surrounds enriched with alternate paterae and fluting (Plate 121).
Between the top tier of windows is a cartouche (Plate
119) with scroll surround in bold relief, bearing the arms
of Stamford (gules three lions pass. in pale or impaling
chequy or and az.). The moulded cornice has slight projection. The N. elevation repeats that on the W. but,
owing to the sloping ground, the terrace is omitted.
The second bay from the W. conceals a chimney stack
and all openings in the bay are blind.
Internally, the entrance hall has six large wooden
Doric columns and a double-flight staircase with turned
newels, all of the early 19th century. The N.W. room
was divided in the early 19th century and a second doorway inserted from the entrance hall; the partition has
since been removed. The S.W. room, originally a
kitchen and divided in 1838 (see above), was provided
with a safe above which are the painted arms of Stamford and date 1849. The N.E. room has a plaster cornice
of c. 1830. In the S.E. angle a small room with canted
sides was built in 1836 and formerly had access from the
S. On the first floor the Hall or Session Room occupies
the W. range. It has two tiers of windows on all but the
E. side, where there is an elliptical-headed opening forming a small gallery. Two benches with fielded-panelled
backs and shaped tops are part of the Court fittings
made by John Dixon for £25 in 1781 (Hall Book); a
third bench and a central seat with higher back,
recorded in an old photograph, no longer survive.
Other fittings include: a portrait on panel of William
Cecil, Lord Burghley (1520–98), 16th or 17th-century;
a board inscribed in black-letter with list of mayors to
1700; two boards listing mayors from 1700 to 1749 and
from 1750 to 1800, and Royal Arms of 1780 on canvas,
all in shaped and eared surrounds of 1780.
Fig. 52 (58) Assembly Rooms
(58) Assembly Rooms, St. George's Square (Figs.
52, 53; Plate 91). In 1727 the site was let to Askew
Kirk on condition that an Assembly Room be built
(Ex. MS, 88/42). Assemblies had been held monthly
at a house in Barn Hill since before 1720, and
monthly assemblies were maintained at the present
building after Kirk's death in 1738 (Mercury, 14 Apr.
1720, 15 Aug. 1745). It is recorded that in 1721 Kirk
had given up the governorship of his boarding
school to his wife, hitherto a mantua maker, so that
he could devote his time to teaching dancing at the
school (Mercury, 9 Mar. 1721). The building of
c. 1727 consists of a large room end-on to the street.
In 1793 and 1795 payments were made for various
works on the new rooms adjoining the Assembly
Rooms; Thomas Pilkington undertook the joinery
work in 1795. In 1797 Robert Hames carried out
sundry masonry repairs for £16.10.0. These new
rooms are presumably the late 18th-century 'card
and tea rooms' on the W. of the main Room
(Burton, 13). In 1868 the Rooms were restored unsympathetically by William Langley. The classically-designed entrance front brings emphasis to the
corner of the square and contrasts with the adjacent
Fig. 53 (58) Assembly Rooms.
The buildings have coursed rubble walls except for
the N. elevation which is ashlared; roofs are hipped.
The street front of the main Room consists of a central
round-headed doorway with rusticated pilasters and
pediment, a pair of flanking round-headed blind windows, and angle pilasters supporting an architrave, frieze
and cornice, below a parapet (Figs. 13, 54, 55). Few
original internal features survive; exceptions include
some bolection-moulded panelling in two heights, and a
stone fireplace with a carved wooden surround and
overmantel, surmounted by a broken pediment enclosing a cartouche draped with husks. A second fireplace,
of 1868, has an elaborately moulded 18th-century
overmantel with scroll side-brackets, eared surround
and broken pediment as the foregoing.
Fig. 54 (58) Assembly Rooms
The later rooms occupy a two-storey range parallel to
the earlier Rooms; it has coursed rubble walls with
flush dressings. The E. front, facing the square, has
stepped window lintels and continuous sills uniform
with the neighbouring house, No. 27 St. Mary's
Street (361). The range has a central stair hall, now with
later stair, between the former card and tea rooms. In the
N. room is a late 18th-century wooden fireplace
surround enriched with agricultural emblems (Plate
Fig. 55 (58) Assembly Rooms
(59) Former Stamford Institution, St. Peter's
Hill (Plate 156), was built in 1842 to a design by
Bryan Browning (Stamford Institution Report
(1842), 17) at a cost of £1,724; the contractor was
Moses Peal (Mercury, 27 Aug., 24 Sept., 1841).
It contained a concert and lecture room with a gallery to be used as a museum, a library and reading
room, newspaper and committee rooms, laboratory,
and apartments for a resident. An octagonal observatory and camera obscura, formerly rising from
the roof as a cupola but now demolished, were not
part of the first plan (Mercury, 3 Sept. 1841).
It is of two storeys and cellar with Ketton ashlar front
wall and coursed rubble rear walls. The Greek-style
street elevation in three bays has rusticated ground stage,
central pedimented doorway with battered, moulded
and eared architrave and carved axial brackets supporting
a pediment (Plate 157), and flanking round-headed windows in square recesses. The tall first-floor sash windows
have eared surrounds and cornices and originally had
truncated pediments; the attic stage comprises an architrave, plain frieze, cornice with lion's-head waterspouts and balustrade having central wreath and ribbon
motif with openwork side bays. The interior has been
much altered. The lecture room on the first floor
remains undivided; part of the gallery, now a room,
survives on the S. and is supported on two fluted castiron columns and contains part of a heavy dentilled
plaster cornice. The stair to the former observatory
remains in the S.E. corner.
Fig. 56 (60) Theatre
(60) Former Theatre, St. Mary's Street (Figs. 57,
58, 59; Plate 91). In 1766 William Clark, a Stamford
mason, and James Whitley 'comedian', leased the
site from the Earl of Exeter (Court Roll, Easter
1766) and immediately began construction of the
theatre. It was completed in 1768 (Mercury, 17 Mar.)
at a cost of £806 (Harrod, 368). Whitley had a
company of actors and was involved in the management of at least six Midland theatres (Baker,
Biographica Dramatica, 746–7). He was closely connected with Stamford and his wife was buried in St.
John's church. As built, the theatre had a large stage,
a gallery, pit and two tiers of boxes (hand bills in
Stamford library). A cellar belonging to an earlier
house on the site was incorporated in the structure.
In 1849–53 extensive alterations were made by the
Marquess of Exeter and his tenant, Mr. Cople, when
the floors of the pit and the stage were apparently
levelled (Mercury, 15 Dec. 1848, 23 Sept. 1853).
The theatre finally closed in June 1871 and the
building was put to other uses (Mercury, 26 May).
Fig. 57 (60) Former Theatre
Plan at basement level.
The walls are of coursed rubble except for the ashlar
front wall. The classically designed main front on the N.
has openings of domestic proportions but arranged in an
unorthodox manner in order to comply with the internal floor levels required by the theatre. It has rusticated quoins, cornice with shaped brackets, and a parapet. A central round-headed doorway with panelled
pilasters and open pediment is flanked by side doorways
and windows each with wide but plain architraves
(Figs. 10, 12, 56). The side doors may have given access
to the upper levels of seats. The four upper windows, in
two pairs, have moulded eared architraves, triple
keystones and moulded sills; a slightly higher central
window has a round head with moulded architrave and
bold, spaced rustication, and a sill supported on shaped
brackets. Doorways and windows in the side walls have
flush dressings. Internally, the main floor is now reached
by a short flight of stairs from the street level. The space
below the modern floor is lit by side windows and has a
number of stone partitions of c. 1768; the S. half below
the stage must have been dressing rooms from which the
stage was reached by a stair on the E. A narrow rectangular area in the centre may be the orchestra pit. A
wall defining a passage on the E. side, and two further
short walls to the W., probably formed part of the support for the boxes. The early 18th-century cellar in the
N.W. corner has an ashlar barrel vault. At main-floor
level are further windows in the side walls including a
pair at the N. end, which are at different levels to conform with a former sloping gallery; scars of a stair to
this gallery survive in the E. side wall.
Fig. 58 (60) Former Theatre
The hipped roof is in eight bays with tie beams, king-post trusses, and square-set staggered purlins, three pairs
to a bay. At the N. end, poles set at a slope between the
tie beam and the end wall held a former plaster ceiling
over the gallery; some plaster painted bright blue survives. The auditorium is now divided by a cross wall
presumably introduced in 1871; in the centre is a large
reset door-case with double doors, fluted Ionic side
pilasters, pulvinated frieze, dentil cornice, and broken
pediment. This doorway may have come from the
Fig. 59 (60) Theatre
Diagrammatic section showing former arrangement.
(61) Library, High Street (Figs. 60, 61; Plate 151),
formerly the 'Portico' to the market and shambles
which stood beyond. This market replaced the
butchers' shambles which were in the High Street,
opposite St. Michael's church; they had last been
rebuilt in 1751 and in 1801 the town decided to buy
the White Lion Inn in the High Street as a new site
for them (Hall Book III, 193; IV, 325, 321, 337).
Schemes by Henry Tatam, costing £2,200, and
W. D. Legg, costing £1,500, were considered and
Legg's design chosen (Hall Book IV, 364–7, 169–71).
Work started in 1804. The completed building was
vested in the council in September 1808, but by 1868
the market had become dilapidated and one row of
shambles was demolished (General Purposes Committee, Sept. 1868; Jan. 1881). Its adaptation as a
library was completed in 1906 (Stamford Council
minutes book G, May and July 1903; date-panel).
The ashlar portico originally consisted of an open
propyleum with lower side wings, one being a watchhouse (police station) the other a house for the Beadle;
there was also provision for a fire engine. The butter
market was within the portico, the fish market stood to
the N., and beyond were 53 stalls of shambles in four
rows (Burton, 77). The front elevation comprises four
Tuscan columns, no frieze, and wide pediment producing deep overhangs at front and sides; immediately
behind the columns is a modern wall. The W. side wing
has a new, lower roof and a window has replaced the
former doorway; the E. wing, now the library entrance,
has a roof which partly obscures the windows which lit
the portico on this side.
Fig. 60 (61) The Library
Plan of Shambles showing
original arrangement (1:500).
(62) Stamford and Rutland Infirmary, Deeping Road (Fig. 62; Plate 161). Henry Fryer in his
will of 1823 bequeathed a large sum of money for an
infirmary to be built within five years of his death.
A competition was held in 1825; Basevi refused to
participate in a competition and H. E. Kendall submitted a Norman design which was passed over in
favour of the present building in the gothic style by
J. P. Gandy. In 1826 the Marquess of Exeter conveyed 2½ acres of land, the site of the Greyfriars (46),
for £250, and building began forthwith. The infirmary was opened on 5 August 1828 and cost a
total of £8,700. In 1841 Edward Brown left £5,000
for a fever ward and £6,000 for its support.
Fig. 61 (61) Portico to former Shambles, now the Library
Reconstruction of elevation.
The building, of two storeys and cellars, has walls of
Wittering pindle with ashlar and freestone dressings of
Ketton and some Stamford stone. The front, S., elevation, consisting of a centrepiece and cross wings, has
been little altered. A shallow light-well in front of the
side wings serves the cellars. The centrepiece, which is
faced in ashlar, punctuates the design with a tall battlemented oriel above a continuous band of cusped diaperwork, and tall octagonal corner buttresses with ogee
finials. The wings, in a more restrained Tudor gothic
idiom, contained wards. At the back and sides new
buildings have masked and altered the old structure.
Originally there was a central rear wing of coursed
rubble. Inside, in spite of much alteration, some of the
original building remains, particularly the entrance hall
which is sub-divided by a triple arcade of four-centred
arches, the central arch framing the stair; the side walls
are articulated by recesses with four-centred heads.
For Porter's Lodge, see mon. (46).
(63) Former Workhouse of St. Martin's Parish,
Water Street, consists of three buildings, probably of
late 18th-century date. A separate block to the S., of
two storeys with rubble walls, contains seven dwellings arranged as reflecting pairs with one room on each
floor; they may be the 'new cottage houses' built by the
Earl of Exeter, payments being recorded for slating in
1796 and masonry in 1798 (Day Books). A second range
on the west side, with coursed rubble walls, one storey
and attics, consists of three rooms. A workshop, on
the street side, with rubble wall, slate roof, three storeys,
has three large segmental headed windows on the first
floor, small ones above, and none on N. side; probably
built in 1825 (Mercury, 29 July).
(64) Town Bridge (Plate 157). A bridge at Stamford is mentioned in Domesday Book and a stone
bridge of five arches was built over the Welland on
the present site in the 12th century. By the end of the
Middle Ages this bridge had a gateway at its N. end,
the upper part of which was occupied as the town
hall. The gate was demolished in c. 1778 when the
Wansford Road Turnpike Trustees improved the
road and provided a new town hall on St. Mary's
Hill. In the 1840s, after much discussion, it was
agreed between the Marquess of Exeter and the
Midland Railway Company to replace the old
bridge. The contract for building the present bridge,
to a design in the Norman style by Edward and
Henry Browning, was given to Robert Woolston,
who was to use Bramley Falls stone from near
Leeds, and to complete the work by summer 1848
(Mercury, 14 May, 11 June 1847). An alternative
crossing was provided by diverting traffic along
Wothorpe Road across George Bridge, The
Meadows, and Lammas Bridge to Sheepmarket.
Demolition of the old bridge then began, but by the
beginning of November work had been brought to
a halt by the flooding of a coffer dam (Mercury,
5 Nov. 1847). It was not until early in the following
year that the dam was pumped dry and workmen
could resume the task of removing the foundations
of the old bridge (Mercury, 28 Jan. 1848). The dam
soon filled again and Woolston, who had made a
loss of £2,000 by March, obtained a second contract
with completion scheduled for January 1849. The
problems remained unsolved, however, and he
relinquished his contract the next month and
declared himself bankrupt (Mercury, 17 Mar.,
21 Apr. 1848).
Fig. 62 (62) Stamford and Rutland Infirmary
Plan before alteration.
Edward Browning, the architect, then assumed
direct control of the building operation, and,
favoured by better weather, had one pier above
water level by August (Mercury, 18 Aug. 1848).
The bridge was completed by March 1849 although
it remained closed because of the scaffolding on the
new facades he was building to the Toll House (450)
on the E. and a house (333) owned by the Marquess
on the W. (Mercury, 30 Mar. and 13 Apr.). The N.E.
corner of Burghley Hospital was rebuilt at the same
time. The bridge was opened on 1 May 1849, having
cost about £8,000, of which £5,000 was contributed
by the Midland Railway Company (Mercury, 4
May) under terms of a deed of covenant dated 30
May 1845 (Ex. MS, 48).
The bridge, of ashlar except for pindle in the spandrels, is of three low arches with cutwaters and solid
parapets. The medieval bridge had five arches, of which
the S. was obscured by early encroachments and survives beneath the S. approach of the present bridge
(Fig. 44). Built of 'Barnack' stone and now blocked, this
12th-century arch has a span of about 21 ft., a plain
soffit and two unchamfered orders (Plate 4). The four
free arches of the medieval bridge were recorded before
demolition by J. H. Buckler in 1804 and W. Twopeny
in 1826 (BM Twopeny 290/b. 11, p. 90; Plate 4). The
two N. arches were similar to the one surviving, with
two unchamfered orders and plain soffits and were
presumably of the same date; the two S. arches were of
three chamfered orders and of later date. The hospital
of St. John and St. Thomas was built in front of the S.
arch of the bridge in the 12th century, and part of its
substructure remains (49).
(65) King's Mill, No. 1 Bath Row (Plate 86),
was formerly known as North Mill and is so called
in a list of King John's possessions (BM, Harley,
Roll Y. 21). In 1629 a conveyance of nearby land
refers to a new millstream being dug for King's
Mills or North Mills. This new dyke was presumably completed in c. 1640 when the present mill was
constructed; in that year the Earl of Exeter covenanted with an adjoining landowner to repair the
banks of the 'new dyke' and to prevent flooding
(deeds at Messrs. Evans, Pope and Dalton). Also in
1640 the Corporation determined to petition the
Dowager Countess of Exeter concerning damages
suffered 'by cutting the water course to the new mill
now building' (Hall Book).
The 17th-century building has two storeys, coursed
rubble walls, ashlar plinth, and an L-shaped plan, the E.
arm of which may be slightly later. The mansard roof
is early 19th-century. A number of ovolo-moulded
mullioned windows survive at varying levels and on the
W. is a first-floor external doorway with Tudor head
and label, now partly blocked. Inside, two heavy chamfered beams are supported on posts, and a third, partly
chamfered and partly moulded, is reused. External
water-wheels on the N. and S. are of iron and the
machinery is of wood with iron cogs; each wheel drives
two pairs of stones on the first floor.
Fig. 63 (65) King's Mill
17th-century doorway, reset.
In c. 1793 a long granary was added on the N. It was
built by Joseph Robinson, the tenant miller, under a
building lease of January 1793 in which he was obliged
to spend £400 within two years on the work (Ex. MS,
88/50). It is of two storeys, with slated mansard roof,
coursed rubble walls, but has been opened up on the E.
to form garages. Other additions, abutting the original
block, include two-storey granaries on the E. and S.,
both early 19th-century, a single-storey compartment
also on the S. but slightly later than the foregoing, and a
two-storey building on the N.E. of c. 1800 but much
altered. In the E. elevation of the E. granary, and reset
from the N. wall of the original structure, is a wide
doorway of the 17th century, with chamfered jambs,
pyramid stops, jewelled capitals and moulded semicircular head (Fig. 63); scratchings include 'John Sellers
1699', 'IF 1704' and 'IK and IS'.
(66) Hudd's Mill, off Priory Road (Plate 86), two
storeys, of large squared masonry, stands across the mill
stream. It dates from the first half of the 17th century.
The S. end of the building was probably the miller's
house and has remained domestic. A modern N. gable
indicates a slight shortening; the E. elevation has been
much altered and partly rebuilt. On the W. are a
number of one, two and three-light windows with
ovolo mullions and moulded cornices. In the S. gable
is a deeply-incised inscription, 'IRELAND 164 .. '.
Some jambs and sills of original windows remain on the
E., where, on the first floor, there is a reset doorway
with four-centred head of the early 17th century; adjacent is a wide chamfered opening with four-centred
head, either a fireplace or an aperture connected with a
Several stones are incised with names and 18th-century dates. In 1770 the mill was leased to Thomas
Boughton on condition that he spent £200 on building
a house and repairing the mill (Hall Books).
(67) Hodges' Mill, off Empingham Road, circular,
on a low mound, coursed rubble; all but lowest stage
demolished in 1869 (Mercury, 3 Dec.); late 18th or early
(68) Railway Station, Station Road (Plate 161).
In 1845 the Midland Railway Company obtained an
Act (8 and 9 Victoria cap. 56) authorizing the construction of the Syston to Peterborough Railway.
It was to pass through Stamford along Bath Row,
with a level-crossing on St. Mary's Hill on which
there would be a 4 m.p.h. limit. The Company was
to pay a sum not exceeding £5,000 for widening
and rebuilding the Town Bridge, ostensibly to
alleviate the inconvenience caused by a level-crossing
at the foot of a narrow medieval bridge. Although
the route was amended in 1846 to pass S. of the
river, the Company was called on to honour the
covenant signed with the Marquess of Exeter to pay
the £5,000 towards the bridge (Ex. MS, 48; 9 and 10
Victoria cap. 51). Work on the railway began in
March 1846, and in July the section through the
site of St. Michael's Nunnery was cut (Mercury, 20
Mar., 12 June, 13 July); the deep cutting through
High Street St. Martin's was finally completed in
March 1847 (Mercury, 19 Mar.). The station was
designed by Sancton Wood (Midland Railway
Company minute book Min. 1/319) and the work
supervised by Cleverley (Lincs. Chronicle, 16 June
1848); the tender submitted in July 1847 for £8,700
by Groocock and Yates of Leicester was accepted
(Company minutes) and building was completed in
June 1848 (Mercury, 7 May, 23 July 1847; 16 June
The station buildings have coursed and squared rubble
walls, freestone dressings, parapeted gables, and consist
of a single-storey range with a station master's house
of two storeys and attics on the W. They are designed
in a plain Tudor style or, as the Mercury described it in
1847, 'in an Elizabethan style similar to Burghley
House'. The main approach is through a loggia of three
bays with a large entrance hall behind and waiting
rooms to one side; a booking office appears to have
existed on the ground floor of the station master's house,
there being a window opening into the entrance hall
for the purpose. The various waiting rooms have
pointed windows and are provided with parapeted
gables, an octagonal turret (Plate 163) and tall chimney
stacks adding to the romantic appearance of the whole
building. The modern platform canopy is supported on
original cast-iron columns.
(69) Former Railway Station, Stamford East,
Water Street (Plate 161). The Station for the Stamford
and Essendine Railway was begun in 1855 on the site
of the temporary station built for the Peterborough and
Syston Railway. The architect was William Hurst
(Mercury, 1 Sept. 1854, 13 July 1855). It is mostly of two
storeys with ashlar walls and is designed in the Tudor
style. Except for a three-storey square block on the S.E.,
the plan is symmetrical; a central entrance hall is
flanked with waiting rooms in gabled cross wings
between which is a screen wall pierced by a round-headed entrance and an unglazed upper window.
For Bath House see mon. (110).
" Conduit see mon. (387).